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1

Brain activation abnormalities during speech and non-speech in stuttering speakers  

PubMed Central

Although stuttering is regarded as a speech-specific disorder, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that subtle abnormalities in the motor planning and execution of non-speech gestures exist in stuttering individuals. We hypothesized that people who stutter (PWS) would differ from fluent controls in their neural responses during motor planning and execution of both speech and non-speech gestures that had auditory targets. Using fMRI with sparse sampling, separate BOLD responses were measured for perception, planning, and fluent production of speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures. During both speech and non-speech perception and planning, PWS had less activation in the frontal and temporoparietal regions relative to controls. During speech and non-speech production, PWS had less activation than the controls in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the left pre-motor areas (BA 6) but greater activation in the right STG, bilateral Heschl’s gyrus (HG), insula, putamen, and precentral motor regions (BA 4). Differences in brain activation patterns between PWS and controls were greatest in the females and less apparent in males. In conclusion, similar differences in PWS from the controls were found during speech and non-speech; during perception and planning they had reduced activation while during production they had increased activity in the auditory area on the right and decreased activation in the left sensorimotor regions. These results demonstrated that neural activation differences in PWS are not speech-specific. PMID:19401143

Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M.J.; Ludlow, Christy L.

2009-01-01

2

Brain state-dependent abnormal LFP activity in the auditory cortex of a schizophrenia mouse model  

PubMed Central

In schizophrenia, evoked 40-Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are impaired, which reflects the sensory deficits in this disorder, and baseline spontaneous oscillatory activity also appears to be abnormal. It has been debated whether the evoked ASSR impairments are due to the possible increase in baseline power. GABAergic interneuron-specific NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction mutant mice mimic some behavioral and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. To determine the presence and extent of sensory deficits in these mutant mice, we recorded spontaneous local field potential (LFP) activity and its click-train evoked ASSRs from primary auditory cortex of awake, head-restrained mice. Baseline spontaneous LFP power in the pre-stimulus period before application of the first click trains was augmented at a wide range of frequencies. However, when repetitive ASSR stimuli were presented every 20 s, averaged spontaneous LFP power amplitudes during the inter-ASSR stimulus intervals in the mutant mice became indistinguishable from the levels of control mice. Nonetheless, the evoked 40-Hz ASSR power and their phase locking to click trains were robustly impaired in the mutants, although the evoked 20-Hz ASSRs were also somewhat diminished. These results suggested that NMDAR hypofunction in cortical GABAergic neurons confers two brain state-dependent LFP abnormalities in the auditory cortex; (1) a broadband increase in spontaneous LFP power in the absence of external inputs, and (2) a robust deficit in the evoked ASSR power and its phase-locking despite of normal baseline LFP power magnitude during the repetitive auditory stimuli. The “paradoxically” high spontaneous LFP activity of the primary auditory cortex in the absence of external stimuli may possibly contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia-related aberrant auditory perception. PMID:25018691

Nakao, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Kazu

2014-01-01

3

Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n = 42) and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n = 42) to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF) of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients. PMID:24872895

Han, Lv; Zhaohui, Liu; Fei, Yan; Ting, Li; Pengfei, Zhao; Wang, Du; Cheng, Dong; Pengde, Guo; Xiaoyi, Han; Xiao, Wang; Rui, Li; Zhenchang, Wang

2014-01-01

4

Abnormal baseline brain activity in suicidal and non-suicidal patients with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that suicide attempts are strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), and MDD patients who attempt suicide have a high risk of death by suicide throughout their lifetimes. We aimed to explore the differences in resting-state brain activity in MDD patients with and without histories of suicide attempt. We accomplished this using an approach named amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). ALFF reflects the local properties of specific brain regions and provides direct information about impaired regions. This approach differs from functional connectivity. In this study, we compared three groups: MDD patients with and without histories of suicide attempt, and normal controls (NC). The main result is that suicide attempters had increased ALFF in the right superior temporal gyrus (r-STG) relative to both non-suicidal patients (NSU) and NC. In addition, NSU had increased ALFF in the right ventral medial frontal gyrus (r-vMFG) relative to both suicide attempters (SU) and NC. Finally, both NSU and SU had increased ALFF in the left anterior cingulated cortex (l-ACC) and right parahippocampal gyrus (r-PG) and decreased ALFF in the left middle occipital gyrus (l-MOG) and left angular gyrus (l-AG) relative to NC. PMID:23201633

Fan, Tingting; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Dong, Jie

2013-02-01

5

Abnormal brain activity during a reward and loss task in opiate-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy.  

PubMed

A core feature of human drug dependency is persistence in seeking and using drugs at the expense of other life goals. It has been hypothesized that addiction is associated with overvaluation of drug-related rewards and undervaluation of natural, nondrug-related rewards. Humans additionally tend to persist in using drugs despite adverse consequences. This suggests that the processing of both rewarding and aversive information may be abnormal in addictions. We used fMRI to examine neural responses to reward and loss events in opiate-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT, n=30) and healthy controls (n=23) using nondrug-related stimuli. Half of the patients were scanned after/before daily methadone intake (ADM/BDM patient groups). During reward trials, patients as a whole exhibited decreased neural discrimination between rewarding and nonrewarding outcomes in the dorsal caudate. Patients also showed reduced neural discrimination in the ventral striatum with regard to aversive and nonaversive outcomes and failed to encode successful loss avoidance as a reward signal in the ventral striatum. Patients also showed decreased insula activation during the anticipation/decision phase of loss events. ADM patients exhibited increased loss signals in the midbrain/parahippocampal gyrus, possibly related to a disinhibition of dopamine neurons. This study suggests that patients with opiate dependency on MMT exhibit abnormal brain activations to nondrug-related rewarding and loss events. Our findings add support to proposals that treatments for opiate addiction should aim to increase the reward value of nondrug-related rewarding events and highlight the importance of potential abnormalities in aversive information processing. PMID:24132052

Gradin, Victoria B; Baldacchino, Alex; Balfour, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

2014-03-01

6

Abnormal baseline brain activity in drug-naïve patients with Tourette syndrome: a resting-state fMRI study.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset chronic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. This study investigated spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in TS patients during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans. We obtained rs-fMRI scans from 17 drug-naïve TS children and 15 demographically matched healthy children. We computed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) of rs-fMRI data to measure spontaneous brain activity, and assessed the between-group differences in ALFF/fALFF and the relationship between ALFF/fALFF and tic severity scores. Our results showed that the children with TS exhibited significantly decreased ALFF in the posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus and bilateral parietal gyrus. fALFF was decreased in TS children in the anterior cingulated cortex, bilateral middle and superior frontal cortices and superior parietal lobule, and increased in the left putamen and bilateral thalamus. Moreover, we found significantly positive correlations between fALFF and tic severity scores in the right thalamus. Our study provides empirical evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in TS patients, which may implicate the underlying neurophysiological mechanism in TS and demonstrate the possibility of applying ALFF/fALFF for clinical TS studies. PMID:24427134

Cui, Yonghua; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Xu; He, Yong; Liang, Xia; Zheng, Yi

2014-01-01

7

Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

2013-01-01

8

Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease defined principally by its ten- dencytoselectivelyaffectopticnervesandthespinalcord causingrecurrentattacksofblindnessandparalysis.Con- temporary diagnostic criteria require absence of clinical disease outside the optic nerve or spinal cord. We have, however, frequently encountered patients with a well- established diagnosis of NMO in whom either asymp- tomatic or symptomatic brain lesions develop suggest- ingthatthediagnosticcriteriaforNMOshouldberevised. Objective: To describe the

Sean J. Pittock; Vanda A. Lennon; Karl Krecke; Dean M. Wingerchuk; Claudia F. Lucchinetti; Brian G. Weinshenker

2006-01-01

9

Abnormal electroretinogram associated with developmental brain anomalies.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: We have encountered abnormal ERGs associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, macular, optic nerve and chorioretinal colobomata and developmental brain anomalies. Brain anomalies include cortical dysgenesis, lissencephaly, porencephaly, cerebellar and corpus callosum hypoplasia. We describe six exemplar cases. METHODS: Scotopic and photopic ERGs adherent to international standards were performed as well as photopic ERGs to long-duration stimuli. CT or MRI studies were also done. The ERGs were compared to age-matched normal control subjects. RESULTS: ERG changes include reduced amplitude b-waves to blue and red stimuli under scotopic testing conditions. Implicit times were often delayed. The photopic responses also showed reduced amplitude a- and b-waves with implicit time delays. The long-duration photopic ERG done in one case shows attenuation of both ON- and OFF-responses. CONCLUSIONS: Common underlying developmental genetic or environmental unifying casualties are speculated to be at fault in causing these cases of associated retinal and brain abnormalities. No single etiology is expected. Multiple potential causes acting early in embryogenesis effecting neuronal induction, migration and differentiation are theorized. These occur at a time when brain and retinal cells are sufficiently undifferentiated to be similarly effected. We call these cases examples of Brain Retina Neuroembryodysgenesis (BRNED). Homeobox and PAX genes with global neuronal developmental influences are gene candidates to unify the observed disruption of brain and retinal cell development. The ERG can provide a valuable clinical addition in understanding and ultimately classifying these disorders. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8719676

Cibis, G W; Fitzgerald, K M

1995-01-01

10

Impaired Associative Taste Learning and Abnormal Brain Activation in Kinase-Defective eEF2K Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Memory consolidation is defined temporally based on pharmacological interventions such as inhibitors of mRNA translation (molecular consolidation) or post-acquisition deactivation of specific brain regions (systems level consolidation). However, the relationship between molecular and systems consolidation are poorly understood. Molecular…

Gildish, Iness; Manor, David; David, Orit; Sharma, Vijendra; Williams, David; Agarwala, Usha; Wang, Xuemin; Kenney, Justin W.; Proud, Chris G.; Rosenblum, Kobi

2012-01-01

11

Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Non-Depressed Parkinson's Disease and Depressed Parkinson's Disease: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, however the neural contribution to the high rate of depression in the PD group is still unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of depression in PD patients. Twenty-one healthy individuals and thirty-three patients with idiopathic PD, seventeen of whom were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, were recruited. An analysis of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was performed on the whole brain of all subjects. Our results showed that depressed PD patients had significantly decreased ALFF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and the rostral anterior cingulated cortex (rACC) compared with non-depressed PD patients. A significant positive correlation was found between Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and ALFF in the DLPFC. The findings of changed ALFF in these brain regions implied depression in PD patients may be associated with abnormal activities of prefrontal-limbic network. PMID:23717467

Wen, Xuyun; Wu, Xia; Liu, Jiangtao; Li, Ke; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

12

Abnormal baseline brain activity in drug-na?ve patients with Tourette syndrome: a resting-state fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset chronic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. This study investigated spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in TS patients during resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans. We obtained rs-fMRI scans from 17 drug-naïve TS children and 15 demographically matched healthy children. We computed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) of rs-fMRI data to measure spontaneous brain activity, and assessed the between-group differences in ALFF/fALFF and the relationship between ALFF/fALFF and tic severity scores. Our results showed that the children with TS exhibited significantly decreased ALFF in the posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus and bilateral parietal gyrus. fALFF was decreased in TS children in the anterior cingulated cortex, bilateral middle and superior frontal cortices and superior parietal lobule, and increased in the left putamen and bilateral thalamus. Moreover, we found significantly positive correlations between fALFF and tic severity scores in the right thalamus. Our study provides empirical evidence for abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity in TS patients, which may implicate the underlying neurophysiological mechanism in TS and demonstrate the possibility of applying ALFF/fALFF for clinical TS studies. PMID:24427134

Cui, Yonghua; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Xu; He, Yong; Liang, Xia; Zheng, Yi

2014-01-01

13

Abnormal Brain Activation in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Link between Visual Processing and the Default Mode Network  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common single gene disorders affecting the human nervous system with a high incidence of cognitive deficits, particularly visuospatial. Nevertheless, neurophysiological alterations in low-level visual processing that could be relevant to explain the cognitive phenotype are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study early cortical visual pathways in children and adults with NF1. We employed two distinct stimulus types differing in contrast and spatial and temporal frequencies to evoke relatively different activation of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways. Hemodynamic responses were investigated in retinotopically-defined regions V1, V2 and V3 and then over the acquired cortical volume. Relative to matched control subjects, patients with NF1 showed deficient activation of the low-level visual cortex to both stimulus types. Importantly, this finding was observed for children and adults with NF1, indicating that low-level visual processing deficits do not ameliorate with age. Moreover, only during M-biased stimulation patients with NF1 failed to deactivate or even activated anterior and posterior midline regions of the default mode network. The observation that the magnocellular visual pathway is impaired in NF1 in early visual processing and is specifically associated with a deficient deactivation of the default mode network may provide a neural explanation for high-order cognitive deficits present in NF1, particularly visuospatial and attentional. A link between magnocellular and default mode network processing may generalize to neuropsychiatric disorders where such deficits have been separately identified. PMID:22723888

Violante, Ines R.; Ribeiro, Maria J.; Cunha, Gil; Bernardino, Ines; Duarte, Joao V.; Ramos, Fabiana; Saraiva, Jorge; Silva, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

2012-01-01

14

Abnormal brain synchrony in Down Syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Down Syndrome is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability, yet the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in Down Syndrome is unknown. We compared fMRI scans of 15 individuals with Down Syndrome to 14 typically developing control subjects while they viewed 50 min of cartoon video clips. There was widespread increased synchrony between brain regions, with only a small subset of strong, distant connections showing underconnectivity in Down Syndrome. Brain regions showing negative correlations were less anticorrelated and were among the most strongly affected connections in the brain. Increased correlation was observed between all of the distributed brain networks studied, with the strongest internetwork correlation in subjects with the lowest performance IQ. A functional parcellation of the brain showed simplified network structure in Down Syndrome organized by local connectivity. Despite increased interregional synchrony, intersubject correlation to the cartoon stimuli was lower in Down Syndrome, indicating that increased synchrony had a temporal pattern that was not in response to environmental stimuli, but idiosyncratic to each Down Syndrome subject. Short-range, increased synchrony was not observed in a comparison sample of 447 autism vs. 517 control subjects from the Autism Brain Imaging Exchange (ABIDE) collection of resting state fMRI data, and increased internetwork synchrony was only observed between the default mode and attentional networks in autism. These findings suggest immature development of connectivity in Down Syndrome with impaired ability to integrate information from distant brain regions into coherent distributed networks. PMID:24179822

Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Burback, Melissa C.; Cox, Elizabeth T.; Dai, Li; Gerig, Guido; Edgin, Jamie O.; Korenberg, Julie R.

2013-01-01

15

Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is associated with changes in the structure and functioning of a number of key brain systems, including prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions involved in working memory and declarative memory, respectively. Imaging techniques provide an unparalleled window into these changes, allowing repeated assessments across pre- and post-onset stages of the disorder and in relation to critical periods of brain development. Here we review recent directions in structural and functional neuroimaging research on schizophrenia. The view emerging from this work is that schizophrenia is fundamentally a disorder of disrupted neural connectivity, the sources of which appear to be genetic and environmental risk factors influencing brain development both prenatally and during adolescence.

Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Sun, Daqiang; Cannon, Tyrone D.

2014-01-01

16

A model of abnormal gastric electrical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of abnormal gastric electrical activity is presented and used to investigate the accuracy of surface EGGs in the detection of gastric electrical abnormalities. The results show that current surface electrode configurations, cannot detect abnormalities that are not widespread. Substantial improvements can be obtained by using electrode arrays. Surface maps of the slow waves and the signal-to-noise ratio

B. O. Familoni; T. L. Abell; R. Praturu; S. Katragadda; P. Sabourin

1989-01-01

17

Brain Growth Rate Abnormalities Visualized in Adolescents with Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide-ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, ASD is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared to those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and 7 typically developing boys (mean age/inter-scan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole-brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (p = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (p = 0.008), temporal (p = 0.03) and occipital lobes (p =0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in some gray matter structures, such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. TBM revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M.; Leow, Alex D.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R.; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

2014-01-01

18

Brain growth rate abnormalities visualized in adolescents with autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093

Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G

2013-02-01

19

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

20

Molecular Abnormalities in Postmortem Brains of Subjects with Mood Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical and structural abnormalities have been reported in postmortem brain tissue from patients with mood disorders. Studies of the molecular pharmacology of drugs used in the treatment of mood disorders have led to a reinterpretation of earlier models of neuropathology in these diseases. Noradrenergic and serotonergic hypotheses have been expanded to include postsynaptic intracellular signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene

Dariush Dowlatshahi

2003-01-01

21

Molecular abnormalities in postmortem brains of subjects with mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical and structural abnormalities have been reported in postmortem brain tissue from patients with mood disorders. Studies of the molecular pharmacology of drugs used in the treatment of mood disorders have led to a reinterpretation of earlier models of neuropathology in these diseases. Noradrenergic and serotonergic hypotheses have been expanded to include postsynaptic intracellular signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene

Dariush Dowlatshahi

2003-01-01

22

Brain imaging in normal and abnormal brain development: new perspectives for child psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain development for healthy adolescents and for patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare form of the disorder. The implications of these findings are explored. Cross-sectional and longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are reviewed. The pattern

Nitin Gogate; Jay Giedd; Kristin Janson; Judith L. Rapoport

2001-01-01

23

Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

2014-03-01

24

Persistent brain abnormalities in antiretroviral-naive HIV patients 3 months after HAART  

Microsoft Academic Search

xli Background: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and neuropsychological tests may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of highly active antiretro- viral therapy (HAART) in HIV-associated brain injury. We aimed to evaluate whether brain abnormalities will improve 3 months after HAART. Method: Thirty-three HIV patients naive to antiretroviral medications were evaluated before and 3 months after HAART using 1H-MRS and

Linda Chang; Thomas Ernst; Mallory D Witt; Nina Ames; Irwin Walot; Jorge Jovicich; Menaka DeSilva; Neha Trivedi; Oliver Speck; Eric N Miller

2003-01-01

25

Volume estimation of brain abnormalities in MRI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abnormality of brain tissue always becomes a crucial issue in medical field. This medical condition can be recognized through segmentation of certain region from medical images obtained from MRI dataset. Image processing is one of computational methods which very helpful to analyze the MRI data. In this study, combination of segmentation and rendering image were used to isolate tumor and stroke. Two methods of thresholding were employed to segment the abnormality occurrence, followed by filtering to reduce non-abnormality area. Each MRI image is labeled and then used for volume estimations of tumor and stroke-attacked area. The algorithms are shown to be successful in isolating tumor and stroke in MRI images, based on thresholding parameter and stated detection accuracy.

