Sample records for abnormal brain activity

  1. Support feature machine for classification of abnormal brain activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse; Ya-ju Fan; Rajesh C. Sachdeo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a novel multidimensional time series classiflca- tion technique, namely support feature machine (SFM), is proposed. SFM is inspired by the optimization model of sup- port vector machine and the nearest neighbor rule to incor- porate both spatial and temporal of the multi-dimensional time series data. This paper also describes an application of SFM for detecting abnormal brain

  2. Abnormal brain activation to visual stimulation in cocaine abusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Huei Lee; Frank W Telang; Charles S Springer; Nora D Volkow

    2003-01-01

    Chronic cocaine abuse has been associated with cerebrovascular pathology. This is likely to reflect its vasoactive effects; cocaine produces vasoconstriction and reduces cerebral blood flow. We propose that cerebrovascular pathology in chronic cocaine abusers would result in abnormal BOLD [blood oxygenation level dependent] responses to activation stimuli. Here, we used fMRI to compared the BOLD response to photic visual stimulation

  3. Abnormal slow wave mapping (ASWAM)—A tool for the investigation of abnormal slow wave activity in the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wienbruch

    2007-01-01

    Slow waves in the delta and theta frequency range, normal signs of deactivated networks in sleep stages, are considered ‘abnormal’ when prominent in the waking state and when generated in circumscribed brain areas. Structural cortical lesions, e.g. related to stroke, tumors, or scars, generate focal electric and magnetic slow wave activity in the penumbra. Focal concentrations of slow wave activity

  4. Brain activation abnormalities during speech and non-speech in stuttering speakers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M.J.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2009-01-01

    Although stuttering is regarded as a speech-specific disorder, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that subtle abnormalities in the motor planning and execution of non-speech gestures exist in stuttering individuals. We hypothesized that people who stutter (PWS) would differ from fluent controls in their neural responses during motor planning and execution of both speech and non-speech gestures that had auditory targets. Using fMRI with sparse sampling, separate BOLD responses were measured for perception, planning, and fluent production of speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures. During both speech and non-speech perception and planning, PWS had less activation in the frontal and temporoparietal regions relative to controls. During speech and non-speech production, PWS had less activation than the controls in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the left pre-motor areas (BA 6) but greater activation in the right STG, bilateral Heschl’s gyrus (HG), insula, putamen, and precentral motor regions (BA 4). Differences in brain activation patterns between PWS and controls were greatest in the females and less apparent in males. In conclusion, similar differences in PWS from the controls were found during speech and non-speech; during perception and planning they had reduced activation while during production they had increased activity in the auditory area on the right and decreased activation in the left sensorimotor regions. These results demonstrated that neural activation differences in PWS are not speech-specific. PMID:19401143

  5. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

  6. Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2014-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The "paradoxically" high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

  7. Sources of abnormal EEG activity in the presence of brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bouzas, A; Harmony, T; Bosch, J; Aubert, E; Fernández, T; Valdés, P; Silva, J; Marosi, E; Martínez-López, M; Casián, G

    1999-04-01

    In routine clinical EEG, a common origin is assumed for delta and theta rhythms produced by brain lesions. In previous papers, we have provided some experimental support, based on High Resolution qEEG and dipole fitting in the frequency domain, for the hypothesis that delta and theta spectral power have independent origins related to lesion and edema respectively. This paper describes the results obtained with Frequency Domain VARETA (FD-VARETA) in a group of 13 patients with cortical space-occupying lesions, in order to: 1) Test the accuracy of FD-VARETA for the localization of brain lesions, and 2) To provide further support for the independent origin of delta and theta components. FD VARETA is a distributed inverse solution, constrained by the Montreal Neurological Institute probabilistic atlas that estimates the spectra of EEG sources. In all patients, logarithmic transformed source spectra were compared with age-matched normative values, defining the Z source spectrum. Maximum Z values were found in 10 patients within the delta band (1.56 to 3.12 Hz); the spatial extent of these sources in the atlas corresponded with the location of the tumors in the CT. In 2 patients with small metastases and large volumes of edema and in a patient showing only edema, maximum Z values were found between 4.29 and 5.12 Hz. The spatial extent of the sources at these frequencies was within the volume of the edema in the CT. These results provided strong support to the hypothesis that both delta and theta abnormal EEG activities are the counterparts of two different pathophysiological processes. PMID:10358783

  8. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lv; Zhaohui, Liu; Fei, Yan; Ting, Li; Pengfei, Zhao; Wang, Du; Cheng, Dong; Pengde, Guo; Xiaoyi, Han; Xiao, Wang; Rui, Li; Zhenchang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n = 42) and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n = 42) to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF) of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients. PMID:24872895

  9. Abnormal Activation of the Social Brain Network in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Young; Choi, Uk-Su; Park, Sung-Yeon; Oh, Se-Hong; Yoon, Hyo-Woon; Koh, Yun-Joo; Im, Woo-Young; Park, Jee-In; Song, Dong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate abnormal findings of social brain network in Korean children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TDC). Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to examine brain activations during the processing of emotional faces (happy, fearful, and neutral) in 17 children with ASD, 24 TDC. Results When emotional face stimuli were given to children with ASD, various areas of the social brain relevant to social cognition showed reduced activation. Specifically, ASD children exhibited less activation in the right amygdala (AMY), right superior temporal sulcus (STS) and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) than TDC group when fearful faces were shown. Activation of left insular cortex and right IFG in response to happy faces was less in the ASD group. Similar findings were also found in left superior insular gyrus and right insula in case of neutral stimulation. Conclusion These findings suggest that children with ASD have different processing of social and emotional experience at the neural level. In other words, the deficit of social cognition in ASD could be explained by the deterioration of the capacity for visual analysis of emotional faces, the subsequent inner imitation through mirror neuron system (MNS), and the ability to transmit it to the limbic system and to process the transmitted emotion. PMID:25670944

  10. Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in

    E-print Network

    Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in Congenital Amusia Isabelle Peretz, PhD,1 Elvira- sults suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200

  11. Abnormal baseline brain activity in drug-naïve patients with Tourette syndrome: a resting-state fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yonghua; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Xu; He, Yong; Liang, Xia; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset chronic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. This study investigated spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in TS patients during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans. We obtained rs-fMRI scans from 17 drug-naïve TS children and 15 demographically matched healthy children. We computed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) of rs-fMRI data to measure spontaneous brain activity, and assessed the between-group differences in ALFF/fALFF and the relationship between ALFF/fALFF and tic severity scores. Our results showed that the children with TS exhibited significantly decreased ALFF in the posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus and bilateral parietal gyrus. fALFF was decreased in TS children in the anterior cingulated cortex, bilateral middle and superior frontal cortices and superior parietal lobule, and increased in the left putamen and bilateral thalamus. Moreover, we found significantly positive correlations between fALFF and tic severity scores in the right thalamus. Our study provides empirical evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in TS patients, which may implicate the underlying neurophysiological mechanism in TS and demonstrate the possibility of applying ALFF/fALFF for clinical TS studies. PMID:24427134

  12. Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression

    PubMed Central

    Zunszain, Patricia A.; Anacker, Christoph; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Carvalho, Livia A.; Pariante, Carmine M.

    2010-01-01

    Major depression (MD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex and multifactor aetiology. Potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disorder include monoamine deficits, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative alterations. An increased secretion and reactivity of cortisol together with an altered feedback inhibition are the most widely observed HPA abnormalities in MD patients. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, are vital hormones that are released in response to stress, and regulate metabolism and immunity but also neuronal survival and neurogenesis. Interestingly depression is highly prevalent in infectious, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases and at the same time, depressed patients show higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since communication occurs between the endocrine, immune and central nervous system, an activation of the inflammatory responses can affect neuroendocrine processes, and vice versa. Therefore, HPA axis hyperactivity and inflammation might be part of the same pathophysiological process: HPA axis hyperactivity is a marker of glucocorticoid resistance, implying ineffective action of glucocorticoid hormones on target tissues, which could lead to immune activation; and, equally, inflammation could stimulate HPA axis activity via both a direct action of cytokines on the brain and by inducing glucocorticoid resistance. In addition, increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines also induce the production of neurotoxic end products of the tryptophan–kynurenine pathway. Although the evidence for neurodegeneration in MD is controversial, depression is comorbid with many other conditions where neurodegeneration is present. Since several systems seem to be involved interacting with each other, we cannot unequivocally accept the simple model that glucocorticoids induce neurodegeneration, but rather that elevated cytokines, in the context of glucocorticoid resistance, are probably the offenders. Chronic inflammatory changes in the presence of glucocorticoid resistance may represent a common feature that could be responsible for the enhanced vulnerability of depressed patients to develop neurodegenerative changes later in life. However, further studies are needed to clarify the relative contribution of glucocorticoids and inflammatory signals to MD and other disorders. PMID:20406665

  13. Anatomical brain networks on the prediction of abnormal brain states.

    PubMed

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser

    2013-01-01

    Graph-based brain anatomical network analysis models the brain as a graph whose nodes represent structural/functional regions, whereas the links between them represent nervous fiber connections. Initial studies of brain anatomical networks using this approach were devoted to describe the key organizational principles of the normal brain, while current trends seem to be more focused on detecting network alterations associated to specific brain disorders. Anatomical networks reconstructed using diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance-imaging techniques can be particularly useful in predicting abnormal brain states in which the white matter structure and, subsequently, the interconnections between gray matter regions are altered (e.g., due to the presence of diseases such as schizophrenia, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and dementia). This article offers an overview from early gross connectional anatomy explorations until more recent advances on anatomical brain network reconstruction approaches, with a specific focus on how the latter move toward the prediction of abnormal brain states. While anatomical graph-based predictor approaches are still at an early stage, they bear promising implications for individualized clinical diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric disorders, as well as for neurodevelopmental evaluations and subsequent assisted creation of educational strategies related to specific cognitive disorders. PMID:23249224

  14. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  15. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin improves abnormal brain electrical activity via mechanisms involving eNOS.

    PubMed

    Seker, F B; Kilic, U; Caglayan, B; Ethemoglu, M S; Caglayan, A B; Ekimci, N; Demirci, S; Dogan, A; Oztezcan, S; Sahin, F; Yilmaz, B; Kilic, E

    2015-01-22

    Apart from its repressing effect on plasma lipid levels, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors exert neuroprotective functions in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In view of these promising observations, we were interested in whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibition would affect epileptiform activity in the brain. To elucidate this issue, atorvastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin were administered orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg each for 3 days and their anti-epileptic activities were tested and compared in rats. Epileptiform activity in the brain was induced by an intracortical penicillin G injection. Among HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, simvastatin-treatment was less effective in terms of spike frequency as compared with atorvastatin- and rosuvastatin-treated animals. Atorvastatin treatment reduced spike frequencies and amplitudes significantly throughout the experiment. However, the most pronounced anti-epileptic effect was observed in rosuvastatin-treated animals, which was associated with improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and decreased expressions of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax and caspase-3 mRNAs. Inhibition of eNOS activity with L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) reversed the anti-epileptic effect of rosuvastatin significantly. However, L-NAME did not alter the effect of rosuvastatin on the levels of p53, Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expression. Here, we provide evidence that among HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, rosuvastatin was the most effective statin on the reduction of epileptiform activity, which was associated with improved BBB permeability, increased expression of eNOS and decreased expressions of pro-apoptotic p53, Bax and caspase-3. Our observation also revealed that the anti-epileptic effect of rosuvastatin was dependent on the increased expression level of eNOS. The robust anti-epileptic effect encourages proof-of-concept studies with rosuvastatin in human epilepsy patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:25453767

  16. Abnormal brain activation during working memory in children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: the effects of methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence F.; Bramen, Jennifer E.; Nunez, S. Christopher; Quandt, Lorna C.; Smith, Lynne; O’Connor, Mary J.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and metabolic abnormalities in fronto-striatal structures have been reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure. The current study was designed to quantify functional alterations to the fronto-striatal circuit in children with prenatal MA exposure using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because many women who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined 50 children (age range 7–15), 19 with prenatal MA exposure, 15 of whom had concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but no MA exposure (ALC group), and 18 unexposed controls (CON group). We hypothesized that MA exposed children would demonstrate abnormal brain activation during a visuospatial working memory (WM) “N-Back” task. As predicted, the MAA group showed less activation than the CON group in many brain areas, including the striatum and frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. The ALC group showed less activation than the MAA group in several regions, including the right striatum. We found an inverse correlation between performance and activity in the striatum in both the CON and MAA groups. However, this relationship was significant in the caudate of the CON group but not the MAA group, and in the putamen of the MAA group but not the CON group. These findings suggest that structural damage in the fronto-striatal circuit after prenatal MA exposure leads to decreased recruitment of this circuit during a WM challenge, and raise the possibility that a rewiring of cortico-striatal networks may occur in children with prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21040792

  17. Impaired Associative Taste Learning and Abnormal Brain Activation in Kinase-Defective eEF2K Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildish, Iness; Manor, David; David, Orit; Sharma, Vijendra; Williams, David; Agarwala, Usha; Wang, Xuemin; Kenney, Justin W.; Proud, Chris G.; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Memory consolidation is defined temporally based on pharmacological interventions such as inhibitors of mRNA translation (molecular consolidation) or post-acquisition deactivation of specific brain regions (systems level consolidation). However, the relationship between molecular and systems consolidation are poorly understood. Molecular…

  18. DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    surface vertex, we fitted a general linear model to assess methamphetamine effects on gray matter density-induced brain injury. Figure 1. Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure. ...... #12;DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS 1 P.M. Thompson, 1 K

  19. Abnormal Activity of the MAPK and cAMP-Associated Signaling Pathways in Frontal Cortical Areas in Postmortem Brain in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J Funk; Robert E McCullumsmith; Vahram Haroutunian; James H Meador-Woodruff

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia may result from alterations of integration of signaling mediated by multiple neurotransmitter systems. Abnormalities of associated intracellular signaling pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Proteins and phospho-proteins comprising mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 3?–5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-associated signaling pathways may be abnormally expressed in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

  20. Diabetes synergistically exacerbates poststroke dementia and tau abnormality in brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Pan, Bai-Shen; Sun, Guang-Chun; Sun, Xiao; Sun, Feng-Yan

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated whether exacerbation of poststroke dementia by diabetes associated abnormal tau phosphorylation and its mechanism. Streptozotocin (STZ) injection and/or a high fat diet (HFD) were used to treat rats to induce type 1 and 2 diabetes. Animals were randomly divided into STZ, HFD, STZ-HFD, and normal diet (NPD) groups. Focal ischemic stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cognitive function was tested by the Morris water maze. STZ or STZ-HFD treatment exacerbated ischemia-induced cognitive deficits, brain infarction and reduction of synaptophysin expression. Moreover, we found that diabetes further increased AT8, a marker of hyperphosphorylated tau, protein and immunopositive stained cells in the hippocampus of rats following MCAO while reduced the level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta at serine-9 residues (p-ser9-GSK-3beta), indicating activation of GSK-3beta. We conclude that diabetes further deteriorates ischemia-induced brain damage and cognitive deficits which may be associated with abnormal phosphorylation of tau as well as activation of GSK-3beta. These findings may be helpful for developing new strategies to prevent/delay formation of poststroke dementia in patients with diabetes. PMID:20398714

  1. Abnormal brain synchrony in Down Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Burback, Melissa C.; Cox, Elizabeth T.; Dai, Li; Gerig, Guido; Edgin, Jamie O.; Korenberg, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability, yet the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in Down Syndrome is unknown. We compared fMRI scans of 15 individuals with Down Syndrome to 14 typically developing control subjects while they viewed 50 min of cartoon video clips. There was widespread increased synchrony between brain regions, with only a small subset of strong, distant connections showing underconnectivity in Down Syndrome. Brain regions showing negative correlations were less anticorrelated and were among the most strongly affected connections in the brain. Increased correlation was observed between all of the distributed brain networks studied, with the strongest internetwork correlation in subjects with the lowest performance IQ. A functional parcellation of the brain showed simplified network structure in Down Syndrome organized by local connectivity. Despite increased interregional synchrony, intersubject correlation to the cartoon stimuli was lower in Down Syndrome, indicating that increased synchrony had a temporal pattern that was not in response to environmental stimuli, but idiosyncratic to each Down Syndrome subject. Short-range, increased synchrony was not observed in a comparison sample of 447 autism vs. 517 control subjects from the Autism Brain Imaging Exchange (ABIDE) collection of resting state fMRI data, and increased internetwork synchrony was only observed between the default mode and attentional networks in autism. These findings suggest immature development of connectivity in Down Syndrome with impaired ability to integrate information from distant brain regions into coherent distributed networks. PMID:24179822

  2. r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2011) r Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation- try, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scansr Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2011) r Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents

  3. Multiple resting state network functional connectivity abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C; Lovejoy, David; Kim, Jinsuh; Oakes, Howard; Kureshi, Inam; Witt, Suzanne T

    2012-06-01

    Several reports show that traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in abnormalities in the coordinated activation among brain regions. Because most previous studies examined moderate/severe TBI, the extensiveness of functional connectivity abnormalities and their relationship to postconcussive complaints or white matter microstructural damage are unclear in mild TBI. This study characterized widespread injury effects on multiple integrated neural networks typically observed during a task-unconstrained "resting state" in mild TBI patients. Whole brain functional connectivity for twelve separate networks was identified using independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data collected from thirty mild TBI patients mostly free of macroscopic intracerebral injury and thirty demographically-matched healthy control participants. Voxelwise group comparisons found abnormal mild TBI functional connectivity in every brain network identified by ICA, including visual processing, motor, limbic, and numerous circuits believed to underlie executive cognition. Abnormalities not only included functional connectivity deficits, but also enhancements possibly reflecting compensatory neural processes. Postconcussive symptom severity was linked to abnormal regional connectivity within nearly every brain network identified, particularly anterior cingulate. A recently developed multivariate technique that identifies links between whole brain profiles of functional and anatomical connectivity identified several novel mild TBI abnormalities, and represents a potentially important new tool in the study of the complex neurobiological sequelae of TBI. PMID:22555821

  4. Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Zunszain; Christoph Anacker; Annamaria Cattaneo; Livia A. Carvalho; Carmine M. Pariante

    2011-01-01

    Major depression (MD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex and multifactor aetiology. Potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disorder include monoamine deficits, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, inflammatory and\\/or neurodegenerative alterations. An increased secretion and reactivity of cortisol together with an altered feedback inhibition are the most widely observed HPA abnormalities in MD patients. Glucocorticoids, such as

  5. Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

  6. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Structural Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Strakowski; Melissa P. DelBello; Kenji W. Sax; Molly E. Zimmerman; Paula K. Shear; John M. Hawkins; Eric R. Larson

    1999-01-01

    Background: The neuropathogenesis of bipolar disor- der remains poorly described. Previous work suggests that patients with bipolar disorder may have abnormalities in neural pathways that are hypothesized to modulate hu- man mood states. We examined differences in brain struc- tural volumes associated with these pathways between patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized with mania and healthy community volunteers. Methods: Twenty-four patients

  7. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  8. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  9. Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon

    2012-10-01

    While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation. PMID:22687465

  10. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  11. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Younes-Mhenni; Mahdi, Kamoun; Baha, Zantour; Saida, Jerbi-Ommezine; Tahar, Sfar Mohamed; Habib, Sfar Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    A 15-yr-old male patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was referred to our department with a one year history of gradual worsening of tremors. He was diagnosed with salt-wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH at 40 d old and was started on hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and salt. He was found to have hypertension at 8 yr of age. Detailed investigations failed to detect any cause for secondary hypertension. Physical findings on the current hospitalization objectified obesity, blood pressure of 150/80 mmHg, postural and action tremor, left cerebellar syndrome, reflex tetra pyramidal syndrome and mental decline. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral periventricular white matter hyperintensity that was more pronounced in the posterior regions and associated with cortico-subcortical atrophy and complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. All investigations for leukoencephalopathy were negative. A diagnosis of brain MRI abnormalities related to CAH was made, and the patient received symptomatic treatment of tremors. Our case report provides evidence of an increased frequency of brain MRI abnormalities in CAH. The literature suggests hormonal imbalance and exposure to excess exogenous glucocorticoids as main probable mechanisms. Thus, in clinical practice, CAH should be considered as one of the possible causes of brain white matter involvement associated with or without cerebral atrophy. PMID:23926386

  12. Abnormal Brain Network Organization in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arienzo, Donatello; Leow, Alex; Brown, Jesse A; Zhan, Liang; GadElkarim, Johnson; Hovav, Sarit; Feusner, Jamie D

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability. Previous studies suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing. The purpose of this study was to probe whole-brain and regional white matter network organization in BDD, and to relate this to specific metrics of symptomatology. We acquired diffusion-weighted 34-direction MR images from 14 unmedicated participants with DSM-IV BDD and 16 healthy controls, from which we conducted whole-brain deterministic diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We then constructed white matter structural connectivity matrices to derive whole-brain and regional graph theory metrics, which we compared between groups. Within the BDD group, we additionally correlated these metrics with scores on psychometric measures of BDD symptom severity as well as poor insight/delusionality. The BDD group showed higher whole-brain mean clustering coefficient than controls. Global efficiency negatively correlated with BDD symptom severity. The BDD group demonstrated greater edge betweenness centrality for connections between the anterior temporal lobe and the occipital cortex, and between bilateral occipital poles. This represents the first brain network analysis in BDD. Results suggest disturbances in whole brain structural topological organization in BDD, in addition to correlations between clinical symptoms and network organization. There is also evidence of abnormal connectivity between regions involved in lower-order visual processing and higher-order visual and emotional processing, as well as interhemispheric visual information transfer. These findings may relate to disturbances in information processing found in previous studies. PMID:23322186

  13. Imaging Brain Electrial Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin He; Dezhong Yao; Dongsheng Wu

    \\u000a Brain activation is a spatio-temporally-distributed process. While the electroencephalogram (EEG) offers excellent temporal\\u000a resolution to characterize rapidly changing patterns of brain activation, conventional EEG techniques are limited mainly due\\u000a to their inability to provide spatial information regarding brain activity. As a result, invasive mapping procedures have\\u000a been increasingly used [Towle et al, 1995]. It is extremely desirable to image spatially

  14. NEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and

    E-print Network

    of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimedNEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and Connectivity in Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Words: ADHD, amygdala, effective connectivity, fear, stimulant medication A lthough attention-deficit/hyperactivity

  15. 3D Pattern of brain abnormalities in williams syndrome Visualized using tensor-based morphometry

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? 3D Pattern of brain abnormalities in williams syndrome Visualized using tensor., Toga, Arthur W., Thompson, Paul M., 3D Pattern of brain abnormalities in williams syndrome Visualized ABNORMALITIES IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY Ming-Chang Chiang MD1 , Allan L

  16. Brain amino acid abnormalities in kidney disease and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P; Musshoff, F; Hilgers, C; Steins, N; Bürrig, K-F; Jacob, B; Daldrup, T; Madea, B

    2004-06-10

    The present postmortem study examines whether specific amino acid abnormalities associated with renal diseases or diabetes mellitus in animal experiments and on clinical examination may also be found in human brain samples obtained at clinical autopsies. The material includes 12 deceased with renal insufficiency, 23 deceased with diabetes mellitus and 26 control cases with lethal cardiovascular diseases (without a history of hepatic, renal or metabolic disturbances). The autopsy and clinical records were retrospectively analyzed for age, sex, postmortem delay, cause of death, substantial preexisting diseases and histological findings. The analysis of free amino acid concentrations in human brain specimens was performed applying a Beckman amino acid analyzer. The results were evaluated using the U-test according to Mann, Willcox and Whitney. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered to be significantly different. Differences of amino acid concentrations attributable to sex, age and postmortem delay were not significant. The comparison of postmortem amino acid concentrations in the brains of patients with diabetes mellitus and controls did not reveal relevant changes. However, the patients with renal diseases, as compared to controls, showed a significant cerebral increase of urea, phenylethanolamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Thus, the postmortem amino acid analysis may contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of uremic encephalopathy and may supplement the conventional postmortem morphological diagnosis in kidney diseases by indication of functional impairment. PMID:15172081

  17. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, X. Q.; Wade, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an overview of hypothalamic and pituitary alterations in brain trauma, including the incidence of hypothalamic-pituitary damage, injury mechanisms, features of the hypothalamic-pituitary defects, and major hypothalamic-pituitary disturbances in brain trauma. While hypothalamic-pituitary lesions have been commonly described at postmortem examination, only a limited number of clinical cases of traumatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction have been reported, probably because head injury of sufficient severity to cause hypothalamic and pituitary damage usually leads to early death. With the improvement in rescue measures, an increasing number of severely head-injured patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction will survive to be seen by clinicians. Patterns of endocrine abnormalities following brain trauma vary depending on whether the injury site is in the hypothalamus, the anterior or posterior pituitary, or the upper or lower portion of the pituitary stalk. Injury predominantly to the hypothalamus can produce dissociated ACTH-cortisol levels with no response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a limited or failed metopirone test, hypothyroxinemia with a preserved thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, low gonadotropin levels with a normal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a variable growth hormone (GH) level with a paradoxical rise in GH after glucose loading, hyperprolactinemia, the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), temporary or permanent diabetes insipidus (DI), disturbed glucose metabolism, and loss of body temperature control. Severe damage to the lower pituitary stalk or anterior lobe can cause low basal levels of all anterior pituitary hormones and eliminate responses to their releasing factors. Only a few cases showed typical features of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. Most severe injuries are sufficient to damage both structures and produce a mixed endocrine picture. Increased intracranial pressure, which releases vasopressin by altering normal hypothalamic anatomy, may represent a unique type of stress to neuroendocrine systems and may contribute to adrenal secretion by a mechanism that requires intact brainstem function. Endocrine function should be monitored in brain-injured patients with basilar skull fractures and protracted posttraumatic amnesia, and patients with SIADH or DI should be closely monitored for other endocrine abnormalities.

  18. Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

  19. Abnormal Activation of Glial Cells in the Brains of Prion Protein-deficient Mice Ectopically Expressing Prion Protein-Like Protein, PrPLP\\/Dpl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichiro Atarashi; Suehiro Sakaguchi; Kazuto Shigematsu; KazuhikoArima; Nobuhiko Okimura; Naohiro Yamaguchi; Aimin Li; JurajKopacek; Shigeru Katamine

    2001-01-01

    Background: Some lines of mice homozygous for a dis- rupted prion protein gene (Prnp), including Ngsk Prnp0\\/0 mice, exhibit Purkinje cell degeneration as a consequence of the ectopic overexpression of the downstream gene for prion protein-like protein (PrPLP\\/Dpl) in the brain, but others, such as Zrch I Prnp0\\/0 mice, show neither the neu- rodegeneration nor the expression of PrPLP\\/Dpl. In

  20. Progressive neuropsychiatric and brain abnormalities after smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old man inhaled combustible smoke of unknown chemical composition for 15-20 min in an automobile body shop. Within 1 month, he noted headache, sadness, anergia, anhedonia, agitation, poor sleep and impairment of concentration, attention and learning skills. Three years later, mental status examination showed major depression and cognitive disorder manifested by apprehension, continuous sadness, agitation, exhaustion, difficulty with word finding, bradyphrenia, short-term and long-term memory impairment, and judgement impaired by impulsive and affect-laden reactions without reflection. Impairments were noted on neuropsychiatric tests, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the brain with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose showed globally decreased and heterogeneous metabolic activity in the entire brain. Treatment included sertraline, methylphenidate, valproic acid and topiramate. At 14 years after smoke inhalation injury, he had persistent cognitive impairment. Repeat brain PET scan showed areas of improvement and deterioration. This case shows long-term brain and psychiatric dysfunction resulting after toxic smoke inhalation, with some areas of the brain having progressive deterioration between years 3 and 14 after smoke inhalation. PMID:22878982

  1. The Brain Activity Map

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Greenspan, Ralph J.; McEuen, Paul L.; Roukes, Michael L.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Weiss, Paul S.; Yuste, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists have made impressive advances in understanding the microscale function of single neurons and the macroscale activity of the human brain. One can probe molecular and biophysical aspects of individual neurons and also view the human brain in action with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). However, the mechanisms of perception, cognition, and action remain mysterious because they emerge from the real-time interactions of large sets of neurons in densely interconnected, widespread neural circuits. PMID:23470729

  2. Subcellular distribution of protein phosphatases and abnormally phosphorylated ? in the temporal cortex from Alzheimer's disease and control brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-J. Pei; C.-X. Gong; K. Iqbal; I. Grundke-Iqbal; Q. L. Wu; B. Winblad; R. F. Cowburn

    1998-01-01

    Summary.   Microtubule-associated protein tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD).\\u000a In vitro studies have shown that protein phosphatases PP-2A and PP-2B can convert Alzheimer like tau to its normal state and\\u000a that the activities of PP-1, PP-2A, and phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase (PTP) are reduced in AD brain. However, to have\\u000a a direct effect on the

  3. Structural Abnormalities in the Brains of Human Subjects Who Use Methamphetamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Thompson; Kiralee M. Hayashi; Sara L. Simon; Jennifer A. Geaga; Michael S. Hong; Yihong Sui; Jessica Y. Lee; Arthur W. Toga; Walter Ling; Edythe D. London

    2004-01-01

    We visualize, for the first time, the profile of structural deficits in the human brain associated with chronic methamphetamine (MA) abuse. Studies of human subjects who have used MA chronically have revealed deficits in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems and cerebral metabolic abnormalities. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and new computational brain-mapping techniques, we determined the pattern of structural brain alterations

  4. Brain abnormalities, defective meiotic chromosome synapsis and female subfertility in HSF2 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Marko; Chang, Yunhua; Manuel, Martine; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Rallu, Murielle; Gitton, Yorick; Pirkkala, Lila; Loones, Marie-Thérèse; Paslaru, Liliana; Larney, Severine; Hiard, Sophie; Morange, Michel; Sistonen, Lea; Mezger, Valérie

    2002-01-01

    Heat shock factor 2, one of the four vertebrate HSFs, transcriptional regulators of heat shock gene expression, is active during embryogenesis and spermatogenesis, with unknown functions and targets. By disrupting the Hsf2 gene, we show that, although the lack of HSF2 is not embryonic lethal, Hsf2–/– mice suffer from brain abnormalities, and meiotic and gameto genesis defects in both genders. The disturbances in brain are characterized by the enlargement of lateral and third ventricles and the reduction of hippocampus and striatum, in correlation with HSF2 expression in proliferative cells of the neuroepithelium and in some ependymal cells in adults. Many developing spermatocytes are eliminated via apoptosis in a stage-specific manner in Hsf2–/– males, and pachytene spermatocytes also display structural defects in the synaptonemal complexes between homologous chromosomes. Hsf2–/– females suffer from multiple fertility defects: the production of abnormal eggs, the reduction in ovarian follicle number and the presence of hemorrhagic cystic follicles are consistent with meiotic defects. Hsf2–/– females also display hormone response defects, that can be rescued by superovulation treatment, and exhibit abnormal rates of luteinizing hormone receptor mRNAs. PMID:12032072

  5. Prospective Evaluation of the Brain in Asymptomatic Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Relationship of Macrocephaly to T1 Relaxation Changes and Structural Brain Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Grant Steen; June S. Taylor; James W. Langston; John O. Glass; Vickie R. Brewer; Wilburn E. Reddick; Roy Mages; Eniko K. Pivnick

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Mutation of the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) gene may be associated with abnormal growth control in the brain. Because macrocephaly could be a sign of abnormal brain development and because 30% to 50% of children with NF-1 display macrocephaly in the absence of hydrocephalus, we sought to determine the relationship between macrocephaly and other brain abnormalities in young

  6. mTOR signaling and its roles in normal and abnormal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) was first identified in yeast as a target molecule of rapamycin, an anti-fugal and immunosuppressant macrolide compound. In mammals, its orthologue is called mammalian TOR (mTOR). mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that converges different extracellular stimuli, such as nutrients and growth factors, and diverges into several biochemical reactions, including translation, autophagy, transcription, and lipid synthesis among others. These biochemical reactions govern cell growth and cause cells to attain an anabolic state. Thus, the disruption of mTOR signaling is implicated in a wide array of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity. In the central nervous system, the mTOR signaling cascade is activated by nutrients, neurotrophic factors, and neurotransmitters that enhances protein (and possibly lipid) synthesis and suppresses autophagy. These processes contribute to normal neuronal growth by promoting their differentiation, neurite elongation and branching, and synaptic formation during development. Therefore, disruption of mTOR signaling may cause neuronal degeneration and abnormal neural development. While reduced mTOR signaling is associated with neurodegeneration, excess activation of mTOR signaling causes abnormal development of neurons and glia, leading to brain malformation. In this review, we first introduce the current state of molecular knowledge of mTOR complexes and signaling in general. We then describe mTOR activation in neurons, which leads to translational enhancement, and finally discuss the link between mTOR and normal/abnormal neuronal growth during development. PMID:24795562

  7. Synaptic Reorganization in the Hippocampus Induced by Abnormal Functional Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Sutula; He Xiao-Xian; Jose Cavazos; Grayson Scott

    1988-01-01

    Abnormal functional activity induces long-lasting physiological alterations in neural pathways that may play a role in the development of epilepsy. The cellular mechanisms of these alterations are not well understood. One hypothesis is that abnormal activity causes structural reorganization of neural pathways and promotes epileptogenesis. This report provides morphological evidence that synchronous perforant path activation and kindling of limbic pathways

  8. Congenital brain abnormalities: an update on malformations of cortical development and infratentorial malformations.

    PubMed

    Poretti, Andrea; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2014-07-01

    In the past two decades, significant progress in neuroimaging and genetic techniques has allowed for advances in the correct definition/classification of congenital brain abnormalities, which have resulted in a better understanding of their pathogenesis. In addition, new groups of diseases, such as axonal guidance disorders or tubulinopathies, are increasingly reported. Well-defined neuroimaging diagnostic criteria have been suggested for the majority of congenital brain abnormalities. Accurate diagnoses of these complex abnormalities, including distinction between malformations and disruptions, are of paramount significance for management, prognosis, and family counseling. In the next decade, these advances will hopefully be translated into deeper understanding of these disorders and more specific treatments. PMID:25192502

  9. Three-dimensional brain growth abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia visualized by

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    period, based on analyzing longitudinal brain MRIs from 12 COS patients and 12 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and scan interval. COS patients showed up to 2.2% slower growth rates per year thanThree-dimensional brain growth abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia visualized by using

  10. Functional Brain Network Abnormalities during Verbal Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…

  11. Quantitative analysis of MRI signal abnormalities of brain white matter with high reproducibility and accuracy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingchang Wei; Simon K. Warfield; Kelly H. Zou; Ying Wu; Xiaoming Li; Alexandre Guimond; John P. Mugler; Randall R. Benson; Leslie Wolfson; Howard L. Weiner; Charles R. G. Guttmann

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the reproducibility and accuracy com- pared to radiologists of three automated segmentation pipe- lines for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mea- surement of brain white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA). Materials and Methods: WMSA segmentation was per- formed on pairs of whole brain scans from 20 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 10 older subjects who were positioned

  12. Research Report Distinct resting-state brain activities in

    E-print Network

    Tian, Jie

    Research Report Distinct resting-state brain activities in heroin-dependent individuals Yi Zhanga online 30 May 2011 Previous functional imaging studies on heroin addicts have focused on abnormal brain of heroin-dependent individuals. In the current study, we applied the pattern classification technique

  13. Structural brain imaging abnormalities associated with schizophrenia and partial trisomy of chromosome 5

    PubMed Central

    HONER, WILLIAM G.; BASSETT, ANNE S.; MacEWAN, G. WILLIAM; HURWITZ, TREVOR; LI, DAVID K.B.; HILAL, SADEK; PROHOVNIK, ISAK

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Chromosomal abnormalities occurring in association with mental illness provide a unique opportunity to study the interaction of genetic abnormalities and the brain in mental illness. Four individuals from a family in which schizophrenia was found to cosegregate with a partial trisomy of chromosome 5 were studied with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal lobe atrophy was found in the two trisomic males and in the asymptomatic balanced translocation female. In addition, a large cavum septum pellucidum and a cavum vergae were found in the older trisomic individual. Scans from the normal male were free of abnormalities. These results suggest that molecular studies of the translocation breakpoints in this chromosomal abnormality may be of interest, and encourage further studies of brain structure in other chromosomal abnormalities associated with psychosis. PMID:1615118

  14. Structural brain imaging abnormalities associated with schizophrenia and partial trisomy of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Honer, W G; Bassett, A S; MacEwan, G W; Hurwitz, T; Li, D K; Hilal, S; Prohovnik, I

    1992-05-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities occurring in association with mental illness provide a unique opportunity to study the interaction of genetic abnormalities and the brain in mental illness. Four individuals from a family in which schizophrenia was found to cosegregate with a partial trisomy of chromosome 5 were studied with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal lobe atrophy was found in the two trisomic males and in the asymptomatic balanced translocation female. In addition, a large cavum septum pellucidum and a cavum vergae were found in the older trisomic individual. Scans from the normal male were free of abnormalities. These results suggest that molecular studies of the translocation breakpoints in this chromosomal abnormality may be of interest, and encourage further studies of brain structure in other chromosomal abnormalities associated with psychosis. PMID:1615118

  15. Mutations in LAMB1 Cause Cobblestone Brain Malformation without Muscular or Ocular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Radmanesh, Farid; Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Silhavy, Jennifer L.; Yilmaz, Cahide; Cantagrel, Vincent; Omar, Tarek; Rosti, Ba?ak; Kaymakcalan, Hande; Gabriel, Stacey; Li, Mingfeng; Šestan, Nenad; Bilguvar, Kaya; Dobyns, William B.; Zaki, Maha S.; Gunel, Murat; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Cobblestone brain malformation (COB) is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by protrusions of neurons beyond the first cortical layer at the pial surface of the brain. It is usually seen in association with dystroglycanopathy types of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) and ocular abnormalities termed muscle-eye-brain disease. Here we report homozygous deleterious mutations in LAMB1, encoding laminin subunit beta-1, in two families with autosomal-recessive COB. Affected individuals displayed a constellation of brain malformations including cortical gyral and white-matter signal abnormalities, severe cerebellar dysplasia, brainstem hypoplasia, and occipital encephalocele, but they had less apparent ocular or muscular abnormalities than are typically observed in COB. LAMB1 is localized to the pial basement membrane, suggesting that defective connection between radial glial cells and the pial surface mediated by LAMB1 leads to this malformation. PMID:23472759

  16. Mutations in LAMB1 cause cobblestone brain malformation without muscular or ocular abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Radmanesh, Farid; Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Yilmaz, Cahide; Cantagrel, Vincent; Omar, Tarek; Rosti, Ba?ak; Kaymakcalan, Hande; Gabriel, Stacey; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad; Bilguvar, Kaya; Dobyns, William B; Zaki, Maha S; Gunel, Murat; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2013-03-01

    Cobblestone brain malformation (COB) is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by protrusions of neurons beyond the first cortical layer at the pial surface of the brain. It is usually seen in association with dystroglycanopathy types of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) and ocular abnormalities termed muscle-eye-brain disease. Here we report homozygous deleterious mutations in LAMB1, encoding laminin subunit beta-1, in two families with autosomal-recessive COB. Affected individuals displayed a constellation of brain malformations including cortical gyral and white-matter signal abnormalities, severe cerebellar dysplasia, brainstem hypoplasia, and occipital encephalocele, but they had less apparent ocular or muscular abnormalities than are typically observed in COB. LAMB1 is localized to the pial basement membrane, suggesting that defective connection between radial glial cells and the pial surface mediated by LAMB1 leads to this malformation. PMID:23472759

  17. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  18. Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    2003-02-28

    Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

  19. Diabetes synergistically exacerbates poststroke dementia and tau abnormality in brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Zhang; Bai-Shen Pan; Guang-Chun Sun; Xiao Sun; Feng-Yan Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether exacerbation of poststroke dementia by diabetes associated abnormal tau phosphorylation and its mechanism. Streptozotocin (STZ) injection and\\/or a high fat diet (HFD) were used to treat rats to induce type 1 and 2 diabetes. Animals were randomly divided into STZ, HFD, STZ-HFD, and normal diet (NPD) groups. Focal ischemic stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery

  20. Abnormal "Shape Activity" Detection and Tracking Namrata Vaswani

    E-print Network

    Vaswani, Namrata

    of activity, e.g. person taller/shorter · Scaled orthographic camera motion ­ Small field of view PTZ camera in traffic ­ Abnormal Human Action detection, e.g. motion disorders · Sequence Id & Tracking ­ Sequence, view invariant approaches, multiple levels of zoom, DBN, co-occurrence statistics Abnormal "Shape

  1. Sensor-Based Abnormal Human-Activity Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Yin; Qiang Yang; Jeffrey Junfeng Pan

    2008-01-01

    With the availability of affordable sensors and sensor networks, sensor-based human-activity recognition has attracted much attention in artificial intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we present a novel two-phase approach for detecting abnormal activities based on wireless sensors attached to a human body. Detecting abnormal activities is a particularly important task in security monitoring and healthcare applications of sensor

  2. Brain morphological abnormalities in 49,XXXXY syndrome: A pediatric magnetic resonance imaging study???

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2013-01-01

    As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827

  3. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  4. Structural brain abnormalities specific to childhood-onset schizophrenia identified by neuroimaging techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mehler; A. Warnke

    2002-01-01

    Summary.   This review discusses functional and structural brain abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia identified by neuroimaging\\u000a techniques. Published literature regarding both morphological and functional neuroimaging is discussed, regarding also the\\u000a diversity of neuroimaging findings which partly reduces their reliability. The findings in early onset schizophrenia are compared\\u000a with those of adult patients. The results of long-term investigations of structural abnormalities in

  5. Genetic abnormality predicts benefit from treatment for a rare brain tumor:

    Cancer.gov

    A clinical trial has shown that addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy leads to a near doubling of median survival time in patients with a form of brain tumor (oligodendroglioma) that carries a chromosomal abnormality called the 1p19q co-deletion. This abnormality is characterized by the simultaneous deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1 and long arm of chromosome 19. The presence of the chromosomal abnormality was associated with substantially better prognosis and marked improvements in survival in a treatment program of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy compared to radiation therapy alone.