Suprijadi, Pratama, S. H.; Haryanto, F.

2014-02-01

26

Seizure-induced brain lesions: a wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities.  

PubMed

Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p=0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p=0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention. PMID:23787273

Cianfoni, A; Caulo, M; Cerase, A; Della Marca, G; Falcone, C; Di Lella, G M; Gaudino, S; Edwards, J; Colosimo, C

2013-11-01

27

Functional abnormalities in the dyslexic brain: a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.  

PubMed

This study used foci from 17 original studies on functional abnormalities in the dyslexic brain to identify brain regions with consistent under- or overactivation. Studies were included when reading or reading-related tasks were performed on visually presented stimuli and when results reported coordinates for group differences. Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was used for quantification. Maxima of underactivation were found in inferior parietal, superior temporal, middle and inferior temporal, and fusiform regions of the left hemisphere. With respect to left frontal abnormalities, we found underactivation in the inferior frontal gyrus to be accompanied by overactivation in the primary motor cortex and the anterior insula. Tentative functional interpretations of the activation abnormalities are provided. PMID:19288465

Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

2009-10-01

28

Abnormal Brain Network Organization in Body Dysmorphic Disorder  

PubMed Central

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability. Previous studies suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing. The purpose of this study was to probe whole-brain and regional white matter network organization in BDD, and to relate this to specific metrics of symptomatology. We acquired diffusion-weighted 34-direction MR images from 14 unmedicated participants with DSM-IV BDD and 16 healthy controls, from which we conducted whole-brain deterministic diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We then constructed white matter structural connectivity matrices to derive whole-brain and regional graph theory metrics, which we compared between groups. Within the BDD group, we additionally correlated these metrics with scores on psychometric measures of BDD symptom severity as well as poor insight/delusionality. The BDD group showed higher whole-brain mean clustering coefficient than controls. Global efficiency negatively correlated with BDD symptom severity. The BDD group demonstrated greater edge betweenness centrality for connections between the anterior temporal lobe and the occipital cortex, and between bilateral occipital poles. This represents the first brain network analysis in BDD. Results suggest disturbances in whole brain structural topological organization in BDD, in addition to correlations between clinical symptoms and network organization. There is also evidence of abnormal connectivity between regions involved in lower-order visual processing and higher-order visual and emotional processing, as well as interhemispheric visual information transfer. These findings may relate to disturbances in information processing found in previous studies. PMID:23322186

Arienzo, Donatello; Leow, Alex; Brown, Jesse A; Zhan, Liang; GadElkarim, Johnson; Hovav, Sarit; Feusner, Jamie D

2013-01-01

29

Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain  

PubMed Central

We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure. PMID:18991959

Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

2009-01-01

30

[Abnormal CT brain scan during acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children].  

PubMed

The results of CT brain scans were evaluated in 96 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in different stages of the disease. Practically normal findings were recorded at establishing the diagnosis (17 children), with the exception of infiltration of the brain and meninges in one patient. Examinations performed after induction chemotherapy (31 children) revealed abnormal CT scans in 55% of the children concerning most frequently dilatation of the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and exhibiting less frequently hypodense foci in the white matter. At check-up examinations after 9 months (following prophylaxis of CNS leukemia) these deviations from the norm had disappeared in some patients, in others they persisted and in the rest of the patients they were found to be aggravated. Examinations carried out several years after treatment completion (40 patients) showed abnormal CR scans in 43% of the patients. These involved particularly derangements in the density of the white matter which were of leuko-dystrophic type and atrophic changes characterized by dilatation of the cerebrospinal fluid pathways. The recorded changes in the CT brain scans were more pronounced in patients with high-risk forms of leukemia and intensive prophylaxis of CNS leukemia. PMID:1288821

Cáp, J; Foltinová, A; Boruta, P

1992-10-01

31

Increased Brain Activity May Compensate for Amyloid Pathology in Older Brains  

MedlinePLUS

Increased brain activity may compensate for amyloid pathology in older brains September 15, 2014 Researchers have long wondered why some older people remain cognitively normal despite having abnormal levels of beta- ...

32

Brain activation during executive processes in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia patients show some deficits in executive processes (impaired behavioural performance and abnormal brain functioning). The aim of this study is to explore the brain activity of schizophrenia patients during different inhibitory tasks. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate to investigate the restraint and deletion aspects of inhibition in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 12 normal subjects during

Aurélie Royer; Fabien Christian Georges Schneider; Anne Grosselin; Jacques Pellet; Fabrice-Guy Barral; Bernard Laurent; Denis Brouillet; François Lang

2009-01-01

33

NEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and  

E-print Network

of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimedNEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and Connectivity in Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Words: ADHD, amygdala, effective connectivity, fear, stimulant medication A lthough attention-deficit/hyperactivity

34

Acrocallosal syndrome in fetus: focus on additional brain abnormalities.  

PubMed

Acrocallosal syndrome (ACS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, duplication of the phalanges of the hallux, more rarely the thumbs, post-axial polydactyly, syndactyly and severe mental retardation. Here we report the two first descriptions of acrocallosal syndrome in fetus with extensive neuropathological study and provide new data regarding additional brain abnormalities in ACS. The first case was a 25-gestational week male fetus displaying craniofacial and limb abnormalities, with bilateral syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers, preaxial polydactyly of the left foot and an inter-frontal extra-bone. The second fetus was a 33-gestational week male fetus. His left hand displayed a broad thumb and 4/5 syndactyly. In both cases, gross examination of the brain showed an absence of corpus callosum associated with interhemispheric cysts. The cerebral cortex in front of the cysts was nodular. Upon microscopic examination, the nodular masses corresponded to large dysplastic areas represented by clusters of undifferentiated neurons in the white matter. The cyst wall showed arachnoidal and ependymal covering and contained numerous choroid plexus, suggesting a developmental abnormality of the ventricles. The pons and the cerebellum were hypoplastic. The dentate nuclei were fragmented. Numerous neuronal heterotopias associated with ectopic ependymal cavities were observed in the vermis in one case. The olivary nuclei were severely dysplastic too. We hope that these new data will make both the ante- and post-natal diagnosis easier, facilitate comparisons with animal models and encourage the identification of the genes responsible for this syndrome. PMID:17593378

Fernandez, Carla; Soulier, Marie; Coulibaly, Béma; Liprandi, Agnès; Benoit, Bernard; Giuliano, Fabienne; Sigaudy, Sabine; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine

2008-01-01

35

Brain structure abnormalities in adolescent girls with conduct disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD. Our primary objective was to investigate whether female adolescents with CD show changes in grey matter volume. Our secondary aim was to assess for sex differences in the relationship between CD and brain structure. Methods Female adolescents with CD (n = 22) and healthy control participants matched in age, performance IQ and handedness (n = 20) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Group comparisons of grey matter volume were performed using voxel-based morphometry. We also tested for sex differences using archive data obtained from male CD and control participants. Results Female adolescents with CD showed reduced bilateral anterior insula and right striatal grey matter volumes compared with healthy controls. Aggressive CD symptoms were negatively correlated with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume, whereas callous-unemotional traits were positively correlated with bilateral orbitofrontal cortex volume. The sex differences analyses revealed a main effect of diagnosis on right amygdala volume (reflecting reduced amygdala volume in the combined CD group relative to controls) and sex-by-diagnosis interactions in bilateral anterior insula. Conclusions We observed structural abnormalities in brain regions involved in emotion processing, reward and empathy in female adolescents with CD, which broadly overlap with those reported in previous studies of CD in male adolescents. PMID:23082797

Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C; Walsh, Nicholas D; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M

2013-01-01

36

Structural Brain Abnormalities and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters. PMID:22336640

Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.

2012-01-01

37

High frequency of EEG and MRI brain abnormalities in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and quality of brain abnormalities in panic disorder (PD) were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The use of electroencephalography (EEG) to detect PD patients with a high probability of morphologic brain abnormalities was also explored. Consecutive PD patients (n = 120) were screened with routine EEG examinations and were divided into the following subgroups on the basis

Karl Dantendorfer; Daniela Prayer; Josef Kramer; Michaela Amering; Wolfgang Baischer; Peter Berger; Maria Schoder; Karl Steinberger; Johann Windhaber; Herwig Imhof; Heinz Katschnig

1996-01-01

38

Prenatal Mild Ventriculomegaly Predicts Abnormal Development of the Neonatal Brain  

PubMed Central

Background Many psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles thought to have origins in prenatal brain development. Little is known about development of the lateral ventricles and the relationship of prenatal lateral ventricle enlargement with postnatal brain development. Methods We performed a neonatal MRI on 34 children with isolated mild ventriculomegaly (MVM, width of the atrium of the lateral ventricle ? 1.0 cm) on prenatal ultrasound and 34 age and gender matched controls with normal prenatal ventricle size. Lateral ventricle and cortical gray and white matter volumes were assessed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in corpus callosum and cortico-spinal white matter tracts were determined obtained using quantitative tractography. Results Neonates with prenatal MVM had significantly larger lateral ventricle volumes than matched controls (286.4%; p < 0.0001). Neonates with MVM also had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICV; 7.1%, p = 0.0063) and cortical gray matter volumes (10.9%, p = 0.0004) compared to controls. DTI tractography revealed a significantly greater MD in the corpus callosum and cortico-spinal tracts, while FA was significantly smaller in several white matter tract regions. Conclusions Prenatal enlargement of the lateral ventricle is associated with enlargement of the lateral ventricles after birth, as well as greater gray matter volumes and delayed or abnormal maturation of white matter. It is suggested that prenatal ventricle volume is an early structural marker of altered development of the cerebral cortex and may be marker of risk for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with ventricle enlargement. PMID:18835482

Gilmore, John H.; Smith, Lauren C.; Wolfe, Honor M.; Hertzberg, Barbara S.; Smith, J. Keith; Chescheir, Nancy C.; Evans, Dianne D.; Kang, Chaeryon; Hamer, Robert M.; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

2008-01-01

39

Application of the Abnormally Dangerous Activities Doctrine to Environmental Cleanups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common law tort doctrine of strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities is emerging as a key element of the law of hazardous substance regulation, which has been dominated by CERCLA. Recent applications of the abnormally dangerous activities doctrine have shown the doctrine's formidable potential for expansion. Together with the related torts of nuisance and trespass, strict liability for abnormally

Jim C. Chen; Kyle E. McSlarrow

1992-01-01

40

Midline brain-in-brain malformation associated with bilateral perirolandic cortical abnormalities: an image review of this rare disorder.  

PubMed

A midline brain-in-brain malformation was recently reported, but appropriate classification of this malformation remains uncertain. We describe a child with a complex brain malformation that was not restricted to the midline structures, enlarging the neuroanatomical spectrum of this pseudotumoral midline dysplasia associated with corpus callosum dysgenesis, azygos anterior cerebral artery, absent septum pellucidum and bilateral perirolandic cortical abnormalities. The spectrum of fusion of the cerebral hemispheres and associated brain hemispherical abnormalities is not completely understood. Our data are in line with previous arguments that this malformation could be an additional variant in the spectrum of holoprosencephaly. PMID:23011235

da Rocha, Antonio José; Santana, Pedro José; Maia, Antonio Carlos Martins

2012-12-01

41

Prospective Evaluation of the Brain in Asymptomatic Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Relationship of Macrocephaly to T1 Relaxation Changes and Structural Brain Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Mutation of the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) gene may be associated with abnormal growth control in the brain. Because macrocephaly could be a sign of abnormal brain development and because 30% to 50% of children with NF-1 display macrocephaly in the absence of hydrocephalus, we sought to determine the relationship between macrocephaly and other brain abnormalities in young

R. Grant Steen; June S. Taylor; James W. Langston; John O. Glass; Vickie R. Brewer; Wilburn E. Reddick; Roy Mages; Eniko K. Pivnick

42

Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia).

Skirmantas Janušonis

2005-01-01

43

Abnormal structural and functional brain connectivity in gray matter heterotopia  

E-print Network

Purpose:? Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a malformation of cortical development associated with epilepsy and dyslexia. Evidence suggests that heterotopic gray matter can be functional in brain malformations ...

Christodoulou, Joanna

44

Structural abnormalities in the dyslexic brain: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.  

PubMed

We used coordinate-based meta-analysis in order to objectively quantify gray matter abnormalities reported in nine Voxel-Based Morphometry studies of developmental dyslexia. Consistently across studies, reduced gray matter volume in dyslexic readers was found in the right superior temporal gyrus and left superior temporal sulcus. These results were related to findings from previous meta-analyses on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Convergence of gray matter reduction and reading-related underactivation was found for the left superior temporal sulcus. Recent studies point to the presence of both functional and structural abnormalities in left temporal and occipito-temporal brain regions before reading onset. PMID:22711189

Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

2013-11-01

45

Structural brain imaging abnormalities associated with schizophrenia and partial trisomy of chromosome 5  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Chromosomal abnormalities occurring in association with mental illness provide a unique opportunity to study the interaction of genetic abnormalities and the brain in mental illness. Four individuals from a family in which schizophrenia was found to cosegregate with a partial trisomy of chromosome 5 were studied with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal lobe atrophy was found in the two trisomic males and in the asymptomatic balanced translocation female. In addition, a large cavum septum pellucidum and a cavum vergae were found in the older trisomic individual. Scans from the normal male were free of abnormalities. These results suggest that molecular studies of the translocation breakpoints in this chromosomal abnormality may be of interest, and encourage further studies of brain structure in other chromosomal abnormalities associated with psychosis. PMID:1615118

HONER, WILLIAM G.; BASSETT, ANNE S.; MacEWAN, G. WILLIAM; HURWITZ, TREVOR; LI, DAVID K.B.; HILAL, SADEK; PROHOVNIK, ISAK

2011-01-01

46

Functional brain networks and abnormal connectivity in the movement disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical manifestations of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia, arise from neurophysiological changes within the cortico-striato-pallidothalamocortical (CSPTC) and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CbTC) circuits. Neuroimaging techniques that probe connectivity within these circuits can be used to understand how these disorders develop as well as identify potential targets for medical and surgical therapies. Indeed, network analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has identified abnormal metabolic networks associated with the cardinal motor symptoms of PD, such as akinesia and tremor, as well as PD-related cognitive dysfunction. More recent task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reproduced several of the altered connectivity patterns identified in these abnormal PD-related networks. A similar network analysis approach in dystonia revealed abnormal disease related metabolic patterns in both manifesting and non-manifesting carriers of dystonia mutations. Other multimodal imaging approaches using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging in patients with primary genetic dystonia suggest abnormal connectivity within the CbTC circuits mediate the clinical manifestations of this inherited neurodevelopmental disorder. Ongoing developments in functional imaging and future studies in early patients are likely to enhance our understanding of these movement disorders and guide novel targets for future therapies. PMID:22206967

Poston, Kathleen L.; Eidelberg, David

2012-01-01

47

Abnormal Brain Diffusivity in Patients with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroimaging techniques have increased our knowledge of the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and have been useful in supporting the diagnosis. Nevertheless, new imaging techniques are needed to unravel the exact pathogenesis and to provide diagnostic criteria for NPSLE. In this preliminary study, we investigated whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can depict cerebral abnormalities in patients

Tom W. J. Huizinga; Simon P. Mooijaart; Mark A. van Buchem

2003-01-01

48

Anterior hippocampal and orbitofrontal cortical structural brain abnormalities in association with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective Numerous studies have implicated the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. However, precisely which subregions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are abnormal remain unknown. Our study goal was to investigate structure of the anterior hippocampus, posterior hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) simultaneously in thirty-eight patients with schizophrenia and twenty-nine controls to determine which of these subregions are abnormal in schizophrenia. As an exploratory study goal, we investigated the relation of neurocognition to brain structure in schizophrenia patients. Method We generated detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging data and compared hippocampal and prefrontal subregional structural brain volumes between schizophrenia and control groups. We obtained a neurocognitive test battery in schizophrenia patients and studied the association of abnormal brain structures to neurocognition. Results Structural brain abnormalities were pinpointed to the left anterior hippocampus and left OFC in schizophrenia patients, which were both significantly reduced in volume. The DLPFC and posterior hippocampus, though numerically decreased in volume, were not significantly decreased. Anterior hippocampal volumes were more strongly associated with OFC volumes in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. By contrast, DLPFC volume was unrelated to anterior or posterior hippocampal volume. Both the anterior hippocampus and OFC were independently related to cognitive abnormalities common in schizophrenia, including indices of verbal, language, and executive function. The DLPFC and posterior hippocampal volume were unrelated to cognitive measures. Conclusions These findings highlight related abnormalities of the anterior hippocampus and OFC in schizophrenia, which may shed light on the pathophysiology of the disorder. PMID:19683896

Schobel, Scott A.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Corcoran, Cheryl M.; Van Heertum, Kristin; Seckinger, Regina; Goetz, Ray; Friedman, Jill Harkavy; Malaspina, Dolores

2009-01-01

49

Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: Cortical Brain Abnormalities as Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the adult onset disorder. While structural brain imaging studies show robust, widespread, and progressive gray matter loss in COS during adolescence, there have been no longitudinal studies of sufficient duration to examine comparability with the more common adult onset…

Greenstein, Deanna; Lerch, Jason; Shaw, Philip; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

2006-01-01

50

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: MR demonstration of reversible brain abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura evaluated by MR, Multiple hyperintense foci on the TS-weighted images, observed principally in the brain stem and in the region of the basal nuclei, and neurologic signs disappeared after 15 days of therapy. 6 refs., 2 figs.

D'Aprile, P.; Carella, A.; Pagliarulo, R. (Univ. of Bari (Italy)); Farchi, G. (Oncology Institute, Bari (Italy))

1994-01-01

51

Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

2013-01-01

52

GABA progenitors grafted into the adult epileptic brain control seizures and abnormal behavior  

PubMed Central

Impaired GABA–mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in many neurologic diseases including epilepsy, intellectual disability, and psychiatric disorders. Here we report that inhibitory neuron transplantation into the hippocampus of adult mice with confirmed epilepsy at the time of grafting dramatically reduced the occurrence of electrographic seizures and restored behavioral deficits in spatial learning, hyperactivity, and the aggressive response to handling. In the recipient brain, GABA progenitors migrated up to 1500 ?m from the injection site, expressed genes and proteins characteristic for interneurons, differentiated into functional inhibitory neurons, and received excitatory synaptic input. In contrast to hippocampus, cell grafts into basolateral amygdala rescued the hyperactivity deficit but did not alter seizure activity or other abnormal behaviors. Our results highlight a critical role for interneurons in epilepsy and suggest that interneuron cell transplantation is a powerful approach to halt seizures and rescue accompanying deficits in severely epileptic mice. PMID:23644485

Hunt, Robert F.; Girskis, Kelly M.; Rubenstein, John L.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Baraban, Scott C.

2013-01-01

53

Brain morphological abnormalities in 49,XXXXY syndrome: A pediatric magnetic resonance imaging study???  

PubMed Central

As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development. PMID:23667827

Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.

2013-01-01

54

Chronic cholinergic imbalances promote brain diffusion and transport abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholinergic imbalances occur after traumatic effects and in the initial stages of neuro- degenerative diseases, but their long-lasting effects remained largely unexplained. To address this, we used TgS transgenic mice constitutively overexpress- ing synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) and pre- senting a complex phenotype of progressive neuro- deterioration. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images appeared similar. How- ever, diffusion-weighted MRI

Eran Meshorer; Inbal E. Biton; Yoram Ben-Shaul; Shani Ben-Ari; Yaniv Assaf; Hermona Soreq; Yoram Cohen

2005-01-01

55

Brain Abnormalities in HIV and Stimulant Users: Interventions and Prevention  

PubMed Central

The session, “HIV and other Infectious Diseases,” was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The two presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Linda Chang (“Neural Correlates of Cognitive Deficits and Training Effects on Brain Function in HIV-infected Individuals”) and Dr. Steven Shoptaw (“HIV Prevention in Substance Users”).

Chang, Linda; Shoptaw, Steven; Normand, Jacques

2014-01-01

56

Abnormal Neural Connectivity in Schizophrenia and fMRI-Brain-Computer Interface as a Potential Therapeutic Approach  

PubMed Central

Considering that single locations of structural and functional abnormalities are insufficient to explain the diverse psychopathology of schizophrenia, new models have postulated that the impairments associated with the disease arise from a failure to integrate the activity of local and distributed neural circuits: the “abnormal neural connectivity hypothesis.” In the last years, new evidence coming from neuroimaging have supported and expanded this theory. However, despite the increasing evidence that schizophrenia is a disorder of neural connectivity, so far there are no treatments that have shown to produce a significant change in brain connectivity, or that have been specifically designed to alleviate this problem. Brain-Computer Interfaces based on real-time functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI-BCI) are novel techniques that have allowed subjects to achieve self-regulation of circumscribed brain regions. In recent studies, experiments with this technology have resulted in new findings suggesting that this methodology could be used to train subjects to enhance brain connectivity, and therefore could potentially be used as a therapeutic tool in mental disorders including schizophrenia. The present article summarizes the findings coming from hemodynamics-based neuroimaging that support the abnormal connectivity hypothesis in schizophrenia, and discusses a new approach that could address this problem. PMID:23525496

Ruiz, Sergio; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

2012-01-01

57

Structural brain abnormalities common to posttraumatic stress disorder and depression  

PubMed Central

Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression are reliably associated with reductions in brain volume in markedly similar areas. To our knowledge, no volumetric studies have directly contrasted these conditions. We investigated which, if any, grey matter reductions would be uniquely associated with each disorder. We also investigated more subtle independent effects: specifically, correlations between brain volume and self-report measures of psychopathology. Methods We obtained structural magnetic resonance imaging scans from participants with PTSD, major depression and healthy controls exposed to trauma. Participants completed standardized self-report measures of anxiety and depression. We used voxel-based morphometry, applying the DARTEL algorithm within SPM5 to identify associated volumetric changes. Results We enrolled 24 patients with PTSD, 29 with major depression and 29 controls in our study. The clinical groups had regions of markedly smaller volume compared with the control group, particularly in prefrontal areas, but did not differ from each other. Greater self-reported anxiety was inversely related to volume in several areas, particularly the inferior temporal cortex, among patients with PTSD, but was associated with some volume increases in patients with major depression. Greater self-reported depression showed similar but weaker effects, being inversely related to brain volume in patients with PTSD but positively related to volume in the cuneus and precuneus of those with major depression. Limitations To maintain the representativeness of the sample, patients with PTSD were not excluded if they had typical comorbid conditions, such as depression. Patients were not all medication-free, but we controlled for group differences in antidepressant use in the analyses. Conclusion We identified commonalities in areas of brain volume in patients with PTSD and those with major depression, suggesting that existing findings concerning reductions in prefrontal areas in particular may not be specific to PTSD but rather related to features of the disorder that are shared with other conditions, such as depression. More subtle differences between patients with PTSD and those with major depression were represented by distinct structural correlates of self-reported anxiety and depression. PMID:21418787

Kroes, Marijn C. W.; Rugg, Michael D.; Whalley, Matthew G.; Brewin, Chris R.

2011-01-01

58

Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide  

PubMed Central

Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

2014-01-01

59

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000000 (2013) r Structural Abnormalities in the Thalamus  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 000:000­000 (2013) r Structural Abnormalities in the Thalamus of Migraineurs, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts r r Abstract: Background and objectives: The thalamus at studying the microstructure of the thalamus in mi- graine patients using an innovative multiparametric

Hadjikhani, Nouchine

60

Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia.  

PubMed

Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10 male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a sexually non-explicit functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with images of men, women, boys or girls randomly embedded in neutral target/non-target geometrical symbols. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and SPSS 14 for image processing and analysis. While controls activated significantly less to pictures of children compared to adults, the activation profile was reversed in subjects with pedophilia, who exhibited significantly more activation to children than adults. The highest activation was observed for boys in the patient group, and for women in control participants. Our data show enhanced activation to children's pictures even in an incidental context and suggest the provocative hypothesis that a normally present mechanism for reduced emotional arousal for children relative to adults is reversed in pedophilia, suggesting a neural substrate associated with deviant sexual preference in this condition. More extensive research in this field would be of benefit for both the victims and the offenders. PMID:18504635

Sartorius, Alexander; Ruf, Matthias; Kief, Christine; Demirakca, Traute; Bailer, Josef; Ende, Gabriele; Henn, Fritz A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Dressing, Harald

2008-08-01

61

Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings  

PubMed Central

Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16–21?Hz) asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p?=?0.00001), and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls) with beta asymmetry at temporal–parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: (a) EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, (b) unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and (c) the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings by demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal–parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal–parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increase of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention. PMID:25104941

Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Hanada, Grant; Loo, Sandra K.

2014-01-01

62

Abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging in two patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable contiguous gene syndrome ascribed to an interstitial deletion in chromosome 17p11.2. Seventy percent of SMS patients have a common deletion interval spanning 3.5 megabases (Mb). Clinical features of SMS include characteristic mild dysmorphic features, ocular anomalies, short stature, brachydactyly, and hypotonia. SMS patients have a unique neurobehavioral phenotype that includes intellectual disability, self-injurious behavior and severe sleep disturbance. Little has been reported in the medical literature about anatomical brain anomalies in patients with SMS. Here we describe two patients with SMS caused by the common deletion in 17p11.2 diagnosed using chromosomal microarray (CMA). Both patients had a typical clinical presentation and abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. One patient had subependymal periventricular gray matter heterotopia, and the second had a thin corpus callosum, a thin brain stem and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. This report discusses the possible abnormal MRI images in SMS and reviews the literature on brain malformations in SMS. Finally, although structural brain malformations in SMS patients are not a common feature, we suggest baseline routine brain imaging in patients with SMS in particular, and in patients with chromosomal microdeletion/microduplication syndromes in general. Structural brain malformations in these patients may affect the decision-making process regarding their management. PMID:24788350

Maya, Idit; Vinkler, Chana; Konen, Osnat; Kornreich, Liora; Steinberg, Tamar; Yeshaya, Josepha; Latarowski, Victoria; Shohat, Mordechai; Lev, Dorit; Baris, Hagit N

2014-08-01

63

Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation\\u000a is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10\\u000a male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric\\u000a treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a

Alexander Sartorius; Matthias Ruf; Christine Kief; Traute Demirakca; Josef Bailer; Gabriele Ende; Fritz A. Henn; Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Harald Dressing

2008-01-01

64

White Matter Abnormalities in Whole Brain and its Regional Specificity in Chronic Schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

E-print Network

,58)=15.690, p=0.000 ·Both Normal controls and first episode schizophrenia patients demonstrated differencesWhite Matter Abnormalities in Whole Brain and its Regional Specificity in Chronic Schizophrenia abnormalities in multiple fiber bundles in schizophrenia. Nonetheless, alterations in whole brain white matter

65

Abnormal brain aging as a radical-related disease: A new target for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

DNA damages caused by endogenously produced radicals are closely correlated with aging. Among them, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions have been reported as a memory of DNA damage by oxygen radicals. In fact, clinical as well as experimental studies indicated the accumulation of deleted mtDNA in the brain, myocardium and son on, in aged subjects. In our previous work, radioiodinated radical trapping agent, p-iodophenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, and hypoxia imaging agent, Cu-62 diacetyl-bis-N-4-methyl-thiosemicarbazone have been developed for the diagnosis of radical-related diseases, such as ischemic, inflammation, cancer or aging. The aim of the present work was to evaluate these agents for brain aging studies. In our university, an unique animal model, a senescence accelerated model mouse (SAM), has been established. Among the various substrains, SAMP8 showing memory deterioration in its young age ({approximately}3 month) was basically evaluated as an abnormal brain aging model with mtDNA deletion. As controls, SAMR1 showing normal aging and ddY mice were used. MtDNA deletion n the brain was analyzed with polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) method, and relationship between mtDNA deletion and brain uptake of IPBN or Cu-62-ATSM was studied. In 1-3 month old SAMP8 brain, multiple mtDNa deletions were already found and their content was significantly higher than that of SAMR1 or age-matched ddY control. Thus, it was cleared that SAMP8 brain has high tendency to be attacked by endogenously produced oxygen radicals, possibly from its birth. Both IPBN and Cu-ATSM showed significantly higher accumulation in the SAMP8 brain than in the SAMR1 brain, indicating that these agents have high possibility for the early detection of abnormal brain aging as a radical-related disease.

Fujibayashi, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Waki, A. [Fukui Medical School (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

1996-05-01

66

How can we identify ictal and interictal abnormal activity?  

PubMed

The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined a seizure as "a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain." This definition has been used since the era of Hughlings Jackson, and does not take into account subsequent advances made in epilepsy and neuroscience research. The clinical diagnosis of a seizure is empirical, based upon constellations of certain signs and symptoms, while simultaneously ruling out a list of potential imitators of seizures. Seizures should be delimited in time, but the borders of ictal (during a seizure), interictal (between seizures) and postictal (after a seizure) often are indistinct. EEG recording is potentially very helpful for confirmation, classification and localization. About a half-dozen common EEG patterns are encountered during seizures. Clinicians rely on researchers to answer such questions as why seizures start, spread and stop, whether seizures involve increased synchrony, the extent to which extra-cortical structures are involved, and how to identify the seizure network and at what points interventions are likely to be helpful. Basic scientists have different challenges in use of the word 'seizure,' such as distinguishing seizures from normal behavior, which would seem easy but can be very difficult because some rodents have EEG activity during normal behavior that resembles spike-wave discharge or bursts of rhythmic spiking. It is also important to define when a seizure begins and stops so that seizures can be quantified accurately for pre-clinical studies. When asking what causes seizures, the transition to a seizure and differentiating the pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal state is also important because what occurs before a seizure could be causal and may warrant further investigation for that reason. These and other issues are discussed by three epilepsy researchers with clinical and basic science expertise. PMID:25012363

Fisher, Robert S; Scharfman, Helen E; deCurtis, Marco

2014-01-01

67

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Brain Abnormalities Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Radiation in Rodents  

PubMed Central

We assessed brain abnormalities in rats exposed prenatally to radiation (X-rays) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological experiments. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group (n?=?3) and 3 groups that were exposed to different radiation doses (0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy; n?=?3 each). Brain abnormalities were assessed in 32 neonatal male rats (8 per group). Ex vivo T2-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed using 11.7-T MRI. The expression of markers of myelin production (Kluver–Barrera staining, KB), nonpyramidal cells (calbindin-D28k staining, CaBP), and pyramidal cells (staining of the nonphosphorylated heavy-chain neurofilament SMI-32) were histologically evaluated. Decreased brain volume, increased ventricle volume, and thinner cortices were observed by MRI in irradiated rats. However, no abnormalities in the cortical 6-layered structure were observed via KB staining in radiation-exposed rats. The DTI color-coded map revealed a dose-dependent reduction in the anisotropic signal (vertical direction), which did not represent reduced numbers of pyramidal cells; rather, it indicated a signal reduction relative to the vertical direction because of low nerve cell density in the entire cortex. We conclude that DTI and histological experiments are useful tools for assessing cortical and hippocampal abnormalities after prenatal exposure to radiation in rats. PMID:25202992

Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Miwa; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Murase, Kenya

2014-01-01

68

An abnormal resting-state functional brain network indicates progression towards Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Brain structure and cognitive function change in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, and brain network-connection strength, network efficiency, and nodal attributes are abnormal. However, existing research has only analyzed the differences between these patients and normal controls. In this study, we constructed brain networks using resting-state functional MRI data that was extracted from four populations (normal controls, patients with early mild cognitive impairment, patients with late mild cognitive impairment, and patients with Alzheimer's disease) using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data set. The aim was to analyze the characteristics of resting-state functional neural networks, and to observe mild cognitive impairment at different stages before the transformation to Alzheimer's disease. Results showed that as cognitive deficits increased across the four groups, the shortest path in the resting-state functional network gradually increased, while clustering coefficients gradually decreased. This evidence indicates that dementia is associated with a decline of brain network efficiency. In addition, the changes in functional networks revealed the progressive deterioration of network function across brain regions from healthy elderly adults to those with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The alterations of node attributes in brain regions may reflect the cognitive functions in brain regions, and we speculate that early impairments in memory, hearing, and language function can eventually lead to diffuse brain injury and other cognitive impairments. PMID:25206600

Xiang, Jie; Guo, Hao; Cao, Rui; Liang, Hong; Chen, Junjie

2013-10-25

69

Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

70

A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The developing human brain remains one of the few unsolved mysteries of science. Advancements in developmental biology, neuroscience, and medical imaging have brought us closer than ever to understand brain development in health and disease. However, the precise role of mechanics throughout this process remains underestimated and poorly understood. Here we show that mechanical stretch plays a crucial role in brain development. Using the nonlinear field theories of mechanics supplemented by the theory of finite growth, we model the human brain as a living system with a morphogenetically growing outer surface and a stretch-driven growing inner core. This approach seamlessly integrates the two popular but competing hypotheses for cortical folding: axonal tension and differential growth. We calibrate our model using magnetic resonance images from very preterm neonates. Our model predicts that deviations in cortical growth and thickness induce morphological abnormalities. Using the gyrification index, the ratio between the total and exposed surface area, we demonstrate that these abnormalities agree with the classical pathologies of lissencephaly and polymicrogyria. Understanding the mechanisms of cortical folding in the developing human brain has direct implications in the diagnostics and treatment of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism.