  6. scMRI Reveals Large-Scale Brain Network Abnormalities in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurological condition characterized by childhood onset of dysfunction in multiple cognitive domains including socio-emotional function, speech and language, and processing of internally versus externally directed stimuli. Although gross brain anatomic differences in autism are well established, recent studies investigating regional differences in brain structure and function have yielded divergent and seemingly contradictory results. How regional abnormalities relate to the autistic phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that autism exhibits distinct perturbations in network-level brain architecture, and that cognitive dysfunction may be reflected by abnormal network structure. Network-level anatomic abnormalities in autism have not been previously described. We used structural covariance MRI to investigate network-level differences in gray matter structure within two large-scale networks strongly implicated in autism, the salience network and the default mode network, in autistic subjects and age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls. We report specific perturbations in brain network architecture in the salience and default-mode networks consistent with clinical manifestations of autism. Extent and distribution of the salience network, involved in social-emotional regulation of environmental stimuli, is restricted in autism. In contrast, posterior elements of the default mode network have increased spatial distribution, suggesting a ‘posteriorization’ of this network. These findings are consistent with a network-based model of autism, and suggest a unifying interpretation of previous work. Moreover, we provide evidence of specific abnormalities in brain network architecture underlying autism that are quantifiable using standard clinical MRI. PMID:23185305

  7. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  8. White matter microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder: A whole brain diffusion tensor imaging study?

    PubMed Central

    Barysheva, Marina; Jahanshad, Neda; Foland-Ross, Lara; Altshuler, Lori L.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness characterized by severe disruptions in mood and cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest that white matter (WM) tract abnormalities may contribute to the clinical hallmarks of the disorder. Using DTI and whole brain voxel-based analysis, we mapped the profile of WM anomalies in BD. All patients in our sample were euthymic and lithium free when scanned. Methods Diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted structural brain images were acquired from 23 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar I disorder and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Scans were processed to provide measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean and radial diffusivity (MD and RD) at each WM voxel, and processed scans were nonlinearly aligned to a customized brain imaging template for statistical group comparisons. Results Relative to controls, the bipolar group showed widespread regions of lower FA, including the corpus callosum, cortical and thalamic association fibers. MD and RD were abnormally elevated in patients in many of these same regions. Conclusions Our findings agree with prior reports of WM abnormalities in the corpus callosum and further link a bipolar diagnosis with structural abnormalities of the tapetum, fornix and stria terminalis. Future studies assessing the diagnostic specificity and prognostic implications of these abnormalities would be of interest. PMID:24179807

  9. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Janušonis, Skirmantas

    2005-01-01

    Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia). The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene) based on currently available clinical and experimental studies. PMID:16029508

  10. 3D pattern of brain abnormalities in Williams syndrome visualized using tensor-based morphometry

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    3D pattern of brain abnormalities in Williams syndrome visualized using tensor-based morphometry Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with deletion of 20 contiguous genes reserved. Introduction Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental microdele- tion disorder, resulting

  11. Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Hanada, Grant; Loo, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16–21?Hz) asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p?=?0.00001), and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls) with beta asymmetry at temporal–parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: (a) EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, (b) unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and (c) the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings by demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal–parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal–parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increase of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention. PMID:25104941

  12. Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management. PMID:24788350

  13. Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Sartorius; Matthias Ruf; Christine Kief; Traute Demirakca; Josef Bailer; Gabriele Ende; Fritz A. Henn; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Harald Dressing

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation\\u000a is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10\\u000a male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric\\u000a treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a

  14. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Patients with Schizophrenia and 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eva W.C.; Zipursky, Robert B.; Mikulis, David J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background 22q11 Deletion Syndrome is a genetic syndrome associated with an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been reported in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome, but little is known about whether differences in brain structure underlie the psychotic disorders associated with this syndrome. In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the structural brain abnormalities found in adults who have both 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of 14 adults (7 male, 7 female) with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed to derive measures of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between the two groups were tested using student t tests. Results 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia subjects had significantly smaller total gray matter volume (t = 2.88, p < .01) and larger lateral ventricles (t = 4.08, p < .001) than healthy controls. Gray matter deficits were most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Total white matter volumes did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Findings from this 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia study are similar to those reported in other patients with schizophrenia, but only partially consistent with those reported in nonpsychotic children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome may provide a valuable genetic neurodevelop-mental model for investigating the relationship between abnormalities in brain development and the expression of schizophrenia. PMID:11839363

  15. How Can We Identify Ictal and Interictal Abnormal Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Robert S.; Scharfman, Helen E.; deCurtis, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined a seizure as “a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.” This definition has been used since the era of Hughlings Jackson, and does not take into account subsequent advances made in epilepsy and neuroscience research. The clinical diagnosis of a seizure is empirical, based upon constellations of certain signs and symptoms, while simultaneously ruling out a list of potential imitators of seizures. Seizures should be delimited in time, but the borders of ictal (during a seizure), interictal (between seizures) and postictal (after a seizure) often are indistinct. EEG recording is potentially very helpful for confirmation, classification and localization. About a half-dozen common EEG patterns are encountered during seizures. Clinicians rely on researchers to answer such questions as why seizures start, spread and stop, whether seizures involve increased synchrony, the extent to which extra-cortical structures are involved, and how to identify the seizure network and at what points interventions are likely to be helpful. Basic scientists have different challenges in use of the word ‘seizure,’ such as distinguishing seizures from normal behavior, which would seem easy but can be very difficult because some rodents have EEG activity during normal behavior that resembles spike-wave discharge or bursts of rhythmic spiking. It is also important to define when a seizure begins and stops so that seizures can be quantified accurately for pre-clinical studies. When asking what causes seizures, the transition to a seizure and differentiating the pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal state is also important because what occurs before a seizure could be causal and may warrant further investigation for that reason. These and other issues are discussed by three epilepsy researchers with clinical and basic science expertise. PMID:25012363

  16. Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

    This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

  17. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Brain Abnormalities Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Radiation in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Miwa; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Murase, Kenya

    2014-01-01

    We assessed brain abnormalities in rats exposed prenatally to radiation (X-rays) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological experiments. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group (n?=?3) and 3 groups that were exposed to different radiation doses (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy; n?=?3 each). Brain abnormalities were assessed in 32 neonatal male rats (8 per group). Ex vivo T2-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed using 11.7-T MRI. The expression of markers of myelin production (Kluver–Barrera staining, KB), nonpyramidal cells (calbindin-D28k staining, CaBP), and pyramidal cells (staining of the nonphosphorylated heavy-chain neurofilament SMI-32) were histologically evaluated. Decreased brain volume, increased ventricle volume, and thinner cortices were observed by MRI in irradiated rats. However, no abnormalities in the cortical 6-layered structure were observed via KB staining in radiation-exposed rats. The DTI color-coded map revealed a dose-dependent reduction in the anisotropic signal (vertical direction), which did not represent reduced numbers of pyramidal cells; rather, it indicated a signal reduction relative to the vertical direction because of low nerve cell density in the entire cortex. We conclude that DTI and histological experiments are useful tools for assessing cortical and hippocampal abnormalities after prenatal exposure to radiation in rats. PMID:25202992

  18. Increased Brain Activity May Compensate for Amyloid Pathology in Older Brains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... remain cognitively normal despite having abnormal levels of beta-amyloid in their brains, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. ... brain imaging showed 16 with abnormal levels of beta-amyloid and 33 free of deposits. While both groups ...

  19. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

  20. Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2015-04-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:25820811

  1. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. PMID:25008163

  2. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

  3. Abnormal Error Monitoring in Math-Anxious Individuals: Evidence from Error-Related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants’ math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN. PMID:24236212

  4. White-matter abnormalities in brain during early abstinence from methamphetamine abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc C. Tobias; Joseph O’Neill; Matthew Hudkins; George Bartzokis; Andrew C. Dean; Edythe D. London

    2010-01-01

    Background  Previous studies revealed microstructural abnormalities in prefrontal white matter and corpus callosum of long-term abstinent\\u000a chronic methamphetamine abusers. In view of the importance of the early abstinence period in treatment retention, we compared\\u000a 23 methamphetamine-dependent subjects abstinent from methamphetamine for 7–13 days with 18 healthy comparison subjects. As\\u000a certain metabolic changes in the brain first manifest after early abstinence from methamphetamine,

  5. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  6. Morphometric abnormalities in brains of great blue heron hatchlings exposed in the wild to PCDDs.

    PubMed Central

    Henshel, D S; Martin, J W; Norstrom, R; Whitehead, P; Steeves, J D; Cheng, K M

    1995-01-01

    Great blue heron hatchlings from colonies in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada are being monitored for environmental contaminant exposure and effects by the Canadian Wildlife Service. The contaminants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), primarily derived from kraft pulp mill effluent. The levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in eggs from the most contaminated colonies peaked in 1988 and 1989 and dropped dramatically through 1990 to 1992. Brains of heron hatchlings (taken as eggs from the wild and hatched in the laboratory) were analyzed for gross morphological abnormalities. Brains from highly contaminated colonies (Crofton, British Columbia and University of British Columbia Endowment Lands) in 1988 exhibited a high frequency of intercerebral asymmetry. The frequency of this abnormality decreased in subsequent years as the levels of TCDD and TCDD-TEQs (toxic equivalence factors) decreased. The asymmetry was significantly correlated with the level of TCDD and TCDD-TEQs in eggs taken from the same nest. Yolk-free body weight negatively correlated and the brain somatic index positively correlated with the TCDD level in such pair-matched eggs. These results indicate that gross brain morphology, and specifically intercerebral asymmetry, may be useful as a biomarker for the developmental neurotoxic effects of PCDDs and related chemicals. Images Figure 1. PMID:7556025

  7. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia in a Population-Based Sample: Relationship to Duration of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Päivikki; Ridler, Khanum; Murray, Graham K.; Haapea, Marianne; Veijola, Juha M.; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Jones, Peter B.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Isohanni, Matti K.

    2010-01-01

    Biased recruitment and sample selection may cause variability in neuroimaging studies. Epidemiologically principled population-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia are very rare. We gathered structural MRI data on 154 subjects from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, aged 33–35 (100 controls, 54 schizophrenia patients). Regional differences in density of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were identified between groups using nonparametric statistical analysis, and the relationship of the regional differences to duration of illness was explored. Gray matter reductions were found bilaterally in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, insula, superior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, cuneus, and lingual gyrus; in the left posterior cingulate, superior frontal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus; and in the right postcentral gyrus. Gray matter excesses were observed bilaterally in the basal ganglia, anterior cingulate, and medial orbitofrontal cortices. There were white matter deficits in an extensive network including inter- and intrahemispheric tracts bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, subcortical structures, cerebellum, and brain stem. CSF excesses were found bilaterally in the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, interhemispheric, and left Sylvian fissure. We replicated the previous findings of structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia on a general population level. Gray and white matter deficits were associated with duration of illness suggesting either that developmental brain deficits relate to an earlier age of onset or that brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are progressive in nature. PMID:19015212

  8. Influence of History of Brain Disease or Brain Trauma on Psychopathological Abnormality in Young Male in Korea : Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Ho Kyu; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Kang; Kim, Chul-Eung; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to confirm whether brain disease or brain trauma actually affect psychopathology in young male group in Korea. Methods The authors manually reviewed the result of Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) in the examination of conscription in Korea from January 2008 to May 2010. There were total 237 young males in this review. Normal volunteers group (n=150) was composed of those who do not have history of brain disease or brain trauma. Brain disease group (n=33) was consisted of those with history of brain disease. Brain trauma group (n=54) was consisted of those with history of brain trauma. The results of KMPI in each group were compared. Results Abnormal results of KMPI were found in both brain disease and trauma groups. In the brain disease group, higher tendencies of faking bad response, anxiety, depression, somatization, personality disorder, schizophrenic and paranoid psychopathy was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. In the brain trauma group, higher tendencies of faking-good, depression, somatization and personality disorder was observed and compared to the normal volunteers group. Conclusion Young male with history of brain disease or brain trauma may have higher tendencies to have abnormal results of multiphasic personal inventory test compared to young male without history of brain disease or brain trauma, suggesting that damaged brain may cause psychopathology in young male group in Korea. PMID:22053230

  9. Brain amino acid abnormalities in liver disease--a postmortem study.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard; Schoenemeier, Sonja; Buerrig, Karl-Friedrich; Jacob, Bernhard; Bonte, Wolfgang; Daldrup, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    In a postmortem exploratory study, we examined whether specific amino acid abnormalities associated with liver diseases in vivo may also be detected in human brain samples obtained at clinical autopsies. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA: valine, leucine, isoleucine) were decreased in the group of patients with liver diseases compared with the control group, whereas the aromatic amino acids (AAA: phenylalanine, tyrosine) were increased. However, the ranges overlapped significantly and were not statistically different. The molar ratio BCAA/AAA was determined to be 1.92 in the collection of patients with liver diseases compared with 2.27 in the control group. In patients with liver disease, ornithine concentrations in the brain appeared significantly decreased whereas glutamine was significantly increased. No significant difference was found in the brain concentrations of proline. Amino acid analysis may contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of liver disease, which are discussed, and may supplement the postmortem diagnosis. PMID:14640289

  10. Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

    2005-11-01

    Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

  11. Brain Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Abnormalities in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Hejjaji Venkataramarao; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kurmi, Roshan; Chawla, Yogesh K; Dhiman, Radha K

    2012-01-01

    Background Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Minimal hepatic encephalopathy patients do not demonstrate clinically overt symptoms of HE but present with abnormal neuropsychological and/or neurophysiological tests indicative of cerebral dysfunction. This study was performed in such patients to identify regions of abnormal cerebral perfusion and to correlate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes with psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), Child-Turcotte-Pugh's score (CTP), and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We also compared abnormal patterns of rCBF in cirrhotic patients of alcoholic etiology with non-alcoholic etiology. Methods This prospective study was performed to evaluate rCBF in 50 cirrhotic patients and 13 controls using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography. All the patients underwent a battery of psychometry tests, PHES. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed if PHES was ??5. The rCBF changes were evaluated using region of interest (ROI) based semi-quantitative method of region/cerebellum and region/cortex ratios in 16 regions of the brain. Results Cirrhotic patients with MHE showed impaired perfusion in the superior prefrontal cortex and increased perfusion in the thalamus, brain-stem, medial temporal cortex, and the hippocampus when compared with the controls. Cerebral perfusion in superior prefrontal cortex correlated negatively with MELD score (r=?0.323, P=0.022). We found significant positive correlation between PHES score and rCBF values in the left superior prefrontal cortex (r=0.385, P=0.006). Cirrhotic patients with alcohol etiology showed significantly decreased rCBF in right inferior prefrontal cortex, right superior prefrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex while increased rCBF was noted in the right medial temporal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion Our results suggest that alterations in cognition in cirrhotic patients with MHE may be associated with impaired abnormalities of rCBF.

  12. Agrin in Alzheimer's Disease: Altered Solubility and Abnormal Distribution within Microvasculature and Brain Parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, John E.; Berzin, Tyler M.; Rafii, Michael S.; Glass, David J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Fallon, Justin R.; Stopa, Edward G.

    1999-05-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is widely expressed in neurons and microvascular basal lamina in the rodent and avian central nervous system. Agrin induces the differentiation of nerve-muscle synapses, but its function in either normal or diseased brains is not known. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by loss of synapses, changes in microvascular architecture, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Here we have asked whether AD causes changes in the distribution and biochemical properties of agrin. Immunostaining of normal, aged human central nervous system revealed that agrin is expressed in neurons in multiple brain areas. Robust agrin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in the microvascular basal lamina. In AD brains, agrin is highly concentrated in both diffuse and neuritic plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles; neuronal expression of agrin also was observed. Furthermore, patients with AD had microvascular alterations characterized by thinning and fragmentation of the basal lamina. Detergent extraction and Western blotting showed that virtually all the agrin in normal brain is soluble in 1% SDS. In contrast, a large fraction of the agrin in AD brains is insoluble under these conditions, suggesting that it is tightly associated with ? -amyloid. Together, these data indicate that the agrin abnormalities observed in AD are closely linked to ? -amyloid deposition. These observations suggest that altered agrin expression in the microvasculature and the brain parenchyma contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  13. Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1? mapping.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1?). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1? maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1? values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1? abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1? mapping in psychiatric research. PMID:25560762

  14. Motor Network Plasticity and Low-Frequency Oscillations Abnormalities in Patients with Brain Gliomas: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chen; Zhang, Ming; Min, Zhigang; Rana, Netra; Zhang, Qiuli; Liu, Xin; Li, Min; Lin, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA). Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05). We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01–0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02–0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06–0.1 Hz), at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors. PMID:24806463

  15. Abnormal Brain Connectivity Patterns in Adults with ADHD: A Coherence Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, João Ricardo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Castellanos, Xavier Francisco; Rohde, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the resting state have shown decreased functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to subjects with typical development (TD). Most studies used Pearson correlation coefficients among the BOLD signals from different brain regions to quantify functional connectivity. Since the Pearson correlation analysis only provides a limited description of functional connectivity, we investigated functional connectivity between the dACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in three groups (adult patients with ADHD, n?=?21; TD age-matched subjects, n?=?21; young TD subjects, n?=?21) using a more comprehensive analytical approach – unsupervised machine learning using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM) that quantifies an abnormality index for each individual. The median abnormality index for patients with ADHD was greater than for TD age-matched subjects (p?=?0.014); the ADHD and young TD indices did not differ significantly (p?=?0.480); the median abnormality index of young TD was greater than that of TD age-matched subjects (p?=?0.016). Low frequencies below 0.05 Hz and around 0.20 Hz were the most relevant for discriminating between ADHD patients and TD age-matched controls and between the older and younger TD subjects. In addition, we validated our approach using the fMRI data of children publicly released by the ADHD-200 Competition, obtaining similar results. Our findings suggest that the abnormal coherence patterns observed in patients with ADHD in this study resemble the patterns observed in young typically developing subjects, which reinforces the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with brain maturation deficits. PMID:23049834

  16. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Chow, Dominic C.; Valcour, Victor G.; Paul, Robert H.; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age = 58 years, standard deviation = 6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value = 0.008) and lower FA FDR critical p value = 0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value = 0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:22585287

  17. R6/2 Huntington’s disease Mice Develop Early and Progressive Abnormal Brain Metabolism and Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda-Prado, E; Popp, S; Khan, U; Stefanov, D; Rodriguez, J; Menalled, L; Dow-Edwards, D; Small, SA; Moreno, H

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several HD mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI-signals (relative cerebral blood volumes-rCBV) and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions- thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [14C] deoxyglucose (2DG) maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice, and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668

  18. Cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers: Demonstration by SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeh, S.S.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Holman, B.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion brain scans with iodine-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained in 12 subjects who acknowledged using cocaine on a sporadic to a daily basis. The route of cocaine administration varied from nasal to intravenous. Concurrent abuse of other drugs was also reported. None of the patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Brain scans demonstrated focal defects in 11 subjects, including seven who were asymptomatic, and no abnormality in one. Among the findings were scattered focal cortical deficits, which were seen in several patients and which ranged in severity from small and few to multiple and large, with a special predilection for the frontal and temporal lobes. No perfusion deficits were seen on I-123 SPECT images in five healthy volunteers. Focal alterations in cerebral perfusion are seen commonly in asymptomatic drug users, and these focal deficits are readily depicted by I-123 IMP SPECT.

  19. Rapid morphological brain abnormalities during acute methamphetamine intoxication in the rat: An experimental study using light and electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari S. Sharma; Eugene A. Kiyatkin

    2009-01-01

    This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (i.v.) catheter were exposed to METH (9mg\\/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient

  20. Unsupervised abnormal crowd activity detection using interaction power model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shengnan; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Sun, Mingui; Yuan, Ding

    2014-11-01

    Abnormal event detection in crowded scenes is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Different from previous work based on learning. We proposed an unsupervised Interaction Power model with an adaptive threshold strategy to detect abnormal group activity by analyzing the steady state of individuals' behaviors in the crowed scene. Firstly, the optical flow field of the potential pedestrians is only calculated within the extracted foreground to reduce the computational cost. Secondly, each pedestrian can be divided into patches of the same size, and the interaction power of the pedestrians will be represented by the motion particles which describe the motion status at the center pixels of the patches. The motion status of each patch is computed by using the optical flows of the pixels within the patch. For each motion particle, its interaction power, defined as its steady state of the current behavior, is computed among all its neighboring motion particles. Finally, the dense crowds' steady state can be represented as a collection of motion particles' interaction power. Here, an adaptive threshold strategy is proposed to detect abnormal events by examining the frame power field which is a fixed-size random sampling of the interaction power of motion particles. Experimental results on the standard UMN dataset and online videos show that our method could detect the crowd anomalies and achieve a higher accuracy compared to the other competitive methods published recently.

  1. Type 1 diabetes alters astrocytic properties related with neurotransmitter supply, causing abnormal neuronal activities.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeonwi; Jung, Soonwoong; Kim, Jun Young; Goo, Young Min; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kim, Hyun Joon

    2015-03-30

    Glutamine synthetase (GS), an astrocytic protein in the brain, mediates the process by which glutamate (Glu) is transformed into glutamine (Gln) during Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) de novo synthesis. There are many types of neural complications related with those neurotransmitters in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, but there is little information about the change GS. Therefore, we examined changes in GS activity and expression, as well as the amount of Glu, Gln, and GABA in the brain of a T1D animal model. Using primary culture we found that glucose fluctuation caused glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GS changes but constant high glucose level didn?t. In T1D mouse, GS expression increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HI), but decreased GS activity was only observed in the HI whereas GFAP expression decreased in both regions. Gln increased in both regions, but Glu and GABA were only increased in the HI of T1D animals where GS activity decreased with higher reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Collectively, low GS activity may be closely related with high levels of Glu and GABA in the HI of T1D brain, and this would result in abnormal neurotransmissions. PMID:25578257

  2. Levetiracetam reduces abnormal network activations in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wandschneider, Britta; Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka; Centeno, Maria; Kozák, Lajos R.; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Duncan, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a left-lateralizing verbal and a right-lateralizing visual-spatial working memory (WM) paradigm to investigate the effects of levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive network activations in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: In a retrospective study, we compared task-related fMRI activations and deactivations in 53 patients with left and 54 patients with right TLE treated with (59) or without (48) LEV. In patients on LEV, activation patterns were correlated with the daily LEV dose. Results: We isolated task- and syndrome-specific effects. Patients on LEV showed normalization of functional network deactivations in the right temporal lobe in right TLE during the right-lateralizing visual-spatial task and in the left temporal lobe in left TLE during the verbal task. In a post hoc analysis, a significant dose-dependent effect was demonstrated in right TLE during the visual-spatial WM task: the lower the LEV dose, the greater the abnormal right hippocampal activation. At a less stringent threshold (p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), a similar dose effect was observed in left TLE during the verbal task: both hippocampi were more abnormally activated in patients with lower doses, but more prominently on the left. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that LEV is associated with restoration of normal activation patterns. Longitudinal studies are necessary to establish whether the neural patterns translate to drug response. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with drug-resistant TLE, levetiracetam has a dose-dependent facilitation of deactivation of mesial temporal structures. PMID:25253743

  3. Lysosomal hydrolases of different classes are abnormally distributed in brains of patients with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, A M; Paskevich, P A; Kominami, E; Nixon, R A

    1991-01-01

    beta-Amyloid formation requires multiple abnormal proteolytic cleavages of amyloid precursor protein (APP), including one within its intramembrane domain. Lysosomes, which contain a wide variety of proteases (cathepsins) and other acid hydrolases, are major sites for the turnover of membrane proteins and other cell constituents. Using immunocytochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy, and enzyme histochemistry, we studied the expression and cellular distributions of 10 lysosomal hydrolases, including 4 cathepsins, in neocortex from patients with Alzheimer disease and control (non-Alzheimer-disease) individuals. In control brains, acid hydrolases were localized exclusively to intracellular lysosome-related compartments, and 8 of the 10 enzymes predominated in neurons. In Alzheimer disease brains, strongly immunoreactive lysosomes and lipofuscin granules accumulated markedly in the perikarya and proximal dendrites of many cortical neurons, some of which were undergoing degeneration. More strikingly, these same hydrolases were present in equally high or higher levels in senile plaques in Alzheimer disease, but they were not found extracellularly in control brains, including those from Parkinson or Huntington disease patients. At the ultrastructural level, hydrolase immunoreactivity in senile plaques was localized to extracellular lipofuscin granules similar in morphology to those within degenerating neurons. Two cathepsins that were undetectable in neurons were absent from senile plaques. These results show that lysosome function is altered in cortical neurons in Alzheimer disease. The presence of a broad spectrum of acid hydrolases in senile plaques indicates that lysosomes and their contents may be liberated from cells, principally neurons and their processes, as they degenerate. Because cathepsins can cleave polypeptide sites on APP relevant for beta-amyloid formation, their abnormal extracellular localization and dysregulation in Alzheimer disease can account for the multiple hydrolytic events in beta-amyloid formation. The actions of membrane-degrading acid hydrolases could also explain how the intramembrane portion of APP containing the C terminus of beta-amyloid becomes accessible to proteases. Images PMID:1837142

  4. Elevated Id2 expression results in precocious neural stem cell depletion and abnormal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Park, H.J.; Hong, M.; Bronson, R.T.; Israel, M.A.; Frankel, W. N.; Yun, K.

    2013-01-01

    Id2 is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor essential for normal development and its expression is dysregulated in many human neurological conditions. Although it is speculated that elevated Id2 levels contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, it is unknown whether dysregulated Id2 expression is sufficient to perturb normal brain development or function. Here, we show that mice with elevated Id2 expression during embryonic stages develop microcephaly, and that females in particular are prone to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Analyses of Id2 transgenic brains indicate that Id2 activity is highly cell context specific: elevated Id2 expression in naive NSCs in early neuroepithelium induces apoptosis and loss of NSCs and intermediate progenitors. Activation of Id2 in maturing neuroepithelium results in less severe phenotypes and is accompanied by elevation of G1 Cyclin expression and p53 target gene expression. In contrast, activation of Id2 in committed intermediate progenitors has no significant phenotype. Functional analysis with Id2 over-expressing and Id2-null NSCs shows that Id2 negatively regulates NSC self-renewal in vivo, in contrast to previous cell culture experiments. Deletion of p53 function from Id2-transgenic brains rescues apoptosis and results in increased incidence of brain tumors. Furthermore, Id2 over-expression normalizes the increased self-renewal of p53-null NSCs, suggesting that Id2 activates and modulates the p53 pathway in NSCs. Together, these data suggest that elevated Id2 expression in embryonic brains can cause deregulated NSC self-renewal, differentiation and survival that manifest in multiple neurological outcomes in mature brains, including microcephaly, seizures, and brain tumors. PMID:23390122

  5. Abnormal whole-brain functional connection in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng; Liao, Wei; Watson, David R; Shi, Yongmei; Wang, Yi; Yue, Chunxian; Teng, Yuhuan; Wu, Di; Yuan, Yonggui; Jia, Jianping; Zhang, Zhijun

    2011-01-20

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients are thought to be particularly vulnerable to convert to clinical AD where functional disconnection is a major feature of the cortical neuropathology. However, the presence and extent of whole-brain connectivity disturbances is largely unknown in aMCI patients. Twenty-six aMCI patients and eighteen matched healthy subjects were evaluated at baseline and at mean 20 months follow up. Temporal correlations between spatially distinct regions were evaluated by using longitudinal resting-state fMRI. Compared to normal aging controls, patterns of abnormal interregional correlations in widely dispersed brain areas were identified in the patients, which also changed with disease progression. These disturbances were found particularly in subcortical regions and frontal cortex. Importantly, significantly decreased negative functional connection may be specifically associated with the development of aMCI patients. This suggests a compensatory mechanism is underway where local processing deficits are offset by recruitment of more dispersed cortical regions. In addition, the presence of this increased connectivity is seen to eventually weaken with disease progression. The results suggest that patterns of whole-brain functional connection may be a useful risk marker for conversion to AD in aMCI patients. PMID:20851147

  6. Multicenter Study of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescent-Onset Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Reig, Santiago; Parellada, Mara; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Janssen, Joost; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargalló, Nuria; González-Pinto, Ana; Graell, Montserrat; Ortuño, Felipe; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the extent of structural brain abnormalities in a multicenter sample of children and adolescents with a recent-onset first episode of psychosis (FEP), compared with a sample of healthy controls. Total brain and lobar volumes and those of gray matter (GM), white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 92 patients with a FEP and in 94 controls, matched for age, gender, and years of education. Male patients (n = 64) showed several significant differences when compared with controls (n = 61). GM volume in male patients was reduced in the whole brain and in frontal and parietal lobes compared with controls. Total CSF volume and frontal, temporal, and right parietal CSF volumes were also increased in male patients. Within patients, those with a further diagnosis of “schizophrenia” or “other psychosis” showed a pattern similar to the group of all patients relative to controls. However, bipolar patients showed fewer differences relative to controls. In female patients, only the schizophrenia group showed differences relative to controls, in frontal CSF. GM deficit in male patients with a first episode correlated with negative symptoms. Our study suggests that at least part of the GM deficit in children and adolescent-onset schizophrenia and in other psychosis occurs before onset of the first positive symptoms and that, contrary to what has been shown in children-onset schizophrenia, frontal GM deficits are probably present from the first appearance of positive symptoms in children and adolescents. PMID:20478821

  7. Melatonin stimulates brain glutathione peroxidase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Barlow-Walden; R. J. Reiter; M. Abe; M. Pablos; A. Menendez-Pelaez; L.-D. Chen; B. Poeggeler

    1995-01-01

    Exogenously administered melatonin causes a 2-fold rise in glutathione peroxidase activity within 30 min in the brain of the rat. Furthermore, brain glutathione peroxidase activity is higher at night than during the day and is correlated with high night-time tissue melatonin levels. Glutathione peroxidase is thought to be the principal enzyme eliminating peroxides in the brain. This antioxidative enzyme reduces

  8. Downstream targets of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and their abnormal expression in the frontal cortex of the human Rett syndrome brain

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Joanne H

    Background: The Rett Syndrome (RTT) brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. Results: Using ...

  9. Brain and arterial abnormalities following prenatal X-ray irradiation in mice assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and angiography.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Murase, Kenya

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively characterize changes in the whole brain and arterial morphology in response to prenatal ionizing irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) were used to evaluate brain and arterial abnormalities in 8-week-old male mice prenatally exposed to X-ray radiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy on embryonic day (E) 13. Irradiated mice demonstrated decreased brain volume, increased ventricular volume, and arterial malformation. Additionally, MRA signal intensity and arterial thickness in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and basilar artery were lower in radiation-exposed mice than in control mice. MRI and MRA are useful tools for assessing brain and arterial abnormalities after prenatal exposure to radiation. PMID:25534523

  10. Sensory Abnormalities in Focal Hand Dystonia and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Quartarone, Angelo; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Terranova, Carmen; Milardi, Demetrio; Bruschetta, Daniele; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Girlanda, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that synchronous and convergent afferent input arising from repetitive motor tasks may play an important role in driving the maladaptive cortical plasticity seen in focal hand dystonia (FHD). This hypothesis receives support from several sources. First, it has been reported that in subjects with FHD, paired associative stimulation produces an abnormal increase in corticospinal excitability, which was not confined to stimulated muscles. These findings provide support for the role of excessive plasticity in FHD. Second, the genetic contribution to the dystonias is increasingly recognized indicating that repetitive, stereotyped afferent inputs may lead to late-onset dystonia, such as FHD, more rapidly in genetically susceptible individuals. It can be postulated, according to the two factor hypothesis that dystonia is triggered and maintained by the concurrence of environmental factors such as repetitive training and subtle abnormal mechanisms of plasticity within somatosensory loop. In the present review, we examine the contribution of sensory-motor integration in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. In addition, we will discuss the role of non-invasive brain stimulation as therapeutic approach in FHD. PMID:25538594

  11. Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Tonali, Pietro; Puca, Francomichele

    2003-01-01

    Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO(2)-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction of pain elaboration at the cortical level. The results were compared with findings from normal control subjects and from subjects who suffer from migraine without aura. The effects of stimulus intensity, subjective pain perception and attention were monitored and compared with features of the LEPS. Twenty-five CM patients, 15 subjects suffering from migraine without aura and 15 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. LEPS amplitude variation was reduced in CM patients with respect to the perceived stimulus intensity, in comparison with migraine without aura patients and control subjects. In both headache groups, the distraction from the painful laser stimulus induced by an arithmetic task failed to suppress the LEPS amplitude, in comparison with control subjects. These results suggest an abnormal cortical processing of nociceptive input in CM patients, which could lead to the chronic state of pain. In both headache groups, an inability to reduce pain elaboration during an alternative cognitive task emerged as an abnormal behaviour probably predisposing to migraine. PMID:12507697

  12. Stanford study shows brain abnormalities in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy:

    Cancer.gov

    A neuroimaging study from the Stanford University School of Medicine has found that when asked to perform certain tasks, women who have undergone chemotherapy for breast cancer had significantly less activation of a part of the brain known to play a critical role in planning, attention and memory than did breast cancer patients without such treatment, as well as healthy women.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces ER stress and abnormal protein accumulation and improves neuronal function following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Begum, Gulnaz; Yan, Hong Q; Li, Liaoliao; Singh, Amneet; Dixon, C Edward; Sun, Dandan

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the efficacy of post-TBI administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in reducing ER stress. TBI was induced by cortical contusion injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Either DHA (16 mg/kg in DMSO) or vehicle DMSO (1 ml/kg) was administered intraperitoneally at 5 min after TBI, followed by a daily dose for 3-21 d. TBI triggered sustained expression of the ER stress marker proteins including phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2?, activating transcription factor 4, inositol requiring kinase 1, and C/EBP homologous protein in the ipsilateral cortex at 3-21 d after TBI. The prolonged ER stress was accompanied with an accumulation of abnormal ubiquitin aggregates and increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau) in the frontal cortex after TBI. The ER stress marker proteins were colocalized with APP accumulation in the soma. Interestingly, administration of DHA attenuated all ER stress marker proteins and reduced the accumulation of both ubiquitinated proteins and APP/p-Tau proteins. In addition, the DHA-treated animals exhibited early recovery of their sensorimotor function after TBI. In summary, our study demonstrated that TBI induces a prolonged ER stress, which is positively correlated with abnormal APP accumulation. The sustained ER stress may play a role in chronic neuronal damage after TBI. Our findings illustrate that post-TBI administration of DHA has therapeutic potentials in reducing ER stress, abnormal protein accumulation, and neurological deficits. PMID:24599472

  14. Abnormalities in auditory efferent activities in children with selective mutism.

    PubMed

    Muchnik, Chava; Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Arie, Miri; Bar-Haim, Yair; Henkin, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Two efferent feedback pathways to the auditory periphery may play a role in monitoring self-vocalization: the middle-ear acoustic reflex (MEAR) and the medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex. Since most studies regarding the role of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization were conducted in animals, human data are scarce. The working premise of the current study was that selective mutism (SM), a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak normally in other situations, may serve as a human model for studying the potential involvement of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization. For this purpose, auditory efferent function was assessed in a group of 31 children with SM and compared to that of a group of 31 normally developing control children (mean age 8.9 and 8.8 years, respectively). All children exhibited normal hearing thresholds and type A tympanograms. MEAR and MOCB functions were evaluated by means of acoustic reflex thresholds and decay functions and the suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, respectively. Auditory afferent function was tested by means of auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Results indicated a significantly higher proportion of children with abnormal MEAR and MOCB function in the SM group (58.6 and 38%, respectively) compared to controls (9.7 and 8%, respectively). The prevalence of abnormal MEAR and/or MOCB function was significantly higher in the SM group (71%) compared to controls (16%). Intact afferent function manifested in normal absolute and interpeak latencies of ABR components in all children. The finding of aberrant efferent auditory function in a large proportion of children with SM provides further support for the notion that MEAR and MOCB may play a significant role in the process of self-vocalization. PMID:24107432

  15. Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Boris; Peschel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Krueger, Tillmann H C

    2007-11-01

    Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques. Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted to females) and 24 healthy age-matched control subjects (12 hetero- and 12 homosexual) from a comparable socioeconomic stratum were processed by using optimized automated voxel-based morphometry within multiple linear regression analyses. Compared to the homosexual and heterosexual control subjects, pedophiles showed decreased gray matter volume in the ventral striatum (also extending into the nucl. accumbens), the orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum. These observations further indicate an association between frontostriatal morphometric abnormalities and pedophilia. In this respect these findings may support the hypothesis that there is a shared etiopathological mechanism in all obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. PMID:16876824

  16. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  17. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. PMID:23856299

  18. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

  19. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Hughes; Alan Jackson; Damon L. Mason; Elizabeth Berry; Sally Hollis; David W. Yates

    2004-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

  1. Pten deficiency in brain causes defects in synaptic structure, transmission and plasticity, and myelination abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Melissa M.; Bayazitov, Ildar T.; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2008-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway modulates growth, proliferation and cell survival in diverse tissue types and plays specialized roles in the nervous system including influences on neuronal polarity, dendritic branching and synaptic plasticity. The tumor-suppressor phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) is the central negative regulator of the PI3K pathway. Germline PTEN mutations result in cancer predisposition, macrocephaly and benign hamartomas in many tissues, including Lhermitte-Duclos disease, a cerebellar growth disorder. Neurological abnormalities including autism, seizures and ataxia have been observed in association with inherited PTEN mutation with variable penetrance. It remains unclear how loss of PTEN activity contributes to neurological dysfunction. To explore the effects of Pten deficiency on neuronal structure and function, we analyzed several ultra-structural features of Pten-deficient neurons in Pten conditional knockout mice. Using Golgi stain to visualize full neuronal morphology, we observed that increased size of nuclei and somata in Pten-deficient neurons was accompanied by enlarged caliber of neuronal projections and increased dendritic spine density. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed enlarged abnormal synaptic structures in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Severe myelination defects included thickening and unraveling of the myelin sheath surrounding hypertrophic axons in the corpus callosum. Defects in myelination of axons of normal caliber were observed in the cerebellum, suggesting intrinsic abnormalities in Pten-deficient oligodendrocytes. We did not observe these abnormalities in wild-type or conditional Pten heterozygous mice. Moreover, conditional deletion of Pten drastically weakened synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. These data suggest that Pten is involved in mechanisms that control development of neuronal and synaptic structures and subsequently synaptic function. PMID:18082964

  2. Incidence of Brain Abnormalities Detected on Preoperative Brain MR Imaging and Their Effect on the Outcome of Cochlear Implantation in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Fei-Yun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased gradually in the past decades. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as an important part of preimplantation evaluation for children with SNHL, could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, so as to select suitable candidate for cochlear implantation (CI). Brain abnormalities were not rare in the brain MR imaging of SNHL children; however, its influence on the effect of CI has not been clarified. After retrospectively analyzing the CT and MR imaging of 157 children with SNHL that accepted preoperative evaluation from June 2011 to February 2013 in our hospital and following them during a period of 14.09 ± 5.08 months, we found that the white matter change, which might be associated with the history of medical condition, was the most common brain abnormality. Usually CI was still beneficial to the children with brain abnormalities, and the short-term hearing improvement could be achieved. Further study with more patients and longer follow-up time was needed to confirm our results. PMID:25685142

  3. Mutations in the ?-Tubulin Gene TUBB5 Cause Microcephaly with Structural Brain Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Breuss, Martin; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen; Poirier, Karine; Tian, Guoling; Jaglin, Xavier Hubert; Qu, Zhengdong; Braun, Andreas; Gstrein, Thomas; Ngo, Linh; Haas, Matilda; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Passemard, Sandrine; Verloes, Alain; Gressens, Pierre; Xie, Yunli; Robson, Kathryn J.H.; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Clausen, Tim; Chelly, Jamel; Cowan, Nicholas Justin; Keays, David Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Summary The formation of the mammalian cortex requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. The vital role that the microtubule cytoskeleton plays in these cellular processes is reflected by the discovery that mutations in various tubulin isotypes cause different neurodevelopmental diseases, including lissencephaly (TUBA1A), polymicrogyria (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB3), and an ocular motility disorder (TUBB3). Here, we show that Tubb5 is expressed in neurogenic progenitors in the mouse and that its depletion in vivo perturbs the cell cycle of progenitors and alters the position of migrating neurons. We report the occurrence of three microcephalic patients with structural brain abnormalities harboring de novo mutations in TUBB5 (M299V, V353I, and E401K). These mutant proteins, which affect the chaperone-dependent assembly of tubulin heterodimers in different ways, disrupt neurogenic division and/or migration in vivo. Our results provide insight into the functional repertoire of the tubulin gene family, specifically implicating TUBB5 in embryonic neurogenesis and microcephaly. PMID:23246003

  4. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients with BBS, which parallel the findings, described in BBS mutant mouse models. Some of these brain abnormalities may be progressive and associated with the reported neurological and behavioral problems. Further future correlation of these MRI scan findings with detailed neurologic and neuropsychological exams together with genotype data will provide better understanding of the pathophysiology of BBS. PMID:21794117

  5. Changes in spontaneous brain activity in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Zhang, Min-Ming; Zheng, Xu-Ning; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Jue

    2013-08-01

    Resting state brain activity can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of the present study was (a) to investigate abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in early PD patients using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and (b) to demonstrate the potential of using changes in abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity for monitoring the progression of PD during its early stages. Seventeen early PD patients were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr disability scale and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with seventeen gender- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent MRI scans using a 1.5T General Electric Signa Excite II scanner. The MRI scan protocol included whole-brain volumetric imaging using a 3D inversion recovery prepared (IR-Prep) fast spoiled gradient-echo pulse sequence and 2D multi-slice (22 axial slices covering the whole brain) resting-state fMRI using an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. Images were analyzed in SPM5 together with a ReHo algorithm using the in-house software program REST. A corrected threshold of p<0.05 was determined by AlphaSim and used in statistical analysis. Compared with the healthy controls, the early PD group showed significantly increased ReHo in a number of brain regions, including the left cerebellum, left parietal lobe, right middle temporal lobe, right sub-thalamic nucleus areas, right superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), right precuneus lobe, left MFG and left IPL. Additionally, significantly reduced ReHo was also observed in the early PD patients in the following brain regions: the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus, right hippocampus, right anterior cingulum, and bilateral lingual gyrus. Moreover, in PD patients, ReHo in the left putamen was negatively correlated with the UPDRS scores (r=-0.69). These results indicate that the abnormal resting state spontaneous brain activity associated with patients with early PD can be revealed by Reho analysis. PMID:23769726

  6. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia. PMID:22561124

  7. Neurovascular abnormalities in brain disorders: highlights with angiogenesis and magnetic resonance imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The coupling between neuronal activity and vascular responses is controlled by the neurovascular unit (NVU), which comprises multiple cell types. Many different types of dysfunction in these cells may impair the proper control of vascular responses by the NVU. Magnetic resonance imaging, which is the most powerful tool available to investigate neurovascular structures or functions, will be discussed in the present article in relation to its applications and discoveries. Because aberrant angiogenesis and vascular remodeling have been increasingly reported as being implicated in brain pathogenesis, this review article will refer to this hallmark event when suitable. PMID:23829868

  8. Neural Activity and the Development of Brain

    E-print Network

    Sur, Mriganka

    Neural Activity and the Development of Brain Circuits Carsten D Hohnke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Mriganka Sur,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA The development of highly interconnected circuits in the brain relies on patterns of neural

  9. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Su-Fang, Li; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:23826251

  10. LIPID ABNORMALITIES IN SUCCINATE SEMIALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (Aldh5a1?/?) DEFICIENT MOUSE BRAIN PROVIDE ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE FOR MYELIN ALTERATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo-Coblijn, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Mills, K.; Winchester, B.; Jakobs, C.; Snead, O.C.; Gibson, KM

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work from our laboratory provided evidence for myelin abnormalities (decreased quantities of proteins associated with myelin compaction, decreased sheath thickness) in cortex and hippocampus of Aldh5a1?/? mice, which have a complete ablation of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein [1]. In the current report, we have extended these findings via comprehensive analysis of brain phospholipid fractions, including quantitation of fatty acids in individual phospholipid subclasses and estimation of hexose-ceramide in Aldh5a1?/? brain. In comparison to wild-type littermates (Aldh5a1+/+), we detected a 20% reduction in the ethanolamine glycerophospholipid content of Aldh5a1?/? mice, while other brain phospholipids (choline glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol) were within normal limits. Analysis of individual fatty acids in each of these fractions revealed consistent alterations in n-3 fatty acids, primarily increased 22:6n-3 levels (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA). In the phosphatidyl serine fraction there were marked increases in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with corresponding decreases of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of hexose-ceramide (glucosyl- and galactosylceramide, principal myelin cerebrosides) were decreased in Aldh5a1?/? brain tissue (one-tailed t test, p=0.0449). The current results suggest that lipid and myelin abnormalities in this animal may contribute to the pathophysiology. PMID:17300923

  11. Deficiency of the chromatin regulator brpf1 causes abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    You, Linya; Zou, Jinfeng; Zhao, Hong; Bertos, Nicholas R; Park, Morag; Wang, Edwin; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2015-03-13

    Epigenetic mechanisms are important in different neurological disorders, and one such mechanism is histone acetylation. The multivalent chromatin regulator BRPF1 (bromodomain- and plant homeodomain-linked (PHD) zinc finger-containing protein 1) recognizes different epigenetic marks and activates three histone acetyltransferases, so it is both a reader and a co-writer of the epigenetic language. The three histone acetyltransferases are MOZ, MORF, and HBO1, which are also known as lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A), KAT6B, and KAT7, respectively. The MORF gene is mutated in four neurodevelopmental disorders sharing the characteristic of intellectual disability and frequently displaying callosal agenesis. Here, we report that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene caused early postnatal lethality, neocortical abnormalities, and partial callosal agenesis. With respect to the control, the mutant forebrain contained fewer Tbr2-positive intermediate neuronal progenitors and displayed aberrant neurogenesis. Molecularly, Brpf1 loss led to decreased transcription of multiple genes, such as Robo3 and Otx1, important for neocortical development. Surprisingly, elevated expression of different Hox genes and various other transcription factors, such as Lhx4, Foxa1, Tbx5, and Twist1, was also observed. These results thus identify an important role of Brpf1 in regulating forebrain development and suggest that it acts as both an activator and a silencer of gene expression in vivo. PMID:25568313

  12. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    PubMed Central

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  13. Growth connectomics: the organization and re-organization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    E-print Network

    Vértes, Petra E.; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network...