Budday, Silvia; Raybaud, Charles; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-07-01

71

Polysubstance and Alcohol Dependence: Unique Abnormalities of Magnetic Resonance-Derived Brain Metabolite Levels  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although comorbid substance misuse is common in alcohol dependence, and polysubstance abusers (PSU) represent the largest group of individuals seeking treatment for drug abuse today, we know little about potential brain abnormalities in this population. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of mono-substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) reveal abnormal levels of cortical metabolites (reflecting neuronal integrity, cell membrane turnover/synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, gliosis) and altered concentrations of glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The concurrent misuse of several substances may have unique and different effects on brain biology and function compared to any mono-substance misuse. METHODS High field brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and neurocognitive testing were performed at one month of abstinence in 40 alcohol dependent individuals (ALC), 28 alcohol dependent PSU and 16 drug-free controls. Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated in anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital (POC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). RESULTS Compared to ALC, PSU demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities in the DLPFC and strong trends to lower GABA in the ACC. Metabolite levels in ALC and light drinking controls were statistically equivalent. Within PSU, lower DLPFC GABA levels related to greater cocaine consumption. Several cortical metabolite concentrations were associated with cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS While metabolite concentrations in ALC at one month of abstinence were largely normal, PSU showed persistent and functionally significant metabolic abnormalities, primarily in the DLPFC. Our results point to specific metabolic deficits as biomarkers in polysubstance misuse and as targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23122599

Abe, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

2012-01-01

72

Glutamate release by primary brain tumors induces epileptic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood comorbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted human-derived glioma cells into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Within 14–18 d, glioma-bearing mice developed spontaneous and recurring abnormal electroencephalogram events consistent with progressive epileptic activity. Acute brain slices from these mice showed marked glutamate release from the tumor

Susan C Buckingham; Susan L Campbell; Brian R Haas; Vedrana Montana; Stefanie Robel; Toyin Ogunrinu; Harald Sontheimer

2011-01-01

73

Fueling and imaging brain activation  

PubMed Central

Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

Dienel, Gerald A

2012-01-01

74

Abnormal Activation of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of unknown pathophysiology, characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speaking. Our aim was to identify symptom-specific functional brain activation abnormalities in adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) and abductor spasmodic dysphonia (ABSD). Both SD groups showed increased activation extent in the primary sensorimotor cortex, insula, and superior temporal gyrus during symptomatic and asymptomatic tasks and decreased activation extent in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum during asymptomatic tasks. Increased activation intensity in SD patients was found only in the primary somatosensory cortex during symptomatic voice production, which showed a tendency for correlation with ADSD symptoms. Both SD groups had lower correlation of activation intensities between the primary motor and sensory cortices and additional correlations between the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum during symptomatic and asymptomatic tasks. Compared with ADSD patients, ABSD patients had larger activation extent in the primary sensorimotor cortex and ventral thalamus during symptomatic task and in the inferior temporal cortex and cerebellum during symptomatic and asymptomatic voice production. The primary somatosensory cortex shows consistent abnormalities in activation extent, intensity, correlation with other brain regions, and symptom severity in SD patients and, therefore, may be involved in the pathophysiology of SD. PMID:20194686

Ludlow, Christy L.

2010-01-01

75

Sodium sulfide prevents water diffusion abnormality in the brain and improves long term outcome after cardiac arrest in mice  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Previously we demonstrated that administration of sodium sulfide (Na2S), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, markedly improved the neurological outcome and survival rate at 24h after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Na2S and its impact on the long-term survival after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min at 37°C whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. Mice received Na2S (0.55 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle 1 min before CPR. Results Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and received vehicle exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/12) and depressed neurological function. Cardiac arrest and CPR induced abnormal water diffusion in the vulnerable regions of the brain, as demonstrated by hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 24h after CA/CPR. Extent of hyperintense DWI was associated with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, worse neurological outcomes, and poor survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR. Administration of Na2S prevented the development of abnormal water diffusion and MMP-9 activation and markedly improved neurological function and long-term survival (9/12, P<0.05 vs. vehicle) after CA/CPR. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of Na2S 1 min before CPR improves neurological function and survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR by preventing water diffusion abnormality in the brain potentially via inhibiting MMP-9 activation early after resuscitation. PMID:22370005

Kida, Kotaro; Minamishima, Shizuka; Wang, Huifang; Ren, JiaQian; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Nozari, Ala; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Ichinose, Fumito

2012-01-01

76

Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age = 58 years, standard deviation = 6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value = 0.008) and lower FA FDR critical p value = 0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value = 0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:22585287

Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Chow, Dominic C.; Valcour, Victor G.; Paul, Robert H.; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

2012-01-01

77

Cerebral abnormalities in cocaine abusers: Demonstration by SPECT perfusion brain scintigraphy. Work in progress  

SciTech Connect

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion brain scans with iodine-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained in 12 subjects who acknowledged using cocaine on a sporadic to a daily basis. The route of cocaine administration varied from nasal to intravenous. Concurrent abuse of other drugs was also reported. None of the patients were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Brain scans demonstrated focal defects in 11 subjects, including seven who were asymptomatic, and no abnormality in one. Among the findings were scattered focal cortical deficits, which were seen in several patients and which ranged in severity from small and few to multiple and large, with a special predilection for the frontal and temporal lobes. No perfusion deficits were seen on I-123 SPECT images in five healthy volunteers. Focal alterations in cerebral perfusion are seen commonly in asymptomatic drug users, and these focal deficits are readily depicted by I-123 IMP SPECT.

Tumeh, S.S.; Nagel, J.S.; English, R.J.; Moore, M.; Holman, B.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-09-01

78

Prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 1p36: a focus on brain abnormalities and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Monosomy 1p36 is an increasingly recognized chromosomal anomaly. We describe two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had brain abnormalities detected on prenatal ultrasound. The first patient was ascertained prenatally with ultrasound abnormalities, including ventriculomegaly, a single umbilical artery, a unilateral club foot, a ventricular septal defect, and intra-uterine growth retardation. Amniocentesis showed a normal karyotype. A postnatal MRI showed moderate to severe non-obstructive hydrocephalus, bilateral colpocephaly, and abnormal myelination of the anterior limb of the internal capsule. A postnatal karyotype demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.3 that was not detected prenatally due to low resolution. Molecular studies by array comparative genome hybridization (CGH) identified a terminal deletion of approximately 10 Mb. Our second patient was a fetus who had brain abnormalities suggestive of holoprosencephaly identified on prenatal ultrasound. Amniocentesis showed 46,XX,der(1)t(1;20)(p36.1;p12.2), that was found to be maternally inherited. Fetal autopsy demonstrated hydrocephalus, focal polymicrogyria, and cerebellar hypoplasia. However, holoprosencephaly was not confirmed. In addition to describing two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had abnormal brain anatomy on prenatal ultrasounds, we review the literature of other prenatally detected patients with monosomy 1p36 and review brain abnormalities seen both prenatally and postnatally. PMID:19006213

Campeau, Philippe M; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Cartier, Lola; Mackay, Katherine L; Shaffer, Lisa G; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Thomas, Mary Ann

2008-12-01

79

Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach  

PubMed Central

Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Buhler, Mira; Lemenager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

2013-01-01

80

Enhancement of oscillatory activity in the endopiriform nucleus of rats raised under abnormal oral conditions.  

PubMed

Endopiriform nucleus (EPN) is located deep to the piriform cortex, and has neural connections with not only neighboring sensory areas but also subcortical areas where emotional and nociceptive information is processed. Well-balanced oral condition might play an important role in stability of brain activities. When the oral condition is impaired, several areas in the brain might be affected. In the present study, we investigated whether abnormal conditions of oral region influence neural activities in the EPN. Orthodontic appliance that generates continuous force and chronic pain-related stress was fixed to maxillary incisors of rats, and raised. Field potential recordings were made from the EPN of brain slices. We previously reported that the EPN has an ability to generate membrane potential oscillation. In the present study, we have applied the same methods to assess activities of neuron clusters in the EPN. In the case of normal rats, stable field potential oscillations were induced in the EPN by application of low-frequency electrical stimulation under the medium with caffeine. In the case of rats with the orthodontic appliance, stable field potential oscillations were also induced, but both duration of oscillatory activities and wavelet number were increased. The enhanced oscillations were depressed by blockade of NMDA receptors. Thus, impairment of oral health under application of continuous orthodontic force and chronic pain-related stress enhanced neural activities in the EPN, in which up-regulation of NMDA receptors may be concerned. These findings suggest that the EPN might be involved in information processing with regard to abnormal conditions of oral region. PMID:24406147

Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Hasumoto-Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

2014-02-21

81

Multidimensional morphometric 3D MRI analyses for detecting brain abnormalities in children: impact of control population.  

PubMed

Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n = 10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n = 401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. PMID:25050423

Wilke, Marko; Rose, Douglas F; Holland, Scott K; Leach, James L

2014-07-01

82

Levetiracetam reduces abnormal network activations in temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a left-lateralizing verbal and a right-lateralizing visual-spatial working memory (WM) paradigm to investigate the effects of levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive network activations in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: In a retrospective study, we compared task-related fMRI activations and deactivations in 53 patients with left and 54 patients with right TLE treated with (59) or without (48) LEV. In patients on LEV, activation patterns were correlated with the daily LEV dose. Results: We isolated task- and syndrome-specific effects. Patients on LEV showed normalization of functional network deactivations in the right temporal lobe in right TLE during the right-lateralizing visual-spatial task and in the left temporal lobe in left TLE during the verbal task. In a post hoc analysis, a significant dose-dependent effect was demonstrated in right TLE during the visual-spatial WM task: the lower the LEV dose, the greater the abnormal right hippocampal activation. At a less stringent threshold (p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), a similar dose effect was observed in left TLE during the verbal task: both hippocampi were more abnormally activated in patients with lower doses, but more prominently on the left. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that LEV is associated with restoration of normal activation patterns. Longitudinal studies are necessary to establish whether the neural patterns translate to drug response. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with drug-resistant TLE, levetiracetam has a dose-dependent facilitation of deactivation of mesial temporal structures. PMID:25253743

Wandschneider, Britta; Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka; Centeno, Maria; Kozak, Lajos R.; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J.; Duncan, John S.

2014-01-01

83

Elevated Id2 expression results in precocious neural stem cell depletion and abnormal brain development  

PubMed Central

Id2 is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor essential for normal development and its expression is dysregulated in many human neurological conditions. Although it is speculated that elevated Id2 levels contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders, it is unknown whether dysregulated Id2 expression is sufficient to perturb normal brain development or function. Here, we show that mice with elevated Id2 expression during embryonic stages develop microcephaly, and that females in particular are prone to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Analyses of Id2 transgenic brains indicate that Id2 activity is highly cell context specific: elevated Id2 expression in naive NSCs in early neuroepithelium induces apoptosis and loss of NSCs and intermediate progenitors. Activation of Id2 in maturing neuroepithelium results in less severe phenotypes and is accompanied by elevation of G1 Cyclin expression and p53 target gene expression. In contrast, activation of Id2 in committed intermediate progenitors has no significant phenotype. Functional analysis with Id2 over-expressing and Id2-null NSCs shows that Id2 negatively regulates NSC self-renewal in vivo, in contrast to previous cell culture experiments. Deletion of p53 function from Id2-transgenic brains rescues apoptosis and results in increased incidence of brain tumors. Furthermore, Id2 over-expression normalizes the increased self-renewal of p53-null NSCs, suggesting that Id2 activates and modulates the p53 pathway in NSCs. Together, these data suggest that elevated Id2 expression in embryonic brains can cause deregulated NSC self-renewal, differentiation and survival that manifest in multiple neurological outcomes in mature brains, including microcephaly, seizures, and brain tumors. PMID:23390122

Park, H.J.; Hong, M.; Bronson, R.T.; Israel, M.A.; Frankel, W. N.; Yun, K.

2013-01-01

84

Downstream targets of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and their abnormal expression in the frontal cortex of the human Rett syndrome brain  

E-print Network

Background: The Rett Syndrome (RTT) brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. Results: Using ...

Gibson, Joanne H

85

Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

Lynch, Marion E.

86

Working Memory Encoding and Maintenance Deficits in Schizophrenia: Neural Evidence for Activation and Deactivation Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Substantial evidence implicates working memory (WM) as a core deficit in schizophrenia (SCZ), purportedly due to primary deficits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functioning. Recent findings suggest that SCZ is also associated with abnormalities in suppression of certain regions during cognitive engagement—namely the default mode system—that may further contribute to WM pathology. However, no study has systematically examined activation and suppression abnormalities across both encoding and maintenance phases of WM in SCZ. Twenty-eight patients and 24 demographically matched healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T while performing a delayed match-to-sample WM task. Groups were accuracy matched to rule out performance effects. Encoding load was identical across subjects to facilitate comparisons across WM phases. We examined activation differences using an assumed model approach at the whole-brain level and within meta-analytically defined WM areas. Despite matched performance, we found regions showing less recruitment during encoding and maintenance for SCZ subjects. Furthermore, we identified 2 areas closely matching the default system, which SCZ subjects failed to deactivate across WM phases. Lastly, activation in prefrontal regions predicted the degree of deactivation for healthy but not SCZ subjects. Current results replicate and extend prefrontal recruitment abnormalities across WM phases in SCZ. Results also indicate deactivation abnormalities across WM phases, possibly due to inefficient prefrontal recruitment. Such regional deactivation may be critical for suppressing sources of interference during WM trace formation. Thus, deactivation deficits may constitute an additional source of impairments, which needs to be further characterized for a complete understanding of WM pathology in SCZ. PMID:21914644

Anticevic, Alan; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

87

Functional MRI of the Brain in Women with Overactive Bladder: Brain Activation During Urinary Urgency  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify abnormal function of the limbic cortex (LC) in response to urinary urgency among patients with Overactive Bladder (OAB) using brain functional MRI (fMRI) Methods 5 OAB subjects and 5 Controls underwent bladder filling and rated urgency sensations while fMRI measured activation in discrete volumes (voxels) within the brain. Changes in brain activation were related to bladder distension and individual subject’s rating of urgency via multiple regression analysis. Beta weights from regression equations were converted into percent signal change (PSC) for each voxel and PSC compared to the null hypothesis using T-tests. Significance threshold of P<.05 was applied along with a cluster size threshold of.32 ml (5 voxels). Results OAB patients showed increased brain activation in LC, specifically the insula (IN) and Anterior Cingulate Gyrus (ACG), associated with increased urgency. Urgency sensations during low volumes were associated with bilateral IN activation in OAB subjects (7,621 voxels right IN, 4,453 voxels left IN, mean beta weights .018 +/? .014 and .014 +/? .011) Minimal activation was present in Controls (790 voxels right IN, beta weight =.010 +/? .007). Urgency sensations during high volumes were associated with bilateral ACG activation in OAB subjects (2,304 voxels right IN, 5,005 voxels left IN, mean beta weights of 005 +/? .003 and 004+/?.003) without activation in Controls. Conclusions Urinary urgency in patients with OAB is associated with increased activation of the LC. This activation likely represents abnormal processing of sensory input in brain regions associated with emotional response to discomfort. PMID:21399722

Komesu, Yuko M.; Ketai, Loren H.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Teshiba, Terry M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

2011-01-01

88

Neuronal Correlates of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism and Morphometric Abnormalities in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been proposed as a possible candidate for involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). To determine whether an association exists between the BDNF Val66Met genotype and morphometric abnormalities of the brain regions involved in memory and learning in BD and healthy subjects. Forty-two BD patients and 42 healthy subjects were studied.

Koji Matsuo; Consuelo Walss-Bass; Fabiano G Nery; Mark A Nicoletti; John P Hatch; Benicio N Frey; Emel S Monkul; Giovana B Zunta-Soares; Charles L Bowden; Michael A Escamilla; Jair C Soares

2009-01-01

89

Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-11-15

90

Metabolic Abnormalities in Lobar and Subcortical Brain Regions of Abstinent Polysubstance Users: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups: 1-month-abstinent alcohol-dependent PSU, 1-month-abstinent individuals dependent on alcohol alone (ALC) and light drinking controls (CON). Neuropsychological testing assessed cognitive function. Results: While CON and ALC had similar metabolite levels, persistent metabolic abnormalities (primarily higher myo-inositol) were present in temporal gray matter, cerebellar vermis and lenticular nuclei of PSU. Moreover, lower cortical gray matter concentration of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate within PSU correlated with higher cocaine (but not alcohol) use quantities and with a reduced cognitive processing speed. Conclusions: These metabolite group differences reflect cellular/astroglial injury and/or dysfunction in alcohol-dependent PSU. Associations of other metabolite concentrations with neurocognitive performance suggest their functional relevance. The metabolic alterations in PSU may represent polydrug abuse biomarkers and/or potential targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23797281

Abe, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Hoefer, Michael E.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

2013-01-01

91

Metabolically active rat brain slices as a model to study the regulation of protein phosphorylation in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

The reversible protein phosphorylation is the most important cellular regulation of the biological functions of many proteins. Disregulation of protein phosphorylation is involved in pathogeneses of several human diseases. The abnormal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and its aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles in selective neurons is one of the major brain pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and several other related neurodegenerative diseases. Here we present metabolically competent rat brain slices as a model to study the regulation of protein phosphorylation in brain. Employing this model we have been able to study the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and other microtubule-associated proteins. We have evaluated the activity and intactness of the rat brain slices both biochemically and morphologically. Selective inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A in these rat brain slices by the treatment with okadaic acid induced hyperphosphorylation of tau at many abnormal sites seen in Alzheimer's disease brain and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in pyramidal neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. The regulation of the phosphorylation of high-molecular-weight microtubule-associated protein, MAP1b, was also studied with this model. This model enables studies on the regulation of protein phosphorylation not only biochemically, but also histochemically and immunocytochemically. Furthermore, unlike cultured cells, the neurons in the brain slices reside in the physiological environment of the brain consisting of natural extracellular matrix, neuronal connectivity, and neuronal-glial interactions. PMID:11223412

Gong, C X; Lidsky, T; Wegiel, J; Grundke-Iqbal, I; Iqbal, K

2001-02-01

92

What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's disease is a form of brain degeneration in which abnormal particles called neurofibrillary  

E-print Network

What is Alzheimer's Disease? Alzheimer's disease is a form of brain degeneration in which abnormal fact and remember it 30 minutes, or a day later, a skill we refer to as "memory". Who Gets Alzheimer's disease? The two main categories of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are familial and sporadic. Familial Alzheimer

Contractor, Anis

93

Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were

David G. Hughes; Alan Jackson; Damon L. Mason; Elizabeth Berry; Sally Hollis; David W. Yates

2004-01-01

94

Diffusion Tensor Brain Imaging Findings At Term-equivalent Age May Predict Neurologic Abnormalities in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low birth weight preterm infants are at high risk of brain injury, particularly injury to the white matter. Diffusion tensor imaging is thought to be more sensitive than conventional MR imaging for detecting subtle white matter abnormalities. The objective of this study was to examine whether diffusion tensor imaging could detect abnor- malities that may be associated

Y. Arzoumanian; M. Mirmiran; P. D. Barnes; K. Woolley; R. L. Ariagno; M. E. Moseley; B. E. Fleisher; S. W. Atlas

95

Autism Spectrum Disorder as Early Neurodevelopmental Disorder: Evidence from the Brain Imaging Abnormalities in 2-3 Years Old Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships…

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-01-01

96

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

2012-01-01

97

Neural Activity and the Development of Brain  

E-print Network

Neural Activity and the Development of Brain Circuits Carsten D Hohnke, Massachusetts Institute, Massachusetts, USA The development of highly interconnected circuits in the brain relies on patterns of neural of fidelity during development? Among brain systems, the question has been addressed most extensively

Sur, Mriganka

98

Sensory neuron-specific sodium channel SNS is abnormally expressed in the brains of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and humans with multiple sclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) have classically been considered to be caused by demyelination and/or axonal degeneration; the possibility of molecular changes in neurons, such as the deployment of abnormal repertoires of ion channels that would alter neuronal electrogenic properties, has not been considered. Sensory Neuron-Specific sodium channel SNS displays a depolarized voltage dependence, slower activation and inactivation kinetics, and more rapid recovery from inactivation than classical "fast" sodium channels. SNS is selectively expressed in spinal sensory and trigeminal ganglion neurons within the peripheral nervous system and is not expressed within the normal brain. Here we show that sodium channel SNS mRNA and protein, which are not present within the cerebellum of control mice, are expressed within cerebellar Purkinje cells in a mouse model of MS, chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We also demonstrate SNS mRNA and protein expression within Purkinje cells from tissue obtained postmortem from patients with MS, but not in control subjects with no neurological disease. These results demonstrate a change in sodium channel expression in neurons within the brain in an animal model of MS and in humans with MS and suggest that abnormal patterns of neuronal ion channel expression may contribute to clinical abnormalities such as ataxia in these disorders.

Black, Joel A.; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman; Baker, David; Newcombe, Jia; Cuzner, M. Louise; Waxman, Stephen G.

2000-10-01

99

Selective Worsening of Brain Injury Biomarker Abnormalities in Cognitively Normal Elderly with ?-amyloidosis  

PubMed Central

Importance The appearance of ?-amyloidosis and brain injury biomarkers in cognitively normal (CN) persons is thought to define risk for the future development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their interaction is poorly understood. Objective To test the hypothesis that the joint presence of ?-amyloidosis and brain injury biomarkers would lead to more rapid neurodegeneration. Design Longitudinal Cohort Study Setting Population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Participants 191 CN persons (median age 77, range 71–93) in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent MR, FDG PET and PiB PET imaging at least twice 15 months apart. Subjects were grouped according to the recommendations of the NIA-AA Preclinical AD criteria, based on the presence of ?-amyloidosis, defined as a PiB PET SUVr >1.5, alone (Stage 1) or with brain injury (stage 2+3), defined as hippocampal atrophy or FDG hypometabolism. We also studied a group of MCI (n=17) and dementia (n=9) patients from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging or the Mayo Alzheimer Center with similar follow-up times who had had comparable imaging and who all had PiB PET SUVr >1.5. Main Outcome Measures Rate of change of cortical volume on volumetric MR scans and rate of change of glucose metabolism on FDG PET scans. Results There were 25 CN subjects with both high PiB retention and low hippocampal volume or FDG hypometabolism at baseline (Preclinical AD stages 2+3). On follow-up scans, the Preclinical AD stages 2+3 subjects had greater loss of medial temporal lobe volume and greater glucose hypometabolism in the medial temporal lobe compared to other CN groups. The changes were similar to the cognitively impaired participants. Extra-temporal regions did not show similar changes. Conclusions Higher rates of medial temporal neurodegeneration occurred in CN individuals who, on their initial scans, had abnormal levels of both ?-amyloid and brain injury biomarkers. PMID:23797806

Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lowe, Val J.; Kantarci, Kejal; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Petersen, Ronald C.

2013-01-01

100

Are Structural Brain Abnormalities Associated With Suicidal Behavior In Patients With Psychotic Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2014-01-01

101

Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?  

PubMed

Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception. PMID:23866739

Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2013-10-01

102

Mutations in the ?-Tubulin Gene TUBB5 Cause Microcephaly with Structural Brain Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Summary The formation of the mammalian cortex requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. The vital role that the microtubule cytoskeleton plays in these cellular processes is reflected by the discovery that mutations in various tubulin isotypes cause different neurodevelopmental diseases, including lissencephaly (TUBA1A), polymicrogyria (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB3), and an ocular motility disorder (TUBB3). Here, we show that Tubb5 is expressed in neurogenic progenitors in the mouse and that its depletion in vivo perturbs the cell cycle of progenitors and alters the position of migrating neurons. We report the occurrence of three microcephalic patients with structural brain abnormalities harboring de novo mutations in TUBB5 (M299V, V353I, and E401K). These mutant proteins, which affect the chaperone-dependent assembly of tubulin heterodimers in different ways, disrupt neurogenic division and/or migration in vivo. Our results provide insight into the functional repertoire of the tubulin gene family, specifically implicating TUBB5 in embryonic neurogenesis and microcephaly. PMID:23246003

Breuss, Martin; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen; Poirier, Karine; Tian, Guoling; Jaglin, Xavier Hubert; Qu, Zhengdong; Braun, Andreas; Gstrein, Thomas; Ngo, Linh; Haas, Matilda; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Passemard, Sandrine; Verloes, Alain; Gressens, Pierre; Xie, Yunli; Robson, Kathryn J.H.; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Clausen, Tim; Chelly, Jamel; Cowan, Nicholas Justin; Keays, David Anthony

2012-01-01

103

Structural brain abnormalities in borderline personality disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.  

PubMed

Imaging studies using region-of-interest morphometry and positron emission tomography have contributed to our understanding of structural and functional abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, both methods have practical limitations to their usefulness for exploratory studies of brain-behavior relationships. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 34 subjects with BPD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects to study effects of diagnosis, gender, childhood sexual abuse, depressed mood, impulsivity and aggression on group differences. VBM is a computer-based method for whole brain analysis that combines the advantages of a functional study with a structural method. The BPD subjects, diagnosed with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and the International Personality Disorders Examination, were compared with 30 HC subjects, with age and gender covaried. Analyses were repeated separately by gender and, in women, by histories of childhood sexual abuse. Depressed mood, impulsivity, and aggression were covaried in separate analyses. Compared with HC, BPD subjects had significant bilateral reductions in gray matter concentrations in ventral cingulate gyrus and several regions of the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and uncus. BPD women (and abused BPD women), but not BPD men, had significant reductions in medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. BPD men, but not BPD women, showed diminished gray matter concentrations in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with findings in HC subjects. Covarying for depressed mood rendered group differences non-significant in the ventral cingulate but had little effect on differences in medial temporal cortex. Covarying for aggression (LHA) had relatively little effect on group differences, while covarying for impulsivity, as determined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, rendered all previously noted voxel-level group differences non-significant. Diminished gray matter in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal cortex may mediate the dysregulation of impulse and affect in BPD. Group differences varied greatly by gender, levels of depression, and impulsivity. VBM is an efficient method for exploratory study of brain-behavior relationships. PMID:19019636

Soloff, Paul; Nutche, Jeffrey; Goradia, Dhruman; Diwadkar, Vaibhav

2008-12-30

104

Immune status and apoptosis activation during brain death.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the role of the inflammatory status and apoptosis activation in the development of organ dysfunction after brain death using plasma assays and macroarray analysis on skeletal muscle biopsies to look for evidence of remote tissue damage in two intensive care units in France and one in Belgium. As controls, we used patients undergoing hip surgery and healthy volunteers. Causes of brain death in the 85 consecutive patients included in the study were cardiac arrest (n = 29; 34%), stroke (n = 42; 49%, with 38 patients having hemorrhagic stroke), and head injury (n = 14; 17%). Of the 85 patients, 45 donated 117 organs. Plasma endotoxin and cytokine levels indicated a marked systemic inflammatory response in brain-dead patients, which was strongest in the cardiac arrest group. Leukocyte dysfunction, as assessed by cytokines production in response to various stimuli, was noted in a subgroup of patients with brain death after stroke. Interestingly, skeletal muscle biopsies showed no increase in mRNAs for genes related to inflammation, whereas mRNAs for both antiapoptotic and proapoptotic genes were increased, the balance being in favor of apoptosis induction. The increased activation of the proapoptotic caspase 9 was further confirmed by Western blot. In conclusion, the presence of inflammation and apoptosis induction may explain the rapid organ dysfunction seen after brain death. Both abnormalities may play a role in organ dysfunction associated with brain death. However, the level of systemic inflammation or the presence of circulating endotoxin was not associated with lower graft survival. PMID:20407403

Adrie, Christophe; Monchi, Mehran; Fulgencio, Jean-Pierre; Cottias, Pascal; Haouache, Hakim; Alvarez-Gonzalvez, Antonio; Guerrini, Patrice; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Adib-Conquy, Minou

2010-04-01

105

Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. Methods To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5–12 months later. Appearance, behavior, neurologic function and brain MRIs were studied. Additional analyses of pathogenesis included: correlation of brain weight and neurologic findings; histopathology focusing on brain regions; full genome microarrays; immunohistochemistry characterizing inflammatory cells; determination of presence of tachyzoites and bradyzoites; electron microscopy; and study of markers of inflammation in serum. Histopathology in genetically resistant mice and cytokine and NRAMP knockout mice, effects of inoculation of isolated parasites, and treatment with sulfadiazine or ?PD1 ligand were studied. Results Twelve months after infection, a time equivalent to middle to early elderly ages, mice had behavioral and neurological deficits, and brain MRIs showed mild to moderate ventricular dilatation. Lower brain weight correlated with greater magnitude of neurologic abnormalities and inflammation. Full genome microarrays of brains reflected inflammation causing neuronal damage (Gfap), effects on host cell protein processing (ubiquitin ligase), synapse remodeling (Complement 1q), and also increased expression of PD-1L (a ligand that allows persistent LCMV brain infection) and CD 36 (a fatty acid translocase and oxidized LDL receptor that mediates innate immune response to beta amyloid which is associated with pro-inflammation in Alzheimer's disease). Immunostaining detected no inflammation around intra-neuronal cysts, practically no free tachyzoites, and only rare bradyzoites. Nonetheless, there were perivascular, leptomeningeal inflammatory cells, particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and activated microglia in perivascular areas and brain parenchyma. Genetically resistant, chronically infected mice had substantially less inflammation. Conclusion In outbred mice, chronic, adult acquired T. gondii infection causes neurologic and behavioral abnormalities secondary to inflammation and loss of brain parenchyma. Perivascular inflammation is prominent particularly contiguous to the aqueduct of Sylvius and hippocampus. Even resistant mice have perivascular inflammation. This mouse model of chronic T. gondii infection raises questions of whether persistence of this parasite in brain can cause inflammation or neurodegeneration in genetically susceptible hosts. PMID:18947414

Hermes, Gretchen; Ajioka, James W; Kelly, Krystyna A; Mui, Ernest; Roberts, Fiona; Kasza, Kristen; Mayr, Thomas; Kirisits, Michael J; Wollmann, Robert; Ferguson, David JP; Roberts, Craig W; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Trendler, Toria; Kennan, Richard P; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Reardon, Catherine; Hickey, William F; Chen, Lieping; McLeod, Rima

2008-01-01

106

Abnormalities in Metabolic Network Activity Precede the Onset of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Imaging studies show that Parkinson’s disease (PD) alters the activity of motor-and cognition-related metabolic brain networks. However, it is not known whether the network changes appear at or before symptom onset. In this study, we examined 15 hemiparkinsonian patients who underwent serial metabolic imaging with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET at baseline and again 2.1±0.6 (mean±SD) and 3.9±0.7 years later. We assessed longitudinal changes in network activity in each cerebral hemisphere, focusing specifically on the “presymptomatic” hemisphere – ipsilateral to the initially involved body side. At the network level, the activity of the PD motor-related pattern (PDRP) increased symmetrically in both hemispheres over time (p<0.001), with significant bilateral elevations at each of the three time points. Hemispheric expression of the PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) likewise increased symmetrically (p<0.001), although significant elevations were not evident on either side until 4 years. At the regional level, putamen metabolism contralateral to the initially affected body side was elevated at all three time points, without longitudinal change. By contrast, in the initially presymptomatic hemisphere, putamen metabolic activity increased steadily over time, reaching abnormal levels only at 4 years. Metabolic activity in the contralateral precuneus fell to subnormal levels by the final time point. These findings suggest that abnormal PDRP activity antecedes the appearance of motor signs by approximately two years. The timing and laterality of symptom onset relates to focal asymmetric metabolic changes at the putamenal node of this network. PMID:20089913

Tang, Chris C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

2010-01-01

107

BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN YOUNG ADULTS AT GENETIC RISK FOR AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We previously detected functional brain imaging abnormalities in young adults at genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we sought to characterize structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarker abnormalities in young adults at risk for autosomal dominant early-onset AD. Biomarker measurements were characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and non-carriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, more than two decades before the carriers’ estimated median age of 44 at the onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and before their estimated age of 28 at the onset of amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposition. Methods Biomarker data for this cross-sectional study were acquired in Antioquia, Colombia between July and August, 2010. Forty-four participants from the Colombian Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative (API) Registry had structural MRIs, functional MRIs during associative memory encoding/novel viewing and control tasks, and cognitive assessments. They included 20 mutation carriers and 24 non-carriers, who were cognitively normal, 18-26 years old and matched for their gender, age, and educational level. Twenty of the participants, including 10 mutation carriers and 10 non-carriers, had lumbar punctures and venipunctures. Primary outcome measures included task-dependent hippocampal/parahippocampal activations and precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations, regional gray matter reductions, CSF A?1-42, total tau and phospho-tau181 levels, and plasma A?1-42 levels and A?1-42/A?1-40 ratios. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and AD-related search regions. Cognitive and fluid biomarkers were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Findings The mutation carrier and non-carrier groups did not differ significantly in their dementia ratings, neuropsychological test scores, or proportion of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 carriers. Compared to the non-carriers, carriers had higher CSF A?1-42 levels (p=0·008), plasma A?1-42 levels (p=0·01), and plasma A?1-42/A?1-40 ratios (p=0·001), consistent with A?1-42 overproduction. They also had greater hippocampal/parahippocampal activations (as low as p=0·008, after correction for multiple comparisons), less precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations (as low as p=0·001, after correction), less gray matter in several regions (p-values <0·005, uncorrected, and corrected p=0·008 in the parietal search region), similar to findings in the later preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant and late-onset AD. Interpretation Young adults at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD have functional and structural MRI abnormalities, along with CSF and plasma biomarker findings consistent with A?1-42 over-production. While the extent to which the underlying brain changes are progressive or developmental remain to be determined, this study demonstrates the earliest known biomarker changes in cognitively normal people at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD. Funding Banner Alzheimer’s Foundation, Nomis Foundation, Anonymous Foundation, Forget Me Not Initiative, Boston University Department of Psychology, Colciencias (1115-408-20512, 1115-545-31651), National Institute on Aging (R01 AG031581, P30 AG19610, UO1 AG024904, RO1 AG025526, RF1AG041705), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (F31-NS078786) and state of Arizona. PMID:23137948

Reiman, Eric M.; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Fagan, Anne M.; Shah, Aarti R.; Alvarez, Sergio; Arbelaez, Andres; Giraldo, Margarita; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dickerson, Brad; Stern, Chantal E.; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Reiman, Rebecca A.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Alexander, Gene E.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco

2013-01-01

108

Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS)  

PubMed Central

Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients with BBS, which parallel the findings, described in BBS mutant mouse models. Some of these brain abnormalities may be progressive and associated with the reported neurological and behavioral problems. Further future correlation of these MRI scan findings with detailed neurologic and neuropsychological exams together with genotype data will provide better understanding of the pathophysiology of BBS. PMID:21794117

2011-01-01

109

Penicillin-induced epileptiform activity elevates focal brain temperature in anesthetized rats.  