  14. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Sano; A Asai; K Mishima; T Fujimaki; T Kirino

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of

  15. Fetal brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis complex: TORC1 activation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Prabowo, A.; Anink, J.; Lammens, M; Nellist, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Adle-Biassette, H.; Sarnat, H.B.; Flores-Sarnat, L.; Crino, P.B.; Aronica, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and characterized by developmental brain abnormalities. We defined the spectrum of brain abnormalities in fetal TSC brain ranging from 23 to 38 gestational weeks. We hypothesized (1) prenatal activation of the target-of-rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling pathway and (2) activation of inflammatory pathways in fetal brain lesions. Immunocytochemical analysis of cortical tubers, as well as subependymal lesions in all cases confirmed the cell-associated activation of the TORC1 signaling pathway in both the cortical tubers and subependymal lesions (including a congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytoma) with expression of pS6, p4EBP1 and c-myc proteins, as well as of p70 S6 kinase 1. The lesions contained macrophages and T-lymphocytes; giant cells within the lesions expressed inflammatory response markers including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II, Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 and advanced glycation end products (RAGE). These observations indicate that brain malformations in TSC are likely a consequence of increased mTOR activation during embryonic brain development. We also provide evidence supporting the possible immunogenicity of giant cells and the early activation of inflammatory pathways in TSC brain. PMID:22805177

  16. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

  17. Novel Molecular Pathways Elicited by Mutant FGFR2 May Account for Brain Abnormalities in Apert Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Erika; Fanganiello, Roberto D.; Sunaga, Daniele Y.; Zhou, Xueyan; Holmes, Gregory; Rocha, Katia M.; Alonso, Nivaldo; Matushita, Hamilton; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin W.; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2013-01-01

    Apert syndrome (AS), the most severe form craniosynostosis, is characterized by premature fusion of coronal sutures. Approximately 70% of AS patients carry S252W gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2. Besides the cranial phenotype, brain dysmorphologies are present and are not seen in other FGFR2-asociated craniosynostosis, such as Crouzon syndrome (CS). Here, we hypothesized that S252W mutation leads not only to overstimulation of FGFR2 downstream pathway, but likewise induces novel pathological signaling. First, we profiled global gene expression of wild-type and S252W periosteal fibroblasts stimulated with FGF2 to activate FGFR2. The great majority (92%) of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were divergent between each group of cell populations and they were regulated by different transcription factors. We than compared gene expression profiles between AS and CS cell populations and did not observe correlations. Therefore, we show for the first time that S252W mutation in FGFR2 causes a unique cell response to FGF2 stimulation. Since our gene expression results suggested that novel signaling elicited by mutant FGFR2 might be associated with central nervous system (CNS) development and maintenance, we next investigated if DEGs found in AS cells were also altered in the CNS of an AS mouse model. Strikingly, we validated Strc (stereocilin) in newborn Fgfr2S252W/+ mouse brain. Moreover, immunostaining experiments suggest a role for endothelial cells and cerebral vasculature in the establishment of characteristic CNS dysmorphologies in AS that has not been proposed by previous literature. Our approach thus led to the identification of new target genes directly or indirectly associated with FGFR2 which are contributing to the pathophysiology of AS. PMID:23593218

  18. Characterization of Subtle Brain Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Hedgehog Pathway Antagonist-Induced Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Lipinski, Robert J.; Holloway, Hunter T.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Ament, Jacob J.; Pecevich, Stephen J.; Cofer, Gary P.; Budin, Francois; Everson, Joshua L.; Johnson, G. Allan; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Subtle behavioral and cognitive deficits have been documented in patient cohorts with orofacial clefts (OFCs). Recent neuroimaging studies argue that these traits are associated with structural brain abnormalities but have been limited to adolescent and adult populations where brain plasticity during infancy and childhood may be a confounding factor. Here, we employed high resolution magnetic resonance microscopy to examine primary brain morphology in a mouse model of OFCs. Transient in utero exposure to the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway antagonist cyclopamine resulted in a spectrum of facial dysmorphology, including unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, cleft of the secondary palate only, and a non-cleft phenotype marked by midfacial hypoplasia. Relative to controls, cyclopamine-exposed fetuses exhibited volumetric differences in several brain regions, including hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and olfactory bulbs, hyperplasia of the forebrain septal region, and expansion of the third ventricle. However, in affected fetuses the corpus callosum was intact and normal division of the forebrain was observed. This argues that temporally-specific Hh signaling perturbation can result in typical appearing OFCs in the absence of holoprosencephaly—a condition classically associated with Hh pathway inhibition and frequently co-occurring with OFCs. Supporting the premise that some forms of OFCs co-occur with subtle brain malformations, these results provide a possible ontological basis for traits identified in clinical populations. They also argue in favor of future investigations into genetic and/or environmental modulation of the Hh pathway in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial clefting. PMID:25047453

  19. Nanotools for neuroscience and brain activity mapping.

    PubMed

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Andrews, Anne M; Boyden, Edward S; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Fraser, Scott E; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L; Nurmikko, Arto V; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Shepard, Kenneth L; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-03-26

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  20. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423

  1. Progressive abnormalities in the brain scan in adrenal leukodystrophy. [\\/sup 99m\\/Tc tracer technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chatterton

    1977-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 10-yr-old boy with restless movements and deteriorated mental ability. A brain scan was performed using \\/sup 99m\\/Tc pertechnetate. A faint area of uptake appeared; 6 months later the brain scan showed more intense uptake and neurologic symptoms increased; the patient died soon after and autopsy showed leukodystrophy of the brain and adrenal atrophy.

  2. Red-Backed Vole Brain Promotes Highly Efficient In Vitro Amplification of Abnormal Prion Protein from Macaque and Human Brains Infected with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Agent

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human and macaque blood. PMID:24205298

  3. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD-infected human and macaque blood.

  4. Downstream targets of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and their abnormal expression in the frontal cortex of the human Rett syndrome brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne H Gibson; Barry Slobedman; Harikrishnan KN; Sarah L Williamson; Dimitri Minchenko; Assam El-Osta; Joshua L Stern; John Christodoulou

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Rett Syndrome (RTT) brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. RESULTS: Using microarrays and quantitative PCR, the mRNA expression profiles of these two neuroanatomical regions were compared in postmortem brain tissue from RTT patients and normal controls. A subset of genes was differentially expressed

  5. Inhibition of protein phosphatase-2B (calcineurin) activity towards Alzheimer abnormally phosphorylated ? by neuroleptics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Xin Gong; Sadia Shaikh; Inge Grundke-Iqbal; Khalid Iqbal

    1996-01-01

    Abnormally hyperphosphorylated ? is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles, the characteristic lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein phosphatases (PP) type 1 (PP-1), type 2A (PP-2A) and type 2B (PP-2B) appear to be involved in the regulation of ? phosphorylation. The incidence of neurofibrillary tangles is higher in brains of schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics than in those without

  6. Restoration of biological activity of Alzheimer abnormally phosphorylated ? by dephosphorylation with protein phosphatase-2A, ?2B and ?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Zhi Wang; Inge Grundke-Iqbal; Khalid Iqbal

    1996-01-01

    Microtubule associated protein ? promotes the assembly of microtubules by binding to microtubules and stabilizing their structure. In Alzheimer disease brain, ? is abnormally hyperphosphorylated and the altered ? is unable to promote the in vitro assembly of microtubules. In the present study, we found that dephosphorylation of abnormally phosphorylated ? by protein phosphatase-2A1, -2B or -1 restored its biological

  7. Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Schiffer; Thomas Peschel; Thomas Paul; Elke Gizewski; Michael Forsting; Norbert Leygraf; Manfred Schedlowski; Tillmann H. C. Krueger

    2007-01-01

    Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques.Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted

  8. Functional, Morphological, and Metabolic Abnormalities of the Cerebral Microcirculation after Concussive Brain Injury in Cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ENOCH P. WEI; W. DALTON DIETRICH; JOHN T. POVLISHOCK; RUDOLPH M. NAVARI; HERMES A. KONTOS

    SUMMARY We induced experimental concussive brain injury by a fluid percussion device in anes- thetized cats equipped with a cranial window for the observation of the pial microcirculation of the parietal cortex. Brain injury resulted in transient but pronounced increases in arterial blood pressure and in sustained arteriolar vasodilation associated with reduced or absent responsiveness to the vasoconstrictor effect of

  9. Behavioral abnormalities of fetal growth retardation model rats with reduced amounts of brain proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akiko; Matsui, Fumiko; Hayashi, Kanako; Watanabe, Kimi; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Oohira, Atsuhiko

    2009-09-01

    Fetal growth retardation (FGR) is a critical problem in the neonatal period, because a substantial population of infants born with FGR go on to develop various developmental disorders. In the present study, we produced FGR model rats by continuous administration of a synthetic thromboxane A2 analogue (STA2) to pregnant rats. The FGR pups exhibited a significant delay in postnatal neurological development. Moreover, behavioral analyses revealed the presence of a learning disability in juvenile FGR male rats. To investigate the mechanism underlying the neurological disorders, histological and biochemical analyses of the brain of FGR rats were performed. The density of neurons in the cortical plate of an FGR brain was low compared with the brains of a similarly aged, healthy rat. Consistent with this finding, the density of TUNEL-positive cells was higher in the cortical plate of FGR brains. Western blot analyses showed that the levels of three brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), neurocan, phosphacan, and neuroglycan C, were all significantly reduced in the brain of neonatal FGR rats compared with those of the control. The reduction of CSPG-levels and morphological changes in the brain may be relevant to neurological dysfunction in FGR. PMID:19393646

  10. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Defines Ethanol-Induced Brain Abnormalities in Prenatal Mice: Effects of Acute Insult on Gestational Day 8

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Scott E.; O’Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Godin, Elizabeth A.; Dehart, Deborah B.; Johnson, Brice W.; Johnson, G. Allan; Styner, Martin A.; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microscopic levels, provides unprecedented opportunities to aid in defining the full spectrum of ethanol’s insult to the developing brain. This is the first in a series of reports that, collectively, will provide an MRM-based atlas of developmental stage-dependent structural brain abnormalities in a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) mouse model. The ethanol exposure time and developmental stage examined for this report is gestational day (GD) 8 in mice, when the embryos are at early neurulation stages; stages present in humans early in the fourth week postfertilization. Methods For this study, pregnant C57Bl/6J mice were administered an ethanol dosage of 2.8 g/kg intraperitoneally at 8 days, 0 hour and again at 8 days, 4 hours postfertilization. On GD 17, fetuses that were selected for MRM analyses were immersion fixed in a Bouin’s/Prohance solution. Control fetuses from vehicle-treated dams were stage-matched to those that were ethanol-exposed. The fetal mice were scanned ex vivo at 7.0 T and 512 · 512 · 1024 image arrays were acquired using 3-D spin warp encoding. The resulting 29 lm (isotropic) resolution images were processed using ITK-SNAP, a 3-D segmentation/visualization tool. Linear and volume measurements were determined for selected brain, head, and body regions of each specimen. Comparisons were made between control and treated fetuses, with an emphasis on determining (dis)proportionate changes in specific brain regions. Results As compared with controls, the crown-rump lengths of stage-matched ethanol-exposed GD 17 fetuses were significantly reduced, as were brain and whole body volumes. Volume reductions were notable in every brain region examined, with the exception of the pituitary and septal region, and were accompanied by increased ventricular volumes. Disproportionate regional brain volume reductions were most marked on the right side and were significant for the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cerebellum; the latter being the most severely affected. Additionally, the septal region and the pituitary were disproportionately large. Linear measures were consistent with those of volume. Other dysmorphologic features noted in the MR scans were choanal stenosis and optic nerve coloboma. Conclusions This study demonstrates that exposure to ethanol occurring in mice at stages corresponding to the human fourth week postfertilization results in structural brain abnormalities that are readily identifiable at fetal stages of development. In addition to illustrating the utility of MR microscopy for analysis of an FASD mouse model, this work provides new information that confirms and extends human clinical observations. It also provides a framework for comparison of structural brain abnormalities resulting from ethanol exposure at other developmental stages and dosages. PMID:19302087

  11. The Relationship between Cognitive Functioning and Whole Brain Diffusion Tensor Imaging Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Lichtarge, Olivier

    Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Michele York, Ph.D., Christof Karmonik, Ph.D., Robert Grossman, M Recently, a Parkinson's disease (PD)­related cognitive pattern (PDCP) was identified using positron.224762 0.230038 0.231515 LeftBA2 W W W W W W W W W W W W · Parkinson's disease · Healthy Control r =.95, p

  12. Research Papers Abnormal brain chemistry in chronic back pain: an in vivo proton

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    , such as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine, was also discussed (Deyo, 1994; Jensen et al., 1994). The study by Jensen et al. (1994) examined the lumbar spine in people without back pain using MRI and found a high prevalence of lumbar spine abnormalities. Over half the subjects without back pain had bulging

  13. Abnormal temporal and parietal magnetic activations during the early stages of theory of mind in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Vistoli, Damien; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Lemoalle, Amelia; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine; Passerieux, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with abnormal cortical activation during theory of mind (ToM), as demonstrated by several fMRI or PET studies. Electrical and temporal characteristics of these abnormalities, especially in the early stages, remain unexplored. Nineteen medicated schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording to measure brain response evoked by nonverbal stimuli requiring mentalizing. Three conditions based on comic-strips were contrasted: attribution of intentions to others (AI), physical causality with human characters (PCCH), and physical causality with objects (PCOB). Minimum norm localization was performed in order to select regions of interest (ROIs) within bilateral temporal and parietal regions that showed significant ToM-related activations in the control group. Time-courses of each ROI were compared across group and condition. Reduced cortical activation within the 200 to 600 ms time-window was observed in the selected regions in patients. Significant group by condition interactions (i.e., reduced modulation in patients) were found in right posterior superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction, and right inferior parietal lobule during attribution of intentions. As in healthy controls, the presence of characters elicited activation in patients' left posterior temporal regions and temporoparietal junction. No group difference on evoked responses' latencies in AI was found. In conclusion, ToM processes in the early stages are functionally impaired in schizophrenia. MEG provides a promising means to refine our knowledge on schizophrenic social cognitive disorders. PMID:21259166

  14. Megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP) and megalencephaly-polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus (MPPH) syndromes: two closely related disorders of brain overgrowth and abnormal brain and body morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Conway, Robert L; Gripp, Karen W; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Siegel, Dawn H; deVries, Linda S; Lev, Dorit; Kramer, Nancy; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Graham, John M; Dobyns, William B

    2012-02-01

    The macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (M-CM), which we here propose to rename the megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MCAP; alternatively the megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria syndrome), and the more recently described megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH) are two megalencephaly (MEG) disorders that involve a unique constellation of physical and neuroimaging anomalies. We compare the features in 42 patients evaluated for physical and neuroimaging characteristics of MCAP and MPPH and propose a more global view of these syndromes based on classes of developmental abnormalities that include primary MEG and growth dysregulation, developmental vascular anomalies (primarily capillary malformations), distal limb anomalies (such as syndactyly and polydactyly), cortical brain malformations (most distinctively polymicrogyria, PMG), and variable connective tissue dysplasia. Based on these classes of developmental abnormalities, we propose that MCAP diagnostic criteria include progressive MEG with either vascular anomalies or syndactyly. In parallel, we propose that MPPH diagnostic criteria include progressive MEG and PMG, absence of the vascular anomalies and syndactyly characteristic of MCAP, and absence of brain heterotopia. PMID:22228622

  15. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Singh, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-01-01

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  16. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Singh, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-12-31

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  17. 3D PATTERN OF BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN WILLIAMS SYNDROME VISUALIZED USING TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Reiss, Allan L.; Lee, Agatha D.; Bellugi, Ursula; Galaburda, Albert M.; Korenberg, Julie R.; Mills, Debra L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with deletion of ~20 contiguous genes in chromosome band 7q11.23. Individuals with WS exhibit mild to moderate mental retardation, but are relatively more proficient in specific language and musical abilities. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to visualize the complex pattern of gray/white matter reductions in WS, based on fluid registration of structural brain images. Methods 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 41 WS subjects (age: 29.2±9.2SD years; 23F/18M) and 39 age-matched healthy controls (age: 27.5±7.4 years; 23F/16M) were fluidly registered to a minimum deformation target. Fine-scale volumetric differences were mapped between diagnostic groups. Local regions were identified where regional structure volumes were associated with diagnosis, and with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. Brain asymmetry was also mapped and compared between diagnostic groups. Results WS subjects exhibited widely distributed brain volume reductions (~10–15% reduction; P < 0.0002, permutation test). After adjusting for total brain volume, the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, fusiform gyrus and cerebellum were found to be relatively preserved in WS, but parietal and occipital lobes, thalamus and basal ganglia, and midbrain were disproportionally decreased in volume (P < 0.0002). These regional volumes also correlated positively with performance IQ in adult WS subjects (age ? 30 years, P = 0.038). Conclusion TBM facilitates 3D visualization of brain volume reductions in WS. Reduced parietal/occipital volumes may be associated with visuospatial deficits in WS. By contrast, frontal lobes, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus are relatively preserved or even enlarged, consistent with unusual affect regulation and language production in WS. PMID:17512756

  18. Classification of whole brain fMRI activation patterns

    E-print Network

    Balc?, Serdar Kemal

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technology which is primarily used to perform brain activation studies by measuring neural activity in the brain. It is an interesting question whether patterns ...

  19. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  20. Brief Report: Abnormal Association between the Thalamus and Brain Size in Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Girgis, Ragy R.; Adams, Jason; Gilbert, Andrew R.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between thalamic volume and brain size in individuals with Asperger's disorder (ASP). Volumetric measurements of the thalamus were performed on MRI scans obtained from 12 individuals with ASP (age range: 10-35 years) and 12 healthy controls (age range: 9-33 years). A positive correlation…

  1. Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

  2. Abnormal Functional MRI BOLD Contrast in the Vegetative State after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heelmann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    For the rehabilitation process, the treatment of patients surviving brain injury in a vegetative state is still a serious challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate patients exhibiting severely disturbed consciousness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five cases of posttraumatic vegetative state and one with minimal…

  3. Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina de Tommaso; Massimiliano Valeriani; Marco Guido; Giuseppe Libro; Luigi Maria Specchio; Pietro Tonali; Francomichele Puca

    2003-01-01

    Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO2-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction

  4. Quantitative observation and study on rhythmic abnormalities of activities in animals prior to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chungao; Jiang, Jinchang

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the normal daily activities and abnormal activities related to earthquake premonitory information are given by a quantitative observation and analysis of activities in the sparrow (SR, Passer montanus), budgerigar (BG, Melopsittacus undulatus) and rat (RT, Rattus norvegicus). The results show that the quantitative observation of habitual abnormalities in animals may provide some cues for the short-term earthquake prediction. The normal activity rhythms for the SR and BG are similar, and both present M mode. The high activities occurs during 07h 10h and 15h 16h, respectively, the low activities occurs during 12h 13h, and at night both birds are basically silent. For the RT, the normal rhythmic activity has the middle magnitude during 07h 10h and 17h 18h, the low and high magnitudes occur during 11h 16h and from 19h to 06h at the next day. For the SR, BG and RT, observable abnormal changes of the normal activity rhythm were found before earthquakes. The night activities of the SR and BG were increased noticeably. For the RT the activities during the low magnitude of activities at the day time were also increased. They both are about 300 times greater than the normal activity value. Moreover, the total activity values per day were increased, and were about 2 times of the normal value. The x 2-test shows that the abnormalities of the daily activity rhythm and following increase of the daily activity events are significantly correlated with earthquakes of magnitude over 4.3 in Tangshan seismic area within the region of 200 km distance from the observation station.

  5. Whole Brain Approaches for Identification of Microstructural Abnormalities in Individual Patients: Comparison of Techniques Applied to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Branch, Craig A.; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Group-wise analyses of DTI in mTBI have demonstrated evidence of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although mTBI is likely to have a unique spatial pattern in each patient, group analyses implicitly assume that location of injury will be the same across patients. The purpose of this study was to optimize and validate a procedure for analysis of DTI images acquired in individual patients, which could detect inter-individual differences and be applied in the clinical setting, where patients must be assessed as individuals. Materials and Methods After informed consent and in compliance with HIPAA, 34 mTBI patients and 42 normal subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla DTI. Four voxelwise assessment methods (standard Z-score, “one vs. many” t-test, Family-Wise Error Rate control using pseudo t-distribution, EZ-MAP) for use in individual patients, were applied to each patient’s fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and tested for its ability to discriminate patients from controls. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to define optimal thresholds (voxel-level significance and spatial extent) for reliable and robust detection of mTBI pathology. Results ROC analyses showed EZ-MAP (specificity 71%, sensitivity 71%), “one vs. many” t-test and standard Z-score (sensitivity 65%, specificity 76% for both methods) resulted in a significant area under the curve (AUC) score for discriminating mTBI patients from controls in terms of the total number of abnormal white matter voxels detected while the FWER test was not significant. EZ-MAP is demonstrated to be robust to assumptions of Gaussian behavior and may serve as an alternative to methods that require strict Gaussian assumptions. Conclusion EZ-MAP provides a robust approach for delineation of regional abnormal anisotropy in individual mTBI patients. PMID:23555665

  6. Abnormal task modulation of oscillatory neural activity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Elisa C.; Bickel, Stephan; Epstein, Michael L.; Sehatpour, Pejman; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have deficits in cognitive function that are a core feature of the disorder. AX-CPT is commonly used to study cognition in schizophrenia, and patients have characteristic pattern of behavioral and ERP response. In AX-CPT subjects respond when a flashed cue “A” is followed by a target “X,” ignoring other letter combinations. Patients show reduced hit rate to “go” trials, and increased false alarms to sequences that require inhibition of a prepotent response. EEG recordings show reduced sensory (P1/N1), as well as later cognitive components (N2, P3, CNV). Behavioral deficits correlate most strongly with sensory dysfunction. Oscillatory analyses provide critical information regarding sensory/cognitive processing over and above standard ERP analyses. Recent analyses of induced oscillatory activity in single trials during AX-CPT in healthy volunteers showed characteristic response patterns in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies tied to specific sensory and cognitive processes. Alpha and beta modulated during the trials and beta modulation over the frontal cortex correlated with reaction time. In this study, EEG data was obtained from 18 schizophrenia patients and 13 controls during AX-CPT performance, and single trial decomposition of the signal yielded power in the target wavelengths. Significant task-related event-related desynchronization (ERD) was observed in both alpha and beta frequency bands over parieto-occipital cortex related to sensory encoding of the cue. This modulation was reduced in patients for beta, but not for alpha. In addition, significant beta ERD was observed over motor cortex, related to motor preparation for the response, and was also reduced in patients. These findings demonstrate impaired dynamic modulation of beta frequency rhythms in schizophrenia, and suggest that failures of oscillatory activity may underlie impaired sensory information processing in schizophrenia that in turn contributes to cognitive deficits. PMID:23986729

  7. Effects of familiar voices on brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji L; Kudo, Yumi

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the extent to which a familiar voice influences brain activity. Participants were nine healthy female volunteers aged 21-34 years old (with a mean age of 25.78 ± 4.04 years). Brain activity was recorded during periods of silence, familiar and unfamiliar voices. Electroencephalographic data were collected and analyzed using a frequency rate set at 5 min. To account for emotional influences imbedded into the contents of the voice stimuli, both the voice of a familiar family member and the voice of a stranger were used to record a well-known Japanese fairy tale, 'Momotaro'. Results revealed that listening to familiar voices increased the rate of the ? band (13-30 Hz) in all four brain areas (F3, F4, C3 and C4). In particular, increased activity was observed at F4 and C4. Findings revealed that in study, participants' familiar voices activated cerebral functioning more than unfamiliar voices. PMID:22776531

  8. Differential Impact of Hyponatremia and Hepatic Encephalopathy on Health-Related Quality of Life and Brain Metabolite Abnormalities in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; Wade, James B; Thacker, Leroy; Kraft, Kenneth A; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, R Todd; Fuchs, Michael; Bouneva, Iliana; Puri, Puneet; Luketic, Velimir; Sanyal, Arun J; Gilles, HoChong; Heuman, Douglas M; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia (HN) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) together can impair health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and cognition in cirrhosis. Aim To study effect of hyponatremia on cognition, HRQOL and brain MR spectroscopy (MRS) independent of HE. Methods Four cirrhotic groups(no HE/HN, HE alone, HN alone (sodium<130mEq/L),HE+HN) underwent cognitive testing, HRQOL using Sickness Impact Profile (SIP: higher score is worse; has psycho-social and physical sub-scores) and brain MRS (myoinositol(mI) and glutamate+glutamine(Glx)), which were compared across groups. A subset underwent HRQOL testing before/after diuretic withdrawal. Results 82 cirrhotics (30 no HE/HN, 25 HE, 17 HE+HN and 10 HN, MELD 12, 63% Hepatitis C) were included. Cirrhotics with HN alone and without HE/HN had better cognition compared to HE groups (median abnormal tests no-HE/HN:3, HN:3.5, HE:6.5,HE+HN:7, p=0.008). Despite better cognition, HN only patients had worse HRQOL in total and psychosocial SIP while both HN groups (with/without HE) had a significantly worse physical SIP(p<0.0001, all comparisons). Brain MRS showed lowest Glx in HN and highest in HE groups (p<0.02). mI levels were comparably decreased in the three affected (HE,HE+HN and HN) groups compared to no HE/HN and were associated with poor HRQOL. Six HE+HN cirrhotics underwent diuretic withdrawal which improved serum sodium and total/psycho-social SIP scores. Conclusions Hyponatremic cirrhotics without HE have poor HRQOL despite better cognition than those with concomitant HE. Glx levels were lowest in HN without HE but mI was similar across affected groups. HRQOL improved after diuretic withdrawal. Hyponatremia has a complex, non-linear relationship with brain Glx and mI, cognition and HRQOL. PMID:23665182

  9. Evidence of persistent blood-brain barrier abnormalities in chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Claudio; Cedric S. Raine; Celia F. Brosnan

    1995-01-01

    Brain capillaries were analyzed morphometrically for alterations in organelle distribution and density in biopsy samples of central nervous system tissue from seven patients diagnosed as having chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Data were expressed as percentage of endothelial cytoplasm occupied by the respective organelles. The density of pinocytotic vesicles in endothelium ranged from 0.53% within normal-appearing parenchyma to 1.2% in gliotic

  10. Surface reconstructions of foetal brain abnormalities using ultrafast steady state 3D acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, D A; Armitage, P; Dean, A; Griffiths, P D

    2014-10-01

    MRI of the foetal brain in utero is performed in routine clinical practice using sequences that produce two-dimensional (2D) images. Recent developments in image post-processing have allowed the construction of three-dimensional (3D) volume data sets from 2D images acquired in different anatomical planes, but these have limitations due to the unpredictable nature of foetal movement. These limitations have been overcome by development of several different advanced computer techniques, which require specialist knowledge, software, and processing methods, which are rarely available in routine clinical settings. Our aim was to develop a technique that can be used in routine clinical situations without the need for custom-developed or expensive software by utilizing MRI sequences that can produce a 3D data set in "ultrafast" timescales. The 3D dataset, combined with versatile image post-processing and visualization techniques, has resulted in the production of high-resolution images of foetal brain surfaces in utero. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate our methods and early results by way of a pictorial review illustrating a range of developmental brain disease in utero. PMID:25062925

  11. Neuroretinitis with abnormal brain imaging in Ask-Upmark kidney: A novel case report.

    PubMed

    Kasundra, Gaurav M; Sood, Isha; Prakash, Sanjay; Mehta, Dhruv P

    2014-05-01

    We report a 13-year-old female patient having vertigo and visual blurring since 2 weeks with blood pressure being 180/106 mmHg. Fundus examination showed optic disc edema with macular star. After ruling out infective causes, idiopathic neuroretinitis was diagnosed. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed three periventricular morphologically multiple sclerosis (MS)-like white matter lesions. Renal ultrasound and renal arteriogram showed a shrunken left kidney, small non-stenotic left renal artery and reduced vessels in upper pole of left kidney, consistent with Ask-Upmark kidney (AUK). Her symptoms improved with antihypertensive drugs. Follow-up MRI at 1 year revealed no interval change, while fundus had normalized. Neuroretinitis typically has normal brain MRI and rules out MS. However, our patient having AUK-induced hypertension had neuroretinitis and MS-like brain lesions and did not fulfill diagnostic criteria for MS. Thus we postulate that MS-like lesions can be part of neuroretinitis, especially in hypertensive patients. PMID:25250080

  12. Asymmetric Di-methyl Arginine is Strongly Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction and Brain MR Spectroscopic Abnormalities in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; Wade, James B; Sanyal, Arun J; White, Melanie B; Noble, Nicole A; Monteith, Pamela; Fuchs, Michael; Sterling, Richard K; Luketic, Velimir; Bouneva, Iliana; Stravitz, Richard T; Puri, Puneet; Kraft, Kenneth A; Gilles, HoChong; Heuman, Douglas M

    2012-01-01

    Background Asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that accumulates in liver disease and may contribute to hepatic encephalopathy(HE). Aim To evaluate the association of ADMA with cognition and brain MR spectroscopy(MRS) in cirrhosis. Methods Cirrhotic patients with/without prior HE and non-cirrhotic controls underwent cognitive testing and ADMA determination. A subgroup underwent brain MRS [Glutamine/glutamate(Glx), myoinositol(mI), N-acetyl-aspartate(NAA) in parietal white, occipital gray and anterior cingulate(ACC)]. We also tested cognition and ADMA in a cirrhotic subgroup before and 1 month after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS). Cognition and MRS values were correlated with ADMA and compared between groups using multi-variable regression. ADMA levels were compared between those who did/did not develop post-TIPS HE. Results 90 cirrhotics (MELD13, 54 prior HE) and 16 controls were included. Controls had better cognition and lower ADMA, Glx and higher mI compared to cirrhotics. Prior HE patients had worse cognition, higher ADMA and Glx and lower mI compared to non-HE cirrhotics. ADMA was positively correlated with MELD (r=0.58,p<0.0001), abnormal cognitive test number(r=0.66,p<0.0001) and Glx and NAAA (white matter,ACC) and negatively with mI. On regression, ADMA predicted number of abnormal tests and mean Z-score independent of prior HE and MELD. 12 patients underwent TIPS;7 developed HE post-TIPS. ADMA increased post-TIPS in patients who developed HE(p=0.019) but not in others(p=0.89). Conclusions A strong association of ADMA with cognition and prior HE was found independent of MELD score in cirrhosis. PMID:22889958

  13. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  14. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in violent juvenile offenders: a biomarker of brain immaturity?

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhou, Jiansong; Liu, Chunhong; Witt, Katrina; Zhang, Yingdong; Jing, Bin; Li, Chun; Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether male violent juvenile offenders demonstrate any differences in local functional connectivity indicative of delayed maturation of the brain that may serve as a biomarker of violence. Twenty-nine violent juvenile offenders and 28 age-matched controls were recruited. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) method was used to analyze resting-state magnetic resonance images. Violent offenders showed significantly lower ReHo values in the right caudate, right medial prefrontal cortex, and left precuneus, and higher values in the right supramarginal gyrus than the controls. These regions had both high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between the two groups suggesting that dysfunction in these regions can be used to correctly classify those individuals who are violent. Dysfunction in the right medial prefrontal-caudate circuit may, therefore, represent an important biomarker of violence juvenile males. PMID:25716485

  15. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  16. Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C. J.; Christmas, T. J.; Chapple, C. R.; Parkhouse, H. F.; Kirby, R. S.; Jacobs, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had oophorectomies, one had shrunken ovaries and ovarian failure, and one had previously undergone oophorectomy and the other ovary could not be seen; in one neither ovary could be seen, and three had ovaries of normal appearance, although two of these women were taking the contraceptive pill. Thirteen of the group had endocrine symptoms and signs characteristic of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Videocystometrography in 17 of the women who were examined by ultrasonography showed low flow rates and high residual volumes of urine after micturition in 12 women who could void, the other five having chronic urinary retention. A speculative hypothesis for the observed association of impaired voiding, abnormal electromyographic activity of the urinary sphincter, and polycystic ovaries is advanced, based on the relative progesterone deficiency that characterises the polycystic ovary syndrome. Progesterone stabilises membranes, and its depletion might permit ephaptic transmission of impulses between muscle fibres in the muscle of the urethral sphincter, giving rise to the abnormal electromyographic activity. This may impair relaxation of the sphincter, resulting in low flow rates of urine, incomplete emptying of the bladder, and, finally, urinary retention. PMID:3147005

  17. Evidence for progressive brain abnormalities in early schizophrenia: a cross-sectional structural and functional connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangfang; Qiu, Linlin; Yuan, Lili; Ma, Huijuan; Ye, Rong; Yu, Fengqiong; Hu, Panpan; Dong, Yi; Wang, Kai

    2014-10-01

    It has long been debated whether a progressive process is involved in schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to determine whether a progressive process was involved in patients with early schizophrenia, who were drug naive or had received short-term minimal antipsychotic treatment to avoid the distortion through medication effects. Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia with illness-duration of up to 3 years and twenty-six matched healthy controls were recruited. Structural and functional brain networks were examined based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The intergroup differences and correlation with illness duration in the patient group were surveyed. The schizophrenic patients showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Negative correlations of illness duration with FA values were observed in similar regions. During functional analysis, reduced functional connectivity between bilateral temporoparietal-junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were found in the default mode network (DMN) in schizophrenic patients. In addition, the left TPJ showed gradually weaker functional connectivity with PCC and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in DMN as the duration of schizophrenia increased. The results suggested that early in the disease process patients have decreased connectivity in both structural and functional networks and that the weaker structural and functional connectivity negatively correlated with illness duration, which provided evidence for progressive brain abnormalities in early schizophrenia. PMID:25176348

  18. Constitutively activated NLRP3 inflammasome causes inflammation and abnormal skeletal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Sheri L; Brydges, Susannah D; Mueller, James L; McGeough, Matthew D; Pena, Carla; Chen, Debbie; Grimston, Susan K; Hickman-Brecks, Cynthia L; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey; Novack, Deborah V; Kastner, Daniel L; Civitelli, Roberto; Hoffman, Hal M; Mbalaviele, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1? and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3). NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue "spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling. PMID:22558291

  19. Facial emotion recognition impairments are associated with brain volume abnormalities in individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Clark, Uraina S; Walker, Keenan A; Cohen, Ronald A; Devlin, Kathryn N; Folkers, Anna M; Pina, Matthew J; Tashima, Karen T

    2015-04-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV-associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  20. PP2B isolated from human brain preferentially dephosphorylates Ser262 and Ser396 of the Alzheimer disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rahman; I. Grundke-Iqbal; K. Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  PP2B is one of the major serine\\/threonine phosphatases in the brain. We quantitated the dephosphorylation of various sites\\u000a of Alzheimer disease abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau by PP2B purified from six (three Alzheimer and three control) autopsied\\u000a human brains. The purified PP2B was essentially homogenous holoenzyme as determined by SDS-PAGE, Western blot analyses and\\u000a biochemical characterization. Purified PP2B from all six brains

  1. Structural connectivity abnormality in children with acute mild traumatic brain injury using graph theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weihong; Wade, Shari L; Babcock, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    The traumatic biomechanical forces associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) typically impart diffuse, as opposed to focal, brain injury potentially disrupting the structural connectivity between neural networks. Graph theoretical analysis using diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess injury-related differences in structural connectivity between 23 children (age 11-16 years) with mTBI and 20 age-matched children with isolated orthopedic injuries (OI) scanned within 96 h postinjury. The distribution of hub regions and the associations between alterations in regional network measures and symptom burden, as assessed by the postconcussion symptom scale score (PCSS), were also examined. In comparison to the OI group, the mTBI group was found to have significantly higher small-worldness (P?

  2. Myoinositol and glutamate complex neurometabolite abnormality after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kierans, Andrea S.; Kirov, Ivan I.; Gonen, Oded; Haemer, Gillian; Nisenbaum, Eric; Babb, James S.; Grossman, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To obtain quantitative neurometabolite measurements, specifically myoinositol (mI) and glutamate plus glutamine (Glx), markers of glial and neuronal excitation, in deep gray matter structures after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and to compare these measurements against normal healthy control subjects. Methods: This study approved by the institutional review board is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. T1-weighted MRI and multi-voxel 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at 3 tesla from 26 patients with mTBI an average of 22 days postinjury and from 13 age-matched healthy controls. Two-way analysis of variance was used to compare patients and controls for mean N-acetylaspartate, choline, creatine (Cr), Glx, and mI levels as well as the respective ratios to Cr within the caudate, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus. Results: Quantitative putaminal mI was higher in patients with mTBI compared with controls (p = 0.02). Quantitative neurometabolite ratios of putaminal mI and Glx relative to Cr, mI/Cr, and Glx/Cr were also higher among patients with mTBI compared with controls (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). No other differences in neurometabolite levels or ratios were observed in any other brain region evaluated. Conclusion: Increased putaminal mI, mI/Cr, and Glx/Cr in patients after mTBI compared with control subjects supports the notion of a complex glial and excitatory response to injury without concomitant neuronal loss, evidenced by preserved N-acetylaspartate levels in this region. PMID:24401686

  3. Correspondence of the brain's functional architecture during activation and rest.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen M; Fox, Peter T; Miller, Karla L; Glahn, David C; Fox, P Mickle; Mackay, Clare E; Filippini, Nicola; Watkins, Kate E; Toro, Roberto; Laird, Angela R; Beckmann, Christian F

    2009-08-01

    Neural connections, providing the substrate for functional networks, exist whether or not they are functionally active at any given moment. However, it is not known to what extent brain regions are continuously interacting when the brain is "at rest." In this work, we identify the major explicit activation networks by carrying out an image-based activation network analysis of thousands of separate activation maps derived from the BrainMap database of functional imaging studies, involving nearly 30,000 human subjects. Independently, we extract the major covarying networks in the resting brain, as imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 36 subjects at rest. The sets of major brain networks, and their decompositions into subnetworks, show close correspondence between the independent analyses of resting and activation brain dynamics. We conclude that the full repertoire of functional networks utilized by the brain in action is continuously and dynamically "active" even when at "rest." PMID:19620724

  4. TRANSLATION OF BRAIN ACTIVITY INTO SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) play a role in sleep regulation in health and disease. Hypothalamic and cerebral cortical levels of TNF mRNA or TNF protein have diurnal variations with higher levels associated with greater sleep propensity. Sleep loss is associated with enhanced brain TNF. Central or systemic TNF injections enhance sleep. Inhibition of TNF using the soluble TNF receptor, or anti-TNF antibodies, or a TNF siRNA reduces spontaneous sleep. Mice lacking the TNF 55 kD receptor have less spontaneous sleep. Injection of TNF into sleep regulatory circuits, e.g. the hypothalamus, promotes sleep. In normal humans, plasma levels of TNF co-vary with EEG slow wave activity (SWA) and in multiple disease states plasma TNF increases in parallel with sleep propensity. Downstream mechanisms of TNF-enhanced sleep include nitric oxide, adenosine, prostaglandins and activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Neuronal use induces cortical neurons to express TNF and if applied directly to cortical columns TNF induces a functional sleep-like state within the column. TNF mechanistically has several synaptic functions. TNF-sleep data led to the idea that sleep is a fundamental property of neuronal/glial networks such as cortical columns and is dependent upon past activity within such assemblies. This view of brain organization of sleep has profound implications for sleep function that are briefly reviewed herein. PMID:24795496

  5. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A.; Gray, Marcus A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5–10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients. PMID:25852449

  6. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5-10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients. PMID:25852449

  7. Mice deficient in cystathionine beta synthase display increased Dyrk1A and SAHH activities in brain.

    PubMed

    Planque, Chris; Dairou, Julien; Noll, Christophe; Bui, Linh-Chi; Ripoll, Clémentine; Guedj, Fayçal; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Janel, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with brain disease. However, biological actions linking hyperhomocysteinemia to neuronal abnormalities are not well understood. We recently found a relationship between Dyrk1A protein expression, a serine/threonine kinase that might be responsible for cognitive functions in Down's syndrome, and hepatic S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) activity, which plays a key role in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation reactions. Considering the role of methylation and Dyrk1A in cognitive functions, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Dyrk1A and SAHH activity in brain of hyperhomocysteinemic mice. We found an increase in Dyrk1A protein expression and activity in brain of hyperhomocysteinemic mice, concomitant with an increased SAHH activity. The effect of overexpression of protein Dyrk1A on SAHH activity was confirmed in brain of Dyrk1A transgenic mice, and additionally we found a positive correlation between Dyrk1A and SAHH activity. These observations suggest a potential effect of Dyrk1A on brain phenotypes linked to hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:22700376

  8. Investigating a new neuromodulation treatment for brain disorders using synchronized activation of multimodal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Markovitz, Craig D.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Gloeckner, Cory D.; Lim, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation is an increasingly accepted treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders but is limited by its invasiveness or its inability to target deep brain structures using noninvasive techniques. We propose a new concept called Multimodal Synchronization Therapy (mSync) for achieving targeted activation of the brain via noninvasive and precisely timed activation of auditory, visual, somatosensory, motor, cognitive, and limbic pathways. In this initial study in guinea pigs, we investigated mSync using combined activation of just the auditory and somatosensory pathways, which induced differential and timing dependent plasticity in neural firing within deep brain and cortical regions of the auditory system. Furthermore, by varying the location of somatosensory stimulation across the body, we increased or decreased spiking activity across different neurons. These encouraging results demonstrate the feasibility of systematically modulating the brain using mSync. Considering that hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis have been linked to abnormal and hyperactive firing patterns within the auditory system, these results open up the possibility for using mSync to decrease this pathological activity by varying stimulation parameters. Incorporating multiple types of pathways beyond just auditory and somatosensory inputs and using other activation patterns may enable treatment of various brain disorders. PMID:25804410

  9. Investigating a new neuromodulation treatment for brain disorders using synchronized activation of multimodal pathways.