PubMed

To elucidate a relationship between changes in focal brain temperature and severity of abnormal brain activity, epileptiform discharges and behavioral seizures were induced by Penicillin G in anesthetized rats, and focal brain-temperature was measured. Penicillin G was injected into the right primary sensorimotor cortex (400IU/?l). After the injection, epileptiform discharges induced a temperature increase gradually by 0.65±0.24°C. Moreover, when behavioral seizures were induced by reducing the anesthesia level, the temperature was raised by 0.26±0.22°C. These results suggest that elevation of the focal brain temperature is associated with the severity of epileptic activity. PMID:23665136

Tokiwa, Tatsuji; Inoue, Takao; Fujii, Masami; Ishizuka, Satoru; Aou, Shuji; Kida, Hiroyuki; Maruta, Yuichi; Yamakawa, Toshitaka; Nomura, Sadahiro; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Yamakawa, Takeshi

2013-08-01

110

Sex differences in white matter abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury: localization and correlation with outcome.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate sex differences in diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) white matter abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and to compare associated clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this study, with waiver of informed consent. DTI in 69 patients with mTBI (47 male and 22 female patients) and 21 control subjects (10 male and 11 female subjects) with normal conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images were retrospectively reviewed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated as a measure of white matter integrity. Patients with mTBI underwent serial neurocognitive testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Correlation between sex, white matter FA values, ImPACT scores, and time to symptom resolution (TSR) were analyzed with multivariate analysis and TBSS. Results No significant difference in age was seen between males and females (control subjects, P = .3; patients with mTBI, P = .34). No significant difference was seen in initial ImPACT symptom scores (P = .33) between male and female patients with mTBI. Male patients with mTBI had significantly decreased FA values in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) bilaterally (mean FA, 0.425; 95% confidence interval: 0.375, 0.476) compared with female patients with mTBI and control subjects (P < .05), with a significantly longer TSR (P = .04). Multivariate analysis showed sex and UF FA values independently correlated with TSR longer than 3 months (adjusted odds ratios, 2.27 and 2.38; P = .04 and P < .001, respectively), but initial symptom severity did not (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; P = .35). Conclusion Relative sparing of the UF is seen in female compared with male patients after mTBI, with sex and UF FA values as stronger predictors of TSR than initial symptom severity. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:24802388

Fakhran, Saeed; Yaeger, Karl; Collins, Michael; Alhilali, Lea

2014-09-01

111

Abnormal electromyographic activity of the urethral sphincter, voiding dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries: a new syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential association between abnormal electromyographic activity--that is, decelerating bursts and complex repetitive discharges--of the urethral sphincter and difficulty in voiding was examined in 57 women with urinary retention. Abnormal electromyographic activity was found in 33. Ultrasonography of the ovaries in 22 of the 33 women showed that 14 had polycystic ovaries. Of the other eight women, two had had

C. J. Fowler; T. J. Christmas; C. R. Chapple; H. F. Parkhouse; R. S. Kirby; H. S. Jacobs

1988-01-01

112

Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and\\/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain

Jennifer L. Stewart; Rebecca Levin-Silton; Sarah M. Sass; Wendy Heller; Gregory A. Miller

2008-01-01

113

Activities That Build the Young Child's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…

Gellens, Suzanne R.

114

Tests for Distributed, Nonfocal Brain Activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most approaches to detecting changes in functional brain images assume that activations are focal or very localized. However, the brain's response to cognitive of sensorimotor challenge may be spatially or anatomically distributed. In this paper we consider the use-fulness of a test based on the mean sum of squares of statistical parametric maps. The performance of this test is evaluated

K. J. Worsley; J. B. Poline; A. C. Vandal; K. J. Friston

1995-01-01

115

Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:23826251

Su-Fang, Li; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li

2013-01-01

116

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3?+/-mice, GSK-3? mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3? gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3? KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3? gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19925672

2009-01-01

117

Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry  

PubMed Central

Background Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT) modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24) and nonresponders (n=15) to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion These results suggest that the brain structures in several areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cingulate bundles, are related to the lack of a response to BT in patients with OCD. The use of a voxel-based morphometry approach may be advantageous to understanding differences in brain abnormalities between responders and nonresponders to BT. PMID:25349476

Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Akiko; Sato, Junko; Kasai, Harumasa; Nakamae, Takashi; Narumoto, Jin; Miyata, Jun; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

2014-01-01

118

Prenatal-postnatal correlations of brain abnormalities: how lesions and diagnoses change over time  

PubMed Central

A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities. PMID:24078783

Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah

2013-01-01

119

Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1-4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W; Chang, Douglas G; Harrington, Deborah L; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M; Christopher Edgar, J; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R

2014-01-01

120

Growth connectomics: the organization and re-organization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development  

E-print Network

modalities - from multielectrode array recordings of neuronal cultures in vitro to functional MRI recordings of whole brain resting state dynamics in vivo. Thus graphs create an opportunity to use the same mathematical language to quantify aspects of brain... of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans (Watts & Strogatz, 1998). The same structure has since been consistently found in numerous empirical studies of structural and functional brain networks in humans and other animals (Bullmore & Sporns, 2012). Hubs...

Vértes, Petra E.; Bullmore, Edward T.

2014-01-01

121

Autism spectrum disorder as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence from the brain imaging abnormalities in 2-3 years old toddlers.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition that occurs within the first 3 years of life, which is marked by social skills and communication deficits along with stereotyped repetitive behavior. Although great efforts have been made to clarify the underlying neuroanatomical abnormalities and brain-behavior relationships in adolescents and adults with ASD, literature is still limited in information about the neurobiology of ASD in the early age of life. Brain images of 50 toddlers with ASD and 28 age, gender, and developmental quotient matched toddlers with developmental delay (DD) (control group) between ages 2 and 3 years were captured using combined magnetic resonance-based structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was applied to assess overall gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and regional alterations were assessed by voxel-based morphometry. DTI was used to investigate the white matter tract integrity. Compared with DD, significant increases were observed in ASD, primarily in global GM and WM volumes and in right superior temporal gyrus regional GM and WM volumes. Higher fractional anisotropy value was also observed in the corpus callosum, posterior cingulate cortex, and limbic lobes of ASD. The converging findings of structural and white matter abnormalities in ASD suggest that alterations in neural-anatomy of different brain regions may be involved in behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with ASD, especially in an early age of 2-3 years old toddlers. PMID:24419870

Xiao, Zhou; Qiu, Ting; Ke, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Ting; Liang, Fengjing; Zou, Bing; Huang, Haiqing; Fang, Hui; Chu, Kangkang; Zhang, Jiuping; Liu, Yijun

2014-07-01

122

Characterization of Subtle Brain Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Hedgehog Pathway Antagonist-Induced Cleft Lip and Palate  

PubMed Central

Subtle behavioral and cognitive deficits have been documented in patient cohorts with orofacial clefts (OFCs). Recent neuroimaging studies argue that these traits are associated with structural brain abnormalities but have been limited to adolescent and adult populations where brain plasticity during infancy and childhood may be a confounding factor. Here, we employed high resolution magnetic resonance microscopy to examine primary brain morphology in a mouse model of OFCs. Transient in utero exposure to the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway antagonist cyclopamine resulted in a spectrum of facial dysmorphology, including unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate, cleft of the secondary palate only, and a non-cleft phenotype marked by midfacial hypoplasia. Relative to controls, cyclopamine-exposed fetuses exhibited volumetric differences in several brain regions, including hypoplasia of the pituitary gland and olfactory bulbs, hyperplasia of the forebrain septal region, and expansion of the third ventricle. However, in affected fetuses the corpus callosum was intact and normal division of the forebrain was observed. This argues that temporally-specific Hh signaling perturbation can result in typical appearing OFCs in the absence of holoprosencephaly—a condition classically associated with Hh pathway inhibition and frequently co-occurring with OFCs. Supporting the premise that some forms of OFCs co-occur with subtle brain malformations, these results provide a possible ontological basis for traits identified in clinical populations. They also argue in favor of future investigations into genetic and/or environmental modulation of the Hh pathway in the etiopathogenesis of orofacial clefting. PMID:25047453

Lipinski, Robert J.; Holloway, Hunter T.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Ament, Jacob J.; Pecevich, Stephen J.; Cofer, Gary P.; Budin, Francois; Everson, Joshua L.; Johnson, G. Allan; Sulik, Kathleen K.

2014-01-01

123

Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. METHODS: After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. RESULTS: Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. CONCLUSION: After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

124

Abnormally High Levels of Brain N-Acetylaspartate in Children with Sickle Cell Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The most abundant metabolite visible by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in human brain is N-acetylaspartate (NAA), which is often used as a marker of viable neurons. NAA is anecdotally reported to be elevated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), even though patients can have brain injury or atrophy. We measured NAA levels rigorously in SCD

R. Grant Steen; Robert J. Ogg

2005-01-01

125

Functional, Morphological, and Metabolic Abnormalities of the Cerebral Microcirculation after Concussive Brain Injury in Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We induced experimental concussive brain injury by a fluid percussion device in anes- thetized cats equipped with a cranial window for the observation of the pial microcirculation of the parietal cortex. Brain injury resulted in transient but pronounced increases in arterial blood pressure and in sustained arteriolar vasodilation associated with reduced or absent responsiveness to the vasoconstrictor effect of

ENOCH P. WEI; W. DALTON DIETRICH; JOHN T. POVLISHOCK; RUDOLPH M. NAVARI; HERMES A. KONTOS

126

Abnormal Brain Connectivity in Children After Early Severe Socioemotional Deprivation: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES.We previously reported that children who were subjected to early socio- emotional deprivation in Romanian orphanages showed glucose hypometabolism in limbic and paralimbic structures, including the orbital frontal gyrus, infralimbic prefrontal cortex, hippocampus\\/amygdala, lateral temporal cortex, and the brain- stem. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to examine the integrity of white matter tracts that connect these brain

Thomas J. Eluvathingal; Harry T. Chugani; Michael E. Behen; Csaba Juhasz; Otto Muzik; Mohsin Maqbool; Diane C. Chugani; Malek Makki

2010-01-01

127

Decoupling neural networks from reality: dissociative experiences in torture victims are reflected in abnormal brain waves in left frontal cortex.  

PubMed

From a neuroscience perspective, little is known about the long-term effect of torture. Dissociative experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder are often the results of this experience. We examined psychological dissociation within a group of 23 torture victims and report its manifestations within neural networks in the human brain. In particular, we observed that dissociative experiences are associated with slow abnormal brain waves generated in left ventrolateral frontal cortex. Given that focal slow waves often result from depriving neural networks of major input, the present results may indicate decoupling of frontal affective processors from left cortical language areas. This interpretation is consistent with the fact that disturbed access to structured verbal memory concerning traumatic events is a core feature of the dissociative experience. PMID:17100779

Ray, William J; Odenwald, Michael; Neuner, Frank; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf, Martina; Wienbruch, Christian; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Elbert, Thomas

2006-10-01

128

3D pattern of brain abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome visualized using tensor-based morphometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX

Agatha D. Lee; Alex D. Leow; Allen Lu; Allan L. Reiss; Scott Hall; Ming-Chang Chiang; Arthur W. Toga; Paul M. Thompson

2007-01-01

129

The Relationship between Cognitive Functioning and Whole Brain Diffusion Tensor Imaging Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Michele York, Ph.D., Christof Karmonik, Ph.D., Robert Grossman, M Recently, a Parkinson's disease (PD)­related cognitive pattern (PDCP) was identified using positron.224762 0.230038 0.231515 LeftBA2 W W W W W W W W W W W W · Parkinson's disease · Healthy Control r =.95, p

Lichtarge, Olivier

130

Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

2012-03-01

131

Deletion in the N-terminal half of olfactomedin 1 modifies its interaction with synaptic proteins and causes brain dystrophy and abnormal behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Olfactomedin 1 (Olfm1) is a secreted glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed in neuronal tissues. Here we show that deletion of exons 4 and 5 from the Olfm1 gene, which encodes a 52 amino acid long region in the N-terminal part of the protein, increased neonatal death and reduced body weight of surviving homozygous mice. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses revealed reduced brain volume and attenuated size of white matter tracts such as the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and optic nerve. Adult Olfm1 mutant mice demonstrated abnormal behavior in several tests including reduced marble digging, elevated plus maze test, nesting activity and latency on balance beam tests as compared with their wild-type littermates. The olfactory system was both structurally and functionally disturbed by the mutation in the Olfm1 gene as shown by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis and a smell test. Deficiencies of the olfactory system may contribute to the neonatal death and loss of body weight of Olfm1 mutant. Shotgun proteomics revealed 59 candidate proteins that co-precipitated with wild-type or mutant Olfm1 proteins in postnatal day 1 brain. Olfm1-binding targets included GluR2, Cav2.1, teneurin-4 and Kidins220. Modified interaction of Olfm1 with binding targets led to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and activation of ERK1/2, MEK1 and CaMKII in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of Olfm1 mutant mice compared with their wild-type littermates. Excessive activation of the CaMKII and Ras-ERK pathways in the Olfm1 mutant olfactory bulb and hippocampus by elevated intracellular calcium may contribute to the abnormal behavior and olfactory activity of Olfm1 mutant mice. PMID:24095980

Nakaya, Naoki; Sultana, Afia; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Cheng, Aiwu; Mattson, Mark P; Tomarev, Stanislav I

2013-12-01

132

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

133

Brain metabolism is abnormal in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder primarily affecting young boys, often causing mental retardation in addition to the well-known progressive muscular weakness. Normal dystrophin expression is lacking in skeletal muscle and the CNS of both DMD children and the mdx mouse model. To date, 3lP-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has shown in vivo several abnormalities within skeletal

I. Tracey; J. F. Dunn; G. K. Radda

1996-01-01

134

Maternal infection leads to abnormal gene regulation and brain atrophy in mouse offspring  

PubMed Central

Prenatal viral infection has been associated with development of schizophrenia and autism. Our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) administration of influenza virus. We hypothesized that late second trimester infection (E18) in mice may lead to a different pattern of brain gene expression and structural defects in the developing offspring. C57BL6J mice were infected on E18 with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution. Male offsping of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, P35 and P56, their brains removed and prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum dissected and flash frozen. Microarray, qRT-PCR, DTI and MRI scanning, western blotting and neurochemical analysis were performed to detect differences in gene expression and brain atrophy. Expression of several genes associated with schizophrenia or autism including Sema3a, Trfr2 and Vldlr were found to be altered as were protein levels of Foxp2. E18 infection of C57BL6J mice with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus led to significant gene alterations in frontal, hippocampal and cerebellar cortices of developing mouse progeny. Brain imaging revealed significant atrophy in several brain areas and white matter thinning in corpus callosum. Finally, neurochemical analysis revealed significantly altered levels of serotonin (P14, P35), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (P14) and taurine (P35). We propose that maternal infection in mouse provides an heuristic animal model for studying the environmental contributions to genesis of schizophrenia and autism, two important examples of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:18248790

Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Huang, Hao; Oishi, Kenichi; Mori, Susumu; Smee, Donald F.; Pearce, David A.; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Juckel, Georg

2008-01-01

135

A CONTRARIO DETECTION OF FOCAL BRAIN PERFUSION ABNORMALITIES BASED ON AN ARTERIAL SPIN LABELING TEMPLATE  

E-print Network

in patients with difficult venous access such as children, healthy volun- teers or pregnant women. Besides- eral parameters including age and sex. Some pathologies are char- acterized by the presence of brain of new biomarkers and help to draw a more complete picture of complex pathologies. Ab- normal CBV and CBF

Boyer, Edmond

136

Brief Report: Abnormal Association between the Thalamus and Brain Size in Asperger's Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between thalamic volume and brain size in individuals with Asperger's disorder (ASP). Volumetric measurements of the thalamus were performed on MRI scans obtained from 12 individuals with ASP (age range: 10-35 years) and 12 healthy controls (age range: 9-33 years). A positive correlation…

Hardan, Antonio Y.; Girgis, Ragy R.; Adams, Jason; Gilbert, Andrew R.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

137

Correlations between clinical symptoms, working memory functions and structural brain abnormalities in men with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen male patients with schizophrenia and thirteen male normal control subjects were compared by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on volumes of the straight gyrus (SG), anterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, hippocampus, third ventricle, cavum septi pellucidi, total brain volume and intracranial volume. In addition, neuropsychological tasks were used to measure working memory and executive functions. Healthy volunteers and schizophrenic

István Szendi; Marianna Kiss; Mihály Racsmány; Krisztina Boda; Csongor Cimmer; Erika Vörös; Zoltán A. Kovács; György Szekeres; Gabriella Galsi; Csaba Pléh; László Csernay; Zoltán Janka

2006-01-01

138

Annual Meeting Mini-Symposium Autism and Abnormal Development of Brain Connectivity  

E-print Network

Phenotype" in which characteristic cognitive traits are present subclinically (Dawson et al., 2002 It has been said that people with autism suffer from a lack of "central coherence," the cognitive ability and remediation of autism but can also provide a test case for theories of normal brain and cognitive development

Boulanger, Lisa

139

Abnormal Functional MRI BOLD Contrast in the Vegetative State after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the rehabilitation process, the treatment of patients surviving brain injury in a vegetative state is still a serious challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate patients exhibiting severely disturbed consciousness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five cases of posttraumatic vegetative state and one with minimal…

Heelmann, Volker

2010-01-01

140

Air Pollution, Cognitive Deficits and Brain Abnormalities: A Pilot Study with Children and Dogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…

Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.