    PubMed

    Markovitz, Craig D; Smith, Benjamin T; Gloeckner, Cory D; Lim, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation is an increasingly accepted treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders but is limited by its invasiveness or its inability to target deep brain structures using noninvasive techniques. We propose a new concept called Multimodal Synchronization Therapy (mSync) for achieving targeted activation of the brain via noninvasive and precisely timed activation of auditory, visual, somatosensory, motor, cognitive, and limbic pathways. In this initial study in guinea pigs, we investigated mSync using combined activation of just the auditory and somatosensory pathways, which induced differential and timing dependent plasticity in neural firing within deep brain and cortical regions of the auditory system. Furthermore, by varying the location of somatosensory stimulation across the body, we increased or decreased spiking activity across different neurons. These encouraging results demonstrate the feasibility of systematically modulating the brain using mSync. Considering that hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis have been linked to abnormal and hyperactive firing patterns within the auditory system, these results open up the possibility for using mSync to decrease this pathological activity by varying stimulation parameters. Incorporating multiple types of pathways beyond just auditory and somatosensory inputs and using other activation patterns may enable treatment of various brain disorders. PMID:25804410

  10. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

  11. Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

  12. NeuroimagingDecoding mental states from brain activity in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraint Rees; John-Dylan Haynes

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in human neuroimaging have shown that it is possible to accurately decode a person's conscious experience based only on non-invasive measurements of their brain activity. Such 'brain reading' has mostly been studied in the domain of visual perception, where it helps reveal the way in which individual experiences are encoded in the human brain. The same approach can

  13. Imaging brain neuronal activity using functionalized magnetonanoparticles and MRI.

    PubMed

    Akhtari, Massoud; Bragin, Anatol; Moats, Rex; Frew, Andrew; Mandelkern, Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the use of non-radioactive 2-deoxy glucose (2DG)-labeled magnetonanoparticles (MNP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect functional activity during rest, peripheral stimulation, and epileptic seizures, in animal models. Non-radioactive 2DG was covalently attached to magnetonanoparticles composed of iron oxide and dextran and intravenous (tail) injections were performed. 2DG-MNP was injected in resting and stimulated naïve rodents and the subsequent MRI was compared to published (14)C-2DG autoradiography data. Reproducibility and statistical significance was established in one studied model. Negative contrast enhancement (NCE) in acute seizures and chronic models of epilepsy were investigated. MRI NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles was compared to that of plain (unconjugated) MNP in one animal. NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles at 3 T, which is approved for human use, was also investigated. Histology showed presence of MNP (following intravenous injection) in the brain tissues of resting naïve animal. 2DG-MNP intraparenchymal uptake was visible on MRI and histology. The locations of NCE agreed with published results of 2DG autoradiography in resting and stimulated animals and epileptic rats. Localization of epileptogenicity was confirmed by subsequent depth-electrode EEG (iEEG). Non-radioactive 2DG-MNP can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may accurately localize areas of increased activity. Although, this proof-of-principle study involves only a limited number of animals, and much more research and quantification are necessary to demonstrate that 2DG-MNP, or MNPs conjugated with other ligands, could eventually be used to image localized cerebral function with MRI in humans, this MNP-MRI approach is potentially applicable to the use of many bioactive molecules as ligands for imaging normal and abnormal localized cerebral functions. PMID:22622772

  14. MnSOD activity protects mitochondrial morphology of quiescent fibroblasts from age associated abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Monali; Kalen, Amanda L.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have shown manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity protects quiescent human normal skin fibroblasts (NHFs) from age associated loss in proliferative capacity. The loss in proliferative capacity of aged vs. young quiescent cells is often characterized as the chronological life span, which is clearly distinct from replicative senescence. We investigate the hypothesis that MnSOD activity protects the mitochondrial morphology from age associated damage and preserves the chronological life span of quiescent fibroblasts. Aged quiescent NHFs exhibited abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology including abnormal cristae formation and increased number of vacuoles. These results correlate with the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial morphology in MnSOD homozygous and heterozygous knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology in aged quiescent NHFs cultured in presence of 21% oxygen concentration were more severe than NHFs cultured in 4% oxygen environment. The alteration in mitochondrial morphology was associated with a significant increase in cell population doubling: 54 h in 21% compared to 44 h in 4% oxygen environment. Overexpression of MnSOD decreased ROS levels, and preserved mitochondrial morphology in aged quiescent NHFs. These results demonstrate that MnSOD activity protects mitochondrial morphology and preserves the proliferative capacities of quiescent NHFs from age associated loss. PMID:20206302

  15. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS) in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI). Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses. PMID:21114820

  16. BRIEF REPORTS Evidence That Brain MAO A Activity Does Not

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Rita

    difference in brain MAO A activity between the high (n 26) and low (n 12) MAO A genotypes. Conclusions that this polymorphism by itself does not contribute to differences in brain MAO A activity in healthy adult male- cantly different transcriptional activities in human nonneuronal cell lines. Because of the importance

  17. Are Auditory Hallucinations Related to the Brain's Resting State Activity? A 'Neurophenomenal Resting State Hypothesis'

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While several hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been suggested, the exact role of the recently highlighted intrinsic resting state activity of the brain remains unclear. Based on recent findings, we therefore developed what we call the 'resting state hypotheses' of AVH. Our hypothesis suggest that AVH may be traced back to abnormally elevated resting state activity in auditory cortex itself, abnormal modulation of the auditory cortex by anterior cortical midline regions as part of the default-mode network, and neural confusion between auditory cortical resting state changes and stimulus-induced activity. We discuss evidence in favour of our 'resting state hypothesis' and show its correspondence with phenomenal, i.e., subjective-experiential features as explored in phenomenological accounts. Therefore I speak of a 'neurophenomenal resting state hypothesis' of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25598821

  18. [The information theory of brain systemic activity].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V

    2011-01-01

    Information equivalents of initial requirements and their satisfaction are shown to induce formation of discrete information systemoquanta of psychic activity on morphofunctional structures of the action result acceptor in the course of build-up of cerebral archtectonics of the functional systems governing the behaviour and psychic activity. Consecutive stages of induction of information systemoquanta of action result acceptors are described. Predominant motivations are supposed to play the leading role in the psychic activity through their involvement in the induction of information systemoquanta and their retrieval from memory. The role of emotions in the subjective information estimation of systemic cerebral activity is considered. It is argued that parameters of achievement of adaptive results by a subject are imprinted on acceptor structures via reverse afferentation in the form of specific information images. Enrichment of action results acceptors with information and extraction of information systemoquanta by prevailing motivations are believed to make up the basis of consciousness and thinking. The hypothesis of holographic organization of acceptors of the results of systemic brain action is considered. PMID:22312900

  19. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    PubMed Central

    Rashed-Al-Mahfuz, Md.; Islam, Md. Rabiul; Hirose, Keikichi; Molla, Md. Khademul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component. PMID:25206446

  20. Early social enrichment rescues adult behavioral and brain abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile x syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  1. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1?year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1?year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID:22347210

  2. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    PubMed Central

    Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Hodzic, Jennifer C.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function. PMID:23304508

  3. Fiber Connectivity Integrated Brain Activation Detection Burak Yoldemir1

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    of functional mag- netic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is seriously confounded by the high level of noise. Keywords: activation detection, connectivity, dMRI, fMRI, random walker 1 Introduction Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the primary modality for studying human brain activity. To map brain

  4. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fuchun; Chen, Zhiqi; Yan, Xiaoqin; Hao, Yonghong; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated that primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with abnormal brain structure; however, little is known about the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous activity. The main objective of this study was to investigate spontaneous brain activity in patients with POAG using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-nine POAG patients and forty-one age- and gender- matched healthy controls were finally included in the study. ReHo values were used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis of ReHo was carried out to detect differences by region in spontaneous brain activity between groups. Compared to controls, POAG patients showed increased ReHo in the right dorsal anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right cerebellar anterior lobe, and decreased ReHo in the bilateral calcarine, bilateral precuneus gryus, bilateral pre/postcentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule and left cerebellum posterior lobe. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the relationships between clinical measures and ReHo by region showed significant group differences in the POAG group. Negative correlations were found between age and the ReHo values of the superior frontal gyrus (r?=??0.323, p?=?0.045), left calcarine (r?=??0.357, p?=?0.026) and inferior parietal lobule (r?=??0.362, p?=?0.024). A negative correlation was found between the ReHo values of the left precuneus and the cumulative mean defect (r?=??0.400, p?=?0.012). Conclusions POAG was associated with abnormal brain spontaneous activity in some brain regions and such changed regional activity may be associated with clinical parameters. Spontaneous brain activity may play a role in POAG initiation and progression. PMID:24586822

  5. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD. PMID:21541845

  6. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  7. Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-01-01

    Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

  8. Abnormal Cortical Network Activation in Human Amnesia: A High-resolution Evoked Potential Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Barcellona-Lehmann; Stéphanie Morand; Claire Bindschaedler; Louis Nahum; Damien Gabriel; Armin Schnider

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how human amnesia affects the activation of cortical networks during memory processing. In this study,\\u000a we recorded high-density evoked potentials in 12 healthy control subjects and 11 amnesic patients with various types of brain\\u000a damage affecting the medial temporal lobes, diencephalic structures, or both. Subjects performed a continuous recognition\\u000a task composed of meaningful designs. Using whole-scalp

  9. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients with Hemifacial Spasm: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Ye; Wei, Yongxu; Sun, Kun; Zhao, Weiguo; Yu, Buwei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to detect the alterations of spontaneous neuronal activity in various neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, but rarely in hemifacial spasm (HFS), a nervous system disorder. We used resting-state fMRI with regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis to investigate changes in spontaneous brain activity of patients with HFS and to determine the relationship of these functional changes with clinical features. Thirty patients with HFS and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Compared with controls, HFS patients had significantly decreased ReHo values in left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), left medial cingulate cortex (MCC), left lingual gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right precuneus; and increased ReHo values in left precentral gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right brainstem, and right cerebellum. Furthermore, the mean ReHo value in brainstem showed a positive correlation with the spasm severity (r = 0.404, p = 0.027), and the mean ReHo value in MFG was inversely related with spasm severity in HFS group (r = -0.398, p = 0.028). This study reveals that HFS is associated with abnormal spontaneous brain activity in brain regions most involved in motor control and blinking movement. The disturbances of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ReHo measurements may provide insights into the neurological pathophysiology of HFS. PMID:25603126

  10. Changes of Enzyme Activities and Compositions of Abnormal Fruiting Bodies Grown under Artificial Environmental Conditions in Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo Muk; June, Chang Sung; Weon, Hang Yeon; Park, Jeong Sik; Choi, Sun Gyu; Cheong, Jong Chun; Sung, Jae Mo

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical changes of abnormal fruiting bodies grown under artificial environmental conditions in P. ostreatus. Abnormal mushroom growth during cultivation damages the production of good quality mushroom. This study showed that different environmental conditions produced morphological changes in the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus. The fruiting bodies with morphological changes were collected and examined for differences in biochemical properties, enzyme activities, and carbohydrates composition. The enzyme activities assay showed that glucanase and chitinase activities decreased when the temperature was below or above the optimum cultivation temperature for P. ostreatus. The biochemical compositions of the abnormal mushroom were significantly different from the normal fruiting bodies. It was suggested that the changes in the biochemical composition of abnormal mushroom were caused by the unfavorable environmental conditions during mushroom cultivation. PMID:24049471

  11. Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and it is crucially needed for numerous key neuronal functions. Yet, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage by excitotoxicity--detrimental over activation of glutamate receptors. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the main pathological process taking place in many types of acute and chronic CNS diseases and injuries. In recent years, it became clear that not only excess glutamate can cause massive brain damage, but that several types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, that are present in the serum and CSF of subpopulations of patients with a kaleidoscope of human neurological diseases, can undoubtedly do so too, by inducing several very potent pathological effects in the CNS. Collectively, the family of anti-glutamate receptor autoimmune antibodies seem to be the most widespread, potent, dangerous and interesting anti-brain autoimmune antibodies discovered up to now. This impression stems from taking together the presence of various types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies in a kaleidoscope of human neurological and autoimmune diseases, their high levels in the CNS due to intrathecal production, their multiple pathological effects in the brain, and the unique and diverse mechanisms of action by which they can affect glutamate receptors, signaling and effects, and subsequently impair neuronal signaling and induce brain damage. The two main families of autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies that were already found in patients with neurological and/or autoimmune diseases, and that were already shown to be detrimental to the CNS, include the antibodies directed against ionotorpic glutamate receptors: the anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies and anti-NMDA-NR2 antibodies, and the antibodies directed against Metabotropic glutamate receptors: the anti-mGluR1 antibodies and the anti-mGluR5 antibodies. Each type of these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is discussed separately in this very comprehensive review, with regards to: the human diseases in which these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies were found thus far, their presence and production in the nervous system, their association with various psychiatric/behavioral/cognitive/motor impairments, their possible association with certain infectious organisms, their detrimental effects in vitro as well as in vivo in animal models in mice, rats or rabbits, and their diverse and unique mechanisms of action. The review also covers the very encouraging positive responses to immunotherapy of some patients that have either of the above-mentioned anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, and that suffer from various neurological diseases/problems. All the above are also summarized in the review's five schematic and useful figures, for each type of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies separately. The review ends with a summary of all the main findings, and with recommended guidelines for diagnosis, therapy, drug design and future investigations. In the nut shell, the human studies, the in vitro studies, as well as the in vivo studies in animal models in mice, rats and rabbit revealed the following findings regarding the five different types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: (1) Anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies are present in ~25-30% of patients with different types of Epilepsy. When these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies (or other types of autoimmune antibodies) are found in Epilepsy patients, and when these autoimmune antibodies are suspected to induce or aggravate the seizures and/or the cognitive/psychiatric/behavioral impairments that sometimes accompany the seizures, the Epilepsy is called 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. In some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies associate significantly with psychiatric/cognitive/behavior abnormalities. In vitro and/or in animal models, the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies by themselves induce many pathological effects: they activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, kill neurons by 'Excitotoxicity',

  12. Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during “Target” sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances. PMID:22574285

  13. Diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities are associated with an altered lipid pattern: protective effects of LXR activation[S

    PubMed Central

    Cermenati, Gaia; Abbiati, Federico; Cermenati, Solei; Brioschi, Elisabetta; Volonterio, Alessandro; Cavaletti, Guido; Saez, Enrique; De Fabiani, Emma; Crestani, Maurizio; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Caruso, Donatella; Mitro, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is characterized by myelin abnormalities; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying such deficits remain obscure. To uncover the effects of diabetes on myelin alterations, we have analyzed myelin composition. In a streptozotocin-treated rat model of diabetic neuropathy, analysis of sciatic nerve myelin lipids revealed that diabetes alters myelin's phospholipid, FA, and cholesterol content in a pattern that can modify membrane fluidity. Reduced expression of relevant genes in the FA biosynthetic pathway and decreased levels of the transcriptionally active form of the lipogenic factor sterol-regulatory element binding factor-1c (SREBF-1c) were found in diabetic sciatic nerve. Expression of myelin's major protein, myelin protein zero (P0), was also suppressed by diabetes. In addition, we confirmed that diabetes induces sciatic nerve myelin abnormalities, primarily infoldings that have previously been associated with altered membrane fluidity. In a diabetic setting, synthetic activator of the nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) increased SREBF-1c function and restored myelin lipid species and P0 expression levels to normal. These LXR-modulated improvements were associated with restored myelin structure in sciatic nerve and enhanced performance in functional tests such as thermal nociceptive threshold and nerve conduction velocity. These findings demonstrate an important role for the LXR-SREBF-1c axis in protection from diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities. PMID:22158827

  14. What is the importance of abnormal “background” activity in seizure generation?

    PubMed Central

    Staba, Richard; Worrell, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of interictal epileptiform spikes and seizures have played a central role in the study of epilepsy. The background EEG activity, however, has received less attention. In this chapter we discuss the characteristic features of the background activity of the brain when individuals are at rest and awake (resting wake) and during sleep. The characteristic rhythms of the background EEG are presented, and the presence of 1/f ? behavior of the EEG power spectral density is discussed and its possible origin and functional significance. The interictal EEG findings of focal epilepsy and the impact of interictal epileptiform spikes on cognition are also discussed. PMID:25012365

  15. Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2013-01-01

    A widely held assumption is that spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity sum linearly, such that the recorded brain response in each single trial is the algebraic sum of the constantly changing ongoing activity and the stereotypical evoked activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals acquired from normal humans, we show that this assumption is invalid. Across widespread cortices, evoked activity interacts negatively with ongoing activity, such that higher prestimulus baseline results in less activation or more deactivation. As a consequence of this negative interaction, trial-to-trial variability of cortical activity decreases following stimulus onset. We further show that variability reduction follows overlapping but distinct spatial pattern from that of task activation/deactivation and it contains behaviorally relevant information. These results favor an alternative perspective to the traditional dichotomous framework of ongoing and evoked activity – one that views the brain as a nonlinear dynamical system whose trajectory is tighter when performing a task; further, incoming sensory stimuli modulate the brain’s activity in a manner that depends on its initial state. We propose that across-trial variability may provide a new approach to brain mapping in the context of cognitive experiments. PMID:23486941

  16. Effects of brief starvation on brain protease activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Kenessey; Miriam Banay-Schwartz; Teresita De Guzman; Abel Lajtha

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the activity of proteases (cathepsin D and calpains) caused by 48-h food withdrawal were studied in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart of 3-, 12-, and 24-month-old Fischer rats. Cathepsin D activity was similar in brain, liver, and heart of control animals; in kidney it was 5-fold higher and in spleen about 10-fold higher. With age, activity

  17. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients with Acute Spinal Cord Injury Revealed by Resting-State Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ling; Wu, Guangyao; Zhou, Xin; Li, Jielan; Wen, Zhi; Lin, Fuchun

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity. Results Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores. Conclusion Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for assessment of neuronal damage and the prediction of clinical outcomes in acute SCI. PMID:25768010

  18. Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping

    E-print Network

    Alivisatos, A. Paul

    Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We ...

  19. Not just the brain: methamphetamine disrupts blood-spinal cord barrier and induces acute glial activation and structural damage of spinal cord cells.

    PubMed

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Sharma, Hari S

    2015-01-01

    Acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication induces metabolic brain activation as well as multiple physiological and behavioral responses that could result in life-threatening health complications. Previously, we showed that METH (9 mg/kg) used in freely moving rats induces robust leakage of blood-brain barrier, acute glial activation, vasogenic edema, and structural abnormalities of brain cells. These changes were tightly correlated with drug-induced brain hyperthermia and were greatly potentiated when METH was used at warm ambient temperatures (29°C), inducing more robust and prolonged hyperthermia. Extending this line of research, here we show that METH also strongly increases the permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier as evidenced by entry of Evans blue and albumin immunoreactivity in T9-12 segments of the spinal cord. Similar to the blood-brain barrier, leakage of bloodspinal cord barrier was associated with acute glial activation, alterations of ionic homeostasis, water tissue accumulation (edema), and structural abnormalities of spinal cord cells. Similar to that in the brain, all neurochemical alterations correlated tightly with drug-induced elevations in brain temperature and they were enhanced when the drug was used at 29°C and brain hyperthermia reached pathological levels (>40°C). We discuss common features and differences in neural responses between the brain and spinal cord, two inseparable parts of the central nervous system affected by METH exposure. PMID:25687701

  20. Downstream targets of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and their abnormal expression in the frontal cortex of the human Rett syndrome brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Rett Syndrome (RTT) brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. Results Using microarrays and quantitative PCR, the mRNA expression profiles of these two neuroanatomical regions were compared in postmortem brain tissue from RTT patients and normal controls. A subset of genes was differentially expressed in the frontal cortex of RTT brains, some of which are known to be associated with neurological disorders (clusterin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) or are involved in synaptic vesicle cycling (dynamin 1). RNAi-mediated knockdown of MeCP2 in vitro, followed by further expression analysis demonstrated that the same direction of abnormal expression was recapitulated with MeCP2 knockdown, which for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was associated with a functional respiratory chain defect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that MeCP2 associated with the promoter regions of some of these genes suggesting that loss of MeCP2 function may be responsible for their overexpression. Conclusions This study has shed more light on the subset of aberrantly expressed genes that result from MECP2 mutations. The mitochondrion has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of RTT, however it has not been at the forefront of RTT research interest since the discovery of MECP2 mutations. The functional consequence of the underexpression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 indicates that this is an area that should be revisited. PMID:20420693

  1. Effects of a carbohydrate supplement upon resting brain activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenghua; Szabo, Joanne S; Dykman, Roscoe A

    2004-01-01

    Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate supplement containing glucose and several of its derivatives on resting brain activity in 20 healthy male college students. The supplement provided an insignificant amount of carbohydrate (3.9 g), protein (0.28 g), fat (0 g), and calories (14 kcal). The amount of glucose in the supplement was 0.5 g (1% the amount of glucose used in adult studies of cognitive functioning and memory). We hypothesized that the glyconutrient supplement would enhance brain activity associated with alertness and attention. The study design was double blind, with subjects randomly assigned to one of two orders, either carbohydrate supplement week one followed by placebo a week later, or the opposite. Electrical brain activity was monitored by 15 electrodes positioned at nine standard international 10-20 system locations, including three bilateral pairs at frontal, parietal, and occipital sites. Thirty minutes following ingestion of a placebo or carbohydrate supplement drink, EEG activity was recorded for 10-mins while subjects focused on a stationary visual target. Spectral power of resting brain activity was computed and analyzed contrasting the placebo and supplement groups. Relative to placebo, the carbohydrate supplement significantly enhanced power in three brain wave frequencies (theta, alpha, and beta) that are known to be associated with attention and arousal. Since changes were observed in the supplement but not placebo group, our study suggests that additional sugars in the glyconutritional supplement facilitate enhancement of brain electrical activity. Whether the apparent enhancement of arousal in baseline recordings is associated with improved task performance remains to be determined. PMID:15759600

  2. Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

  3. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-08-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

  4. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

  5. Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.

    PubMed

    Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

    2014-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the motor network. PMID:25212852

  6. Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation

    E-print Network

    Napadow, Vitaly

    Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive

  7. fMRI and Brain Activation after Sport Concussion: A Tale of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Michael G.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Tam, Fred; Graham, Simon J.; Comper, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Sport-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern: the number of participants in sport and recreation is growing, possibly playing their games faster, and there is heightened public awareness of injuries to some high-profile athletes. However, many clinicians still rely on subjective symptom reports for the clinical determination of recovery. Relying on subjective symptom reports can be problematic, as it has been shown that some concussed athletes may downplay their symptoms. The use of neuropsychological (NP) testing has enabled clinicians to measure the effects and extent of impairment following concussion more precisely, providing more objective metrics for determining recovery. Nevertheless, there is a remaining concern that brain abnormalities may exist beyond the point at which individuals achieve recovery in self-reported symptoms and cognition measured by NP testing. Our understanding of brain recovery after concussion is important, not only from a neuroscience perspective, but also from the perspective of clinical decision-making for safe return-to-play. A number of advanced neuroimaging tools, including blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have independently yielded early information on abnormal brain functioning. In the two cases presented in this article, we report contrasting brain activation patterns and recovery profiles using fMRI. Importantly, fMRI was conducted using adapted versions of the most sensitive computerized NP tests administered in our current clinical practice to determine impairments and recovery after sport-related concussion. One of the cases is consistent with the concept of lagging brain recovery. PMID:24782819

  8. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingming Luo; Britton Chance

    1999-01-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out.

  9. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Nielsen; T. Hyldig; F. Bidstrup; J. González-Alonso; G. R. J. Christoffersen

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake ($$\\\\dot VO_{2\\\\max }$$ ) 4.8ǂ.1 (SE) l min-1] cycling at 60% $$\\\\dot VO_{2\\\\max }$$ in a hot

  10. Metabolic pathways and activity-dependent modulation of glutamate concentration in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico; DiNuzzo, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is one of the most versatile molecules present in the human brain, involved in protein synthesis, energy production, ammonia detoxification, and transport of reducing equivalents. Aside from these critical metabolic roles, glutamate plays a major part in brain function, being not only the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter, but also the precursor for ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter. Regulation of glutamate levels is pivotal for normal brain function, as abnormal extracellular concentration of glutamate can lead to impaired neurotransmission, neurodegeneration and even neuronal death. Understanding how the neuron-astrocyte functional and metabolic interactions modulate glutamate concentration during different activation status and under physiological and pathological conditions is a challenging task, and can only be tentatively estimated from current literature. In this paper, we focus on describing the various metabolic pathways which potentially affect glutamate concentration in the brain, and emphasize which ones are likely to produce the variations in glutamate concentration observed during enhanced neuronal activity in human studies. PMID:22846967

  11. Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

  12. Brain Activity Patterns Uniquely Supporting Visual Feature Integration after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Tisserand, Danielle; Stuss, Donald T.; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Levine, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI), which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a Target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls. PMID:22180740

  13. The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25404894

  14. Detection of abnormal cardiac activity using principal component analysis--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Greisas, Ariel; Zafrir, Zohar; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Electrogram-guided ablation has been recently developed for allowing better detection and localization of abnormal atrial activity that may be the source of arrhythmogeneity. Nevertheless, no clear indication for the benefit of using electrograms guided ablation over empirical ablation was established thus far, and there is a clear need of improving the localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic targets for ablation. In this paper, we propose a new approach for detection and localization of irregular cardiac activity during ablation procedures that is based on dimension reduction algorithms and principal component analysis (PCA). Using an 8×8 electrode array, our method produces manifolds that allow easy visualization and detection of possible arrhythmogenic ablation targets characterized by irregular conduction. We employ mathematical modeling and computer simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach for two well established arrhythmogenic sources for irregular conduction--spiral waves and patchy fibrosis. Our results show that the PCA method can differentiate between focal ectopic activity and spiral wave activity, as these two types of activity produce substantially different manifold shapes. Moreover, the technique allows the detection of spiral wave cores and their general meandering and drifting pattern. Fibrotic patches larger than 2 mm(2) could also be visualized using the PCA method, both for quiescent atrial tissue and for tissue exhibiting spiral wave activity. We envision that this method, contingent to further numerical and experimental validation studies in more complex, realistic geometrical configurations and with clinical data, can improve existing atrial ablation mapping capabilities, thus increasing success rates and optimizing arrhythmia management. PMID:25073163

  15. High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures.

    PubMed

    Keating, Glenda L; Kuhar, Michael J; Rye, David B

    2008-04-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and tremor activity following administration of CART into the central nervous system. By employing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, we document the state of cerebrocortical activity. We find that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 5 microg of CART 55-102 readily produces an abnormal EEG characterized initially by high amplitude hypersynchronous alpha in the 8-10 Hz range during behavioral wakefulness as manifest in both cortical and hippocampal theta EEG channels. This reliably progressed in three of three animals tested to unequivocal epileptiform activity accompanied by tremors and assumption of a rigid, tonic body posture. The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms. PMID:18178249

  16. Brain effects of chronic IBD in areas abnormal in autism and treatment by single neuropeptides secretin and oxytocin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha G. Welch; Thomas B. Welch-Horan; Muhammad Anwar; Nargis Anwar; Robert J. Ludwig; David A. Ruggiero

    2005-01-01

    Recent research points to the connection between behavioral and gut disorders. Early adverse events are associated with inflammatory\\u000a bowel disease (IBD). In animal models, maternal deprivation and social isolation predispose to gastric erosion and brain pathology.\\u000a This study examined (1) brain effects of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation in a rat model of acquired IBD and (2) whether\\u000a such changes are resolved

  17. Lateralization of Brain Activation in Fluent and Non-Fluent Preschool Children: A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Picture-Naming

    PubMed Central

    Sowman, Paul F.; Crain, Stephen; Harrison, Elisabeth; Johnson, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    The neural causes of stuttering remain unknown. One explanation comes from neuroimaging studies that have reported abnormal lateralization of activation in the brains of people who stutter. However, these findings are generally based on data from adults with a long history of stuttering, raising the possibility that the observed lateralization anomalies are compensatory rather than causal. The current study investigated lateralization of brain activity in language-related regions of interest in young children soon after the onset of stuttering. We tested 24 preschool-aged children, half of whom had a positive diagnosis of stuttering. All children participated in a picture-naming experiment whilst their brain activity was recorded by magnetoencephalography. Source analysis performed during an epoch prior to speech onset was used to assess lateralized activation in three regions of interest. Activation was significantly lateralized to the left hemisphere in both groups and not different between groups. This study shows for the first time that significant speech preparatory brain activation can be identified in young children during picture-naming and supports the contention that, in stutterers, aberrant lateralization of brain function may be the result of neuroplastic adaptation that occurs as the condition becomes chronic. PMID:24904388

  18. In vivo recordings of brain activity using organic transistors

    PubMed Central

    Khodagholy, Dion; Doublet, Thomas; Quilichini, Pascale; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Ghestem, Antoine; Ismailova, Esma; Hervé, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Bernard, Christophe; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo electrophysiological recordings of neuronal circuits are necessary for diagnostic purposes and for brain-machine interfaces. Organic electronic devices constitute a promising candidate because of their mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here we demonstrate the engineering of an organic electrochemical transistor embedded in an ultrathin organic film designed to record electrophysiological signals on the surface of the brain. The device, tested in vivo on epileptiform discharges, displayed superior signal-to-noise ratio due to local amplification compared with surface electrodes. The organic transistor was able to record on the surface low-amplitude brain activities, which were poorly resolved with surface electrodes. This study introduces a new class of biocompatible, highly flexible devices for recording brain activity with superior signal-to-noise ratio that hold great promise for medical applications. PMID:23481383

  19. Metabolically active rat brain slices as a model to study the regulation of protein phosphorylation in mammalian brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Xin Gong; Theodore Lidsky; Jerzy Wegiel; Inge Grundke-Iqbal; Khalid Iqbal

    2001-01-01

    The reversible protein phosphorylation is the most important cellular regulation of the biological functions of many proteins. Disregulation of protein phosphorylation is involved in pathogeneses of several human diseases. The abnormal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and its aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles in selective neurons is one of the major brain pathologies of Alzheimer’s disease and several other related neurodegenerative

  20. Idiosyncratic brain activation patterns are associated with poor social comprehension in autism.

    PubMed

    Byrge, Lisa; Dubois, Julien; Tyszka, J Michael; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features profound social deficits but neuroimaging studies have failed to find any consistent neural signature. Here we connect these two facts by showing that idiosyncratic patterns of brain activation are associated with social comprehension deficits. Human participants with ASD (N = 17) and controls (N = 20) freely watched a television situation comedy (sitcom) depicting seminaturalistic social interactions ("The Office", NBC Universal) in the scanner. Intersubject correlations in the pattern of evoked brain activation were reduced in the ASD group-but this effect was driven entirely by five ASD subjects whose idiosyncratic responses were also internally unreliable. The idiosyncrasy of these five ASD subjects was not explained by detailed neuropsychological profile, eye movements, or data quality; however, they were specifically impaired in understanding the social motivations of characters in the sitcom. Brain activation patterns in the remaining ASD subjects were indistinguishable from those of control subjects using multiple multivariate approaches. Our findings link neurofunctional abnormalities evoked by seminaturalistic stimuli with a specific impairment in social comprehension, and highlight the need to conceive of ASD as a heterogeneous classification. PMID:25855192

  1. Mapping Functional Brain Activation Using [14C]-Iodoantipyrine in Male Serotonin Transporter Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Raina D.; Wang, Zhuo; Klosinski, Lauren P.; Guo, Yumei; Herman, David H.; Celikel, Tansu; Dong, Hong Wei; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Serotonin transporter knockout mice have been a powerful tool in understanding the role played by the serotonin transporter in modulating physiological function and behavior. However, little work has examined brain function in this mouse model. We tested the hypothesis that male knockout mice show exaggerated limbic activation during exposure to an emotional stressor, similar to human subjects with genetically reduced transcription of the serotonin transporter. Methodology/Principal Findings Functional brain mapping using [14C]-iodoantipyrine was performed during recall of a fear conditioned tone. Regional cerebral blood flow was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping from autoradiographs of the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. During recall, knockout mice compared to wild-type mice showed increased freezing, increased regional cerebral blood flow of the amygdala, insula, and barrel field somatosensory cortex, decreased regional cerebral blood flow of the ventral hippocampus, and conditioning-dependent alterations in regional cerebral blood flow in the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate). Anxiety tests relying on sensorimotor exploration showed a small (open field) or paradoxical effect (marble burying) of loss of the serotonin transporter on anxiety behavior, which may reflect known abnormalities in the knockout animal's sensory system. Experiments evaluating whisker function showed that knockout mice displayed impaired whisker sensation in the spontaneous gap crossing task and appetitive gap cross training. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate altered functional activation in the serotonin transporter knockout mice of critical nodes of the fear conditioning circuit. Alterations in whisker sensation and functional activation of barrel field somatosensory cortex extend earlier reports of barrel field abnormalities, which may confound behavioral measures relying on sensorimotor exploration. PMID:21886833

  2. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

    2014-03-01

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

  3. Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

    2014-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

  4. Fluctuations in Neuronal Activity: Clues to Brain Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis

    2005-08-01

    Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as "noise". Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the "meaningful" neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.

  5. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-10-15

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a 'social' (detective) and once a 'non-social' (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions--most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex--when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  6. Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hyönä, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

  7. Abnormal Brain Iron Metabolism in Irp2 Deficient Mice Is Associated with Mild Neurological and Behavioral Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrennen-Bullough, Kimberly B.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hölter, Sabine M.; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Quintanilla-Fend, Leticia; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; de Angelis, Martin Hrab?; Romney, Steven J.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron Regulatory Protein 2 (Irp2, Ireb2) is a central regulator of cellular iron homeostasis in vertebrates. Two global knockout mouse models have been generated to explore the role of Irp2 in regulating iron metabolism. While both mouse models show that loss of Irp2 results in microcytic anemia and altered body iron distribution, discrepant results have drawn into question the role of Irp2 in regulating brain iron metabolism. One model shows that aged Irp2 deficient mice develop adult-onset progressive neurodegeneration that is associated with axonal degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the central nervous system. These mice show iron deposition in white matter tracts and oligodendrocyte soma throughout the brain. A contrasting model of global Irp2 deficiency shows no overt or pathological signs of neurodegeneration or brain iron accumulation, and display only mild motor coordination and balance deficits when challenged by specific tests. Explanations for conflicting findings in the severity of the clinical phenotype, brain iron accumulation and neuronal degeneration remain unclear. Here, we describe an additional mouse model of global Irp2 deficiency. Our aged Irp2?/? mice show marked iron deposition in white matter and in oligodendrocytes while iron content is significantly reduced in neurons. Ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, Tfrc), expression are increased and decreased, respectively, in the brain from Irp2?/? mice. These mice show impairments in locomotion, exploration, motor coordination/balance and nociception when assessed by neurological and behavioral tests, but lack overt signs of neurodegenerative disease. Ultrastructural studies of specific brain regions show no evidence of neurodegeneration. Our data suggest that Irp2 deficiency dysregulates brain iron metabolism causing cellular dysfunction that ultimately leads to mild neurological, behavioral and nociceptive impairments. PMID:24896637

  8. Calpain activity in adult and aged human brain regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Banay-Schwartz; Teresita DeGuzman; Miklos Palkovits; Abel Lajtha

    1994-01-01

    We assayed calpain activity in 27 human brain regions from adult (43–65 years of age) and aged (66–83 years of age) postmortem tissue samples. Calpain I (µM Ca-requiring) activity was 10% or less of the total activity; it was below detectable levels in a number of areas, and so data are are expressed as total (µM+mM Ca-dependent) calpain activity. The

  9. The duplication 17p13.3 phenotype: analysis of 21 families delineates developmental, behavioral and brain abnormalities, and rare variant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Curry, Cynthia J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Grant, Erica; Gripp, Karen W; Anderson, Carol; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Saad, Taha Ben; Chizhikov, Victor V; Dybose, Giedre; Fagerberg, Christina; Falco, Michelle; Fels, Christina; Fichera, Marco; Graakjaer, Jesper; Greco, Donatella; Hair, Jennifer; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Huggins, Marlene; Ladda, Roger; Li, Chumei; Moeschler, John; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Ozmore, Jillian R; Reitano, Santina; Romano, Corrado; Roos, Laura; Schnur, Rhonda E; Sell, Susan; Suwannarat, Pim; Svaneby, Dea; Szybowska, Marta; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Tervo, Raymond; Tsai, Anne Chun-Hui; Tucker, Megan; Vallee, Stephanie; Wheeler, Ferrin C; Zand, Dina J; Barkovich, A James; Aradhya, Swaroop; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

    2013-08-01

    Chromosome 17p13.3 is a gene rich region that when deleted is associated with the well-known Miller-Dieker syndrome. A recently described duplication syndrome involving this region has been associated with intellectual impairment, autism and occasional brain MRI abnormalities. We report 34 additional patients from 21 families to further delineate the clinical, neurological, behavioral, and brain imaging findings. We found a highly diverse phenotype with inter- and intrafamilial variability, especially in cognitive development. The most specific phenotype occurred in individuals with large duplications that include both the YWHAE and LIS1 genes. These patients had a relatively distinct facial phenotype and frequent structural brain abnormalities involving the corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, and cranial base. Autism spectrum disorders were seen in a third of duplication probands, most commonly in those with duplications of YWHAE and flanking genes such as CRK. The typical neurobehavioral phenotype was usually seen in those with the larger duplications. We did not confirm the association of early overgrowth with involvement of YWHAE and CRK, or growth failure with duplications of LIS1. Older patients were often overweight. Three variant phenotypes included cleft lip/palate (CLP), split hand/foot with long bone deficiency (SHFLD), and a connective tissue phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome. The duplications in patients with clefts appear to disrupt ABR, while the SHFLD phenotype was associated with duplication of BHLHA9 as noted in two recent reports. The connective tissue phenotype did not have a convincing critical region. Our experience with this large cohort expands knowledge of this diverse duplication syndrome. PMID:23813913

  10. Systemic nitroglycerin activates peptidergic and catecholaminergic pathways in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Tassorelli; Shirley A. Joseph

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we carried out an immunohistochemical evaluation of the neurochemical characteristics of neurons that are activated (i.e., express Fos protein) in response to systemic administration of nitroglycerin. In the brain stem, a significant percentage of activated neurons contained noradrenaline as a neurotransmitter, whereas only a few of them contained serotonin. In the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the

  11. Brain acetycholinesterase activity in botulism-intoxicated mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.

  12. Measurement of brain activity by near-infrared light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Gratton; Vladislav Toronov; Ursula Wolf; Martin Wolf; Andrew Webb

    2005-01-01

    We review our most recent results on near-IR studies of human brain activity, which have been evolving in two directions: detection of neuronal signals and measurements of functional hemo- dynamics. We discuss results obtained so far, describing in detail the techniques we developed for detecting neuronal activity, and present- ing results of a study that, as we believe, confirms the

  13. Abnormal Activity in the Precuneus during Time Perception in Parkinson's Disease: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Dušek, Petr; Jech, Robert; Sieger, Tomáš; Vymazal, Josef; R?ži?ka, Evžen; Wackermann, Ji?í; Mueller, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are deficient in time estimation. This deficit improves after dopamine (DA) treatment and it has been associated with decreased internal timekeeper speed, disruption of executive function and memory retrieval dysfunction. Methodology/Findings The aim of the present study was to explore the neurophysiologic correlates of this deficit. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging on twelve PD patients while they were performing a time reproduction task (TRT). The TRT consisted of an encoding phase (during which visual stimuli of durations from 5s to 16.6s, varied at 8 levels were presented) and a reproduction phase (during which interval durations were reproduced by a button pressing). Patients were scanned twice, once while on their DA medication (ON condition) and once after medication withdrawal (OFF condition). Differences in Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal in ON and OFF conditions were evaluated. The time course of activation in the brain areas with different BOLD signal was plotted. There were no significant differences in the behavioral results, but a trend toward overestimation of intervals ?11.9s and underestimation of intervals ?14.1s in the OFF condition (p<0.088). During the reproduction phase, higher activation in the precuneus was found in the ON condition (p<0.05 corrected). Time course was plotted separately for long (?14.1s) and short (?11.9s) intervals. Results showed that there was a significant difference only in long intervals, when activity gradually decreased in the OFF, but remained stable in the ON condition. This difference in precuneus activation was not found during random button presses in a control task. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that differences in precuneus activation during retrieval of a remembered duration may underlie some aspects of time perception deficit in PD patients. We suggest that DA medication may allow compensatory activation in the precuneus, which results in a more accurate retrieval of remembered interval duration. PMID:22238630

  14. Proline Affects Brain Function in 22q11DS Children with the Low Activity COMT158 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Vorstman, Jacob AS; Turetsky, Bruce I; Sijmens-Morcus, Monique EJ; de Sain, Monique G; Dorland, Bert; Sprong, Mirjam; Rappaport, Eric F; Beemer, Frits A; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, René S; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    The association between the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and psychiatric disorders, particularly psychosis, suggests a causal relationship between 22q11DS genes and abnormal brain function. The genes catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase both reside within the commonly deleted region of 22q11.2. COMT activity and proline levels may therefore be altered in 22q11DS individuals. Associations of both COMT158 genotype and elevated serum proline levels with abnormal brain function have been reported. Fifty-six 22q11DS children and 75 healthy controls were assessed on physiological measures of brain function, including prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, P50 auditory sensory gating and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). COMT158 genotype and plasma proline levels were determined in the 22q11DS children. We hypothesized an interaction between the COMT158 genotype and proline, predicting the strongest negative effect of high proline on brain function to occur in 22q11DS children who are carriers of the COMTmet allele. Of the three physiological measures, only SPEM and PPI were abnormal in the patient sample. With regard to the SPEM performance, there was a significant interaction between the COMT158 genotype and proline level with significantly decreased SPEM performance in children with high plasma proline levels and the low activity COMTmet allele. A similar interaction effect was not observed with regard to PPI. These findings are consistent with a model in which elevated proline negatively affects brain function by an increase in dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. 22q11DS patients with low dopamine catabolic capacity are therefore especially vulnerable to this functional disruption. PMID:18769474

  15. Silicon Shrinkwrap Melts Smoothly Onto Cat Brain to Monitor Activity in Real Time

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Silicon Shrinkwrap Melts Smoothly Onto Cat Brain to Monitor Activity in Real Time By Jeremy Hsu Activity in Real Time Silk-Silicon Implantable Electronics Conform to Tissues, Then Melt Away Brain Scans, brains, cat brains, electrical activity, electrodes, implants, mesh, silicon, silk, surface electrodes

  16. Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, Anna; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Ku?, Rafa?; Franaszczuk, Piotr J; Crone, Nathan E

    2008-10-01

    A new method (Event-Related Causality, ERC) is proposed for the investigation of functional interactions between brain regions during cognitive processing. ERC estimates the direction, intensity, spectral content, and temporal course of brain activity propagation within a cortical network. ERC is based upon the short-time directed transfer function (SDTF), which is measured in short EEG epochs during multiple trials of a cognitive task, as well as the direct directed transfer function (dDTF), which distinguishes direct interactions between brain regions from indirect interactions via brain regions. ERC uses new statistical methods for comparing estimates of causal interactions during prestimulus "baseline" epochs and during poststimulus "activated" epochs in order to estimate event-related increases and decreases in the functional interactions between cortical network components during cognitive tasks. The utility of the ERC approach is demonstrated through its application to human electrocorticographic recordings (ECoG) of a simple language task. ERC analyses of these ECoG recordings reveal frequency-dependent interactions, particularly in high gamma (>60 Hz) frequencies, between brain regions known to participate in the recorded language task, and the temporal evolution of these interactions is consistent with the putative processing stages of this task. The method may be a useful tool for investigating the dynamics of causal interactions between various brain regions during cognitive task performance. PMID:17712784

  17. Brain activation during cognitive planning in twins discordant or concordant for obsessive–compulsive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    van ’t Ent, Dennis; Cath, Danielle C.; Wagner, Judith; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder compared with controls. However, there are inconsistencies between studies regarding the exact set of brain structures involved and the direction of anatomical and functional changes. These inconsistencies may reflect the differential impact of environmental and genetic risk factors for obsessive–compulsive disorder on different parts of the brain. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying environmentally and genetically mediated obsessive–compulsive disorder, we compared task performance and brain activation during a Tower of London planning paradigm in monozygotic twins discordant (n?=?38) or concordant (n?=?100) for obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Twins who score high on obsessive–compulsive symptoms can be considered at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder. We found that subjects at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder did not differ from the low-risk subjects behaviourally, but we obtained evidence that the high-risk subjects differed from the low-risk subjects in the patterns of brain activation accompanying task execution. These regions can be separated into those that were affected by mainly environmental risk (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lingual cortex), genetic risk (frontopolar cortex, inferior frontal cortex, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus) and regions affected by both environmental and genetic risk factors (cingulate cortex, premotor cortex and parts of the parietal cortex). Our results suggest that neurobiological changes related to obsessive–compulsive symptoms induced by environmental factors involve primarily the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas neurobiological changes induced by genetic factors involve orbitofrontal–basal ganglia structures. Regions showing similar changes in high-risk twins from discordant and concordant pairs may be part of compensatory networks that keep planning performance intact, in spite of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical deficits. PMID:20823085

  18. Central motor conduction in multiple sclerosis: evaluation of abnormalities revealed by transcutaneous magnetic stimulation of the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Ingram; A J Thompson; M Swash

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the brain and spinal column was used to assess conduction in the descending central motor pathways controlling arm and leg muscles of 20 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 10 normal subjects. The multiple sclerosis patients had relapsing and remitting disease but all were ambulant and in stable clinical remission. Increased central motor conduction times (CMCTs), up to

  19. Altered baseline brain activity in children with bipolar disorder during mania state: a resting-state study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dali; Jiao, Qing; Zhong, Yuan; Gao, Weijia; Xiao, Qian; Liu, Xiaoqun; Lin, Xiaoling; Cheng, Wentao; Luo, Lanzhu; Xu, Chuanjian; Lu, Guangming; Su, Linyan

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in regions involved in emotion processing and regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Recent studies indicate, however, that task-dependent neural changes only represent a small fraction of the brain’s total activity. How the brain allocates the majority of its resources at resting state is still unknown. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method of fMRI to explore the spontaneous neuronal activity in resting state in PBD patients. Methods Eighteen PBD patients during the mania phase and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and all patients underwent fMRI scanning. The ALFF method was used to compare the resting-state spontaneous neuronal activity between groups. Correlation analysis was performed between the ALFF values and Young Mania Rating Scale scores. Results Compared with healthy controls, PBD patients presented increased ALFF in bilateral caudate and left pallidum as well as decreased ALFF in left precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus. Additionally, ALFF values in left pallidum were positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale score in PBD. Conclusion The abnormal resting-state neuronal activities of the basal ganglia, parietal cortex, and occipital cortex may play an important role in the pathophysiology in PBD patients. PMID:24570585

  20. Inferring deep-brain activity from cortical activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Bryant, Daniel M.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying brain function because it is non-invasive, non-irradiating and relatively inexpensive. Further, fNIRS potentially allows measurement of hemodynamic activity with high temporal resolution (milliseconds) and in naturalistic settings. However, in comparison with other imaging modalities, namely fMRI, fNIRS has a significant drawback: limited sensitivity to hemodynamic changes in deep-brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we developed a computational method to infer deep-brain activity using fNIRS measurements of cortical activity. Using simultaneous fNIRS and fMRI, we measured brain activity in 17 participants as they completed three cognitive tasks. A support vector regression (SVR) learning algorithm was used to predict activity in twelve deep-brain regions using information from surface fNIRS measurements. We compared these predictions against actual fMRI-measured activity using Pearson’s correlation to quantify prediction performance. To provide a benchmark for comparison, we also used fMRI measurements of cortical activity to infer deep-brain activity. When using fMRI-measured activity from the entire cortex, we were able to predict deep-brain activity in the fusiform cortex with an average correlation coefficient of 0.80 and in all deep-brain regions with an average correlation coefficient of 0.67. The top 15% of predictions using fNIRS signal achieved an accuracy of 0.7. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the feasibility of using cortical activity to infer deep-brain activity. This new method has the potential to extend fNIRS applications in cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. PMID:25798327

  1. Imaging brain activation in nicotine-sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixin; DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J; Kulkarni, Praveen; King, Jean A

    2008-03-14

    Our purpose was to determine if sensitization to nicotine could be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with BOLD contrast. Sensitization describes a phenomenon whereby subsequent doses of a drug produce greater responses than the initial dose. Robust locomotor sensitization was demonstrated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by the daily administration of nicotine 0.4 mg/kg over 5 days. In parallel experiments, brain activity was monitored using fMRI in animals receiving their first dose (acute) or fifth dose of nicotine (sensitized) and appropriate saline controls. Compared to the acute nicotine animals, brain activity in the sensitized animals demonstrated prolonged BOLD activation in response to nicotine in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, ventral pallidum and ventral tegmentum, and more intense peak activation in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmentum. In addition, sensitization was associated with a relative decrease in activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Furthermore, despite the rich endowment of nicotinic receptors in the visual cortex there was no change in activation with sensitization, thus establishing the specificity of the observed pattern of regional activation and inhibition. Taken together, the current studies support the premise that nicotine sensitization is accompanied by changes in brain activation including a sensitized BOLD response in the extended limbic system that may subserve the process of dependence. PMID:18279841

  2. Involvement of oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in ceramide and cholesterol metabolism in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Roy G.; Kelly, Jeremiah; Storie, Kristin; Pedersen, Ward A.; Tammara, Anita; Hatanpaa, Kimmo; Troncoso, Juan C.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2004-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related disorder characterized by deposition of amyloid -peptide (A) and degeneration of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus, resulting in progressive cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of AD is tightly linked to A deposition and oxidative stress, but it remains unclear as to how these factors result in neuronal dysfunction and death. We report alterations in sphingolipid and cholesterol metabolism during normal brain aging and in the brains of AD patients that result in accumulation of long-chain ceramides and cholesterol. Membrane-associated oxidative stress occurs in association with the lipid alterations, and exposure of hippocampal neurons to A induces membrane oxidative stress and the accumulation of ceramide species and cholesterol. Treatment of neurons with -tocopherol or an inhibitor of sphingomyelin synthesis prevents accumulation of ceramides and cholesterol and protects them against death induced by A. Our findings suggest a sequence of events in the pathogenesis of AD in which A induces membrane-associated oxidative stress, resulting in perturbed ceramide and cholesterol metabolism which, in turn, triggers a neurodegenerative cascade that leads to clinical disease. amyloid | apoptosis | hippocampus | lipid peroxidation | sphingomyelin

  3. Lasting Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Rats After Neonatal Activation of Serotonin 1A and 1B Receptors: Possible Mechanisms for Serotonin Dysfunction in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Nidhi; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Lin, Rick C.S.; Paul, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Perinatal exposure of rats to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) produces sensory and social abnormalities paralleling those seen in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, the possible mechanism(s) by which this exposure produces behavioral abnormalities is unclear. Objective We hypothesized that the lasting effects of neonatal SSRI exposure are a consequence of abnormal stimulation of 5-HT1A and/or 5-HT1B receptors during brain development. We examined whether such stimulation would result in lasting sensory and social deficits in rats in a manner similar to SSRIs using both direct agonist stimulation of receptors as well as selective antagonism of these receptors during SSRI exposure. Methods Male and female rat pups were treated from postnatal day 8 to 21. In Experiment 1, pups received citalopram (20mg/kg/d), saline, 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 mg/kg/d) or CGS-12066B (10 mg/kg/d). In Experiment 2, a separate cohort of pups received an citalopram (20 mg/kg/d), or saline which was combined with either WAY-100635 (0.6 mg/kg/d) or GR-127935 (6 mg/kg/d) or vehicle. Rats were then tested in paradigms designed to assess sensory and social response behaviors at different time points during development. Results Direct and indirect neonatal stimulation of 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors disrupts sensory processing, produces neophobia, increases stereotypic activity, and impairs social interactions in manner analogous to that observed in ASD. Conclusion Increased stimulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors plays a significant role in the production of lasting social and sensory deficits in adult animals exposed as neonates to SSRIs. PMID:23975037

  4. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtner, K.-H. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Applied Mathematics, E.-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fichtner, L. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Psychology, Am Steiger 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Freudenberg, W. [Brandenb. Techn. University Cottbus, Dep. of Mathematics, PO box 10 13 44, 03013 Cottbus (Germany); Ohya, M. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Information Science, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2007-12-03

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

  5. On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2007-12-01

    The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an "expexted view of the world". Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from "excited" to "nonexcited". For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both—the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in [1]. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers [2, 3]. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

  6. DHA and EPA reverse cystic fibrosis-related FA abnormalities by suppressing FA desaturase expression and activity

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Sarah W.; Laposata, Michael; Katrangi, Waddah; Seegmiller, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    Patients and models of cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit consistent abnormalities of polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, including decreased linoleate (LA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA) and variably increased arachidonate (AA), related in part to increased expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases. These abnormalities and the consequent CF-related pathologic manifestations can be reversed in CF mouse models by dietary supplementation with DHA. However, the mechanism is unknown. This study investigates this mechanism by measuring the effect of exogenous DHA and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) supplementation on fatty acid composition and metabolism, as well as on metabolic enzyme expression, in a cell culture model of CF. We found that both DHA and EPA suppress the expression and activity of ?5- and ?6-desaturases, leading to decreased flux through the n-3 and n-6 PUFA metabolic pathways and decreased production of AA. The findings also uncover other metabolic abnormalities, including increased fatty acid uptake and markedly increased retroconversion of DHA to EPA, in CF cells. These results indicate that the fatty acid abnormalities of CF are related to intrinsic alterations of PUFA metabolism and that they may be reversed by supplementation with DHA and EPA. PMID:22095831

  7. DHA and EPA reverse cystic fibrosis-related FA abnormalities by suppressing FA desaturase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Sarah W; Laposata, Michael; Katrangi, Waddah; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2012-02-01

    Patients and models of cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit consistent abnormalities of polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, including decreased linoleate (LA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA) and variably increased arachidonate (AA), related in part to increased expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases. These abnormalities and the consequent CF-related pathologic manifestations can be reversed in CF mouse models by dietary supplementation with DHA. However, the mechanism is unknown. This study investigates this mechanism by measuring the effect of exogenous DHA and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) supplementation on fatty acid composition and metabolism, as well as on metabolic enzyme expression, in a cell culture model of CF. We found that both DHA and EPA suppress the expression and activity of ?5- and ?6-desaturases, leading to decreased flux through the n-3 and n-6 PUFA metabolic pathways and decreased production of AA. The findings also uncover other metabolic abnormalities, including increased fatty acid uptake and markedly increased retroconversion of DHA to EPA, in CF cells. These results indicate that the fatty acid abnormalities of CF are related to intrinsic alterations of PUFA metabolism and that they may be reversed by supplementation with DHA and EPA. PMID:22095831

  8. A multimodal assessment of melanin and melanocyte activity in abnormally pigmented hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Travis, Taryn E; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Paul, Dereck W; Moffatt, Lauren T; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Using a validated swine model of human scar formation, hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples were examined for their histological and optical properties to help elucidate the mechanisms and characteristics of dyspigmentation. Full-thickness wounds were created on the flanks of red Duroc pigs and allowed to heal. Biopsies from areas of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and uninjured tissue were fixed and embedded for histological examination using Azure B and primary antibodies to S100B, HMB45, and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) was then used to examine the optical properties of scars. Hyperpigmentation was first noticeable in healing wounds around weeks 2 to 3, gradually becoming darker. There was no significant difference in S100B staining for the presence of melanocytes between hyperpigmented and hypopigmented scar samples. Azure B staining of melanin was significantly greater in histological sections from hyperpigmented areas than in sections from both uninjured skin and hypopigmented scar (P < .0001). There was significantly greater staining for ?-MSH in hyperpigmented samples compared with hypopigmented samples (P = .0121), and HMB45 staining was positive for melanocytes in hyperpigmented scar. SFDI at a wavelength of 632 nm resulted in an absorption coefficient map correlating with visibly hyperpigmented areas of scars. In a red Duroc model of hypertrophic scar formation, melanocyte number is similar in hyperpigmented and hypopigmented tissues. Hyperpigmented tissues, however, show a greater amount of melanin and ?-MSH, along with immunohistochemical evidence of stimulated melanocytes. These observations encourage further investigation of melanocyte stimulation and the inflammatory environment within a wound that may influence melanocyte activity. Additionally, SFDI can be used to identify areas of melanin content in mature, pigmented scars, which may lead to its usefulness in wounds at earlier time points before markedly apparent pigmentation abnormalities. PMID:25162947

  9. Early white matter abnormalities, progressive brain pathology and motor deficits in a novel knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Peng, Qi; Hou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Mali; Wang, Xin; Langseth, Abraham J; Tao, Michael; Barker, Peter B; Mori, Susumu; Bergles, Dwight E; Ross, Christopher A; Detloff, Peter J; Zhang, Jiangyang; Duan, Wenzhen

    2015-05-01

    White matter abnormalities have been reported in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) subjects before overt striatal neuronal loss, but whether the white matter changes represent a necessary step towards further pathology and the underlying mechanism of these changes remains unknown. Here, we characterized a novel knock-in mouse model that expresses mouse HD gene homolog (Hdh) with extended CAG repeat- HdhQ250, which was derived from the selective breeding of HdhQ150 mice. HdhQ250 mice manifest an accelerated and robust phenotype compared with its parent line. HdhQ250 mice exhibit progressive motor deficits, reduction in striatal and cortical volume, accumulation of mutant huntingtin aggregation, decreased levels of DARPP32 and BDNF and altered striatal metabolites. The abnormalities detected in this mouse model are reminiscent of several aspects of human HD. In addition, disturbed myelination was evident in postnatal Day 14 HdhQ250 mouse brain, including reduced levels of myelin regulatory factor and myelin basic protein, and decreased numbers of myelinated axons in the corpus callosum. Thinner myelin sheaths, indicated by increased G-ratio of myelin, were also detected in the corpus callosum of adult HdhQ250 mice. Moreover, proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is altered by mutant huntingtin both in vitro and in vivo. Our data indicate that this model is suitable for understanding comprehensive pathogenesis of HD in white matter and gray matter as well as developing therapeutics for HD. PMID:25609071

  10. Active tactile exploration enabled by a brain-machine-brain interface

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, Joseph E.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Ifft, Peter J.; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Shokur, Solaiman; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs)1,2 use neuronal activity recorded from the brain to establish direct communication with external actuators, such as prosthetic arms. While BMIs aim to restore the normal sensorimotor functions of the limbs, so far they have lacked tactile sensation. Here we demonstrate the operation of a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI) that both controls the exploratory reaching movements of an actuator and enables the signalling of artificial tactile feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Monkeys performed an active-exploration task in which an actuator (a computer cursor or a virtual-reality hand) was moved using a BMBI that derived motor commands from neuronal ensemble activity recorded in primary motor cortex (M1). ICMS feedback occurred whenever the actuator touched virtual objects. Temporal patterns of ICMS encoded the artificial tactile properties of each object. Neuronal recordings and ICMS epochs were temporally multiplexed to avoid interference. Two monkeys operated this BMBI to search and discriminate one out of three visually undistinguishable objects, using the virtual hand to identify the unique artificial texture (AT) associated with each. These results suggest that clinical motor neuroprostheses might benefit from the addition of ICMS feedback to generate artificial somatic perceptions associated with mechanical, robotic, or even virtual prostheses. PMID:21976021

  11. Abnormal Resting-State Activities and Functional Connectivities of the Anterior and the Posterior Cortexes in Medication-Naïve Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Binbin; Luo, Chunrong; Yang, Tao; Li, Haijun; Lu, Jin; Xu, Lin; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental illness characterized by the loss of control. Because the cingulate cortex is believed to be important in executive functions, such as inhibition, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques to examine whether and how activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the cingulate cortex were altered in drug-naïve OCD patients. Methods Twenty-three medication-naïve OCD patients and 23 well-matched healthy controls received fMRI scans in a resting state. Functional connectivities of the anterior cingulate (ACC) and the posterior cingulate (PCC) to the whole brain were analyzed using correlation analyses based on regions of interest (ROI) identified by the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF). Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was used to identify the resting-state sub-networks. Results fALFF analysis found that regional activity was increased in the ACC and decreased in the PCC in OCD patients when compared to controls. FC of the ACC and the PCC also showed different patterns. The ACC and the PCC were found to belong to different resting-state sub-networks in ICA analysis and showed abnormal FC, as well as contrasting correlations with the severity of OCD symptoms. Conclusions Activity of the ACC and the PCC were increased and decreased, respectively, in the medication-naïve OCD patients compared to controls. Different patterns in FC were also found between the ACC and the PCC with respect to these two groups. These findings implied that the cardinal feature of OCD, the loss of control, may be attributed to abnormal activities and FC of the ACC and the PCC. PMID:23840714

  12. Compromised maturation of GABAergic inhibition underlies abnormal network activity in the hippocampus of epileptic Ca(2+) channel mutant mice, tottering.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Akito; Miki, Takafumi; Shimono, Ken; Oka, Hiroaki; Numata, Tomohiro; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Matsushita, Kaori; Ogura, Hiroo; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Wakamori, Minoru; Imoto, Keiji; Mori, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Cholinergically induced network activity is a useful analogue of theta rhythms involved in memory processing or epileptiform activity in the hippocampus, providing a powerful tool to elucidate the mechanisms of synchrony in neuronal networks. In absence epilepsy, although its association with cognitive impairments has been reported, the mechanisms underlying hippocampal synchrony remain poorly investigated. Here we simultaneously recorded electrical activities from 64 sites in hippocampal slices of CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channel mutant tottering (tg) mice, a well-established mouse model of spontaneous absence epilepsy, to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of cholinergically induced hippocampal network activity. The cholinergic agonist carbachol induced oscillatory discharges originating from the CA3 region. In tg/tg mice, this hippocampal network activity was characterized by enhanced occupancy of discharges of relatively high frequency (6-10 Hz) compared to the wild type. Pharmacological analyses of slices, patch clamp electrophysiological characterization of isolated neurons, and altered patterns of hippocampal GABAA receptor subunit and Cl(-) transporter messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels revealed that this abnormality is attributable to a developmental retardation of GABAergic inhibition caused by immature intracellular Cl(-) regulation. These results suggest that the inherited CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channel mutation leads to developmental abnormalities in Cl(-) transporter expression and GABAA receptor compositions in hippocampal neurons and that compromised maturation of GABAergic inhibition contributes to the abnormal synchrony in the hippocampus of tg absence epileptic mice. PMID:24947601

  13. Composition and On Demand Deployment of Distributed Brain Activity Analysis Application on Global Grids

    E-print Network

    Abramson, David

    1 Composition and On Demand Deployment of Distributed Brain Activity Analysis Application on Global are brain science and high-energy physics. The analysis of brain activity data gathered from the MEG and analyze brain functions and requires access to large-scale computational resources. The potential platform

  14. BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF BOBWHITE ACUTELY EXPOSED TO CHLORPYRIFOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, were orally dosed with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to examine effects on brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity. wo-week-old quail were acutely exposed and euthanized at selected times following gavage-dosing, ranging from 1...

  15. Working Memory Training: Improving Intelligence--Changing Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…

  16. Measurement of brain activity using optical and electrical method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Saito; Alexsandr Ianov; Yoshiyuki Sankai

    2009-01-01

    There are patients that cannot produce bioelectric signals such as patients with advanced stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis or that have suffered severe spinal cord injury, are unable to use assistive devices such as the exoskeleton HAL. This paper proposes a non-invasive brain activity scanning method for collecting the patient's movement intentions by developing a hybrid sensor that can measure

  17. Influence of endocrine active compounds on the developing rodent brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather B. Patisaul; Eva K. Polston

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. Therefore, an experimental approach that simultaneously assesses anatomical, physiological and behavioral endpoints is required when developing risk assessment models for EAC exposure.

  18. Chondroitinase Enhances Cortical Map Plasticity and Increases Functionally Active Sprouting Axons after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Marcia S.M.; Verley, Derek R.; Sutton, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The beneficial effect of interventions with chondroitinase ABC enzyme to reduce axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate side chains after central nervous system injuries has been mainly attributed to enhanced axonal sprouting. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether newly sprouting axons that occur as a result of interventional strategies are able to functionally contribute to existing circuitry, and it is uncertain whether maladaptive sprouting occurs to increase the well-known risk for seizure activity after TBI. Here, we show that after a controlled cortical impact injury in rats, chondroitinase infusion into injured cortex at 30?min and 3 days reduced c-Fos+ cell staining resulting from the injury alone at 1 week postinjury, indicating that at baseline, abnormal spontaneous activity is likely to be reduced, not increased, with this type of intervention. c-Fos+ cell staining elicited by neural activity from stimulation of the affected forelimb 1 week after injury was significantly enhanced by chondroitinase, indicating a widespread effect on cortical map plasticity. Underlying this map plasticity was a larger contribution of neuronal, rather than glial cells and an absence of c-Fos+ cells surrounded by perineuronal nets that were normally present in stimulated naïve rats. After injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion produced the expected increase in growth-associated protein 43–positive axons and perikarya, of which a significantly greater number were double labeled for c-Fos after intervention with chondroitinase, compared to vehicle. These data indicate that chondroitinase produces significant gains in cortical map plasticity after TBI, and that either axonal sprouting and/or changes in perineuronal nets may underlie this effect. Chondroitinase dampens, rather than increases nonspecific c-Fos activity after brain injury, and induction of axonal sprouting is not maladaptive because greater numbers are functionally active and provide a significant contribution to forelimb circuitry after brain injury. PMID:23517225

  19. Automatic Diagnosis of Abnormal Tumor Region from Brain Computed Tomography Images Using Wavelet Based Statistical Texture Features

    E-print Network

    Padma, A

    2011-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is to achieve the tissue classification and automatically diagnosis the abnormal tumor region present in Computed Tomography (CT) images using the wavelet based statistical texture analysis method. Comparative studies of texture analysis method are performed for the proposed wavelet based texture analysis method and Spatial Gray Level Dependence Method (SGLDM). Our proposed system consists of four phases i) Discrete Wavelet Decomposition (ii) Feature extraction (iii) Feature selection (iv) Analysis of extracted texture features by classifier. A wavelet based statistical texture feature set is derived from normal and tumor regions. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to select the optimal texture features from the set of extracted texture features. We construct the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier and evaluate the performance of classifier by comparing the classification results of the SVM based classifier with the Back Propagation Neural network classifier(BPN...

  20. Describing brain activity of persons with AD and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Holston, Ezra C

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this retrospective pilot study was to characterize depression of AD using electrophysiological changes in the brain activity of persons with AD and depressive symptoms. Participants had a mean age of 70.12±12.68. Participants manifested an increase in absolute/relative theta activity (p=.000) over entire brain when compared to normative population-based database. Electrophysiological changes did not differ by age or gender except for increased absolute theta activity in the right lateral frontal areas (t-test=-2.31 to -2.39, p=.04) in females. An increased theta activity suggests that depressive symptoms may be part of AD symptomatology, not a co-morbid feature. PMID:25457693

  1. Motor impairments related to brain injury timing in early hemiparesis Part II: abnormal upper extremity joint torque synergies

    PubMed Central

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah J.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive neuromotor development occurs early in human life, and the timing of brain injury may affect the resulting motor impairment. In part I of this paper series it was demonstrated that the distribution of weakness in the upper extremity depended on the timing of brain injury in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis. Objective The goal of this study was to characterize how timing of brain injury impacts joint torque synergies, or losses of independent joint control. Method Twenty-four individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three groups based on the timing of their injury: before birth (PRE-natal, n=8), around the time of birth (PERI-natal, n=8) and after 6 months of age (POST-natal, n=8). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 8 typically developing peers participated in maximal isometric shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger torque generation tasks while their efforts were recorded by a multiple degree-of-freedom load cell. Motor output in 4 joints of the upper extremity were concurrently measured during 8 primary torque generation tasks to quantify joint torque synergies. Results There were a number of significant coupling patterns identified in individuals with hemiparesis that differed from the typically developing group. POST-natal differences were most noted in the coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, while the PRE-natal group demonstrated significant distal joint coupling with elbow flexion. Conclusion The torque synergies measured provide indirect evidence for the use of bulbospinal pathways in the POST-natal group, while those with earlier injury may utilize relatively preserved ipsilateral corticospinal motor pathways. PMID:23911972

  2. Whole-brain gray matter volume abnormalities in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chung-Man; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2014-02-12

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience psychological distress because of excessive and uncontrollable anxiety in everyday life. Only a few morphological studies have so far focused on specific brain regions of interest as well as the gray matter volume changes in GAD patients. This study evaluated gray matter volume alterations in whole-brain areas between GAD patients and healthy controls, and sex differences between the specific brain areas with significant volume changes in GAD patients using voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-two patients with GAD (13 men and nine women), who were diagnosed using the DSM-IV-TR, and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 men and nine women) participated in this study. The high-resolution MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry analysis on the basis of diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. There was no significant difference in the total intracranial volume between GAD patients and controls, but a significant difference was observed between sexes (P<0.05). Patients with GAD showed significant volume reductions in the hippocampus, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls. As for the sex comparison, female patients showed a significant increase in the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to male patients. Also, the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in female patients was correlated positively with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score (?=0.68, P=0.04). The specific morphological variations in patient with GAD will be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with a symptom of GAD. Furthermore, the findings would be valuable for the diagnostic accuracy of GAD using morphometric MRI analysis. PMID:24476839

  3. Brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  4. Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

    This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

  5. Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

  6. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  7. Patterns of Regional Brain Activity in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects: BRAIN ACTIVITY IN ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT SUBJECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth P. Hayden; Ryan E. Wiegand; Eric T. Meyer; Lance O. Bauer; Sean J. O'Connor; John I. Nurnberger Jr; David B. Chorlian; Bernice Porjesz; Henri Begleiter

    2006-01-01

    Background: Electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of hemispheric asymmetry in anterior brain activity have been related to a variety of indices of psychopathology and emotionality. How- ever, little is known about patterns of frontal asymmetry in alcohol-dependent (AD) samples. It is also unclear whether psychiatric comorbidity in AD subjects accounts for additional variance in frontal asymmetry, beyond a diagnosis of AD alone.

  8. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations between breastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method – exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternal brain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world. PMID:21501165

  9. 3beta-HSD activates DHEA in the songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Schlinger, Barney A; Pradhan, Devaleena S; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant circulating prohormone in humans, with a variety of reported actions on central and peripheral tissues. Despite its abundance, the functions of DHEA are relatively unknown because common animal models (laboratory rats and mice) have very low DHEA levels in the blood. Over the past decade, we have obtained considerable evidence from avian studies demonstrating that (1) DHEA is an important circulating prohormone in songbirds and (2) the enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3beta-HSD), responsible for converting DHEA into a more active androgen, is expressed at high levels in the songbird brain. Here, we first review biochemical and molecular studies demonstrating the widespread activity and expression of 3beta-HSD in the adult and developing songbird brain. Studies examining neural 3beta-HSD activity show effects of sex, stress, and season that are region-specific. Second, we review studies showing seasonal and stress-related changes in circulating DHEA in captive and wild songbird species. Third, we describe evidence that DHEA treatment can stimulate song behavior and the growth of neural circuits controlling song behavior. Importantly, brain 3beta-HSD and aromatase can work in concert to locally metabolize DHEA into active androgens and estrogens, which are critical for controlling behavior and robust adult neuroplasticity in songbirds. DHEA is likely secreted by the avian gonads and/or adrenals, as is the case in humans, but DHEA may also be synthesized de novo in the songbird brain from cholesterol or other precursors. Irrespective of its source, DHEA seems to be an important prohormone in songbirds, and 3beta-HSD is a key enzyme in the songbird brain. PMID:17643555

  10. Abnormal relationship between sodium intake and sympathetic nervous system activity in salt-sensitive patients with essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vito M Campese; Mark S Romoff; Daniel Levitan; Yahya Saglikes; Robert M Friedler; Shaul G Massry

    1982-01-01

    Abnormal relationship between sodium intake and sympathetic nervous system activity in salt-sensitive patients with essential hypertension. To examine the mechanisms underlying the sensitivity to sodium intake in a subset of patients with essential hypertension, we studied the effects of different sodium intake (10, 100, 200 mEq\\/day) on blood pressure, the function of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and on blood levels of

  11. Somatic activation of AKT3 causes hemispheric developmental brain malformations.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D; Cai, Xuyu; Elhosary, Princess Christina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lehtinen, Maria K; Hills, L Benjamin; Heinzen, Erin L; Hill, Anthony; Hill, R Sean; Barry, Brenda J; Bourgeois, Blaise F D; Riviello, James J; Barkovich, A James; Black, Peter M; Ligon, Keith L; Walsh, Christopher A

    2012-04-12

    Hemimegalencephaly (HMG) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged, malformed cerebral hemisphere, typically causing epilepsy that requires surgical resection. We studied resected HMG tissue to test whether the condition might reflect somatic mutations affecting genes critical to brain development. We found that two out of eight HMG samples showed trisomy of chromosome 1q, which encompasses many genes, including AKT3, a gene known to regulate brain size. A third case showed a known activating mutation in AKT3 (c.49G?A, creating p.E17K) that was not present in the patient's blood cells. Remarkably, the E17K mutation in AKT3 is exactly paralogous to E17K mutations in AKT1 and AKT2 recently discovered in somatic overgrowth syndromes. We show that AKT3 is the most abundant AKT paralog in the brain during neurogenesis and that phosphorylated AKT is abundant in cortical progenitor cells. Our data suggest that somatic mutations limited to the brain could represent an important cause of complex neurogenetic disease. PMID:22500628

  12. Somatic Activation of AKT3 Causes Hemispheric Developmental Brain Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Elhosary, Princess Christina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Hills, L. Benjamin; Heinzen, Erin L.; Hill, Anthony; Hill, R. Sean; Barry, Brenda J.; Bourgeois, Blaise F.D.; Riviello, James J.; Barkovich, A. James; Black, Peter M.; Ligon, Keith L.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hemimegalencephaly (HMG) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged, malformed cerebral hemisphere, typically causing epilepsy that requires surgical resection. We studied resected HMG tissue to test whether the condition might reflect somatic mutations affecting genes critical to brain development. We found that 2/8 HMG samples showed trisomy of chromosome 1q, encompassing many genes, including AKT3, which is known to regulate brain size. A third case showed a known activating mutation in AKT3 (c.49G?A, creating p.E17K) that was not present in the patient’s blood cells. Remarkably, the E17K mutation in AKT3 is exactly paralogous to E17K mutations in AKT1 and AKT2 recently discovered in somatic overgrowth syndromes. We show that AKT3 is the most abundant AKT paralogue in brain during neurogenesis and that phosphorylated AKT is abundant in cortical progenitor cells. Our data suggest that somatic mutations limited to brain could represent an important cause of complex neurogenetic disease. PMID:22500628

  13. Semiparametric detection of significant activation for brain fMRI

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Chunming

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) aims to locate activated regions in human brains when specific tasks are performed. The conventional tool for analyzing fMRI data applies some variant of the linear model, which is restrictive in modeling assumptions. To yield more accurate prediction of the time-course behavior of neuronal responses, the semiparametric inference for the underlying hemodynamic response function is developed to identify significantly activated voxels. Under mild regularity conditions, we demonstrate that a class of the proposed semiparametric test statistics, based on the local linear estimation technique, follow $\\chi^2$ distributions under null hypotheses for a number of useful hypotheses. Furthermore, the asymptotic power functions of the constructed tests are derived under the fixed and contiguous alternatives. Simulation evaluations and real fMRI data application suggest that the semiparametric inference procedure provides more efficient detection of activated brain areas than ...

  14. Alteration of Interictal Brain Activity in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in the Left Dominant Hemisphere: A Resting-State MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Zhao, Tiezhu; Wu, Yong; Liu, Hongyi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Resting MEG activities were compared between patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and normal controls. Using SAMg2, the activities of MEG data were reconstructed and normalized. Significantly elevated SAMg2 signals were found in LTLE patients in the left temporal lobe and medial structures. Marked decreases of SAMg2 signals were found in the wide extratemporal lobe regions, such as the bilateral visual cortex. The study also demonstrated a positive correlation between the seizure frequency and brain activities of the abnormal regions after the multiple linear regression analysis. These results suggested that the aberrant brain activities not only were related to the epileptogenic zones, but also existed in other extratemporal regions in patients with LTLE. The activities of the aberrant regions could be further damaged with the increase of the seizure frequency. Our findings indicated that LTLE could be a multifocal disease, including complex epileptic networks and brain dysfunction networks. PMID:25136558

  15. Temporally-independent functional modes of spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen M; Miller, Karla L; Moeller, Steen; Xu, Junqian; Auerbach, Edward J; Woolrich, Mark W; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Andersson, Jesper; Glasser, Matthew F; Van Essen, David C; Feinberg, David A; Yacoub, Essa S; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2012-02-21

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has become a powerful tool for the study of functional networks in the brain. Even "at rest," the brain's different functional networks spontaneously fluctuate in their activity level; each network's spatial extent can therefore be mapped by finding temporal correlations between its different subregions. Current correlation-based approaches measure the average functional connectivity between regions, but this average is less meaningful for regions that are part of multiple networks; one ideally wants a network model that explicitly allows overlap, for example, allowing a region's activity pattern to reflect one network's activity some of the time, and another network's activity at other times. However, even those approaches that do allow overlap have often maximized mutual spatial independence, which may be suboptimal if distinct networks have significant overlap. In this work, we identify functionally distinct networks by virtue of their temporal independence, taking advantage of the additional temporal richness available via improvements in functional magnetic resonance imaging sampling rate. We identify multiple "temporal functional modes," including several that subdivide the default-mode network (and the regions anticorrelated with it) into several functionally distinct, spatially overlapping, networks, each with its own pattern of correlations and anticorrelations. These functionally distinct modes of spontaneous brain activity are, in general, quite different from resting-state networks previously reported, and may have greater biological interpretability. PMID:22323591

  16. Brain activity during stepping: a novel MRI-compatible device.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Vallery, Heike; Wolf, Peter; Dietz, Volker; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert

    2011-09-30

    Little is known about the impact of supraspinal centers on the control of human locomotion. Analyzing brain activity can help to clarify their impact and to improve the effects of locomotor training. A fMRI-compatible pneumatic robotic device is presented that can generate freely programmable, highly repetitive periodic active and passive leg movements comprised by hip, knee, and ankle joint displacements. Forces of up to 400N can be applied to each foot while the subject is lying in a supine position. Magnetic interference of the device with the magnetic field of the scanner is measurable, but does not affect the image quality as obtained by a usual image analysis procedure. In a first experiment, brain activity of one healthy subject was acquired during nine different gait-like movement conditions. Brain activity in the somatosensory and motor function related areas increased more when the subject actively moved the legs than when the legs were passively moved by the device. In almost all conditions, mean head motion could be limited to 2mm within the duration of one fMRI scan by a specifically developed head and trunk fixation system. Based on these results, it is concluded that our device will significantly contribute to a better understanding of human locomotor control and related therapeutic effects in spinal cord injured and stroke patients, and thereby, to improve training approaches. PMID:21827788

  17. Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Chang, Catie; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent fMRI studies have shown that analysis of the human brain's spontaneous activity may provide a powerful approach to reveal its functional organization. Dedicated methods have been proposed to investigate co-variation of signals from different brain regions, with the goal of revealing neuronal networks (NNs) that may serve specialized functions. However, these analysis methods generally do not take into account a potential non-stationary (variable) interaction between brain regions, and as a result have limited effectiveness. To address this, we propose a novel analysis method that uses clustering analysis to sort and selectively average fMRI activity time frames to produce a set of co-activation patterns. Compared to the established networks extracted with conventional analysis methods, these co-activation patterns demonstrate novel network features with apparent relevance to the brain's functional organization. PMID:24550788

  18. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  19. Fast transient networks in spontaneous human brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Adam P; Brookes, Matthew J; Rezek, Iead A; Smith, Stephen M; Behrens, Timothy; Probert Smith, Penny J; Woolrich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To provide an effective substrate for cognitive processes, functional brain networks should be able to reorganize and coordinate on a sub-second temporal scale. We used magnetoencephalography recordings of spontaneous activity to characterize whole-brain functional connectivity dynamics at high temporal resolution. Using a novel approach that identifies the points in time at which unique patterns of activity recur, we reveal transient (100–200 ms) brain states with spatial topographies similar to those of well-known resting state networks. By assessing temporal changes in the occurrence of these states, we demonstrate that within-network functional connectivity is underpinned by coordinated neuronal dynamics that fluctuate much more rapidly than has previously been shown. We further evaluate cross-network interactions, and show that anticorrelation between the default mode network and parietal regions of the dorsal attention network is consistent with an inability of the system to transition directly between two transient brain states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01867.001 PMID:24668169

  20. Contributions of glycogen to astrocytic energetics during brain activation.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2015-02-01

    Glycogen is the major store of glucose in brain and is mainly in astrocytes. Brain glycogen levels in unstimulated, carefully-handled rats are 10-12 ?mol/g, and assuming that astrocytes account for half the brain mass, astrocytic glycogen content is twice as high. Glycogen turnover is slow under basal conditions, but it is mobilized during activation. There is no net increase in incorporation of label from glucose during activation, whereas label release from pre-labeled glycogen exceeds net glycogen consumption, which increases during stronger stimuli. Because glycogen level is restored by non-oxidative metabolism, astrocytes can influence the global ratio of oxygen to glucose utilization. Compensatory increases in utilization of blood glucose during inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase are large and approximate glycogenolysis rates during sensory stimulation. In contrast, glycogenolysis rates during hypoglycemia are low due to continued glucose delivery and oxidation of endogenous substrates; rates that preserve neuronal function in the absence of glucose are also low, probably due to metabolite oxidation. Modeling studies predict that glycogenolysis maintains a high level of glucose-6-phosphate in astrocytes to maintain feedback inhibition of hexokinase, thereby diverting glucose for use by neurons. The fate of glycogen carbon in vivo is not known, but lactate efflux from brain best accounts for the major metabolic characteristics during activation of living brain. Substantial shuttling coupled with oxidation of glycogen-derived lactate is inconsistent with available evidence. Glycogen has important roles in astrocytic energetics, including glucose sparing, control of extracellular K(+) level, oxidative stress management, and memory consolidation; it is a multi-functional compound. PMID:24515302

  1. Brain cholinesterase activity of apparently normal wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.

  2. Sleep after spatial learning promotes covert reorganization of brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Orban, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sleep promotes the integration of recently acquired spatial memories into cerebral networks for the long term. In this study, we examined how sleep deprivation hinders this consolidation process. Using functional MRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during place-finding navigation in a virtual town, immediately after learning and 3 days later, in subjects either allowed regular sleep (RS) or totally sleep-deprived (TSD) on the first posttraining night. At immediate and delayed retrieval, place-finding navigation elicited increased brain activity in an extended hippocampo-neocortical network in both RS and TSD subjects. Behavioral performance was equivalent between groups. However, striatal navigation-related activity increased more at delayed retrieval in RS than in TSD subjects. Furthermore, correlations between striatal response and behavioral performance, as well as functional connectivity between the striatum and the hippocampus, were modulated by posttraining sleep. These data suggest that brain activity is restructured during sleep in such a way that navigation in the virtual environment, initially related to a hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy, becomes progressively contingent in part on a response-based strategy mediated by the striatum. Both neural strategies eventually relate to equivalent performance levels, indicating that covert reorganization of brain patterns underlying navigation after sleep is not necessarily accompanied by overt changes in behavior. PMID:16636288

  3. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  4. Neuroimaging and Neuroenergetics: Brain Activations as Information-Driven Reorganization of Energy Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelnikov, Kuzma

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…

  5. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  6. Modelling Alzheimer-specific abnormal Tau phosphorylation independently of GSK3? and PKA kinase activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Delobel; S Flament; M Hamdane; A Delacourte; J. P Vilain; L Buée

    2002-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease, neurofibrillary degeneration results from the aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated Tau proteins into paired helical filaments. These Tau variants displayed specific epitopes that are immunoreactive with anti-phospho-Tau antibodies such as AT100. As shown in in vitro experiments, glycogen synthase kinase 3 ? (GSK3?) and protein kinase A (PKA) may be key kinases in these phosphorylation events. In the

  7. Human brain activity with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingming; Chance, Britton

    1999-09-01

    Human brain activity was studied with a real time functional Near-InfraRed Imager (fNIRI). The imager has 16 measurement channels and covers 4 cm by 9 cm detection area. Brain activities in occipital, motor and prefrontal area were studied with the fNIRI. In prefrontal stimulation, language cognition, analogies, forming memory for new associations, emotional thinking, and mental arithmetic were carried out. Experimental results measured with fNIRI are demonstrated in this paper. It was shown that fNIRI technique is able to reveal the occipital activity during visual stimulation, and co-register well with results of fMRI in the motor cortex activity during finger tapping. In the studies of the effects of left prefrontal lobe on forming memory for new associations, it is shown that left prefrontal lobe activated more under deep conditions than that under shallow encoding, especially the dorsal part. In the studies of emotional thinking, it was shown that the responses were different between positive- negative emotional thinking and negative-positive emotional thinking. In mental arithmetic studies, higher activation was found in the first task than in the second, regardless of the difficulty, and higher activation was measured in subtraction of 17 than in subtraction of 3.