2008-01-01

141

Abnormal brain processing of cutaneous pain in patients with chronic migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO2-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction

Marina de Tommaso; Massimiliano Valeriani; Marco Guido; Giuseppe Libro; Luigi Maria Specchio; Pietro Tonali; Francomichele Puca

2003-01-01

142

Brain Activity on Navigation in Virtual Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the cognitive processing that takes place in virtual environments by measuring electrical brain activity using Fast Fourier Transform analysis. University students performed the same task in a real and a virtual environment, and eye movement measurements showed that all subjects were more attentive when navigating in the virtual world.…

Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

2001-01-01

143

Astrocyte activation in working brain: Energy supplied by minor substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose delivered to brain by the cerebral circulation is the major and obligatory fuel for all brain cells, and assays of functional activity in working brain routinely focus on glucose utilization. However, these assays do not take into account the contributions of minor substrates or endogenous fuel consumed by astrocytes during brain activation, and emerging evidence suggests that glycogen, acetate,

Gerald A. Dienel; Nancy F. Cruz

2006-01-01

144

Abnormal temporal and parietal magnetic activations during the early stages of theory of mind in schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is associated with abnormal cortical activation during theory of mind (ToM), as demonstrated by several fMRI or PET studies. Electrical and temporal characteristics of these abnormalities, especially in the early stages, remain unexplored. Nineteen medicated schizophrenic patients and 21 healthy controls underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) recording to measure brain response evoked by nonverbal stimuli requiring mentalizing. Three conditions based on comic-strips were contrasted: attribution of intentions to others (AI), physical causality with human characters (PCCH), and physical causality with objects (PCOB). Minimum norm localization was performed in order to select regions of interest (ROIs) within bilateral temporal and parietal regions that showed significant ToM-related activations in the control group. Time-courses of each ROI were compared across group and condition. Reduced cortical activation within the 200 to 600 ms time-window was observed in the selected regions in patients. Significant group by condition interactions (i.e., reduced modulation in patients) were found in right posterior superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction, and right inferior parietal lobule during attribution of intentions. As in healthy controls, the presence of characters elicited activation in patients' left posterior temporal regions and temporoparietal junction. No group difference on evoked responses' latencies in AI was found. In conclusion, ToM processes in the early stages are functionally impaired in schizophrenia. MEG provides a promising means to refine our knowledge on schizophrenic social cognitive disorders. PMID:21259166

Vistoli, Damien; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Lemoalle, Amelia; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine; Passerieux, Christine

2011-01-01

145

[Abnormal findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus involving the brain].  

PubMed

To elucidate the clinical significance of MRI on CNS-SLE, MRI and CT scans were performed in 35 patients with SLE, of 18 patients who had CNS manifestations at the time of MRI examinations. The investigations were also carried out with 17 patients without CNS-SLE. The rate of detection of abnormal findings on MRI in patients with CNS-SLE was 77.2% (14/18), which was high, as compared with the rate of those on CT scans (50%: 9/18). Especially, all of 4 patients with seizure and 3 patients with encephalopathy showed abnormal MRI findings, although respectively 50% and 33.3% of them had abnormal CT scan findings. MRI findings were classified into 4 groups as below: 1) Large focal are as of increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 2 of 4 patients with seizure and 1 of 3 patients with encephalopathy, which were completely resolved after treatment. 2) Patchy subcortical foci of increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 11 of 18 CNS-SLE and 7 of 17 without CNS-SLE, which were not detected by CT scan. 3) All of six patients with cerebral infarctions showed high signal intensity areas at T2 weighted image and low signal intensity areas at T1 weighted image. 4) Normal findings were observed in 4 of 18 CNS-SLE (22.2%). We concluded that MRI is useful for the evaluation of CNS-SLE and provides more information than CT scan. PMID:1523521

Ishikawa, A; Okada, J; Kondo, H; Kashiwazaki, S

1992-06-01

146

Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity  

SciTech Connect

Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Singh, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

1991-12-31

147

Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity  

SciTech Connect

Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Singh, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

1991-01-01

148

Glutamate release by primary brain tumors induces epileptic activity.  

PubMed

Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood comorbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted human-derived glioma cells into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Within 14-18 d, glioma-bearing mice developed spontaneous and recurring abnormal electroencephalogram events consistent with progressive epileptic activity. Acute brain slices from these mice showed marked glutamate release from the tumor mediated by the system x(c)(-) cystine-glutamate transporter (encoded by Slc7a11). Biophysical and optical recordings showed glutamatergic epileptiform hyperexcitability that spread into adjacent brain tissue. We inhibited glutamate release from the tumor and the ensuing hyperexcitability by sulfasalazine (SAS), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug that blocks system x(c)(-). We found that acute administration of SAS at concentrations equivalent to those used to treat Crohn's disease in humans reduced epileptic event frequency in tumor-bearing mice compared with untreated controls. SAS should be considered as an adjuvant treatment to ameliorate peritumoral seizures associated with glioma in humans. PMID:21909104

Buckingham, Susan C; Campbell, Susan L; Haas, Brian R; Montana, Vedrana; Robel, Stefanie; Ogunrinu, Toyin; Sontheimer, Harald

2011-10-01

149

Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion.\\u000a Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments.\\u000a Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate\\u000a the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently

Semyon M. Slobounov; K. Zhang; D. Pennell; W. Ray; B. Johnson; W. Sebastianelli

2010-01-01

150

Lipid abnormalities in the brain in adult Down’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis by HPTLC of the major lipid classes and dilichol, and of fatty acyl groups of separated phosphoglycerides\\u000a by capillary GLC, has been carried out on the gray matter of frontal cerebral cortex of brains from six Down’s syndrome (DS)\\u000a and six Alzheimer’s disease (AD) adults, and six each of two corresponding sets of age-matched controls; specimens of DS

B. W. L. Brooksbank; Manuela Martinez

1989-01-01

151

Statistical Parametric Mapping of Brain SPECT Perfusion Abnormalities in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain perfusion in 20 patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 20 patients with moderate AD and 20 control subjects (matched for age, gender and education) were assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). SPECT images were transformed to a standard size and shape for group comparisons by the voxel-based t test of the

Yi-Chung Lee; Ren-Shyan Liu; Yi-Chu Liao; Chen-Ming Sun; Po-Shan Wang; Pei-Ning Wang; Hsiu-Chih Liu

2003-01-01

152

Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine\\/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a

Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin; Tatiana V Lipina; Keizo Takao; Matthijs van Eede; Satoko Hattori; Christine Laliberté; Mustafa Khan; Kenichi Okamoto; John W Chambers; Paul J Fletcher; Katrina MacAulay; Bradley W Doble; Mark Henkelman; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa; John Roder; James R Woodgett

2009-01-01

153

Neuroretinitis with abnormal brain imaging in Ask-Upmark kidney: A novel case report  

PubMed Central

We report a 13-year-old female patient having vertigo and visual blurring since 2 weeks with blood pressure being 180/106 mmHg. Fundus examination showed optic disc edema with macular star. After ruling out infective causes, idiopathic neuroretinitis was diagnosed. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed three periventricular morphologically multiple sclerosis (MS)-like white matter lesions. Renal ultrasound and renal arteriogram showed a shrunken left kidney, small non-stenotic left renal artery and reduced vessels in upper pole of left kidney, consistent with Ask-Upmark kidney (AUK). Her symptoms improved with antihypertensive drugs. Follow-up MRI at 1 year revealed no interval change, while fundus had normalized. Neuroretinitis typically has normal brain MRI and rules out MS. However, our patient having AUK-induced hypertension had neuroretinitis and MS-like brain lesions and did not fulfill diagnostic criteria for MS. Thus we postulate that MS-like lesions can be part of neuroretinitis, especially in hypertensive patients.

Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Sood, Isha; Prakash, Sanjay; Mehta, Dhruv P.

2014-01-01

154

Surface reconstructions of foetal brain abnormalities using ultrafast steady state 3D acquisitions.  

PubMed

MRI of the foetal brain in utero is performed in routine clinical practice using sequences that produce two-dimensional (2D) images. Recent developments in image post-processing have allowed the construction of three-dimensional (3D) volume data sets from 2D images acquired in different anatomical planes, but these have limitations due to the unpredictable nature of foetal movement. These limitations have been overcome by development of several different advanced computer techniques, which require specialist knowledge, software, and processing methods, which are rarely available in routine clinical settings. Our aim was to develop a technique that can be used in routine clinical situations without the need for custom-developed or expensive software by utilizing MRI sequences that can produce a 3D data set in "ultrafast" timescales. The 3D dataset, combined with versatile image post-processing and visualization techniques, has resulted in the production of high-resolution images of foetal brain surfaces in utero. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate our methods and early results by way of a pictorial review illustrating a range of developmental brain disease in utero. PMID:25062925

Jarvis, D A; Armitage, P; Dean, A; Griffiths, P D

2014-10-01

155

Temporal organization of ongoing brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing brain activity results from the mutual interaction of hundred billions non-linear units and represents a significant part of the overall brain activity. Although its complex dynamics has been widely investigated, a large number of fundamental questions are still open, many of them concerning its temporal structure. Why does a certain population of neurons fires synchronously? Are these synchronized bursts following each other randomly or are they correlated according to some organizing principle? Far from addressing the fundamental problem of its functions, in the present article we focus on the problem of temporal correlations of ongoing cortical activity. We first overview the major features of its temporal structure and review recent experimental results, with particular emphasis on alternative approaches inspired in the theory of stochastic processes; then we introduce a neuronal network model inspired in self organized criticality and compare numerical results with experimental findings.

Lombardi, F.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-10-01

156

Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity  

E-print Network

Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity Lee Osterhout*, Mark Allen Abstract Many studies have shown that open- and closed-class words elicit different patterns of brain. Introduction Is the brain response to words determined primarily by their linguistic functions

Coulson, Seana

157

Relationship of Clinical and Cognitive Variables with Brain Morphometric Abnormalities in Alzheimer's Disease: a Voxel Based Morphometric Study Using 3-Tesla MRI  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with widespread structural and functional brain alterations. The current study examined the gray matter (GM) voxel based morphometric (VBM) correlates of cognitive and clinical severity scores in patients with AD. The study included 34 patients with AD according to NINCDS/ADRDA AD criteria and 28 matched elderly controls. All subjects were clinically evaluated using Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE), Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data were acquired using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner and VBM analysis was performed using VBM5.1 toolbox. The patients with AD had significantly lower GM volume, white matter volume and total brain volume as compared to controls. The HMSE scores were positively correlated (p=0.009) and EASI (p=0.04) & CDR (p=0.0004) were negatively correlated with the total GM volumes in patients with AD. The VBM analysis revealed diffuse GM atrophy in patients with AD. Frontal& temporal GM volumes were positively correlated with the HMSE scores. Thus the results of the study replicate the previous observations of generalized GM atrophy, in an Indian sample with AD. The cognitive decline, clinical dementia severity and impairment in activities of daily living were correlated whole brain GM and WM volumes as well as with specific brain regional atrophy in AD. However further studies with larger samples & with more detailed cognitive evaluation are required for confirmation & validation of the relationship between regional morphometric abnormalities and cognitive deficits in AD. PMID:24124629

Bagepally, Bhavani S.; John, John P.; Varghese, Mathew; Halahalli, Harsha N.; Kota, Lakshminarayanan; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T.; Bharath, Srikala; Jain, Sanjeev

2013-01-01

158

Abnormal indices of cell cycle activity in schizophrenia and their potential association with oligodendrocytes.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine what signaling pathways may elicit myelin-specific gene expression deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Microarray analyses indicated that genes associated with canonical cell cycle pathways were significantly affected in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), the region exhibiting the most profound myelin-specific gene expression changes, in persons with SZ (N=16) as compared with controls (N=19). Detected gene expression changes of key regulators of G1/S phase transition and genes central to oligodendrocyte differentiation were validated using qPCR in the ACG in an independent cohort (Ns=45/34). The relative abundance of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was increased in the white matter underlying the ACG in SZ subjects (Ns=12). The upregulation of cyclin D1 gene expression and the downregulation of p57(Kip2), accompanied by increased cyclin D/CDK4-dependent phosphorylation of pRb, acting as a checkpoint for G1/S phase transition, suggest abnormal cell cycle re-entry in postmitotic oligodendrocytes in SZ. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of brain samples from myelin mutant animal models, quaking and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) null mice, showed that cell cycle gene expression changes were not a necessary consequence of the reduced gene expression of structural myelin proteins, such as MAG. While, quaking, a known modulator of cell cycle activity during oligodendrocyte differentiation impairs the expression of multiple myelin genes, including those that are affected in SZ. These data suggest that the normal patterns of cell cycle gene and protein expression are disrupted in SZ and that this disruption may contribute to the oligodendroglial deficits observed in SZ. PMID:18322470

Katsel, Pavel; Davis, Kenneth L; Li, Celeste; Tan, Weilun; Greenstein, Elizabeth; Kleiner Hoffman, Lisa B; Haroutunian, Vahram

2008-11-01

159

Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effects of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12-14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30min after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p<0.01). There were no group differences on memory performance for either positive or neutral pictures (p>0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development. PMID:18162329

Maheu, Françoise S; Merke, Deborah P; Schroth, Elizabeth A; Keil, Margaret F; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

2008-02-01

160

Quantitative observation and study on rhythmic abnormalities of activities in animals prior to earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the normal daily activities and abnormal activities related to earthquake premonitory information are given by a quantitative observation and analysis of activities in the sparrow (SR, Passer montanus), budgerigar (BG, Melopsittacus undulatus) and rat (RT, Rattus norvegicus). The results show that the quantitative observation of habitual abnormalities in animals may provide some cues for the short-term earthquake prediction. The normal activity rhythms for the SR and BG are similar, and both present M mode. The high activities occurs during 07h 10h and 15h 16h, respectively, the low activities occurs during 12h 13h, and at night both birds are basically silent. For the RT, the normal rhythmic activity has the middle magnitude during 07h 10h and 17h 18h, the low and high magnitudes occur during 11h 16h and from 19h to 06h at the next day. For the SR, BG and RT, observable abnormal changes of the normal activity rhythm were found before earthquakes. The night activities of the SR and BG were increased noticeably. For the RT the activities during the low magnitude of activities at the day time were also increased. They both are about 300 times greater than the normal activity value. Moreover, the total activity values per day were increased, and were about 2 times of the normal value. The x 2-test shows that the abnormalities of the daily activity rhythm and following increase of the daily activity events are significantly correlated with earthquakes of magnitude over 4.3 in Tangshan seismic area within the region of 200 km distance from the observation station.

Feng, Chungao; Jiang, Jinchang

1992-11-01

161

Classification of whole brain fMRI activation patterns  

E-print Network

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technology which is primarily used to perform brain activation studies by measuring neural activity in the brain. It is an interesting question whether patterns ...

Balc?, Serdar Kemal

2008-01-01

162

Resting Anterior Cingulate Activity and Abnormal Responses to Errors in Subjects With Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A 128Channel EEG Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression has been associated with dysfunctional executive functions and abnormal activity within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region critically involved in action regulation. Prior research invites the possibility that executive deficits in depression may arise from abnormal responses to negative feedback or errors, but the underlying neural substrates remain unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal reactions to error would be

Diego A. Pizzagalli; Lauren A. Peccoralo; Richard J. Davidson

2006-01-01

163

Investigating brain community structure abnormalities in bipolar disorder using path length associated community estimation.  

PubMed

In this article, we present path length associated community estimation (PLACE), a comprehensive framework for studying node-level community structure. Instead of the well-known Q modularity metric, PLACE utilizes a novel metric, ?(PL), which measures the difference between intercommunity versus intracommunity path lengths. We compared community structures in human healthy brain networks generated using these two metrics and argued that ?(PL) may have theoretical advantages. PLACE consists of the following: (1) extracting community structure using top-down hierarchical binary trees, where a branch at each bifurcation denotes a collection of nodes that form a community at that level, (2) constructing and assessing mean group community structure, and (3) detecting node-level changes in community between groups. We applied PLACE and investigated the structural brain networks obtained from a sample of 25 euthymic bipolar I subjects versus 25 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Results showed community structural differences in posterior default mode network regions, with the bipolar group exhibiting left-right decoupling. PMID:23798337

Gadelkarim, Johnson J; Ajilore, Olusola; Schonfeld, Dan; Zhan, Liang; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D; Kumar, Anand; Altshuler, Lori L; Leow, Alex D

2014-05-01

164

Brain abnormalities in a Neuroligin3 R451C knockin mouse model associated with autism.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used quite extensively for examining morphological changes in human and animal brains. One of the many advantages to examining mouse models of human autism is that we are able to examine single gene targets, like that of Neuroligin3 R451C knockin (NL3 KI), which has been directly implicated in human autism. The NL3 KI mouse model has marked volume differences in many different structures in the brain: gray matter structures, such as the hippocampus, the striatum, and the thalamus, were all found to be smaller in the NL3 KI. Further, many white matter structures were found to be significantly smaller, such as the cerebral peduncle, corpus callosum, fornix/fimbria, and internal capsule. Fractional anisotropy measurements in these structures were also measured, and no differences were found. The volume changes in the white matter regions, therefore, are not due to a general breakdown in the microstructure of the tissue and seem to be caused by fewer axons or less mature axons. A larger radial diffusivity was also found in localized regions of the corpus callosum and cerebellum. The corpus callosal changes are particularly interesting as the thinning (or reduced volume) of the corpus callosum is a consistent finding in autism. This suggests that the NL3 KI model may be useful for examining white matter changes associated with autism. PMID:21882360

Ellegood, Jacob; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

2011-10-01

165

Retinal Vessel Abnormalities as a Possible Biomarker of Brain Volume Loss in Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective Endothelial dysfunction in childhood obesity may precede cerebrovascular damage and cognitive impairment in adulthood. Identifying risk for microvascular damage in obese children requires a non-invasive proxy of microvascular health. Design and Methods We assessed the associations of hippocampal volumes and global cerebral atrophy with retinal vessel caliber in 40 normal BMI controls and 62 obese age-matched non-diabetic adolescents and evaluated the contribution of inflammation, obesity and insulin resistance to retinal vessel caliber. Results Compared to controls, obese adolescents had smaller retinal arterioles (8.3% decrease, p<.05) and wider venules (5.4% increase, p<.01). Larger retinal arteriole diameters were associated with less global cerebral atrophy (B=?.24(95% CI:?.48,?.002) and larger hippocampal volumes (B=.01(95% CI:0,.02). Inflammation (fibrinogen) predicted venule diameters (B=84.2(95% CI:30.3, 138.1). Insulin resistance, indicated by logHOMA values (B=?17.03(95% CI:?28.25,?5.81) and body mass index (BMI) (B=?.67(95% CI:?1.09,?.24), predicted arteriolar diameters. All analyses were adjusted for mean arterial pressure, sleep apnea, and vessel diameter. Conclusion Measures of brain health, BMI, and insulin resistance are associated with retinal vessel caliber. If confirmed in larger studies, retinal arteriolar caliber may serve as a possible non-invasive proxy for brain atrophy in obese adolescents, and the identification of elevated risk for cerebral microvascular disease in adulthood. PMID:23512847

Tirsi, Aziz; Duong, Michelle; Tsui, Wai; Lee, Carol; Convit, Antonio

2013-01-01

166

Central motor conduction in multiple sclerosis: evaluation of abnormalities revealed by transcutaneous magnetic stimulation of the brain.  