  8. Noise in brain activity engenders perception and influences discrimination sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; De Lucia, Marzia; Tzovara, Athina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Murray, Micah M; Spierer, Lucas

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral and brain responses to identical stimuli can vary with experimental and task parameters, including the context of stimulus presentation or attention. More surprisingly, computational models suggest that noise-related random fluctuations in brain responses to stimuli would alone be sufficient to engender perceptual differences between physically identical stimuli. In two experiments combining psychophysics and EEG in healthy humans, we investigated brain mechanisms whereby identical stimuli are (erroneously) perceived as different (higher vs lower in pitch or longer vs shorter in duration) in the absence of any change in the experimental context. Even though, as expected, participants' percepts to identical stimuli varied randomly, a classification algorithm based on a mixture of Gaussians model (GMM) showed that there was sufficient information in single-trial EEG to reliably predict participants' judgments of the stimulus dimension. By contrasting electrical neuroimaging analyses of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to the identical stimuli as a function of participants' percepts, we identified the precise timing and neural correlates (strength vs topographic modulations) as well as intracranial sources of these erroneous perceptions. In both experiments, AEP differences first occurred ~100 ms after stimulus onset and were the result of topographic modulations following from changes in the configuration of active brain networks. Source estimations localized the origin of variations in perceived pitch of identical stimuli within right temporal and left frontal areas and of variations in perceived duration within right temporoparietal areas. We discuss our results in terms of providing neurophysiologic evidence for the contribution of random fluctuations in brain activity to conscious perception. PMID:22159111

  9. PI and PIP kinase activities in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Jr. Stubbs; G. Y. Sun

    1986-01-01

    Much attention has been directed towards elucidating the mechanisms by which receptor-mediated metabolism of polyphosphoinositides occur, while little is known about the regulation of the PI and PIP kinases. In this study, a plasma membrane fraction isolated from rat brain was assayed for PI and PIP-kinase activities employing ³²P-ATP in an incubation system similar to that described by Jolles, et

  10. An abnormal but functionally active complement component C9 protein found in an Irish family with subtotal C9 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Orren, Ann; O'Hara, Ann M; Morgan, B Paul; Moran, Anthony P; Würzner, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Two independently segregating C9 genetic defects have previously been reported in two siblings in an Irish family with subtotal C9 deficiency. One defect would lead to an abnormal C9 protein, with replacement of a cysteine by a glycine (C98G). The second defect is a premature stop codon at amino acid 406 which would lead to a truncated C9. However, at least one of two abnormal proteins was present in the circulation of the proband at 0·2% of normal C9 concentration. In this study, the abnormal protein was shown to have a molecular weight approximately equal to that of normal C9, and to carry the binding site for monoclonal antibody (mAb) Mc42 which is known to react with an epitope at amino acid positions 412–426, distal to 406. Therefore, the subtotal C9 protein carries the C98G defect. The protein was incorporated into the terminal complement complex, and was active in haemolytic, bactericidal and lipopolysaccharide release assays. A quantitative haemolytic assay indicated even slightly greater haemolytic efficiency than normal C9. Epitope mapping with six antihuman C9 mAbs showed the abnormal protein to react to these antibodies in the same way as normal C9. However, none of these mAbs have epitopes within the lipoprotein receptor A module, where the C98G defect is located. The role of this region in C9 functionality is still unclear. In conclusion, we have shown that the lack of a cysteine led to the production of a protein present in the circulation at very much reduced levels, but which was fully functionally active. PMID:12603605

  11. Tracking of EEG activity using motion estimation to understand brain wiring.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Humaira; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ullah, Rafi; Shim, Seong-O; Bawakid, Abdullah; Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Subhani, Ahmad Rauf

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental step in brain research deals with recording electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and then investigating the recorded signals quantitatively. Topographic EEG (visual spatial representation of EEG signal) is commonly referred to as brain topomaps or brain EEG maps. In this chapter, full search full search block motion estimation algorithm has been employed to track the brain activity in brain topomaps to understand the mechanism of brain wiring. The behavior of EEG topomaps is examined throughout a particular brain activation with respect to time. Motion vectors are used to track the brain activation over the scalp during the activation period. Using motion estimation it is possible to track the path from the starting point of activation to the final point of activation. Thus it is possible to track the path of a signal across various lobes. PMID:25381107

  12. Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.

    PubMed

    Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

    2014-03-01

    Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

  13. Individual Variability in Brain Activity: A Nuisance or an Opportunity?

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Grafton, Scott T.; Miller, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Functional imaging research has been heavily influenced by results based on population-level inference. However, group average results may belie the unique patterns of activity present in the individual that ordinarily are considered random noise. Recent advances in the evolution of MRI hardware have led to significant improvements in the stability and reproducibility of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) measurements. These enhancements provide a unique opportunity for closer examination of individual patterns of brain activity. Three objectives can be accomplished by considering brain scans at the individual level; (1) Mapping functional anatomy at a fine grained analysis; (2) Determining if an individual scan is normative with respect to a reference population; and (3) Understanding the sources of intersubject variability in brain activity. In this review, we detail these objectives, briefly discuss their histories and present recent trends in the analyses of individual variability. Finally, we emphasize the unique opportunities and challenges for understanding individual differences through international collaboration among Pacific Rim investigators. PMID:19777073

  14. The brain in micro- and hypergravity: the effects of changing gravity on the brain electrocortical activity.

    PubMed

    Maruši?, Uroš; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado; Kavcic, Voyko

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of increased and decreased gravity on central nervous system is essential for developing proper physical and cognitive countermeasures to assure safe and effective space missions and human survival in space. This short review covers the available literature on the brain electrocortical activity effects of decreased and increased gravitational force comparing to the 1g Earth conditions. Among all neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the electroencephalography (EEG) was found to be suitable method to monitor brain electrocortical activity in the extreme environments. Due to complexity and high cost of space flight missions, ground-based models have been employed to simulate microgravity effects on human body. Surprisingly, there is very limited number of publications reporting gravity-dependent EEG spectral changes. With increased gravity there are initially increased EEG activity in higher frequencies and at around 4 g appears loss of consciousness with accompanying slowing of EEG due to hypoxia. In microgravity, the most prevalent changes in EEG are faster frequencies such as alpha and beta. The results from simulated microgravity (bed rest) are pointing to changes in theta and alpha, representing signs of cortical inhibition. The changes in EEG activity in space flight are attributed to a decreased sensorimotor input while in parabolic flights short and fast transitions from hyper to microgravity presumably reflect lower arousal levels and emotional processes in microgravity. Thus, based on limited research about gravity-related changes in EEG from different environments it is difficult to draw any unequivocal conclusions. Additional systematic studies about electrocortical activity in space and parabolic flights, as well as longer bed rest studies are needed in order to advance knowledge about brain functioning in extreme conditions such as space flights. PMID:24734884

  15. Brain activity in adults who stutter: similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Roger J; Grafton, Scott T; Bothe, Anne K; Ingham, Janis C

    2012-07-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n=18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n=12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749

  16. abnormalities in infants and toddlers

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    Cerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome children with Williams syndrome. Clinical brain MRI was examined in nine young children with Williams

  17. Brain Mechanical Property Measurement Using MRE with Intrinsic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Addressed Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. Methodology A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. Results, Significance and Potential Impact The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of 6 asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MR elastography to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination. PMID:23079508

  18. Brain mechanical property measurement using MRE with intrinsic activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, John B.; Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-11-01

    Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of six asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MRE to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination.

  19. Exploring the network dynamics underlying brain activity during rest.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Joana; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo

    2014-03-01

    Since the mid 1990s, the intriguing dynamics of the brain at rest has been attracting a growing body of research in neuroscience. Neuroimaging studies have revealed distinct functional networks that slowly activate and deactivate, pointing to the existence of an underlying network dynamics emerging spontaneously during rest, with specific spatial, temporal and spectral characteristics. Several theoretical scenarios have been proposed and tested with the use of large-scale computational models of coupled brain areas. However, a mechanistic explanation that encompasses all the phenomena observed in the brain during rest is still to come. In this review, we provide an overview of the key findings of resting-state activity covering a range of neuroimaging modalities including fMRI, EEG and MEG. We describe how to best define and analyze anatomical and functional brain networks and how unbalancing these networks may lead to problems with mental health. Finally, we review existing large-scale models of resting-state dynamics in health and disease. An important common feature of resting-state models is that the emergence of resting-state functional networks is obtained when the model parameters are such that the system operates at the edge of a bifurcation. At this critical working point, the global network dynamics reveals correlation patterns that are spatially shaped by the underlying anatomical structure, leading to an optimal fit with the empirical BOLD functional connectivity. However, new insights coming from recent studies, including faster oscillatory dynamics and non-stationary functional connectivity, must be taken into account in future models to fully understand the network mechanisms leading to the resting-state activity. PMID:24389385

  20. Pattern of brain activation during social cognitive tasks is related to social competence in siblings discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Mirta F; Drucaroff, Lucas J; Goldschmidt, Micaela G; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Castro, Mariana N; Ladrón-de-Guevara, M Soledad; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2014-09-01

    Measures of social competence are closely related to actual community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying competence in schizophrenia are not fully understood. We hypothesized that social deficits in schizophrenia are explained, at least in part, by abnormally lateralized patterns of brain activation in response to tasks engaging social cognition, as compared to healthy individuals. We predicted such patterns would be partly heritable, and therefore affected in patients' nonpsychotic siblings as well. We used a functional magnetic resonance image paradigm to characterize brain activation induced by theory of mind tasks, and two tests of social competence, the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS), and the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) in siblings discordant for schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls (n = 14 per group). Healthy individuals showed the strongest correlation between social competence and activation of right hemisphere structures involved in social cognitive processing, whereas in patients, the correlation pattern was lateralized to left hemisphere areas. Unaffected siblings of patients exhibited a pattern intermediate between the other groups. These results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal functioning of nondominant hemisphere structures involved in the processing of socially salient information. PMID:24927685

  1. Abnormal neuronal and glial argyrophilic fibrillary structures in the brain of an aged albino cynomolgus monkey ( Macaca fascicularis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wijit Kiatipattanasakul; Hiroyuki Nakayama; Supattra Yongsiri; Somchai Chotiapisitkul; Shin’ichiro Nakamura; Hideaki Kojima; K. Doi

    2000-01-01

    An aged albino male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) more than 35 years old died after showing neurological signs including gait disturbance, trembling, drowsing tendency and\\u000a a decrease in activity. Neuropathological examination revealed glial fibrillary tangles (GFTs) mainly distributed in the putamen,\\u000a caudate nucleus, thalamic nuclei, substantia nigra, red nucleus, globus pallidus, trapezoid body, pyramid, pons and medulla\\u000a oblongata of the

  2. Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeremy; Vladimirov, Nikita; Kawashima, Takashi; Mu, Yu; Sofroniew, Nicholas J; Bennett, Davis V; Rosen, Joshua; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Looger, Loren L; Ahrens, Misha B

    2014-09-01

    Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights. PMID:25068736

  3. Restraint stress activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive brain nuclei in rats

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Miriam; Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a newly discovered peptide that was reported to reduce food intake when injected centrally. We recently described its wide distribution in rat brain autonomic nuclei which implies potential recruitment of nesfatin-1 by stress. We investigated whether restraint, a mixed psychological and physical stressor activates nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were either subjected to 30 min restraint or left undisturbed and 90 min later brains were processed for double immunohistochemical labeling of Fos and nesfatin-1. Restraint induced significant Fos expression in neurons of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Double Fos/nesfatin-1 labeling revealed that Fos-ir neurons comprised 95% of nesfatin-1-ir cells in the SON, 90% in the VLM, 80% in the LC, 48% in the caudal NTS, 57% in the rRPa, 48% in the anterior parvicellular PVN, 27% in the medial magnocellular PVN, 18% in the lateral magnocellular PVN and 10% in the medial parvicellular PVN. These data demonstrate that nesfatin-1 neurons are part of the hypothalamic and hindbrain neuronal cell groups activated by restraint suggesting a possible role of nesfatin-1 in the response to stress. PMID:19733157

  4. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  5. Decoding human brain activity during real-world experiences.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2007-08-01

    The human brain evolved to function and survive in a highly stimulating, complex and fast-changing world. Attempting to ascertain the neural substrates of operating in naturalistic contexts represents a huge challenge. Recently, however, researchers have begun to use several innovative analysis methods to interrogate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected during dynamic naturalistic tasks. Central to these new developments is the inventive approach taken to segregating neural activity linked to specific events within the overall continuous stream of complex stimulation. In this review, we discuss the recent literature, detailing the key studies and their methods. These analytical techniques can be applied in a wide range of cognitive domains and, thus, offer exciting new opportunities for gaining insights into the brain bases of thoughts and behaviours in the real-world setting where they normally occur. PMID:17618161

  6. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dammers, Jürgen, E-mail: J.Dammers@fz-juelich.de; Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Jon Shah, N. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA)—Translational Brain Medicine, Jülich (Germany)

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  7. Brain Activity and Functional Coupling Changes Associated with Self-Reference Effect during Both

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Brain Activity and Functional Coupling Changes Associated with Self-Reference Effect during Both of the present work was thus to highlight brain changes associated with SRE in terms of activity and functional compared to a semantic control condition. We found that SRE was associated with brain changes during

  8. Time-Invariant Person-Specific Frequency Templates in Human Brain Activity Itai Doron,1

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    Time-Invariant Person-Specific Frequency Templates in Human Brain Activity Itai Doron,1 Eyal Hulata (Received 18 January 2006; published 26 June 2006) The various human brain tasks are performed at different) partitioning of the brain activity into personal state-specific frequency bands. For that, we perform temporal

  9. Neuroimaging and neuroenergetics: Brain activations as information-driven reorganization of energy flows

    E-print Network

    Neuroimaging and neuroenergetics: Brain activations as information-driven reorganization of energy 25 January 2010 Keywords: Neuroimaging Neuroenergetics Brain activation Cortical response Deviance detection a b s t r a c t There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain

  10. Exploring the network dynamics underlying brain activity during rest Joana Cabral a,b,

    E-print Network

    Deco, Gustavo

    Exploring the network dynamics underlying brain activity during rest§ Joana Cabral a,b, *, Morten L. Kringelbach b,c , Gustavo Deco a,d a Theoretical and Computational Neuroscience Group, Center of Brain Recerca i Estudis Avanc¸ats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain Contents 1. Brain activity during rest

  11. Categories and Functional Units: An Infinite Hierarchical Model for Brain Activations

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    Categories and Functional Units: An Infinite Hierarchical Model for Brain Activations Danial present a model that describes the structure in the responses of different brain areas to a set of stimuli encodes the relationship between brain activations and fMRI time courses. A variational inference

  12. Memory for performed and observed activities following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Matthew J.; Wong, Andrew L.; Obermeit, Lisa C.; Woo, Ellen; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Fuster, Joaquín M.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with deficits in memory for the content of completed activities. However, TBI groups have shown variable memory for the temporal order of activities. We sought to clarify the conditions under which temporal order memory for activities is intact following TBI. Additionally, we evaluated activity source memory and the relationship between activity memory and functional outcome in TBI participants. Thus, we completed a study of activity memory with 18 severe TBI survivors and 18 healthy age- and education-matched comparison participants. Both groups performed eight activities and observed eight activities that were fashioned after routine daily tasks. Incidental encoding conditions for activities were utilized. The activities were drawn from two counterbalanced lists, and both performance and observation were randomly determined and interspersed. After all of the activities were completed, content memory (recall and recognition), source memory (conditional source identification), and temporal order memory (correlation between order reconstruction and actual order) for the activities were assessed. Functional ability was assessed via the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). In terms of content memory, TBI participants recalled and recognized fewer activities than comparison participants. Recognition of performed and observed activities was strongly associated with social integration on the CIQ. There were no between- or within-group differences in temporal order or source memory, although source memory performances were near ceiling. The findings were interpreted as suggesting that temporal order memory following TBI is intact under conditions of both purposeful activity completion and incidental encoding, and that activity memory is related to functional outcomes following TBI. PMID:24524393

  13. Intranasal insulin restores insulin signaling, increases synaptic proteins, and reduces A? level and microglia activation in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxing; Zhao, Yang; Dai, Chun-Ling; Liang, Zhihou; Run, Xiaoqin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Decreased brain insulin signaling has been found recently in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intranasal administration of insulin, which delivers the drug directly into the brain, improves memory and cognition in both animal studies and small clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we treated 9-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, a commonly used mouse model of AD, with daily intranasal administration of insulin for seven days and then studied brain abnormalities of the mice biochemically and immunohistochemically. We found that intranasal insulin restored insulin signaling, increased the levels of synaptic proteins, and reduced A?40 level and microglia activation in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice. However, this treatment did not affect the levels of glucose transporters and O-GlcNAcylation or tau phosphorylation. Our findings provide a mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin treatment and support continuous clinical trials of intranasal insulin for the treatment of AD. PMID:24918340

  14. Neuroprotective effect of the active components of three Chinese herbs on brain iron load in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    DONG, XIAN-HUI; GAO, WEI-JUAN; KONG, WEI-NA; XIE, HONG-LIN; PENG, YAN; SHAO, TIE-MEI; YU, WEN-GUO; CHAI, XI-QING

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common cause of dementia. New treatments for AD are required due to its increasing prevalence in aging populations. The present study evaluated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on learning and memory impairment, ?-amyloid (A?) reduction and brain iron load in an APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Increasing evidence indicates that a disturbance of normal iron homeostasis may contribute to the pathology of AD. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in abnormal iron load in the AD brain remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the brain iron load is influenced by the deregulation of certain proteins associated with brain iron metabolism, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN1). The present study investigated the effects of the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae on the expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1. The treatment with the active components reduced cognitive deficits, inhibited A? plaque accumulation, reversed A? burden and reduced the brain iron load in AD model mice. A significant increase was observed in the levels of DMT1-iron-responsive element (IRE) and DMT1-nonIRE in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain, which was reduced by treatment with the active components. In addition, the levels of FPN1 were significantly reduced in the hippocampus of the AD mouse brain compared with those of control mice, and these levels were increased following treatment with the active components. Thus, the present study indicated that the active components of Epimedium, Astragalus and Radix Puerariae may exert a neuroprotective effect against AD by reducing iron overload in the AD brain and may provide a novel approach for the development of drugs for the treatment of AD.

  15. Fetal Brain mTOR Signaling Activation in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Victoria; Parker, Whitney E.; Orlova, Ksenia A.; Baybis, Marianna; Chi, Anthony W.S.; Berg, Benjamin D.; Birnbaum, Jacqueline F.; Estevez, Jacqueline; Okochi, Kei; Sarnat, Harvey B.; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Aronica, Eleonora; Crino, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by developmental malformations of the cerebral cortex known as tubers, comprised of cells that exhibit enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. To date, there are no reports of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in fetal tubers or in neural progenitor cells lacking Tsc2. We demonstrate mTORC1 activation by immunohistochemical detection of substrates phospho-p70S6K1 (T389) and phospho-S6 (S235/236), and mTORC2 activation by substrates phospho-PKC? (S657), phospho-Akt (Ser473), and phospho-SGK1 (S422) in fetal tubers. Then, we show that Tsc2 shRNA knockdown (KD) in mouse neural progenitor cells (mNPCs) in vitro results in enhanced mTORC1 (phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1) and mTORC2 (phospho-Akt and phospho-NDRG1) signaling, as well as a doubling of cell size that is rescued by rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Tsc2 KD in vivo in the fetal mouse brain by in utero electroporation causes disorganized cortical lamination and increased cell volume that is prevented with rapamycin. We demonstrate for the first time that mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling is activated in fetal tubers and in mNPCs following Tsc2 KD. These results suggest that inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling during embryogenesis could prevent abnormal brain development in TSC. PMID:23081885

  16. Fetal brain mTOR signaling activation in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Victoria; Parker, Whitney E; Orlova, Ksenia A; Baybis, Marianna; Chi, Anthony W S; Berg, Benjamin D; Birnbaum, Jacqueline F; Estevez, Jacqueline; Okochi, Kei; Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Aronica, Eleonora; Crino, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by developmental malformations of the cerebral cortex known as tubers, comprised of cells that exhibit enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. To date, there are no reports of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in fetal tubers or in neural progenitor cells lacking Tsc2. We demonstrate mTORC1 activation by immunohistochemical detection of substrates phospho-p70S6K1 (T389) and phospho-S6 (S235/236), and mTORC2 activation by substrates phospho-PKC? (S657), phospho-Akt (Ser473), and phospho-SGK1 (S422) in fetal tubers. Then, we show that Tsc2 shRNA knockdown (KD) in mouse neural progenitor cells (mNPCs) in vitro results in enhanced mTORC1 (phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1) and mTORC2 (phospho-Akt and phospho-NDRG1) signaling, as well as a doubling of cell size that is rescued by rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Tsc2 KD in vivo in the fetal mouse brain by in utero electroporation causes disorganized cortical lamination and increased cell volume that is prevented with rapamycin. We demonstrate for the first time that mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling is activated in fetal tubers and in mNPCs following Tsc2 KD. These results suggest that inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling during embryogenesis could prevent abnormal brain development in TSC. PMID:23081885

  17. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations. PMID:19129395

  18. Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Protein trafficking abnormalities in Drosophila tissues with impaired activity of the ZIP7 zinc transporter Catsup

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Casper; Sasamura, Takeshi; Khanna, Mansi R.; Whitley, Michael; Fortini, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental patterning requires the precise interplay of numerous intercellular signaling pathways to ensure that cells are properly specified during tissue formation and organogenesis. The spatiotemporal function of the Notch signaling pathway is strongly influenced by the biosynthesis and intracellular trafficking of signaling components. Receptors and ligands must be trafficked to the cell surface where they interact, and their subsequent endocytic internalization and endosomal trafficking is crucial for both signal propagation and its down-modulation. In a forward genetic screen for mutations that alter intracellular Notch receptor trafficking in Drosophila epithelial tissues, we recovered mutations that disrupt the Catsup gene, which encodes the Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian ZIP7 zinc transporter. Loss of Catsup function causes Notch to accumulate abnormally in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi compartments, resulting in impaired Notch signaling. In addition, Catsup mutant cells exhibit elevated ER stress, suggesting that impaired zinc homeostasis causes increased levels of misfolded proteins within the secretory compartment. PMID:23785054

  1. PI and PIP kinase activities in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, E.B. Jr.; Sun, G.Y.

    1986-05-01

    Much attention has been directed towards elucidating the mechanisms by which receptor-mediated metabolism of polyphosphoinositides occur, while little is known about the regulation of the PI and PIP kinases. In this study, a plasma membrane fraction isolated from rat brain was assayed for PI and PIP-kinase activities employing /sup 32/P-ATP in an incubation system similar to that described by Jolles, et al. Under this assay condition, PI-kinase activity was several folds greater than PIP-kinase activity. Furthermore, treatment with Triton X-100 (0.01%) stimulated PI-kinase activity 2-3 folds while having no influence on PIP-kinase activity. At concentrations greater than 0.01%, Triton X-100 was inhibitory towards PIP-kinase activity with a 75-80% inhibition at 0.2%. In contrast, PI-kinase activity remained stimulated over the same range. Treatment with deoxycholate (0.05%), resulted in a 5-fold stimulation of PIP-kinase activity while PI-kinase activity was stimulated 2-fold. At higher concentrations (0.05-0.1%), both kinase activities returned towards control values. Both enzyme activities were dependent on the concentration of ATP. PIP-kinase activity was linear over a range of 0-100 ..mu..M ATP while PI-kinase activity approached maximal activity at values around 50 ..mu..M. Results of this study demonstrated the presence of two distinct enzymes with different properties. Furthermore, the two enzymes may be located at different membrane domains.

  2. Brain activation inhomogeneity highlighted by the Isotropic Anomalous Diffusion filter.

    PubMed

    Senra Filho, Antonio Carlos da S; Rondinoni, Carlo; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Murta, Luiz O

    2014-01-01

    The visual appealing nature of the now popular BOLD fMRI may give the false impression of extreme simplicity, as if the the functional maps could be generated with the press of a single button. However, one can only get plausible maps after long and cautious processing, considering that time and noise come into play during acquisition. One of the most popular ways to account for noise and individual variability in fMRI is the use of a Gaussian spatial filter. Although very robust, this filter may introduce excessive blurring, given the strong dependence of results on the central voxel value. Here, we propose the use of the Isotropic Anomalous Diffusion (IAD) approach, aiming to reduce excessive homogeneity while retaining the natural variability of signal across brain space. We found differences between Gaussian and IAD filters in two parameters gathered from Independent Component maps (ICA), identified on brain areas responsible for auditory processing during rest. Analysis of data gathered from 7 control subjects shows that the IAD filter rendered more localized active areas and higher contrast-to-noise ratios, when compared to equivalent Gaussian filtered data (Student t-test, p<0.05). The results seem promising, since the anomalous filter performs satisfactorily in filtering noise with less distortion of individual localized brain responses. PMID:25570699

  3. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  4. Transcriptional activation by TAL1 and FUS-CHOP proteins expressed in acute malignancies as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, I; Rabbitts, T H

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that appear to participate in transcriptional control of gene expression are increasingly implicated in leukemias and malignant solid tumors. We report here that the N-terminal domains of the proteins TAL1 (ectopically activated in T-cell acute leukemias after chromosomal abnormalities caused by V-D-J recombinase error) (V, variable; D, diversity; J, joining) and FUS-CHOP (a liposarcoma tumor-specific fusion protein that is produced as a result of a chromosomal translocation) can function as transcription activators of specific responsive reporter genes. The result with TAL1 provides evidence that transcriptional activation can be mediated by a gene activated by translocation in T-cell acute leukemias. In the case of the liposarcoma, transactivation by the FUS-CHOP protein occurs because the FUS transcriptional activation domain is added to the DNA-binding CHOP protein normally lacking such activity. Therefore, the association of transcriptional activation and DNA-binding elements is a common consequence in proteins activated or newly created as fusion proteins after chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias and in malignant solid tumors. Images PMID:8058726

  5. Centrally formed acetaldehyde mediates ethanol-induced brain PKA activation.

    PubMed

    Tarragon, E; Baliño, P; Aragon, C M G

    2014-09-19

    Centrally formed acetaldehyde has proven to be responsible for several psychopharmacological effects induced by ethanol. In addition, it has been suggested that the cAMP-PKA signaling transduction pathway plays an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behaviors. Therefore, we hypothesized that acetaldehyde might be ultimately responsible for the activation of this intracellular pathway. We used three pharmacological agents that modify acetaldehyde activity (?-lipoic acid, aminotriazole, and d-penicillamine) to study the role of this metabolite on EtOH-induced PKA activation in mice. Our results show that the injection of ?-lipoic acid, aminotriazole and d-penicillamine prior to acute EtOH administration effectively blocks the PKA-enhanced response to EtOH in the brain. These results strongly support the hypothesis of a selective release of acetaldehyde-dependent Ca(2+) as the mechanism involved in the neurobehavioral effects elicited by EtOH. PMID:25093700

  6. Probabilistic analysis of activation volumes generated during deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Butson, Christopher R; Cooper, Scott E; Henderson, Jaimie M; Wolgamuth, Barbara; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2011-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and shows great promise for the treatment of several other disorders. However, while the clinical analysis of DBS has received great attention, a relative paucity of quantitative techniques exists to define the optimal surgical target and most effective stimulation protocol for a given disorder. In this study we describe a methodology that represents an evolutionary addition to the concept of a probabilistic brain atlas, which we call a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA). We outline steps to combine quantitative clinical outcome measures with advanced computational models of DBS to identify regions where stimulation-induced activation could provide the best therapeutic improvement on a per-symptom basis. While this methodology is relevant to any form of DBS, we present example results from subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for PD. We constructed patient-specific computer models of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) for 163 different stimulation parameter settings which were tested in six patients. We then assigned clinical outcome scores to each VTA and compiled all of the VTAs into a PSA to identify stimulation-induced activation targets that maximized therapeutic response with minimal side effects. The results suggest that selection of both electrode placement and clinical stimulation parameter settings could be tailored to the patient's primary symptoms using patient-specific models and PSAs. PMID:20974269

  7. Flexible, Foldable, Actively Multiplexed, High-Density Electrode Array for Mapping Brain Activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Viventi, Jonathan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Vigeland, Leif; Frechette, Eric S.; Blanco, Justin A.; Kim, Yun-Soung; Avrin, Andrew E.; Tiruvadi, Vineet R.; Hwang, Suk-Won; Vanleer, Ann C.; Wulsin, Drausin F.; Davis, Kathryn; Gelber, Casey E.; Palmer, Larry; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Wu, Jian; Xiao, Jianliang; Huang, Yonggang; Contreras, Diego; Rogers, John A.; Litt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of electrodes for recording and stimulating the brain are used throughout clinical medicine and basic neuroscience research, yet are unable to sample large areas of the brain while maintaining high spatial resolution because of the need to individually wire each passive sensor at the electrode-tissue interface. To overcome this constraint, we have developed new devices integrating ultrathin and flexible silicon nanomembrane transistors into the electrode array, enabling new dense arrays of thousands of amplified and multiplexed sensors connected using many fewer wires. We used this system to record novel spatial properties of brain activity in vivo, including sleep spindles, single-trial visual evoked responses, and electrographic seizures. Our electrode array allowed us to discover that seizures may manifest as recurrent spiral waves which propagate in the neocortex. The developments reported here herald a new generation of diagnostic and therapeutic brain-machine interface (BMI) devices. PMID:22081157

  8. Release of Neuronal HMGB1 by Ethanol through Decreased HDAC Activity Activates Brain Neuroimmune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jian Y.; Crews, Fulton T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimmune gene induction is involved in many brain pathologies including addiction. Although increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines has been found in ethanol-treated mouse brain and rat brain slice cultures as well as in post-mortem human alcoholic brain, the mechanisms remain elusive. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a nuclear protein that has endogenous cytokine-like activity. We previously found increased HMGB1 in post-mortem alcoholic human brain as well as in ethanol treated mice and rat brain slice cultures. The present study investigated the mechanisms for ethanol-induced release of HMGB1 and neuroimmune activation in a model of rat hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC) brain slice cultures. Ethanol exposure triggered dose-dependent HMGB1 release, predominantly from neuronal cells. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) promoted nucleocytoplasmic mobilization of HDAC1/4 and HMGB1 resulting in increased total HMGB1 and acetylated HMGB1 release. Similarly, ethanol treatment was found to induce the translocation of HDAC1/4 and HMGB1 proteins from nuclear to cytosolic fractions. Furthermore, ethanol treatment reduced HDAC1/4 mRNA and increased acetylated HMGB1 release into the media. These results suggest decreased HDAC activity may be critical in regulating acetylated HMGB1 release from neurons in response to ethanol. Ethanol and HMGB1 treatment increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-1? as well as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Targeting HMGB1 or microglial TLR4 by using siRNAs to HMGB1 and TLR4, HMGB1 neutralizing antibody, HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin and TLR4 antagonist as well as inhibitor of microglial activation all blocked ethanol-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-1?. These results support the hypothesis that ethanol alters HDACs that regulate HMGB1 release and that danger signal HMGB1 as endogenous ligand for TLR4 mediates ethanol-induced brain neuroimmune signaling through activation of microglial TLR4. These findings provide new therapeutic targets for brain neuroimmune activation and alcoholism. PMID:24551070

  9. Transfer of beta Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene Using Adenovirus Vector Causes Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Cultured Normal Human Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Askanas; J. McFerrin; S. Baque; R. B. Alvarez; E. Sarkozi; W. K. Engel

    1996-01-01

    As in Alzheimer-disease (AD) brain, vacuolated muscle fibers of inclusion-body myositis (IBM) contain abnormally accumulated beta -amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), including its beta -amyloid protein epitope, and increased beta APP-751 mRNA. Other similarities between IBM muscle and AD brain phenotypes include paired helical filaments, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, apolipoprotein E, and mitochondrial abnormalities, including decreased cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity. The

  10. Neural Activation during Response Inhibition Differentiates Blast from Mechanical Causes of Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Barbara L.; Parsons, Michael; Durgerian, Sally; Reece, Christine; Mourany, Lyla; Lowe, Mark J.; Beall, Erik B.; Koenig, Katherine A.; Jones, Stephen E.; Newsome, Mary R.; Scheibel, Randall S.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Troyanskaya, Maya; Merkley, Tricia L.; Walker, Mark; Levin, Harvey S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Military personnel involved in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) commonly experience blast-induced mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we used task-activated functional MRI (fMRI) to determine if blast-related TBI has a differential impact on brain activation in comparison with TBI caused primarily by mechanical forces in civilian settings. Four groups participated: (1) blast-related military TBI (milTBI; n=21); (2) military controls (milCON; n=22); (3) non-blast civilian TBI (civTBI; n=21); and (4) civilian controls (civCON; n=23) with orthopedic injuries. Mild to moderate TBI (MTBI) occurred 1 to 6 years before enrollment. Participants completed the Stop Signal Task (SST), a measure of inhibitory control, while undergoing fMRI. Brain activation was evaluated with 2 (mil, civ)×2 (TBI, CON) analyses of variance, corrected for multiple comparisons. During correct inhibitions, fMRI activation was lower in the TBI than CON subjects in regions commonly associated with inhibitory control and the default mode network. In contrast, inhibitory failures showed significant interaction effects in the bilateral inferior temporal, left superior temporal, caudate, and cerebellar regions. Specifically, the milTBI group demonstrated more activation than the milCON group when failing to inhibit; in contrast, the civTBI group exhibited less activation than the civCON group. Covariance analyses controlling for the effects of education and self-reported psychological symptoms did not alter the brain activation findings. These results indicate that the chronic effects of TBI are associated with abnormal brain activation during successful response inhibition. During failed inhibition, the pattern of activation distinguished military from civilian TBI, suggesting that blast-related TBI has a unique effect on brain function that can be distinguished from TBI resulting from mechanical forces associated with sports or motor vehicle accidents. The implications of these findings for diagnosis and treatment of TBI are discussed. PMID:24020449

  11. Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Grzeschik, Ramona; Mueller, Charles; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Wagegg, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

    2008-03-01

    Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their own brain activation. These applications require the real-time analysis and classification of activated brain areas. Our paper presents first results of different strategies for real-time pattern analysis and classification realized within a flexible experiment control system that enables the volunteers to move through a 3D virtual scene in real-time using finger tapping tasks, and alternatively only thought-based tasks.

  12. Evidence for brain glial activation in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Loggia, Marco L; Chonde, Daniel B; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Arabasz, Grae; Catana, Ciprian; Edwards, Robert R; Hill, Elena; Hsu, Shirley; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ji, Ru-Rong; Riley, Misha; Wasan, Ajay D; Zürcher, Nicole R; Albrecht, Daniel S; Vangel, Mark G; Rosen, Bruce R; Napadow, Vitaly; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-03-01

    Although substantial evidence has established that microglia and astrocytes play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of persistent pain in animal models, the role of glial cells in human pain disorders remains unknown. Here, using the novel technology of integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging and the recently developed radioligand (11)C-PBR28, we show increased brain levels of the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of glial activation, in patients with chronic low back pain. As the Ala147Thr polymorphism in the TSPO gene affects binding affinity for (11)C-PBR28, nine patient-control pairs were identified from a larger sample of subjects screened and genotyped, and compared in a matched-pairs design, in which each patient was matched to a TSPO polymorphism-, age- and sex-matched control subject (seven Ala/Ala and two Ala/Thr, five males and four females in each group; median age difference: 1 year; age range: 29-63 for patients and 28-65 for controls). Standardized uptake values normalized to whole brain were significantly higher in patients than controls in multiple brain regions, including thalamus and the putative somatosensory representations of the lumbar spine and leg. The thalamic levels of TSPO were negatively correlated with clinical pain and circulating levels of the proinflammatory citokine interleukin-6, suggesting that TSPO expression exerts pain-protective/anti-inflammatory effects in humans, as predicted by animal studies. Given the putative role of activated glia in the establishment and or maintenance of persistent pain, the present findings offer clinical implications that may serve to guide future studies of the pathophysiology and management of a variety of persistent pain conditions. PMID:25582579

  13. Decoding cognitive states and motor intentions from intracranial EEG: How promising is high-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .03.012 Whether the future of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology will be predominantly based on non-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces? Karim Jerbi1 , Etienne Combrisson1,2 , Sarang S. Dalal 3-Philippe Lachaux1 1 Brain Dynamics and Cognition Team, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (CRNL), INSERM U1028, CNRS

  14. Abnormal cytoplasmic extensions associated with active ?IIb?3 are probably the cause for macrothrombocytopenia in Glanzmann thrombasthenia-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hauschner, Hagit; Mor-Cohen, Ronit; Messineo, Stefania; Mansour, Wissam; Seligsohn, Uri; Savoia, Anna; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in the ITGA2B or ITGB3 genes that encode for the ?IIb?3 platelet integrin usually cause Glanzmann thrombasthenia, a severe autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by absence of platelet aggregation, but normal platelet number and size. Several rare mutations cause a Glanzmann-like syndrome which manifests macrothrombocytopenia and usually displays autosomal dominant inheritance. The exact mechanism causing Glanzmann-like syndrome is unknown. One typical example of Glanzmann-like mutations causes deletion of 40 amino acids (p.647-686) in the ?3 ?-tail domain (?TD_del) that was found in the heterozygous state in Italian and Japanese families. A second example is a missense mutation, C560R, located in the epidermal growth factor-like domain, found in the homozygous state in a French patient. Both mutations cause constitutive activation of ?IIb?3, but differ in their surface expression. In the current study, we generated cultured cells expressing ?3-?TD_del or ?3-C560R mutations along with wild-type ?IIb, and examined the cells' ability to create tubulin-dependent protrusions compared to cells expressing wild-type ?IIb?3. Unlike cells expressing wild-type ?IIb?3, cells harboring each of the mutations exhibited abnormal cytoplasmic extensions on immobilized fibrinogen or Von Willebrand factor, which resembled extensions formed in megakaryocyte leading to proplatelets. Moreover, we showed that formation of abnormal extensions occurred also in wild-type ?IIb?3 cells when activated by activating antibody. These results suggest that the active conformation of ?IIb?3 can induce cytoskeletal rearrangements that lead to impaired proplatelet formation. PMID:25806962

  15. Exogenously induced brain activation regulates neuronal activity by top-down modulation: conceptualized model for electrical brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Spezia Adachi, Lauren Naomi; Quevedo, Alexandre Silva; de Souza, Andressa; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; Rozisky, Joanna Ripoll; de Oliveira, Carla; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2015-05-01

    Physiological and exogenous factors are able to adjust sensory processing by modulating activity at different levels of the nervous system hierarchy. Accordingly, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may use top-down mechanisms to control the access for incoming information along the neuroaxis. To test the hypothesis that brain activation induced by tCDS is able to initiate top-down modulation and that chronic stress disrupts this effect, 60-day-old male Wistar rats (n = 78) were divided into control; control + tDCS; control + sham-tDCS; stress; stress + tDCS; and stress + sham-tDCS. Chronic stress was induced using a restraint stress model for 11 weeks, and then, the treatment was applied over 8 days. BDNF levels were used to assess neuronal activity at spinal cord, brainstem, and hippocampus. Mechanical pain threshold was assessed by von Frey test immediately and 24 h after the last tDCS-intervention. tDCS was able to decrease BDNF levels in the structures involved in the descending systems (spinal cord and brainstem) only in unstressed animals. The treatment was able to reverse the stress-induced allodynia and to increase the pain threshold in unstressed animals. Furthermore, there was an inverse relation between pain sensitivity and spinal cord BDNF levels. Accordingly, we propose the addition of descending systems in the current brain electrical modulation model. PMID:25665871

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of electrocortical brain activity during mental calculation.

    PubMed

    Vansteensel, Mariska J; Bleichner, Martin G; Freudenburg, Zac V; Hermes, Dora; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Jansma, Johan Martijn; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-12-01

    Mental calculation is a complex mental procedure involving a frontoparietal network of brain regions. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed interesting characteristics of these regions, but the precise function of some areas remains elusive. In the present study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings to chronometrically assess the neuronal processes during mental arithmetic. A calculation task was performed during presurgical 3T fMRI scanning and subsequent ECoG monitoring. Mental calculation induced an increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal in prefrontal, parietal and lower temporo-occipital regions. The group-fMRI result was subsequently used to cluster the implanted electrodes into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). We observed remarkable differences in high frequency power profiles between ROIs, some of which were closely associated with stimulus presentation and others with the response. Upon stimulus presentation, occipital areas were the first to respond, followed by parietal and frontal areas, and finally by motor areas. Notably, we demonstrate that the fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus is associated with two subfunctions during mental calculation. This finding reveals the significance of the temporal dynamics of neural ensembles within regions with an apparent uniform function. In conclusion, our results shed more light on the spatiotemporal aspects of brain activation during a mental calculation task, and demonstrate that the use of fMRI data to cluster ECoG electrodes is a useful approach for ECoG group analysis. PMID:25044370

  18. Integrated Brain Circuits: Astrocytic Networks Modulate Neuronal Activity and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Halassa, Michael M.; Haydon, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research on roles of neuron-astrocyte interactions in the control of brain function. We highlight recent studies performed on the tripartite synapse, the structure consisting of pre- and postsynaptic elements of the synapse and an associated astrocytic process. Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and neuro-transmitters, through the activation of metabotropic receptors, and can release the gliotransmitters ATP, D-serine, and glutamate, which act on neurons. Astrocyte-derived ATP modulates synaptic transmission, either directly or through its metabolic product adenosine. D-serine modulates NMDA receptor function, whereas glia-derived glutamate can play important roles in relapse following withdrawal from drugs of abuse. Cell type–specific molecular genetics has allowed a new level of examination of the function of astrocytes in brain function and has revealed an important role of these glial cells that is mediated by adenosine accumulation in the control of sleep and in cognitive impairments that follow sleep deprivation. PMID:20148679

  19. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

  1. 3-Methylcrotonylglycine disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis and inhibits synaptic Na(+),K (+)-ATPase activity in brain of young rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Zanatta, Ângela; Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Wajner, Moacir

    2012-03-01

    Deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase activity is an inherited metabolic disease biochemically characterized by accumulation and high urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine (3MCG), and also of 3-hydroisovalerate in lesser amounts. Affected patients usually have neurologic dysfunction, brain abnormalities and cardiomyopathy, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of 3MCG on important parameters of energy metabolism, including CO(2) production from labeled acetate, enzyme activities of the citric acid cycle, as well as of the respiratory chain complexes I-IV (oxidative phosphorylation), creatine kinase (intracellular ATP transfer), and synaptic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (neurotransmission) in brain cortex of young rats. 3MCG significantly reduced CO(2) production, implying that this compound compromises citric acid cycle activity. Furthermore, 3MCG diminished the activities of complex II-III of the respiratory chain, mitochondrial creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, antioxidants were able to attenuate or fully prevent the inhibitory effect of 3MCG on creatine kinase and synaptic membrane Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. We also observed that lipid peroxidation was elicited by 3MCG, suggesting the involvement of free radicals on 3MCG-induced effects. Considering the importance of the citric acid cycle and the electron flow through the respiratory chain for brain energy production, creatine kinase for intracellular energy transfer, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase for the maintenance of the cell membrane potential, the present data indicate that 3MCG potentially impairs mitochondrial brain energy homeostasis and neurotransmission. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may be involved in the neurological damage found in patients affected by 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. PMID:21993987

  2. Brain activity and emotional processing in smokers treated with varenicline.

    PubMed

    Loughead, James; Ray, Riju; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; O'Donnell, Gregory P; Senecal, Nicole; Siegel, Steven; Gur, Ruben C; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-07-01

    Prior evidence suggests that varenicline, an effective smoking cessation treatment, may relieve negative affective signs of nicotine withdrawal. We examined varenicline effects on emotional processing in 25 abstinent smokers after 13 days of varenicline and placebo using a within-subject cross-over design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired while subjects completed a face emotion identification task. Results showed a significant drug effect, characterized by decreased BOLD signal in dorsal anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex, occipital cortex and thalamus. Increased BOLD signal was observed in the middle temporal gyrus. Varenicline improved correct response time; however, neither BOLD signal nor performance effects were moderated by emotion type. An exploratory region of interest analysis suggests that varenicline reduced amygdala activity independent of emotional valence. Taken together, these results suggest that observed drug effects on brain activity do not reflect affective changes but rather enhanced early processing of perceptual features of facial stimuli. PMID:21507156

  3. Optimization of PET instrumentation for brain activation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlbom, M.; Cherry, S.R.; Hoffman, E.J. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiological Science); Eriksson, L. (Karolinska Hospital and Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology); Wienhard, K. (Max Planck Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    By performing cerebral blood flow studies with positron emission tomography (PET), and comparing blood flow images of different states of activation, functional mapping of the brain is possible. The ability of current commercial instruments to perform such studies is investigated in this work, based on a comparison of noise equivalent count (NEC) rates. Differences in the NEC performance of the different scanners in conjunction with scanner design parameters, provide insights into the importance of block design (size, dead time, crystal thickness) and overall scanner design (sensitivity and scatter fraction) for optimizing data from activation studies. The newer scanners with removable septa, operating with 3-D acquisition, have much higher sensitivity, but require new methodology for optimized operation. Only by administering multiple low doses (fractionation) of the flow tracer can the high sensitivity be utilized.

  4. The Brain Activity Map Project and the Challenge of Functional Connectomics

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Neuron NeuroView The Brain Activity Map Project and the Challenge of Functional Connectomics A for Brain and Mind, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA 5Kavli Nanoscience Institute and Departments of Physics, Department Biological Sciences, Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University New York, NY 10027

  5. Aligning context-based statistical models of language with brain activity during reading

    E-print Network

    Knight, Kevin

    Aligning context-based statistical models of language with brain activity during reading Leila for incoming words given the context. On the other hand, brain imaging studies have sug- gested that during reading, the brain (a) continu- ously builds a context from the successive words and every time

  6. Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy to Understand Brain "Activation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Upon stimulation, areas of the brain associated with specific cognitive processing tasks may undergo observable physiological changes, and measures of such changes have been used to create brain maps for visualization of stimulated areas in task-related brain "activation" studies. These perturbations usually continue throughout the period of the…

  7. Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Camblin, C. Christine

    2014-01-01

    Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions. PMID:24715859

  8. Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

  9. Multi-subject Dictionary Learning to Segment an Atlas of Brain Spontaneous Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gael Varoquaux; Alexandre Gramfort; Fabian Pedregosa; Vincent Michel; Bertrand Thirion

    \\u000a Fluctuations in brain on-going activity can be used to reveal its intrinsic functional organization. To mine this information,\\u000a we give a new hierarchical probabilistic model for brain activity patterns that does not require an experimental design to\\u000a be specified. We estimate this model in the dictionary learning framework, learning simultaneously latent spatial maps and\\u000a the corresponding brain activity time-series. Unlike

  10. Abnormal activation and cytokine spectra in lymph nodes of people chronically infected with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Biancotto, Angélique; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Iglehart, Sarah J.; Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Sieg, Scott F.; Debernardo, Robert; Garate, Kristen; Rodriguez, Benigno; Lederman, Michael M.

    2007-01-01

    There is growing recognition that HIV-1 infection leads to an activation of the immune system that includes perturbations of cytokine expression, redistribution of lymphocyte subpopulations, cell dysfunction, and cell death. Here, we explored the relationships between HIV-1 infection and immune activation in chronically HIV-1–infected human lymph nodes. In addition to CD4 T-cell depletion, we found increased effector T-cell frequencies associated with profound up-regulation of an activation marker CD38 in naive, central memory, and effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Likewise, Fas death receptor (CD95) was more frequently detectable on T cells from HIV-1 nodes. Dendritic cell (DC) depletion was dramatic, with plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) 40-fold and myeloid DCs (MDCs) 20-fold less frequent in HIV+ nodes than in control nodes. Cytokine dysregulation was evident, with IL-2 and IL-15 as much as 2 or 3 logs greater in infected nodes than in control nodes. Thus, activated effector cells are inappropriately attracted and/or retained in lymphoid tissue in chronic HIV-1 infection. High-level cytokine expression in turn activates and retains more cells at these sites, leading to lymphadenopathy and massive bystander activation that characterizes HIV-1 infection. Strategies targeting these activation pathways may lead to new therapies. PMID:17289812

  11. Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. PMID:23805935

  12. Interactions between cardiac, respiratory, and brain activity in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musizza, Bojan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and ?-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency was obtained from recordings of the excursions of thorax by application of the Hilbert transform. To obtain the instantaneous frequency of ?-waves, the EEG signal recorded from the forehead was first analysed using the wavelet transform. Then the frequency band corresponding to ?-waves was extracted and the Hilbert transform applied. Synchronization analysis was performed and the direction of coupling was ascertained, using pairs of instantaneous frequencies in each case. It is shown that the systems are weakly bidirectionally coupled. It was confirmed that, in conscious healthy humans, respiration drives cardiac activity. We also demonstrate from these analyses that ?-activity drives both respiration and cardiac activity.

  13. Guanine-deaminase activity in rat brain and liver

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Tewari, K. K.; Krishnan, P. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. Guanine deaminase in rat brain and liver was distributed among all the subcellular fractions: nuclei, `heavy' mitochondria, `light' mitochondria, microsomes and the supernatant fluid. The greater part of the activity passed into the soluble fraction. Among the particulate components, the `light' mitochondria constituted the richest fraction. 2. The sum of the enzymic activities of the component fractions obtained on differential centrifugation was considerably greater than the activity of guanine deaminase in the whole homogenate. 3. The `heavy'-mitochondrial fraction had a powerful inhibitory effect on the guanine-deaminase activity of the supernatant fraction. 4. All the sedimented fractions, except the microsomes, gave rise to higher guanine-deaminase activity on treatment with Triton X-100. 5. The inhibitory capacity of the `heavy' mitochondria increased on treatment with Triton X-100; the detergent-treated nuclear fraction also brought about inhibition of the 5000g supernatant. 6. Guanine-deaminase inhibitor from the `heavy' mitochondria was solubilized by high-speed grinding of the particles, followed by treatment with Triton X-100. The inhibitor appeared to be protein in nature, since it was precipitated by trichloroacetic acid and by half-saturation with ammonium sulphate, and was non-diffusible. It was inactivated by heating at 50° for 5min. 7. It is possible that the guanine deaminase associated with particles differs from the soluble enzyme in its response to inhibitor. PMID:14342518

  14. Anticonvulsant Drugs, Brain Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity and Oxygen Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rasgado, Lourdes A.; Ceballos Reyes, Guillermo; Vega-Díaz, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, E.C. 1.4.1.3.) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis and modulation of glutamate (GLU) metabolism and an indirect ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) source, here we studied the effect of anticonvulsants such as pyridoxal phosphate (PPAL), aminooxyacetic acid (AAOA), and hydroxylamine (OHAMINE) on GDH activity in mouse brain. Moreover, since GLU is a glucogenic molecule and anoxia is a primary cause of convulsions, we explore the effect of these drugs on oxygen consumption. Experiments were performed in vitro as well as in vivo for both oxidative deamination of GLU and reductive amination of ?-ketoglutarate (?K). Results in vitro showed that PPAL decreased oxidative deamination of GLU and oxygen consumption, whereas AAOA and OHAMINE inhibited GDH activity competitively and also inhibited oxygen consumption when ?K reductive amination was carried out. In contrast, results showed that in vivo, all anticonvulsants enhanced GLU utilization by GDH and also decreased oxygen consumption. Together, results suggest that GDH activity has repercussions on oxygen consumption, which may indicate that the enzyme activity is highly regulated by energy requirements for metabolic activity. Besides, GDH may participate in regulation of GLU and, indirectly GABA levels, hence in neuronal excitability, becoming a key enzyme in seizures mechanism. PMID:22530138

  15. Genetic Analysis of Nucleotide Triphosphatase Activity in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allen, K. M.; Seyfried, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    A Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-stimulated ecto-ATPase is thought to regulate the hydrolysis of extracellular ATP in nervous tissues. The hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates (NTPs) was analyzed in brain microsomal fractions from crosses of DBA/2J (D2) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The nucleotide triphosphatase (NTPase) activity was significantly reduced in D2 mice as compared to B6 mice, and B6D2F(1) hybrids had activities intermediate to the parentals. A significant positive correlation was found between the hydrolysis of four NTPs (ATP, CTP, GTP and UTP) in 24 B6 X D2 (BXD) recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice and in 80 B6D2F(1) X D2 backcross mice. The RI strains and backcross mice fell into two distinct groups with respect to the NTPase activity. Linkage of NTPase activity was suggested with the chromosome 2 markers, D2Mit6 and Ass-1, in the RI strains, and was confirmed by analysis of other markers in the backcross population. These data suggest that the Ca(2+)- or Mg(2+)-stimulated hydrolysis of NTPs, designated Ntp, is regulated by a single gene located on proximal chromosome 2. Although an association was observed previously between Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and susceptibility to audiogenic seizures (AGS), no significant association was observed for the expression of Ntp and AGS susceptibility. PMID:8056315

  16. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  17. Recovery of brain and plasma cholinesterase activities in ducklings exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to dicrotophos and fenthion. Recovery rates of brain ChE did not differ between ducklings administered a single oral dose vs. a 2-week dietary dose of these organophosphates. Exposure to the organophosphates, followed by recovery of brain ChE, did not significantly affect the degree of brain ChE inhibition or the recovery of ChE activity at a subsequent exposure. Recovery of brain ChE activity followed the general model Y = a + b(logX) with rapid recovery to about 50% of normal, followed by a slower rate of recovery until normal ChE activity levels were attained. Fenthion and dicrotophos-inhibited brain ChE were only slightly reactivated in vitro by pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide, which suggested that spontaneous reactivation was not a primary method of recovery of ChE activity. Recovery of brain ChE activity can be modeled for interpretation of sublethal inhibition of brain ChE activities in wild birds following environmental applications of organophosphates. Plasma ChE activity is inferior to brain ChE activity for environmental monitoring, because of its rapid recovery and large degree of variation among individuals.

  18. Regional brain variations of cytochrome oxidase activity and motor coordination in Girk2(Wv) (Weaver) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Strazielle, C; Deiss, V; Naudon, L; Raisman-Vozari, R; Lalonde, R

    2006-10-13

    The Girk2(Wv) (weaver) phenotype, caused by a mutated inward rectifying potassium channel, is characterized by degeneration of cerebellar granule cell population as well as midbrain dopamine-containing cells of the nigrostriatal pathway. To investigate the regional brain metabolic consequences of this combined pathology, cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity was measured by histochemistry from brain regions of wild-type and homozygous Girk2(Wv) mutant mice and correlated with motor performances. CO activity of Girk2(Wv) mutants was abnormal in cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus, and brainstem regions (medial and lateral vestibular nuclei, prepositus, superior colliculus, lateral cuneiform nucleus, and reticular nuclei) implicated in the gaze system. CO activity increased in midbrain dopaminergic regions after correcting for tissue density, regions with severe depletion of tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Forebrain regions were relatively spared in term of CO activity, except for subthalamic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and cortical eye field. Similarly to the Rora(sg) cerebellar mutant, metabolic alterations in cerebellar and vestibular regions were linearly correlated with poor motor coordination, underlining the sensitivity of these tests to cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:16844307

  19. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  20. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  1. NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

    2014-03-19

    Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  2. NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION STRENGTHENS WEAK ELECTRICAL COUPLING IN MAMMALIAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Han, Victor Z.; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Welsh, John P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling that shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide the first direct demonstration of receptormediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate-receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20–100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, while co-stimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate-receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (i) occurred despite increased input conductance, (ii) induced Ca2+-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (iii) required activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (iv) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and thus, (v) strengthened coupling mainly between non-adjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

  3. Brain fatty acid synthase activates PPAR? to maintain energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Manu V.; Zhu, Yimin; López, Miguel; Yin, Li; Wozniak, David F.; Coleman, Trey; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wolfgang, Michael; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Lane, M. Daniel; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2007-01-01

    Central nervous system control of energy balance affects susceptibility to obesity and diabetes, but how fatty acids, malonyl-CoA, and other metabolites act at this site to alter metabolism is poorly understood. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS), rate limiting for de novo lipogenesis, decreases appetite independently of leptin but also promotes weight loss through activities unrelated to FAS inhibition. Here we report that the conditional genetic inactivation of FAS in pancreatic ? cells and hypothalamus produced lean, hypophagic mice with increased physical activity and impaired hypothalamic PPAR? signaling. Administration of a PPAR? agonist into the hypothalamus increased PPAR? target genes and normalized food intake. Inactivation of ? cell FAS enzyme activity had no effect on islet function in culture or in vivo. These results suggest a critical role for brain FAS in the regulation of not only feeding, but also physical activity, effects that appear to be mediated through the provision of ligands generated by FAS to PPAR?. Thus, 2 diametrically opposed proteins, FAS (induced by feeding) and PPAR? (induced by starvation), unexpectedly form an integrative sensory module in the central nervous system to orchestrate energy balance. PMID:17694178

  4. Genetic and environmental contributions to brain activation during calculation.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2013-11-01

    Twin studies have long suggested a genetic influence on inter-individual variations in mathematical abilities, and candidate genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies. However, the localization of the brain regions under genetic influence during number manipulation is still unexplored. Here we investigated fMRI data from a group of 19 MZ (monozygotic) and 13 DZ (dizygotic) adult twin pairs, scanned during a mental calculation task. We examined both the activation and the degree of functional lateralization in regions of interest (ROIs) centered on the main activated peaks. Heritability was first investigated by comparing the respective MZ and DZ correlations. Then, genetic and environmental contributions were jointly estimated by fitting a ACE model classically used in twin studies. We found that a subset of the activated network was under genetic influence, encompassing the bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL), the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and a left superior frontal region. An additional region of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC), whose deactivation correlated with a behavioral calculation score, also presented higher similarity between MZ than between DZ twins, thus offering a plausible physiological basis for the observable inheritance of math scores. Finally, the main impact of the shared environment was found in the lateralization of activation within the intraparietal sulcus. These maps of genetic and environmental contributions provide precise candidate phenotypes for further genetic association analyses, and illuminate how genetics and education shape the development of number processing networks. PMID:23664947

  5. Platelet activating factor induces transient blood-brain barrier opening to facilitate edaravone penetration into the brain.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weirong; Zhang, Rui; Sha, Lan; Lv, Peng; Shang, Erxin; Han, Dan; Wei, Jie; Geng, Xiaohan; Yang, Qichuan; Li, Yunman

    2014-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) greatly limits the efficacy of many neuroprotective drugs' delivery to the brain, so improving drug penetration through the BBB has been an important focus of research. Here we report that platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently opened BBB and facilitated neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into the brain. Intravenous infusion with PAF induced a transient BBB opening in rats, reflected by increased Evans blue leakage and mild edema formation, which ceased within 6 h. Furthermore, rat regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) declined acutely during PAF infusion, but recovered slowly. More importantly, this transient BBB opening significantly increased the penetration of edaravone into the brain, evidenced by increased edaravone concentrations in tissue interstitial fluid collected by microdialysis and analyzed by Ultra-performance liquid chromatograph combined with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). Similarly, incubation of rat brain microvessel endothelial cells monolayer with 1 ?M PAF for 1 h significantly increased monolayer permeability to (125)I-albumin, which recovered 1 h after PAF elimination. However, PAF incubation with rat brain microvessel endothelial cells for 1 h did not cause detectable cytotoxicity, and did not regulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 and P-glycoprotein expression. In conclusion, PAF could induce transient and reversible BBB opening through abrupt rCBF decline, which significantly improved edaravone penetration into the brain. Platelet activating factor (PAF) transiently induces BBB dysfunction and increases BBB permeability, which may be due to vessel contraction and a temporary decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) triggered by PAF. More importantly, the PAF induced transient BBB opening facilitates neuroprotectant edaravone penetration into brain. The results of this study may provide a new approach to improve drug delivery into the brain. PMID:24164378

  6. Brain activity and desire for internet video game play

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR <0.05, p<0.009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the beta values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared to the general players, members who played more internet video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070

  7. Brain projects think big When you read these words, hundreds of million of nerve cells are electrically and chemically active in your brain. This

    E-print Network

    Segev, Idan

    Brain projects think big When you read these words, hundreds of million of nerve cells are electrically and chemically active in your brain. This activity enables you to recognize words, sense the world, learn, enjoy and create new things, and be curious about the world around you. Indeed, our brain

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  9. Abnormal Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Facial Expressions in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Amy S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Howe, Meghan E.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Adleman, Nancy E.; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late…

  10. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  11. Altered adenylyl cyclase activities and G-protein abnormalities in portal hypertensive rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, P A; Wu, Y; Sitzmann, J V

    1994-01-01

    Portal hypertension (PHT) is characterized by splanchnic hyperemia due to a reduction in mesenteric vascular resistance. We hypothesized that alterations in the activity of a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) might be partially responsible for the marked circulatory disturbances observed in PHT. We, therefore, determined alterations in adenylyl cyclase/cAMP system in prehepatic portal hypertensive rabbits and correlated these changes to the activity of a G-protein. Basal and G-protein-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were lower in the PHT superior mesenteric artery (22-26%) and thoracic aorta (31-46%) membranes, but higher (178-321%) in portal vein. The functional activity of Gi alpha proteins (pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-dependent ribosylation) increased in the PHT superior mesenteric artery and thoracic aorta, but decreased in portal vein. Immunodetection revealed an increase in the Gi alpha protein subunits (Gi alpha 1/Gi alpha 2 and Gi alpha 3/Go alpha) in PHT thoracic aorta, without any change in Gs alpha proteins; and a decrease in the amount of Gi alpha proteins in PHT portal vein. There was no change in the amount of Gs alpha/Gi alpha in the PHT superior mesenteric artery. We conclude the hemodynamic alterations of PHT are associated with intrinsic alterations in G-protein-enzyme effector systems. These alterations are vessels specific and suggest a possible unique global derangement underlying the vasculopathy of PHT. Images PMID:8201006

  12. Mechanisms of brain ventricle development

    E-print Network

    Lowery, Laura Anne

    2008-01-01

    The brain ventricles are a conserved system of fluid-filled cavities within the brain that form during the earliest stages of brain development. Abnormal brain ventricle development has been correlated with neurodevelopmental ...

  13. Aberrant activation of AMP-activated protein kinase contributes to the abnormal distribution of HuR in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ju; Lee, Li-Ming; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chern, Yijuang

    2015-02-13

    Distorted mRNA metabolism contributes to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The human antigen R (HuR) is a major mRNA stabilizer. We report that abnormal localization of HuR was associated with enhanced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in the motor neurons of ALS patients. Activation of AMPK changed the location of HuR in mouse motor neurons and in a motor neuron cell line via phosphorylation of importin-?1. Stimulation of the A2A adenosine receptor normalized the AMPK-evoked redistribution of HuR. This suggests that aberrant activation of AMPK in motor neurons disrupts the normal distribution of HuR, which might imbalance RNA metabolism and contribute to ALS pathogenesis. PMID:25592834

  14. Whole-brain mapping of behaviourally induced neural activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Vousden, Dulcie A; Epp, Jonathan; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Nieman, Brian J; van Eede, Matthijs; Dazai, Jun; Ragan, Timothy; Bito, Haruhiko; Frankland, Paul W; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2014-04-24

    The ability to visualize behaviourally evoked neural activity patterns across the rodent brain is essential for understanding the distributed brain networks mediating particular behaviours. However, current imaging methods are limited in their spatial resolution and/or ability to obtain brain-wide coverage of functional activity. Here, we describe a new automated method for obtaining cellular-level, whole-brain maps of behaviourally induced neural activity in the mouse. This method combines the use of transgenic immediate-early gene reporter mice to visualize neural activity; serial two-photon tomography to image the entire brain at cellular resolution; advanced image processing algorithms to count the activated neurons and align the datasets to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas; and statistical analysis to identify the network of activated brain regions evoked by behaviour. We demonstrate the use of this approach to determine the whole-brain networks activated during the retrieval of fear memories. Consistent with previous studies, we identified a large network of amygdalar, hippocampal, and neocortical brain regions implicated in fear memory retrieval. Our proposed methods can thus be used to map cellular networks involved in the expression of normal behaviours as well as to investigate in depth circuit dysfunction in mouse models of neurobiological disease. PMID:24760545

  15. Brain Na+, K+-ATPase Activity In Aging and Disease

    PubMed Central

    de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina Rodríguez; Ordieres, María Graciela López

    2014-01-01

    Na+/K+ pump or sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine 5’-triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase), its enzymatic version, is a crucial protein responsible for the electrochemical gradient across the cell membranes. It is an ion transporter, which in addition to exchange cations, is the ligand for cardenolides. This enzyme regulates the entry of K+ with the exit of Na+ from cells, being the responsible for Na+/K+ equilibrium maintenance through neuronal membranes. This transport system couples the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to exchange three sodium ions for two potassium ions, thus maintaining the normal gradient of these cations in animal cells. Oxidative metabolism is very active in brain, where large amounts of chemical energy as ATP molecules are consumed, mostly required for the maintenance of the ionic gradients that underlie resting and action potentials which are involved in nerve impulse propagation, neurotransmitter release and cation homeostasis. Protein phosphorylation is a key process in biological regulation. At nervous system level, protein phosphorylation is the major molecular mechanism through which the function of neural proteins is modulted in response to extracellular signals, including the response to neurotransmitter stimuli. It is the major mechanism of neural plasticity, including memory processing. The phosphorylation of Na+, K+-ATPase catalytic subunit inhibits enzyme activity whereas the inhibition of protein kinase C restores the enzyme activity. The dephosphorylation of neuronal Na+, K+-ATPase is mediated by calcineurin, a serine / threonine phosphatase. The latter enzyme is involved in a wide range of cellular responses to Ca2+ mobilizing signals, in the regulation of neuronal excitability by controlling the activity of ion channels, in the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as in synaptic plasticity and gene transcription. In the present article evidence showing Na+, K+-ATPase involvement in signaling pathways, enzyme changes in diverse neurological diseases as well as during aging, have been summarized. Issues refer mainly to Na+, K+-ATPase studies in ischemia, brain injury, depression and mood disorders, mania, stress, Alzheimer´s disease, learning and memory, and neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:25018677

  16. Proline Reverses the Abnormal Phenotypes of Colletotrichum trifolii Associated with Expression of Endogenous Constitutively Active Ras

    PubMed Central

    Memmott, Stephen D.; Ha, Young-sil; Dickman, Martin B.

    2002-01-01

    Colletotrichum trifolii is the causative organism of alfalfa anthracnose. We previously cloned and characterized the small prototypical G protein, Ras, of C. trifolii, which is involved in the signaling pathways that mediate interaction between the pathogen and its host. Transformants expressing constitutively active forms of Ras have growth medium-dependent phenotypes. In nutrient-rich media (e.g., yeast extract and peptone), the phenotype of the transformants was indistinguishable from that of the wild type. However, during nutrient starvation, the transformants lose polarity, have distended hyphae, and fail to sporulate and produce appressoria. Since peptone caused the phenotype to revert, amino acids were tested singly and in combination to identify the responsible amino acid(s). We found that 1.6 mM proline in the medium reverses the constitutively active Ras phenotype. PMID:11916680

  17. Stimulus-activated changes in brain tissue temperature in the anesthetized rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph C. LaManna; Kimberly A. McCracken; Madhavi Patil; Otto J. Prohaska

    1989-01-01

    A new thin-film, multisensor probe was used to determine tissue oxygen tension, tissue temperature, and electrical activity at two depths below the brain surface in chloral hydrateor nitrous oxide\\/halothane-anesthetized rats. Brain tissue temperature at both depths was found to be lower than core temperature by 1–2°C. Electrical activation, spreading depression, and pentylenetetrazol seizures all resulted in transient increases of brain

  18. Own-gender imitation activates the brain's reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Iacoboni, Macro; Martin, Alia; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is an important component of human social learning throughout life. Theoretical models and empirical data from anthropology and psychology suggest that people tend to imitate self-similar individuals, and that such imitation biases increase the adaptive value (e.g., self-relevance) of learned information. It is unclear, however, what neural mechanisms underlie people's tendency to imitate those similar to themselves. We focused on the own-gender imitation bias, a pervasive bias thought to be important for gender identity development. While undergoing fMRI, participants imitated own- and other-gender actors performing novel, meaningless hand signs; as control conditions, they also simply observed such actions and viewed still portraits of the same actors. Only the ventral and dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala were more active when imitating own- compared to other-gender individuals. A Bayesian analysis of the BrainMap neuroimaging database demonstrated that the striatal region preferentially activated by own-gender imitation is selectively activated by classical reward tasks in the literature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neurobiological mechanism associated with the own-gender imitation bias and demonstrate a novel role of reward-processing neural structures in social behavior. PMID:22383803

  19. Face gender modulates women's brain activity during face encoding.

    PubMed

    Lovén, Johanna; Svärd, Joakim; Ebner, Natalie C; Herlitz, Agneta; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-07-01

    Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces. PMID:23698075

  20. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2014-11-18

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  1. Exercise Modulates Redox-Sensitive Small GTPase Activity in the Brain Microvasculature in a Model of Brain Metastasis Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gretchen; Balke, Jordan E.; Andras, Ibolya E.; Park, Minseon; Toborek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). There is evidence that exercise can alter the oxidation status of the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell invasion into the brain, although the mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we focused on the role of microenvironment generated by exercise and metastasizing tumor cells at the levels of brain microvessels, influencing oxidative stress-mediated responses and activation of redox-sensitive small GTPases. Mature male mice were exercised for four weeks using a running wheel with the average voluntary running distance 9.0±0.3 km/day. Mice were then infused with 1.0×106 D122 (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) cells into the brain microvasculature, and euthanized either 48 hours (in short-term studies) or 2–3 weeks (in long-term studies) post tumor cell administration. A significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species was observed following 48 hours or 3 weeks of tumor cells growth, which was accompanied by a reduction in MnSOD expression in the exercised mice. Activation of the small GTPase Rho was negatively correlated with running distance in the tumor cell infused mice. Together, these data suggest that exercise may play a significant role during aggressive metastatic invasion, especially at higher intensities in pre-trained individuals. PMID:24804765

  2. Abnormal motor activity during anaesthesia in a dog: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lervik, Andreas; Haga, Henning A; Becker, Max

    2010-01-01

    Seizures or convulsions that occur during anaesthesia in veterinary patients are infrequently reported in the literature. Consequently, the incidence of such events is unknown. Several drugs commonly used in clinical veterinary anaesthesia have been shown to induce epileptiform activity in both human clinical patients and experimental candidates. The present case report describes convulsions in a four-year old male Bernese mountain dog during maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane after premedication with acepromazine and methadone followed by co-induction with propofol and ketamine. The dog had no history of previous convulsions. The use of several sedative and anaesthetic drugs makes it difficult to find one single causative pharmaceutical. PMID:21118580

  3. Optical imaging of neural and hemodynamic brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schei, Jennifer Lynn

    Optical imaging technologies can be used to record neural and hemodynamic activity. Neural activity elicits physiological changes that alter the optical tissue properties. Specifically, changes in polarized light are concomitant with neural depolarization. We measured polarization changes from an isolated lobster nerve during action potential propagation using both reflected and transmitted light. In transmission mode, polarization changes were largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. To overcome irregular cell orientation found in the brain, we measured polarization changes from a nerve tied in a knot. Our results show that neural activation produces polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations. Neural activation expends energy resources and elicits metabolic delivery through blood vessel dilation, increasing blood flow and volume. We used spectroscopic imaging techniques combined with electrophysiological measurements to record evoked neural and hemodynamic responses from the auditory cortex of the rat. By using implantable optics, we measured responses across natural wake and sleep states, as well as responses following different amounts of sleep deprivation. During quiet sleep, evoked metabolic responses were larger compared to wake, perhaps because blood vessels were more compliant. When animals were sleep deprived, evoked hemodynamic responses were smaller following longer periods of deprivation. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma.

  4. Episodic memory in schizophrenia: The influence of strategy use on behavior and brain activation

    E-print Network

    Episodic memory in schizophrenia: The influence of strategy use on behavior and brain activation in schizophrenia: The influence of strategy use on behavior and brain activation, Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Received 19 June 2007

  5. A Three-Dimensional Statistical Analysis for CBF Activation Studies in Human Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Worsley; A. C. Evans; S. Marrett; P. Neelin

    1992-01-01

    SUMMARY Many studies of brain function with positron emission tomography (PET) involve the interpretation of a subtracted PET image, usually the difierence between two images under baseline and stimulation conditions. The purpose of these studies is to see which areas of the brain are activated by the stimulation condition. In many cognitive studies, the activation is so slight that the

  6. Functional Holography of Complex Networks Activity--From Cultures to the Human Brain

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    Functional Holography of Complex Networks Activity--From Cultures to the Human Brain ITAY BARUCHI,1 activity was discovered from cultured networks to the human brain. These findings could be a consequence- ces and their corresponding connectivity diagrams. Exam- ples range from metabolic pathways, through

  7. Carnosine: Effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5?g/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5?g/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5?g/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. PMID:25450310

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Assessing a signal model and identifying brain activity from fMRI

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jianbo

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Assessing a signal model and identifying brain activity from fMRI data-Verlag 2008 Abstract One of the major challenges of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis brain activity from fMRI data. We perform three tasks: (a) Estimating noise level from experimental fMRI

  9. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  10. PACAP-Deficient Mice Exhibit Light Parameter–Dependent Abnormalities on Nonvisual Photoreception and Early Activity Onset

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Chihiro; Isojima, Yasushi; Shintani, Norihito; Hatanaka, Michiyoshi; Guo, Xiaohong; Okumura, Nobuaki; Nagai, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi

    2010-01-01

    Background The photopigment melanopsin has been suggested to act as a dominant photoreceptor in nonvisual photoreception including resetting of the circadian clock (entrainment), direct tuning or masking of vital status (activity, sleep/wake cycles, etc.), and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is exclusively coexpressed with melanopsin in a small subset of retinal ganglion cells and is predicted to be involved extensively in these responses; however, there were inconsistencies in the previous reports, and its functional role has not been well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that PACAP-deficient mice exhibited severe dysfunctions of entrainment in a time-dependent manner. The abnormalities in the mutant mice were intensity-dependent in phase delay and duration-dependent in phase advance. The knockout mice also displayed blunted masking, which was dependent on lighting conditions, but not completely lost. The dysfunctions of masking in the mutant mice were recovered by infusion of PACAP-38. By contrast, these mutant mice show a normal PLR. We examined the retinal morphology and innervations in the mutant mice, and no apparent changes were observed in melanopsin-immunoreactive cells. These data suggest that the dysfunctions of entrainment and masking were caused by the loss of PACAP, not by the loss of light input itself. Moreover, PACAP-deficient mice express an unusually early onset of activities, from approximately four hours before the dark period, without influencing the phase of the endogenous circadian clock. Conclusions/Significance Although some groups including us reported the abnormalities in photic entrainments in PACAP- and PAC1-knockout mice, there were inconsistencies in their results [1], [2], [3], [4]. The time-dependent dysfunctions of photic entrainment in the PACAP-knockout mice described in this paper can integrate the incompatible data in previous reports. The recovery of impaired masking by infusion of PACAP-38 in the mutant mice is the first direct evidence of the relationship between PACAP and masking. These results indicate that PACAP regulates particular nonvisual light responses by conveying parametric light information—that is, intensity and duration. The “early-bird” phenotype in the mutant mice originally reported in this paper supposed that PACAP also has a critical role in daily behavioral patterns, especially during the light-to-dark transition period. PMID:20174586

  11. Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-03-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

  12. Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    , including in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Wallis & Miller, 2003), orbito- frontal prefrontal cortex; Meehl, 1975). Activity in subcortical brain structures and various regions of the prefrontal cortex experience; these processes are likely subserved by prefrontal cortex activity. For example, recent

  13. High pulse pressure is not associated with abnormal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in repaired aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T A L; Pedersen, E B; Munk, K; Hjortdal, V E; Emmertsen, K; Andersen, N H

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between pulse pressure (PP)-a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness-and activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in adult patients with repaired coarctation and normal left ventricular (LV) function. A total of 114 patients (44 (26-74) years, 13 (0.1-40) years at repair) and 20 healthy controls were examined with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, vasoactive hormone levels and magnetic resonance of the thoracic aorta. Forty-one patients (36%) were taking antihypertensives (28 RAAS inhibitors). Fifty-one had mean 24-h blood pressures >130/80?mm?Hg. Hypertension was not associated with age at repair (P=0.257). Patients had higher PP and LV mass compared with controls (52±11 vs 45±5?mm?Hg and 221±71 vs 154±55?g, respectively; both P<0.05). Differences were more pronounced in the presence of recoarctation, but independently of RAA levels. Even normotensive patients had higher LV mass than controls. LV mass and recoarctation were correlated with PP levels. In conclusion, adult patients with repaired coarctation have increased PP and LV mass compared with controls. PP increased with increasing recoarctation. Hypertension was present also in the absence of recoarctation. These changes could not be explained by abnormal activation of the RAAS. PMID:25355011

  14. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  15. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    PubMed

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder. PMID:21596703

  16. Abnormal expression of plasminogen activator inhibitors in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Estellés, A.; Grancha, S.; Gilabert, J.; Thinnes, T.; Chirivella, M.; España, F.; Aznar, J.; Loskutoff, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We previously reported significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma and placenta from pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia is a frequent problem in molar pregnancies. As increases in PAI-1 may contribute to the placental alterations that occur in pre-eclampsia, we have begun to investigate changes in PAI-1 as well as PAI-2 and several other components of the fibrinolytic system in patients with trophoblastic disease. Significant increases in plasma PAI-1 and decreases in plasma PAI-2 levels were observed in molar pregnancies when compared with the levels in normal pregnant women of similar gestational age. PAI-1 antigen levels also were increased, and PAI-2 levels were decreased in placenta from women with molar pregnancies compared with placenta obtained by spontaneous abortion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive and specific staining of PAI-1 in trophoblastic epithelium in molar pregnancies and relatively weak staining of PAI-2. No association between the distribution of PAI-1 and vitronectin was found, and no specific signal for tissue type PA, urokinase type PA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or interleukin-1 was detected. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in PAI-1 but not PAI-2 mRNAs in placenta from molar pregnancies in comparison with placenta from abortions. These results demonstrate increased PAI-1 protein and mRNA in trophoblastic disease and suggest that localized elevated levels of PAI-1 may contribute to the hemostatic problems associated with this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8863672

  17. Electroencephalographic inverse localization of brain activity in acute traumatic brain injury as a guide to surgery, monitoring and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Andrei; Goh, S.-Y. Matthew; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Stein, Nathan R.; Chambers, Micah C.; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To inverse-localize epileptiform cortical electrical activity recorded from severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients using electroencephalography (EEG). Methods Three acute TBI cases were imaged using computed tomography (CT) and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Semi-automatic segmentation was performed to partition the complete TBI head into 25 distinct tissue types, including 6 tissue types accounting for pathology. Segmentations were employed to generate a finite element method model of the head, and EEG activity generators were modeled as dipolar currents distributed over the cortical surface. Results We demonstrate anatomically faithful localization of EEG generators responsible for epileptiform discharges in severe TBI. By accounting for injury-related tissue conductivity changes, our work offers the most realistic implementation currently available for the inverse estimation of cortical activity in TBI. Conclusion Whereas standard localization techniques are available for electrical activity mapping in uninjured brains, they are rarely applied to acute TBI. Modern models of TBI-induced pathology can inform the localization of epileptogenic foci, improve surgical efficacy, contribute to the improvement of critical care monitoring and provide guidance for patient-tailored treatment. With approaches such as this, neurosurgeons and neurologists can study brain activity in acute TBI and obtain insights regarding injury effects upon brain metabolism and clinical outcome. PMID:24011495

  18. Estimating cognitive load during self-regulation of brain activity and neurofeedback with therapeutic brain-computer interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NFB) training with brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is currently being studied in a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions in an aim to reduce disorder-specific symptoms. For this purpose, a range of classification algorithms has been explored to identify different brain states. These neural states, e.g., self-regulated brain activity vs. rest, are separated by setting a threshold parameter. Measures such as the maximum classification accuracy (CA) have been introduced to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Interestingly enough, precisely these measures are often used to estimate the subject’s ability to perform brain self-regulation. This is surprising, given that the goal of improving the tool that differentiates between brain states is different from the aim of optimizing NFB for the subject performing brain self-regulation. For the latter, knowledge about mental resources and work load is essential in order to adapt the difficulty of the intervention accordingly. In this context, we apply an analytical method and provide empirical data to determine the zone of proximal development (ZPD) as a measure of a subject’s cognitive resources and the instructional efficacy of NFB. This approach is based on a reconsideration of item-response theory (IRT) and cognitive load theory for instructional design, and combines them with the CA curve to provide a measure of BCI performance. PMID:25762908

  19. Estimating cognitive load during self-regulation of brain activity and neurofeedback with therapeutic brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Neurofeedback (NFB) training with brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) is currently being studied in a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions in an aim to reduce disorder-specific symptoms. For this purpose, a range of classification algorithms has been explored to identify different brain states. These neural states, e.g., self-regulated brain activity vs. rest, are separated by setting a threshold parameter. Measures such as the maximum classification accuracy (CA) have been introduced to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Interestingly enough, precisely these measures are often used to estimate the subject's ability to perform brain self-regulation. This is surprising, given that the goal of improving the tool that differentiates between brain states is different from the aim of optimizing NFB for the subject performing brain self-regulation. For the latter, knowledge about mental resources and work load is essential in order to adapt the difficulty of the intervention accordingly. In this context, we apply an analytical method and provide empirical data to determine the zone of proximal development (ZPD) as a measure of a subject's cognitive resources and the instructional efficacy of NFB. This approach is based on a reconsideration of item-response theory (IRT) and cognitive load theory for instructional design, and combines them with the CA curve to provide a measure of BCI performance. PMID:25762908

  20. Brain Na+/K+-ATPase activity in two anoxia tolerant vertebrates: crucian carp and freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Hylland, P; Milton, S; Pek, M; Nilsson, G E; Lutz, P L

    1997-10-10

    The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta) are among the very few vertebrates that can survive extended periods of anoxia. The major problem for an anoxic brain is energy deficiency. In the brain, the Na+/K+-ATPase is the single most ATP consuming enzyme, being responsible for maintaining ion gradients. We here show that the Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the turtle brain is reduced by 31% in telencephalon and by 34% in cerebellum after 24 h of anoxia. Both changes were reversed upon reoxygenation. By contrast, the Na+/K+-ATPase activities were maintained in the anoxic crucian carp brain. These results support the notion that crucian carp and turtles use divergent strategies for anoxic survival. The fall in Na+/K+-ATPase activities displayed by the turtle is likely to be related to the strong depression of brain electric and metabolic activity utilized as an anoxic survival strategy by this species. PMID:9389603

  1. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  2. Physical Activity, Mediterranean Diet and Biomarkers-Assessed Risk of Alzheimer’s: A Multi-Modality Brain Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Dawn C.; Davies, Michelle; Murray, John; Williams, Schantel; Tsui, Wai H.; Li, Yi; Andrews, Randolph D.; Lukic, Ana; McHugh, Pauline; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.; Mosconi, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Increased physical activity and higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) have been independently associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Their association has not been investigated with the use of biomarkers. This study examines whether, among cognitively normal (NL) individuals, those who are less physically active and show lower MeDi adherence have brain biomarker abnormalities consistent with AD. Methods Forty-five NL individuals (age 54 ± 11, 71% women) with complete leisure time physical activity (LTA), dietary information, and cross-sectional 3D T1-weigthed MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans were examined. Voxel-wise multivariate partial least square (PLS) regression was used to examine the effects of LTA, MeDi and their interaction on brain biomarkers. Age, gender, ethnicity, education, caloric intake, BMI, family history of AD, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, presence of hypertension and insulin resistance were examined as confounds. Subjects were dichotomized into more and less physically active (LTA+ vs. LTA?; n = 21 vs. 24), and into higher vs. lower MeDi adherence groups (n = 18 vs. 27) using published scoring methods. Spatial patterns of brain biomarkers that represented the optimal association between the images and the groups were generated for all modalities using voxel-wise multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. Results Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. Independent effects of LTA and MeDi factors were observed in AD-vulnerable brain regions for all modalities (p < 0.001). Increased AD-burden (in particular higher A? load and lower glucose metabolism) were observed in LTA? compared to LTA+ subjects, and in MeDi? as compared to MeDi+ subjects. A gradient effect was observed for all modalities so that LTA?/MeDi? subjects had the highest and LTA+/MeDi+ subjects had the lowest AD-burden (p < 0.001), although the LTA × MeDi interaction was significant only for FDG measures (p < 0.03). Adjusting for covariates did not attenuate these relationships. Conclusion Lower physical activity and MeDi adherence were associated with increased brain AD-burden among NL individuals, indicating that lifestyle factors may modulate AD risk. Studies with larger samples and longitudinal evaluations are needed to determine the predictive power of the observed associations PMID:25599008

  3. Altered brain activation during visuomotor integration in chronic active cannabis users: relationship to cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    King, George R; Ernst, Thomas; Deng, Weiran; Stenger, Andrew; Gonzales, Rachael M K; Nakama, Helenna; Chang, Linda

    2011-12-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. Thirty cannabis users (16 men, 14 women, 18-45 years old) and 30 nondrug user controls (16 men, 14 women, 19-44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and with fMRI using a 3 Tesla scanner during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. The greater but altered brain activities may be mediated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users, which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

  4. Brain Activity during Lower-Limb Movement with Manual Facilitation: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Patrícia Maria Duarte; Vieira, Ana Isabel Correia Matos de Ferreira; Canário, Nádia Isabel Silva; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; de Castro Caldas, Alexandre Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Brain activity knowledge of healthy subjects is an important reference in the context of motor control and reeducation. While the normal brain behavior for upper-limb motor control has been widely explored, the same is not true for lower-limb control. Also the effects that different stimuli can evoke on movement and respective brain activity are important in the context of motor potentialization and reeducation. For a better understanding of these processes, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to collect data of 10 healthy subjects performing lower-limb multijoint functional movement under three stimuli: verbal stimulus, manual facilitation, and verbal?+?manual facilitation. Results showed that, with verbal stimulus, both lower limbs elicit bilateral cortical brain activation; with manual facilitation, only the left lower limb (LLL) elicits bilateral activation while the right lower limb (RLL) elicits contralateral activation; verbal?+?manual facilitation elicits bilateral activation for the LLL and contralateral activation for the RLL. Manual facilitation also elicits subcortical activation in white matter, the thalamus, pons, and cerebellum. Deactivations were also found for lower-limb movement. Manual facilitation is stimulus capable of generating brain activity in healthy subjects. Stimuli need to be specific for bilateral activation and regarding which brain areas we aim to activate. PMID:25722890

  5. Perception of Music and Dimensional Complexity of Brain Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Birbaumer; W. Lutzenberger; H. Rau; G. Mayer-Kress; I. Choi; C. Braun

    1994-01-01

    The non-linear resonance hypothesis of music perception was tested in an experiment comparing a group of musically sophisticated and a group of less sophisticated subjects. The prediction that weakly chaotic music entrains less complex brain wave (EEG) oscillations at the prefrontal cortex was confirmed by using a correlational dimension algorithm. Strongly chaotic (stochastic) and periodic music both stimulated higher brain

  6. A Constitutively Active G?i3 Protein Corrects the Abnormal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Phenotype of Oa1?/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Alejandra; Wang, Ying; Ahmedli, Novruz B.; Jiang, Meisheng; Farber, Debora B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular Albinism type 1 (OA1) is a disease caused by mutations in the OA1 gene and characterized by the presence of macromelanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) as well as abnormal crossing of the optic axons at the optic chiasm. We showed in our previous studies in mice that Oa1 activates specifically G?i3 in its signaling pathway and thus, hypothesized that a constitutively active G?i3 in the RPE of Oa1?/? mice might keep on the Oa1 signaling cascade and prevent the formation of macromelanosomes. To test this hypothesis, we have generated transgenic mice that carry the constitutively active G?i3 (Q204L) protein in the RPE of Oa1?/? mice and are now reporting the effects that the transgene produced on the Oa1?/? RPE phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice carrying RPE-specific expression of the constitutively active G?i3 (Q204L) were generated by injecting fertilized eggs of Oa1?/? females with a lentivirus containing the G?i3 (Q204L) cDNA. PCR, Southern blots, Western blots and confocal microscopy were used to confirm the presence of the transgene in the RPE of positive transgenic mice. Morphometrical analyses were performed using electron microscopy to compare the size and number of melanosomes per RPE area in putative Oa1?/?, G?i3 (Q204L) transgenic mice with those of wild-type NCrl and Oa1?/? mice. Results We found a correlation between the presence of the constitutively active G?i3 (Q204L) transgene and the rescue of the normal phenotype of RPE melanosomes in Oa1?/?, G?i3 (Q204L) mice. These mice have higher density of melanosomes per RPE area and a larger number of small melanosomes than Oa1?/? mice, and their RPE phenotype is similar to that of wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results show that a constitutively active G?i3 protein can by-pass the lack of Oa1 protein in Oa1?/? mice and consequently rescue the RPE melanosomal phenotype. PMID:24098784

  7. Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neuronal excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Heck, A.; Fastenrath, M.; Ackermann, S.; Auschra, B.; Bickel, H.; Coynel, D.; Gschwind, L.; Jessen, F.; Kaduszkiewicz, H.; Maier, W.; Milnik, A.; Pentzek, M.; Riedel-Heller, S.G.; Ripke, S.; Spalek, K.; Sullivan, P.; Vogler, C.; Wagner, M.; Weyerer, S.; Wolfsgruber, S.; de Quervain, D.; Papassotiropoulos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Working memory, the capacity of actively maintaining task-relevant information during a cognitive task, is a heritable trait. Working memory deficits are characteristic for many psychiatric disorders. We performed genome-wide gene-set enrichment analyses in multiple independent data sets of young and aged cognitively healthy subjects (n = 2’824), and in a large schizophrenia case-control sample (n = 32’143). The voltage-gated cation channel activity gene-set, consisting of genes related to neuronal excitability, was robustly linked to performance in working memory-related tasks across ages, and to schizophrenia. Functional brain imaging in 707 healthy participants linked this gene-set also to working memory-related activity in the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. Gene-set analyses may help to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cognitive dimensions, brain activity and psychopathology. PMID:24529980

  8. Thrombin Stimulates Activation of the Cerebral 5Lipoxygenase Pathway During Blood-Brain Cell Contact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Winking; Rochus M. Heldt; Thomas Simmet

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the trigger mechanism activating the 5-lipoxygenase pathway during blood-brain cell contact and to estimate the contribution of blood and brain cells to the cysteinyl-leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis observed under these conditions. Incubation of dissociated rat brain cells in Krebs-Henseleit solution for up to 60 min did not stimulate any detectable cysteinyl-LT biosynthesis. Incubation

  9. Evidence for increased amyloid enhancing factor activity in Alzheimer brain extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Ali-Khan; Y. Robitaille; K. Alizadeh-Khiavi; T. Du

    1988-01-01

    Soluble brain extracts containing 0.1 to 16 mg of protein from 3 normal human brain and 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and other neurological disorders were assayed for amyloid enhancing factor (AEF) activity in the mouse bioassay. At the 0.1 mg dosage, five of seven brain extracts from amyloid-positive samples and only one of four amyloid-negative samples demonstrated

  10. Todd, Faraday, and the electrical basis of brain activity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Edward H

    2004-09-01

    Robert Bentley Todd (1809-60) was the UK's first eminent neurologist and neuroscientist. An anatomist, physiologist, and clinical scientist with an interest in the nervous system, he was the first to confirm the electrical basis of brain activity in the 1840s. He was influenced by his contemporary, Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution, and by two colleagues at King's College, John Daniell and Charles Wheatstone, who were also working at the cutting edge of electrical science. Todd conceived of nervous polarity (force) generated in nervous centres and compared this with the polar force of voltaic electricity developed in the galvanic battery. He brilliantly foresaw each nerve vesicle (cell) and its related fibres (ie, neuron) as a distinct apparatus for the development and transmission of nervous polarity. Epilepsy was the result of periodic unnatural development of nervous force leading to the "disruptive discharge" described by Faraday. Faraday, who studied animal electricity in the Gymnotus (electric eel), and Todd saw nervous polarity as a higher form of interchangeable energy. PMID:15324724

  11. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory. PMID:24549103

  12. The brain activity map project and the challenge of functional connectomics.

    PubMed

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M; Greenspan, Ralph J; Roukes, Michael L; Yuste, Rafael

    2012-06-21

    The function of neural circuits is an emergent property that arises from the coordinated activity of large numbers of neurons. To capture this, we propose launching a large-scale, international public effort, the Brain Activity Map Project, aimed at reconstructing the full record of neural activity across complete neural circuits. This technological challenge could prove to be an invaluable step toward understanding fundamental and pathological brain processes. PMID:22726828

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopic investigations of oxygenation changes related to brain activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wemara Lichty; Kaoru Sakatani; Fang Lin; Pei Sun; Haishu Ding; Feng Wang

    1999-01-01

    Various NIRS studies have evaluated brain activity with intriguing and promising results. In this paper, results of an experiment using NIRS to evaluate brain activation induced by mental subtraction are discussed. The investigation evaluates activation responses of three NIR parameters, oxygenated- hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxygenated-Hb (Deoxy-Hb), and total-Hb (Tot-Hb). NIRS parameters were sensitive to mental subtraction; however, they were not sensitive

  14. PET with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose measures of local brain activity and memory in schizophrenia and in depression

    SciTech Connect

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Kling, A.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with (F-18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan has provided non-invasive measures of regional cerebral glucose utilization which are directly related with levels of functional activity in regions of the brain. The FDG technique was applied to the study of brain activity thought to be impaired in 6 chronic schizophrenics (SCH) and 6 depressed (D) patients in comparison with 6 healthy age-matched controls (C). Local cerebral metabolic rates of glucose utilization LCMRglc were determined for 8 regions in both left and right hemispheres and were expressed in reference to a person's mean CMRglc. Multivariate comparisons of the 16 measures showed no significant differences between the 3 groups; follow-up step-down analyses and t-tests failed to specify any regional or global LCMRglc reliable to separate patients from controls. They also did not differ in any of 18 multidimensional tests of memory and decision, except for lower delayed verbal recall in D patients. When both SCH and D were classified into those with CT large and those with CT small ventricles, there were no multivariate differences. Only partial LCMRglc separated large from small ventricle patients (F(1,7) = 6.12, p<0.042), but finding no multivariate significance makes this result questionable. The ventricular grouping of SCH alone may reveal a marginal difference in global CMRglc t(4) = 2.58, p<0.06, given a larger patient sample. In contrast to recent reports, indices to brain activity in schizophrenic and depressed patients do not seem to be abnormal.

  15. Abnormalities of AMPK Activation and Glucose Uptake in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells from Individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Audrey E.; Jones, David E.; Walker, Mark; Newton, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects. Methods Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise. Results In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured. Conclusion EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25836975

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) infused into rat brain induces interleukin 1 to elevate pituitary-adrenal activity and decrease peripheral cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S K; Cierpial, M A; Kamaraju, L S; Long, S; Hsieh, S; Lorenz, C; Aaron, M; Ritchie, J C; Weiss, J M

    1991-12-15

    Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of glycosylated recombinant gp120, the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus, in various doses (100 ng to 4 micrograms) resulted in detection of interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity in a high percentage (61%; 33 of 54) of rat brains, whereas IL-1 was very rarely detected in brains of animals infused with several control substances (4%; 1 of 28). To detect IL-1, clarified glial lysate of diencephalon plus brainstem was subjected to gel exclusion chromatography and fractions were assessed for thymocyte stimulation. IL-1 was seen 2, 6, and 24 hr postinfusion. i.c.v. gp120 also produced known effects of IL-1 in brain, elevating steroid concentration in plasma and decreasing cellular immune responses [natural killer (NK) cell activity and mitogenic response to Con A] of blood and splenic lymphocytes. When gp120 was infused together with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (20 ng), which blocks many biological actions of IL-1, gp120 no longer elevated steroids or decreased NK cell activity. After intravenous gp120, IL-1 was not found in brain or plasma, indicating that stimulation of IL-1 in brain by i.c.v. gp120 was not due to gp120 affecting infiltrating cells from blood or to elevated circulating IL-1. That induction of IL-1 in brain might have resulted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the gp120 solution was ruled out by studies showing that (i) heating of the infusion solution, which does not affect the capacity of LPS to induce IL-1, eliminated the ability of gp120 infusion to induce brain IL-1, and (ii) gp120 induced IL-1 in brains of LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Injection of gp120 directly into the hippocampus stimulated IL-1 more readily than i.c.v. infusion. Thymocyte stimulation produced by active fractions of gp120-infused brains was blocked by monoclonal antibody to IL-1 receptors. These findings indicate that elevation of IL-1 in brain can result from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and may be responsible for certain abnormalities (e.g., elevated activity of pituitary-adrenal axis) seen in AIDS patients. PMID:1662389

  17. Different mechanisms account for ERK activation in distinct brain regions following global ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yeung; Logue, Eric; Callaway, Clifton W; DeFranco, Donald B

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in brain. However, the mechanism of this activation has not been elucidated. We have previously reported that in an in vitro model of oxidative stress in immature cortical neuronal cultures, the inhibition of ERK phosphatase activity contributes to ERK1/2 activation and subsequent neuronal toxicity. This study examined whether ERK activation was associated with altered activity of ERK phosphatases in a rat cardiac arrest model. Rats in experimental groups were subjected to asphyxial cardiac arrest for 8 min and then resuscitated for 30 min. Significant ERK activation was detected in both cortex and hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion by immunoblotting. ERK phosphatase activity was reversibly inhibited in cerebral cortex but not affected in hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion. MEK1/2 was activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion. Using a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), okadaic acid (OA), we have identified PP2A to be the major ERK phosphatase that is responsible for regulating ERK activation in ischemic brain tissues. Orthovanadate inhibited ERK phosphatase activity in brain tissues, suggesting that tyrosine phosphatases and dual specificity phosphatases may also contribute to the ERK phosphatase activity in brain tissues. Together, these data implicate ERK phosphatase in the regulation of ERK activation in distinct brain regions following global ischemia. PMID:17207579

  18. Design of an electronic device for brain computer interface applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Palumbo; P. Vizza; P. Veltri; A. Gambardella; F. Pucci; M. Sturniolo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an amplifier for EEG signals. The study of EEG signals is very important for the detection of cerebral rhythmic and any abnormalities. Brain waves are classified with respect to human activity; these signals represent an extremely low dynamic range (5 - 200 muV), in a frequency band of 0.5 - 40 Hz. Brain electrical

  19. The change of the brain activation patterns as children learn algebra equation solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yulin; Carter, Cameron S.; Silk, Eli M.; Stenger, V. Andrew; Fissell, Kate; Goode, Adam; Anderson, John R.

    2004-04-01

    In a brain imaging study of children learning algebra, it is shown that the same regions are active in children solving equations as are active in experienced adults solving equations. As with adults, practice in symbol manipulation produces a reduced activation in prefrontal cortex area. However, unlike adults, practice seems also to produce a decrease in a parietal area that is holding an image of the equation. This finding suggests that adolescents' brain responses are more plastic and change more with practice. These results are integrated in a cognitive model that predicts both the behavioral and brain imaging results.

  20. Peers Increase Adolescent Risk Taking by Enhancing Activity in the Brain's Reward Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein, Jason; Albert, Dustin; O'Brien, Lia; Uckert, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    The presence of peers increases risk taking among adolescents but not adults. We posited that the presence of peers may promote adolescent risk taking by sensitizing brain regions associated with the anticipation of potential rewards. Using fMRI, we measured brain activity in adolescents, young adults, and adults as they made decisions in a…

  1. Behavioral significance of spontaneous brain activity measured with fMRI

    E-print Network

    Bressler, Steven L.

    Behavioral significance of spontaneous brain activity measured with fMRI Maurizio Corbetta Washington University St.Louis attention and brain recovery lab Department of Neurology, Radiology index of anatomical connectivity Hagman et al. PLOS 2008 Gosh et al. PLOS 2008 Connectome and delays

  2. Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain Ellen L May 2008 Available online xxxx Keywords: MnSOD Superoxide dismutase Resveratrol Antioxidant enzyme Brain Heart Liver Mitochondria Reactive oxygen species a b s t r a c t trans-Resveratrol (3,40 ,5

  3. Differential Brain Activity in Alcoholics and Social Drinkers to Alcohol Cues: Relationship to Craving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Myrick; Raymond F Anton; Xingbao Li; Scott Henderson; David Drobes; Konstantin Voronin; Mark S George

    2004-01-01

    Using fMRI, our group previously found that after a sip of alcohol and exposure to alcohol beverage pictures, alcoholics compared to social drinkers had increased differential brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus. This study extends this earlier work with several improvements including imaging the entire brain (rather than the anterior half previously) and recording craving, while the

  4. Wavelet packet entropy based brain activation mapping using near infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Su Hu; Keum-Shik Hong; Shuzhi Sam Ge

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectorscopy (NIRS) is a non- invasive neuroimaging technique that recently has been devel- oped to measure the changes of cerebral blood oxygenation as- sociated with brain activities. Conventional NIRS data analysis methods for brain mapping application normally consist of two stages, a preprocessing stage for noise removal followed by a mapping stage. This paper describes a wavelet packet entropy

  5. The Effect of 30% Oxygen on Visuospatial Performance and Brain Activation: An Fmri Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, S.C.; Tack, G.R.; Lee, B.; Eom, G.M.; Lee, S.Y.; Sohn, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that administration of the air with 30% oxygen compared with normal air (21% oxygen) enhances cognitive functioning through increased activation in the brain. A visuospatial task was presented while brain images were scanned by a 3 T fMRI system. The results showed that there was an improvement in…

  6. Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Stafleu; Rutger AJ Nievelstein; Jeroen van der Grond

    Background: The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor con- trolling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:Weinvestigatedtheeffectofsatiationwithchocolateon the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in

  7. Brain Activity at 70-80 Hz Changes during Olfactory Stimulation Protocols in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia L. Prieto-Godino; Gonzalo G. de Polavieja; Matthieu Louis

    2010-01-01

    Oscillatory and synchronized activities in the mammalian brain have been correlated with the execution of complex cognitive tasks. Similar oscillations have been observed in local field potentials (LFPs) in flies, in this case correlated with different attentional states. To further test the significance of these oscillations we recorded LFPs from the brain of Drosophila melanogaster as it responded to the

  8. Spontaneous Pain and Brain Activity in Neuropathic Pain: Functional MRI and

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Spontaneous Pain and Brain Activity in Neuropathic Pain: Functional MRI and Pharmacologic of Physiology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. E-mail: a-apkarian@northwestern.edu Current Pain and Headache Reports LLC Functional brain imaging studies in chronic neuropathic pain patients have lagged far behind

  9. How Curriculum Leaders Can Involve the Right Brain in Active Reading and Writing Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard; Stahl-Gemake, Josephine

    Curriculum leaders, program specialists, and teachers can intentionally arouse the activation of one hemisphere of the brain over the other through the use of right brain strategies in language learning. While most functions of the left hemisphere are concerned with convergent production (getting the right answer), functions of the right…

  10. Effects of Hypoxic Hypoxia on the Spontaneous Electrical Activity of the Human Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Aleksandrov; A. O. Ivanov; N. I. Kosenkov; M. A. Lutsyk

    2001-01-01

    An attempt was made to reveal the mechanisms of adaptation of the human brain to fractional hypoxic load. With this in mind, the dynamics of spontaneous EEG was studied in a 10% hypoxic test performed before and after a course of normobaric hypoxic training. It was shown that under acute hypoxic conditions, the electrical activity of the brain is switched

  11. Rivastigmine is associated with restoration of left frontal brain activity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Possin, Katherine L; Kang, Gail A; Guo, Christine; Fine, Eric M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Racine, Caroline A; Wilheim, Reva; Johnson, Erica T; Witt, Jennifer L; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment affects brain function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Twelve patients with PD and either dementia or mild cognitive impairment underwent task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after 3 months of ChEI treatment and were compared with 15 age- and sex-matched neurologically healthy controls. Regional spontaneous brain activity was measured using the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. At baseline, patients showed reduced spontaneous brain activity in regions important for motor control (eg, caudate, supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, thalamus), attention and executive functions (eg, lateral prefrontal cortex), and episodic memory (eg, precuneus, angular gyrus, hippocampus). After treatment, the patients showed a similar but less extensive pattern of reduced spontaneous brain activity relative to controls. Spontaneous brain activity deficits in the left premotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and supplementary motor area were restored such that the activity was increased posttreatment compared with baseline and was no longer different from controls. Treatment-related increases in left premotor and inferior frontal cortex spontaneous brain activity correlated with parallel reaction time improvement on a test of controlled attention. PD patients with cognitive impairment show numerous regions of decreased spontaneous brain function compared with controls, and rivastigmine is associated with performance-related normalization in the left frontal cortex function. PMID:23847120

  12. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behavior remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behavior underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant, and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behavior, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception. PMID:25163855

  13. Genes, Brain and Behavior (2012) 11: 6268 doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00733.x Preliminary evidence of abnormal white matter related

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    evidence of abnormal white matter related to the fusiform gyrus in Williams syndrome: a diffusion tensor-mail: areiss1@stanford.edu Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition caused by a hemizygous microdeletion: DTI, fusiform, genetics, tractography, Williams syndrome Received 17 June 2011, revised 19 August 2011

  14. Interferon therapy-responsive brain metabolic abnormalities in a case of adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis evaluated by 1H MRS analysis.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Hiroshi; Eriguchi, Makoto; Nakamura, Teruko; Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kuroda, Yasuo; Udono, Hiroki; Uchino, Akira

    2003-03-15

    We describe a 22-year-old woman with an adult-onset, slowly progressive form of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), who was repeatedly evaluated by brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The brain lesion spectrum showed a decrease in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) resonance, an increase in inositol (Ins) resonance, and an unaltered choline signal. These findings suggest neuronal loss and reactive gliosis without inflammation, consistent with brain biopsy findings showing astrocytic proliferation unaccompanied by lymphocytic infiltrates. The unusually protracted clinical course might be attributable to an absence of inflammatory infiltrates in the brain. Intraventricular interferon injection plus oral inosine pranobex treatment produced a substantial improvement in the MRS findings, suggesting the validity of monitoring MRS in SSPE. PMID:12614932

  15. Brain activity associated with translation from a visual to a symbolic representation in algebra and geometry.

    PubMed

    Leikin, Mark; Waisman, Ilana; Shaul, Shelley; Leikin, Roza

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a small part of a larger interdisciplinary study that investigates brain activity (using event related potential methodology) of male adolescents when solving mathematical problems of different types. The study design links mathematics education research with neurocognitive studies. In this paper we performed a comparative analysis of brain activity associated with the translation from visual to symbolic representations of mathematical objects in algebra and geometry. Algebraic tasks require translation from graphical to symbolic representation of a function, whereas tasks in geometry require translation from a drawing of a geometric figure to a symbolic representation of its property. The findings demonstrate that electrical activity associated with the performance of geometrical tasks is stronger than that associated with solving algebraic tasks. Additionally, we found different scalp topography of the brain activity associated with algebraic and geometric tasks. Based on these results, we argue that problem solving in algebra and geometry is associated with different patterns of brain activity. PMID:24738538

  16. Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production

    PubMed Central

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Jensen, Ole; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Bonnefond, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog) with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat), unrelated (pin), or identical (dog). Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350–650 ms (4–10 Hz) in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition. PMID:24558410

  17. Acute Effects of Cocaine on Human Brain Activity and Emotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans C Breiter; Randy L Gollub; Robert M Weisskoff; David N Kennedy; Nikos Makris; Joshua D Berke; Julie M Goodman; Howard L Kantor; David R Gastfriend; Jonn P Riorden; R. Thomas Mathew; Bruce R Rosen; Steven E Hyman

    1997-01-01

    We investigated brain circuitry mediating cocaine- induced euphoria and craving using functional MRI (fMRI). During double-blind cocaine (0.6 mg\\/kg) and saline infusions in cocaine-dependent subjects, the entire brain was imaged for 5 min before and 13 min after infusion while subjects rated scales for rush, high, low, and craving. Cocaine induced focal signal increases in nucleus accumbens\\/subcallosal cortex (NAc\\/SCC), caudate,

  18. Neural Activity in the Human Brain Relating to Uncertainty and Arousal during Anticipation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo D Critchley; Christopher J Mathias; Raymond J Dolan

    2001-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging to measure brain activity during delay between reward-related decisions and their outcomes, and the modulation of this delay activity by uncertainty and arousal. Feedback, indicating financial gain or loss, was given following a fixed delay. Anticipatory arousal was indexed by galvanic skin conductance. Delay-period activity was associated with bilateral activation in orbital and medial

  19. The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another. PMID:20715081

  20. Spatiotemporal Dissociation of Brain Activity Underlying Subjective Awareness, Objective Performance and Confidence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Hill, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Despite intense recent research, the neural correlates of conscious visual perception remain elusive. The most established paradigm for studying brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception is to keep the physical sensory inputs constant and identify brain activities that correlate with the changing content of conscious awareness. However, such a contrast based on conscious content alone would not only reveal brain activities directly contributing to conscious perception, but also include brain activities that precede or follow it. To address this issue, we devised a paradigm whereby we collected, trial-by-trial, measures of objective performance, subjective awareness, and the confidence level of subjective awareness. Using magnetoencephalography recordings in healthy human volunteers, we dissociated brain activities underlying these different cognitive phenomena. Our results provide strong evidence that widely distributed slow cortical potentials (SCPs) correlate with subjective awareness, even after the effects of objective performance and confidence were both removed. The SCP correlate of conscious perception manifests strongly in its waveform, phase, and power. In contrast, objective performance and confidence were both contributed by relatively transient brain activity. These results shed new light on the brain mechanisms of conscious, unconscious, and metacognitive processing. PMID:24647958

  1. Are capecitabine and the active metabolite 5-Fu CNS penetrable to treat breast cancer brain metastasis?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Zhang, Lingli; Yan, Yumei; Li, Shaorong; Xie, Liang; Zhong, Wei; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Xiuhua; Bai, Yu; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2015-03-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) is increasingly diagnosed in Her2 positive breast cancer (BC) patients. Lack of effective treatment to breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) is probably due to inability of the current therapeutic agents to cross the blood-brain barrier. The central nervous system (CNS) response rate in BCBM patients was reported to improve from 2.6%-6% (lapatinib) to 20%-65% (lapatinib in combination with capecitabine). Lapatinib is a poor brain penetrant. In this study, we evaluated the CNS penetration of capecitabine and hoped to interpret the mechanism of the improved CNS response from the pharmacokinetic (PK) perspective. Capecitabine does not have antiproliferative activity and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the active metabolite. Capecitabine was orally administered to mouse returning an unbound brain-to-blood ratio (Kp,uu,brain) at 0.13 and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-unbound blood ratio (Kp,uu,CSF) at 0.29 for 5-FU. Neither free brain nor CSF concentration of 5-FU can achieve antiproliferative concentration for 50% of maximal inhibition of cell proliferation of 4.57 µM. BCBM mice were treated with capecitabine monotherapy or in combination with lapatinib. The Kp,uu,brain value of 5-FU increased to 0.17 in the brain tumor in the presence of lapatinib, which is still far below unity. The calculated free concentration of 5-FU and lapatinib in the brain tumor did not reach the antiproliferative potency and neither treatment showed antitumor activity in the BCBM mice. The CNS penetration of 5-FU in human was predicted based on the penetration in preclinical brain tumor, CSF, and human PK and the predicted free CNS concentration was below the antiproliferative potency. These results suggest that CNS penetration of 5-FU and lapatinib are not desirable and development of a true CNS penetrable therapeutic agent will further improve the response rate for BCBM. PMID:25547867

  2. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  3. Contrasting patterns of language-associated brain activity in autism and Williams syndrome

    E-print Network

    Contrasting patterns of language-associated brain activity in autism and Williams syndrome Inna neurodevelopmental disorders, Williams syndrome (WS) and autism, are both commonly described as having opposite their contrasting social phenotypes. Keywords: Williams syndrome; autism spectrum disorders; sociability; event

  4. Differential brain activity states during the perception and nonperception of illusory motion as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Crowe, David A; Leuthold, Arthur C; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2010-12-28

    We studied visual perception using an annular random-dot motion stimulus called the racetrack. We recorded neural activity using magnetoencephalography while subjects viewed variants of this stimulus that contained no inherent motion or various degrees of embedded motion. Subjects reported seeing rotary motion during viewing of all stimuli. We found that, in the absence of any motion signals, patterns of brain activity differed between states of motion perception and nonperception. Furthermore, when subjects perceived motion, activity states within the brain did not differ across stimuli of different amounts of embedded motion. In contrast, we found that during periods of nonperception brain-activity states varied with the amount of motion signal embedded in the stimulus. Taken together, these results suggest that during perception the brain may lock into a stable state in which lower-level signals are suppressed. PMID:21149720

  5. Neurobiology of Aging xxx (2006) xxxxxx Age-related changes in brain activation during

    E-print Network

    Neurobiology of Aging xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Age-related changes in brain activation during a delayed. / Neurobiology of Aging xxx (2006) xxx­xxx impairment in several different memory variables [78], including WM [9

  6. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets, snowy egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbmate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increase with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night -herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas, and California also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  7. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas (USA) increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas and California (USA) also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors.

  8. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. PMID:25595505

  9. Brain cholinesterase activity of nestling great egrets, snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons.

    PubMed

    Custer, T W; Ohlendorf, H M

    1989-07-01

    inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casmerodius albus) collected from a colony in Texas (USA) increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests. Brain ChE activity of nestling snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected in one colony each from Rhode Island, Texas and California (USA) also increased significantly with age and did not differ among individuals from different nests or colonies. This study further demonstrates that age must be considered when evaluating exposure of nestling altricial birds to ChE inhibitors. PMID:2761008

  10. Properties of aminopeptidase activity involved in the conversion of vasopressin by rat brain membranes.

    PubMed

    Burbach, J P; De Bree, F M; Terwel, D; Tan, A; Maskova, H P; Van der Kleij, A A

    1993-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin are converted by aminopeptidase activity in brain membranes into fragments with potent CNS activities. This report concerns the properties of this enzyme activity, addressed as VP-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity, in membranes of the rat brain. The VP-AP activity had a pH optimum at pH 7.0 and had a Km of 17 microM for its action on VP. Amastatin was the most potent aminopeptidase inhibitor. Enzyme activity was inhibited by relatively low concentrations of metal chelators. Treatment of brain membranes by EDTA resulted in loss of enzyme activity that was completely reversed by 10 microM Zn2+, indicating that VP-AP activity is a metallopeptidase. Several VP analogues and fragments, in particular VP(1-8), inhibited the action of enzyme activity on VP. Among peptides unrelated to VP, angiotension I, somatostatin, and porcine ACTH(1-39) markedly inhibited enzyme activity. Solubilization of VP-AP activity from brain membranes and gel filtration on Sephadex G200 showed two peaks of activity, one eluting with an apparent mass of about 140 kDa, the other in the void volume. Gel filtration fractions were able to convert [3H][Phe3]VP in a step-wise fashion. The VP-AP-like activity was found in many tissues outside the brain. Highest activity was present in lung, kidney, parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovary, and uterus. The results indicate that VP-AP activity is a widely distributed enzyme with probably multiple functions, one of which involves the metabolism of vasopressin in the brain. PMID:7993391

  11. Intelligence and Neural Efficiency: Measures of Brain Activation versus Measures of Functional Connectivity in the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Fink, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The neural efficiency hypothesis of intelligence suggests a more efficient use of the cortex (or even the brain) in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals. This has been shown in a series of studies employing different neurophysiological measurement methods and a broad range of different cognitive task demands. However, most of the…

  12. Age-Related Shifts in Brain Activity Dynamics during Task Switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Jimura; Todd S. Braver

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive aging studies have suggested that older adults show declines in both sustained and transient cognitive control processes. However, previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on age-related change in the magnitude, but not temporal dynamics, of brain activity. The present study compared brain activity dynamics in healthy old and young adults during task switching. A mixed blocked\\/event-related functional magnetic resonance

  13. Identification of a Gene Encoding a Hyperpolarization-Activated Pacemaker Channel of Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina Santoro; David T Liu; Huan Yao; Dusan Bartsch; Eric R Kandel; Steven A Siegelbaum; Gareth R Tibbs

    1998-01-01

    The generation of pacemaker activity in heart and brain is mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cation channels that are directly regulated by cyclic nucleotides. We previously cloned a novel member of the voltage-gated K channel family from mouse brain (mBCNG-1) that contained a carboxy-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (Santoro et al. 1997) and hence proposed it to be a candidate gene for pacemaker

  14. Evaluation of Brain Activity Related to Speech and Handwriting Using NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ide, Hideto

    The difference by the brain activity when writing it down speech the use of the near-infrared spectroscopy is examined in the present study. It is thought that it becomes a help of the communications between the nurse and people requiring long-term care if the identification of the information transmission means can be evaluated and be detected from the brain activity. Because the possibility of the evaluation of result, “Speech”, and “Writing” was shown, it reports.

  15. Involvement of thrombin and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in hemorrhagic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Ohnishi; Hiroshi Katsuki; Shinji Fujimoto; Mikako Takagi; Toshiaki Kume; Akinori Akaike

    2007-01-01

    Thrombin is thought to play an important role in brain damage associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We previously showed that activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and recruitment of microglia are crucial for thrombin-induced shrinkage of the striatal tissue in vitro and thrombin-induced striatal damage in vivo. Here we investigated whether the same mechanisms are involved in ICH-induced brain injury.

  16. Deoxyglucose mapping of nervous activity induced in Drosophila brain by visual movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Buchner; Sigrid Buchner; Isabelle Bülthoff

    1984-01-01

    Local metabolic activity was mapped in the brain ofDrosophila by the radioactive deoxyglucose technique. The distribution of label in serial autoradiographs allows us to draw the following conclusions concerning neuronal processing of visual movement information in the brain ofDrosophila.1.The visual stimuli used (homogeneous flicker, moving gratings, reversing contrast gratings) cause only a small increase in metabolic activity in the first

  17. Neuroscience Instrumentation and Distributed Analysis of Brain Activity Data: A Case for eScience on Global Grids

    E-print Network

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    1 Neuroscience Instrumentation and Distributed Analysis of Brain Activity Data: A Case for e commonly observed in scientific disciplines. Two popular scientific disciplines of this nature are brain science and high-energy physics. The analysis of brain activity data gathered from the MEG

  18. Action expertise reduces brain activity for audiovisual matching actions: An fMRI study with expert drummers

    E-print Network

    Avanzini, Federico

    , the drummers' brain activation was reduced in motor and action representation brain regions when sound matchedAction expertise reduces brain activity for audiovisual matching actions: An fMRI study with expert of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK b Department of Media Technology, Aalborg University

  19. Brain activity for chronic knee osteoarthritis: dissociating evoked from spontaneous pain and modulation by COX2inhibitor treatment

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Brain activity for chronic knee osteoarthritis: dissociating evoked from spontaneous pain pressureinduced pain in healthy controls and reported worse and better knee joints in OA patients. Brain activity related to knee joint stimulation was determined using fMRI. In OA patients, brain

  20. Notch-1 signalling is activated in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans

    PubMed Central

    ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that, compared with control brain vascular tissue, Notch-1 signalling was activated in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the lesional tissue. Western blotting showed an activated form of Notch-1 in brain arteriovenous malformations, irrespective of clinical presentation and with or without preoperative embolization, but not in normal cerebral vessels from controls. In addition, the Notch-1 ligands Jagged-1 and Delta-like-4 and the downstream Notch-1 target Hes-1 were increased in abundance and activated in human brain arteriovenous malformations. Finally, increased angiogenesis was found in adult rats treated with a Notch-1 activator. Our findings suggest that activation of Notch-1 signalling is a phenotypic feature of brain arteriovenous malformations, and that activation of Notch-1 in normal vasculature induces a pro-angiogenic state, which may contribute to the development of vascular malformations. PMID:19812212

  1. Oxidative stress-mediated inhibition of brain creatine kinase activity by methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Viviane; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Straliotto, Marcos Raniel; Oliveira, Jade; dos Santos, Vanessa Valgas; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval; de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Farina, Marcelo; Latini, Alexandra

    2010-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg), a potent neurotoxicant, easily passes through the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in brain causing severe irreversible damage. However, the underlying neurotoxic mechanisms elicited by MeHg are still not completed defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in vitro toxic effects elicited by crescent concentrations (0-1500 microM) of MeHg on creatine kinase (CK) activity, thiol content (NPSH) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) in mouse brain preparations. In addition, CK activity, MTT reduction and DCFH-DA oxidation (reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation) were also measured in C6 glioma cell linage. CK activity was severely reduced by MeHg treatment in mouse brain preparations. This inhibitory effect was positively correlated to the MeHg-induced reduction of NPSH levels and increment in PCC. Moreover, the positive correlation between brain CK activity and NPSH levels was observed at either 15 or 60 min of MeHg pre-incubation. In addition, MeHg-treated C6 cells showed also a significant inhibition of CK activity at MeHg concentrations, as low as, 50 microM in parallel to reduced mitochondrial function and increased ROS production. Taking together, these data demonstrate that MeHg severely affects CK activity, an essential enzyme for brain energy buffering to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. This effect appears to be mediated by oxidation of thiol groups that might cause subsequent oxidative stress. PMID:20566354

  2. Brain oscillatory activity during spatial navigation: theta and gamma activity link medial temporal and parietal regions.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph; Silberstein, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    Brain oscillatory correlates of spatial navigation were investigated using blind source separation (BSS) and standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses of 62-channel EEG recordings. Twenty-five participants were instructed to navigate to distinct landmark buildings in a previously learned virtual reality town environment. Data from periods of navigation between landmarks were subject to BSS analyses to obtain source components. Two of these cortical sources were found to exhibit significant spectral power differences during navigation with respect to a resting eyes open condition and were subject to source localization using sLORETA. These two sources were localized as a right parietal component with gamma activation and a right medial-temporal-parietal component with activation in theta and gamma bandwidths. The parietal gamma activity was thought to reflect visuospatial processing associated with the task. The medial-temporal-parietal activity was thought to be more specific to the navigational processing, representing the integration of ego- and allo-centric representations of space required for successful navigation, suggesting theta and gamma oscillations may have a role in integrating information from parietal and medial-temporal regions. Theta activity on this medial-temporal-parietal source was positively correlated with more efficient navigation performance. Results are discussed in light of the depth and proposed closed field structure of the hippocampus and potential implications for scalp EEG data. The findings of the present study suggest that appropriate BSS methods are ideally suited to minimizing the effects of volume conduction in noninvasive recordings, allowing more accurate exploration of deep brain processes. PMID:21812639

  3. ADHD- and Medication-Related Brain Activation Effects in Concordantly Affected Parent-Child Dyads with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Casey, B. J.; Tonev, Simon T.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M.; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Spicer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological…

  4. Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis often is characterized by an acute brain dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is highly complex, resulting from both inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, which may induce significant alterations in vulnerable areas of the brain. Important mechanisms include excessive microglial activation, impaired cerebral perfusion, blood–brain-barrier dysfunction, and altered neurotransmission. Systemic insults, such as prolonged inflammation, severe hypoxemia, and persistent hyperglycemia also may contribute to aggravate sepsis-induced brain dysfunction or injury. The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in sepsis relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as EEG and neuroimaging. A brain MRI should be considered in case of persistent brain dysfunction after control of sepsis and exclusion of major confounding factors. Recent MRI studies suggest that septic shock can be associated with acute cerebrovascular lesions and white matter abnormalities. Currently, the management of brain dysfunction mainly consists of control of sepsis and prevention of all aggravating factors, including metabolic disturbances, drug overdoses, anticholinergic medications, withdrawal syndromes, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Modulation of microglial activation, prevention of blood–brain-barrier alterations, and use of antioxidants represent relevant therapeutic targets that may impact significantly on neurologic outcomes. In the future, investigations in patients with sepsis should be undertaken to reduce the duration of brain dysfunction and to study the impact of this reduction on important health outcomes, including functional and cognitive status in survivors. PMID:23718252

  5. Adaptive filtering for global interference cancellation and real-time recovery of evoked brain activity: a Monte Carlo simulation study

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Quan

    The sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evoked brain activity is reduced by physiological interference in at least two locations: 1. the superficial scalp and skull layers, and 2. in brain tissue itself. ...

  6. Characterization of cerebral blood oxygenation and flow changes during prolonged brain activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Bandettini; K. K. Kwong; T. L. Davis; R. B. H. Tootell; E. C. Wong; P. T. Fox; J. W. Belliveau; R. M. Weisskoff; B. R. Rosen

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during prolonged brain activation was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitized to flow and oxygenation changes, as well as positron emission tomography sensitized toflow. Neuronal habituation effects and hemodynamic changes were evaluated across tasks and cortical regions. Nine types of activation stimuli or tasks, including motor activation, vibrotactile stimulation, and several

  7. Age-dependent brain activation during forward and backward digit recall revealed by fMRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiwen Sun; Xiaochu Zhang; Xiangchuan Chen; Peng Zhang; Min Bao; Daren Zhang; Jing Chen; Sheng He; Xiaoping Hu

    2005-01-01

    In this study, brain activation associated with forward and backward digit recall was examined in healthy old and young adults using functional MRI. A number of areas were activated during the recall. In young adults, greater activation was found in the left prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the left occipital visual cortex during backward digit recall than forward digit recall. In

  8. The change of the brain activation patterns as children learn algebra equation solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yulin Qin; Cameron S. Carter; Eli M. Silk; V. Andrew Stenger; Kate Fissell; Adam Goode; John R. Anderson

    2004-01-01

    In a brain imaging study of children learning algebra, it is shown that the same regions are active in children solving equations as are active in experienced adults solving equations. As with adults, practice in symbol manipulation produces a reduced activation in prefrontal cortex area. However, unlike adults, practice seems also to produce a decrease in a parietal area that