PubMed Central

Magnetic stimulation of the brain and spinal column was used to assess conduction in the descending central motor pathways controlling arm and leg muscles of 20 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 10 normal subjects. The multiple sclerosis patients had relapsing and remitting disease but all were ambulant and in stable clinical remission. Increased central motor conduction times (CMCTs), up to three times normal, were frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis patients and in leg muscles these correlated closely with clinical signs of upper motor neuron disturbance; in the upper limb muscles a higher proportion of subclinical lesions was present. Weak muscles were almost invariably associated with abnormal central conduction but increased CMCTs were also found for 52 of the 104 muscles with normal strength. CMCTs for lower limb muscles were directly related (p less than 0.005) to functional motor disability (Kurtzke and Ambulatory Index Scales). No patient developed clinical evidence of relapse during follow-up of at least 8 months. Magnetic brain stimulation is easy to perform, painless, and safe, and provides clinically relevant information in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:2837538

Ingram, D A; Thompson, A J; Swash, M

1988-01-01

167

Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.  

PubMed

This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

2014-11-01

168

Structural brain abnormalities in patients with inflammatory illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings: A volumetric MRI study using NeuroQuant®.  

PubMed

Executive cognitive and neurologic abnormalities are commonly seen in patients with a chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) acquired following exposure to the interior environment of water-damaged buildings (WDB), but a clear delineation of the physiologic or structural basis for these abnormalities has not been defined. Symptoms of affected patients routinely include headache, difficulty with recent memory, concentration, word finding, numbness, tingling, metallic taste and vertigo. Additionally, persistent proteomic abnormalities in inflammatory parameters that can alter permeability of the blood-brain barrier, such as C4a, TGFB1, MMP9 and VEGF, are notably present in cases of CIRS-WDB compared to controls, suggesting a consequent inflammatory injury to the central nervous system. Findings of gliotic areas in MRI scans in over 45% of CIRS-WDB cases compared to 5% of controls, as well as elevated lactate and depressed ratios of glutamate to glutamine, are regularly seen in MR spectroscopy of cases. This study used the volumetric software program NeuroQuant® (NQ) to determine specific brain structure volumes in consecutive patients (N=17) seen in a medical clinic specializing in inflammatory illness. Each of these patients presented for evaluation of an illness thought to be associated with exposure to WDB, and received an MRI that was evaluated by NQ. When compared to those of a medical control group (N=18), statistically significant differences in brain structure proportions were seen for patients in both hemispheres of two of the eleven brain regions analyzed; atrophy of the caudate nucleus and enlargement of the pallidum. In addition, the left amygdala and right forebrain were also enlarged. These volumetric abnormalities, in conjunction with concurrent abnormalities in inflammatory markers, suggest a model for structural brain injury in "mold illness" based on increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier due to chronic, systemic inflammation. PMID:24946038

Shoemaker, Ritchie C; House, Dennis; Ryan, James C

2014-01-01

169

Brain MR Spectroscopic Abnormalities in "MRI-negative" Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Patients  

PubMed Central

Since approximately 5–10% of the ~50,000 Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) patients in the US are “MRI-negative,” our goal was to test the hypothesis that they nevertheless exhibit metabolic abnormalities. To test this, we used proton-MR spectroscopy to obtain and compare gray and white matter (GM, WM) levels of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate (NAA); the glial marker, myo-inositol (mI) and its associated creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho), between two “MRI-negative” female TSC patients (5- and 43-year-olds) and their matched controls. The NAA, Cr, Cho and mI concentrations in the pediatric control: 9.8, 6.3, 1.4 and 5.7 millimolar, were similar to the patient’s; whereas the adult patient revealed a 17% WM NAA decrease and 16% WM Cho increase from their published means for healthy adults - both outside their respective 90% prediction intervals. These findings suggest that longer disease duration and/or TSC2 gene mutation may cause axonal dysfunction and demyelination. PMID:23524469

Wu, William E.; Kirov, Ivan I.; Tal, Assaf; Babb, James S.; Milla, Sarah; Oved, Joseph; Weiner, Howard L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Gonen, Oded

2013-01-01

170

Endocrine abnormalities in severe traumatic brain injury--a cue to prognosis in severe craniocerebral trauma?  

PubMed

Patients with severe craniocerebral trauma (sCCT) display metabolic and endocrine changes. The question is raised whether hormonal patterns give cues to the prognosis of outcome or not. In 21 patients the function of the adrenocortical, gonadal, thyroid and human growth hormone (hGH)-insulin system was assessed. LH, FSH, TSH, prolactin and hGH were stimulated. 3 groups of patients were formed. Group I: patients in acute phase with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) more than 6 (group Ia) and less than 6 (group Ib). Group II: patients in transition to traumatic apallic syndrome (TAS). Group III: patients with full-blown or resolving TAS. The values of group Ia comprised low T3, T4 and testosterone, elevated insulin, normal hGH. Group Ib had hypothyroid T3 and T4 and an attenuated response of LH, TSH, prolactin and hGH to stimulation. Group III: there was seen an endocrine normalisation with elevated T4 and TBG and an altered response of hGH and prolactin to stimulation. Endocrine abnormalities were not helpful in predicting which course, either to better or to worse, a given patient would follow. PMID:2037721

Hackl, J M; Gottardis, M; Wieser, C; Rumpl, E; Stadler, C; Schwarz, S; Monkayo, R

1991-01-01

171

Abnormal Cerebral Activation Associated with a Motor Task in Tourette Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, PET scanning and EEG suggest an abnormal organization of the sensorimotor cortex and basal ganglia. The purpose of this study was to use functional MR imaging to study activation in the sensorimotor cortex in patients with Tourette syndrome. METHODS: From echo-planar images acquired during intermittent performance of a finger- tapping task,

Bharat Biswal; John L. Ulmer; Robert L. Krippendorf; Harold H. Harsch; David L. Daniels; James S. Hyde; Victor M. Haughton

172

Values-Oriented Public Policy Forums: Active Learning in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an undergraduate course in abnormal psychology annually employ a cooperative active learning model to conduct a 4- to 6-day, values-oriented public policy forum (PPF) within the class itself on a general topic of concern to the field of mental health. A comprehensive and structured five-phase model for a PPF is detailed for course…

Hevern, Vincent W.

173

Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation  

E-print Network

Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

174

AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein to control mammalian brain development.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor that responds to alterations in cellular energy levels to maintain energy balance. While its role in metabolic homeostasis is well documented, its role in mammalian development is less clear. Here we demonstrate that mutant mice lacking the regulatory AMPK beta1 subunit have profound brain abnormalities. The beta1(-/-) mice show atrophy of the dentate gyrus and cerebellum, and severe loss of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and myelination throughout the central nervous system. These abnormalities stem from reduced AMPK activity, with ensuing cell cycle defects in neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). The beta1(-/-) NPC deficits result from hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), which is directly phosphorylated by AMPK at Ser(804). The AMPK-Rb axis is utilized by both growth factors and energy restriction to increase NPC growth. Our results reveal that AMPK integrates growth factor signaling with cell cycle control to regulate brain development. PMID:19217427

Dasgupta, Biplab; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

2009-02-01

175

Proton MR spectroscopy correlates diffuse axonal abnormalities with post-concussive symptoms in mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

There are no established biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), in part because post-concussive symptoms (PCS) are subjective and conventional imaging is typically unremarkable. To test whether diffuse axonal abnormalities quantified with three-dimensional (3D) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (¹H-MRSI) correlated with patients' PCS, we retrospectively studied 26 mTBI patients (mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score of 14.7), 18- to 56-year-olds and 13 controls three to 55 days post-injury. All were scanned at 3 Tesla with T1- and T2-weighted MRI and 3D ¹H-MRSI (480 voxels over 360?cm³, ?30% of the brain). On scan day, patients completed a symptom questionnaire, and those who indicated at least one of the most common subacute mTBI symptoms (headache, dizziness, sleep disturbance, memory deficits, blurred vision) were grouped as PCS-positive. Global gray matter and white matter (GM/WM) absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr) and myo-inositol (mI) in PCS-positive and PCS-negative patients were compared to age- and gender-matched controls using two-way analysis of variance. The results showed that the PCS-negative group (n=11) and controls (n=8) did not differ in any GM or WM metabolite level. The PCS-positive patients (n=15) had lower WM NAA than the controls (n=12; 7.0 ± 0.6 versus 7.9 ± 0.5mM; p=0.0007). Global WM NAA, therefore, showed sensitivity to the TBI sequelae associated with common PCS in patients with mostly normal neuroimaging, as well as GCS scores. This suggests a potential biomarker role in a patient population in which objective measures of injury and symptomatology are currently lacking. PMID:23339670

Kirov, Ivan I; Tal, Assaf; Babb, James S; Reaume, Joseph; Bushnik, Tamara; Ashman, Teresa A; Flanagan, Steven; Grossman, Robert I; Gonen, Oded

2013-07-01

176

Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

1984-01-01

177

Clozapine ameliorates epigenetic and behavioral abnormalities induced by phencyclidine through activation of dopamine D1 receptor.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of histone modification is involved in the pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. However, the abnormalities in histone modification in the animal model of schizophrenia and the efficacy of antipsychotics for such abnormalities remain unclear. Here, we investigated the involvement of histone modification in phencyclidine-induced behavioral abnormalities and the effects of antipsychotics on these abnormalities. After repeated phencyclidine (10 mg/kg) treatment for 14 consecutive days, mice were treated with antipsychotics (clozapine or haloperidol) or the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate for 7 d. Repeated phencyclidine treatments induced memory impairment and social deficit in the mice. The acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 residues decreased in the prefrontal cortex with phencyclidine treatment, whereas the expression level of histone deacetylase 5 increased. In addition, the phosphorylation of Ca²?/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus decreased in the prefrontal cortex of phencyclidine-treated mice. These behavioral and epigenetic changes in phencyclidine-treated mice were attenuated by clozapine and sodium butyrate but not by haloperidol. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked the ameliorating effects of clozapine but not of sodium butyrate. Furthermore, clozapine and sodium butyrate attenuated the decrease in expression level of GABAergic system-related genes in the prefrontal cortex of phencyclidine-treated mice. These findings suggest that the antipsychotic effect of clozapine develops, at least in part, through epigenetic modification by activation of the dopamine D1 receptor in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:24345457

Aoyama, Yuki; Mouri, Akihiro; Toriumi, Kazuya; Koseki, Takenao; Narusawa, Shiho; Ikawa, Natsumi; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nagai, Taku; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

2014-05-01

178

Late Prenatal Immune Activation in Mice Leads to Behavioral and Neurochemical Abnormalities Relevant to the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the human epidemiological association between prenatal infection and higher risk of schizophrenia, a number of animal models have been established to explore the long-term brain and behavioral consequences of prenatal immune challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that the vulnerability to specific forms of schizophrenia-related abnormalities is critically influenced by the precise timing of the prenatal immunological insult. In the

Byron KY Bitanihirwe; Daria Peleg-Raibstein; Forouhar Mouttet; Joram Feldon; Urs Meyer

2010-01-01

179

Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

180

Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression  

PubMed Central

The neural networks that putatively modulate aspects of normal emotional behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by converging evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological and lesion analysis studies. These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital cortex (medial prefrontal network), amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial parts of the basal ganglia, where alterations in grey matter volume and neurophysiological activity are found in cases with recurrent depressive episodes. Such findings hold major implications for models of the neurocircuits that underlie depression. In particular evidence from lesion analysis studies suggests that the MPFC and related limbic and striato-pallido-thalamic structures organize emotional expression. The MPFC is part of a larger “default system” of cortical areas that include the dorsal PFC, mid- and posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, and entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex, which has been implicated in self-referential functions. Dysfunction within and between structures in this circuit may induce disturbances in emotional behavior and other cognitive aspects of depressive syndromes in humans. Further, because the MPFC and related limbic structures provide forebrain modulation over visceral control structures in the hypothalamus and brainstem, their dysfunction can account for the disturbances in autonomic regulation and neuroendocrine responses that are associated with mood disorders. This paper discusses these systems together with the neurochemical systems that impinge on them and form the basis for most pharmacological therapies. PMID:18704495

Price, Joseph L.; Furey, Maura L.

2008-01-01

181

Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

182

Effects of a Carbohydrate Supplement upon Resting Brain Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate

CHENGHUA WANG; JOANNE S. SZABO; ROSCOE A. DYKMAN

2004-01-01

183

Behavioral/Cognitive Spontaneous Brain Activity Predicts Learning Ability of  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Cognitive Spontaneous Brain Activity Predicts Learning Ability of Foreign Sounds Noelia Barcelona, Spain Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain

Deco, Gustavo

184

Meclozine Facilitates Proliferation and Differentiation of Chondrocytes by Attenuating Abnormally Activated FGFR3 Signaling in Achondroplasia  

PubMed Central

Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and -G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias. PMID:24324705

Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

2013-01-01

185

Skeletal muscle reflex-mediated changes in sympathetic nerve activity are abnormal in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

In hypertension, the blood pressure response to exercise is exaggerated. We demonstrated previously that this heightened pressor response to physical activity is mediated by an overactive skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR), with important contributions from its metaboreflex and mechanoreflex components. However, the mechanisms driving the abnormal blood pressure response to EPR activation are largely unknown. Recent evidence in humans suggests that the muscle metaboreflex partially mediates the enhanced EPR-induced pressor response via abnormally large changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Whether the muscle mechanoreflex induces similarly exaggerated alterations in SNA in hypertension remains unknown, as does the role of the mechanoreceptors mediating muscle reflex activity. To address these issues, the EPR was selectively activated by electrically inducing hindlimb muscle contraction in decerebrate normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Stimulation of the EPR evoked significantly larger increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal SNA (RSNA) in SHR compared with WKY (?RSNA from baseline: 140 ± 11 vs. 48 ± 8%). The mechanoreflex was stimulated by stretching hindlimb muscle which likewise elicited significantly greater elevations in MAP and RSNA in SHR than WKY (?RSNA from baseline: 105 ± 11 vs. 35 ± 7%). Blockade of mechanoreceptors in muscle with gadolinium significantly attenuated the MAP and RSNA responses to contraction and stretch in SHR. These data suggest that 1) the exaggerated pressor response to activation of the EPR and muscle mechanoreflex in hypertension is mediated by abnormally large reflex-induced augmentations in SNA and 2) this accentuated sympathetic responsiveness is evoked, in part, by stimulation of muscle mechanoreceptors. PMID:21217062

Mizuno, Masaki; Murphy, Megan N.; Mitchell, Jere H.

2011-01-01

186

Decreased activity and increased aggregation of brain calcineurin during aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related decline in strength of synaptic transmission and memory formation has been attributed to age-associated increases in the activity of calcineurin (Cn) in hippocampus neurons. In the present study, we examined how brain Cn activity, Cn subunit levels, and Cn protein oxidation were changing during the aging process. Cn activity decreased with advancing age in three brain subcellular fractions, homogenate,

Abdulbaki Agbas; Asma Zaidi; Elias K. Michaelis

2005-01-01

187

Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain?  

MedlinePLUS

... and Physical Activity Protect the Brain? Exercise and physical activity have many benefits. Studies show they are good ... a healthy lifestyle that includes a healthy diet, physical activity, appropriate weight, and not smoking can maintain and ...

188

[The information theory of brain systemic activity].  

PubMed

Information equivalents of initial requirements and their satisfaction are shown to induce formation of discrete information systemoquanta of psychic activity on morphofunctional structures of the action result acceptor in the course of build-up of cerebral archtectonics of the functional systems governing the behaviour and psychic activity. Consecutive stages of induction of information systemoquanta of action result acceptors are described. Predominant motivations are supposed to play the leading role in the psychic activity through their involvement in the induction of information systemoquanta and their retrieval from memory. The role of emotions in the subjective information estimation of systemic cerebral activity is considered. It is argued that parameters of achievement of adaptive results by a subject are imprinted on acceptor structures via reverse afferentation in the form of specific information images. Enrichment of action results acceptors with information and extraction of information systemoquanta by prevailing motivations are believed to make up the basis of consciousness and thinking. The hypothesis of holographic organization of acceptors of the results of systemic brain action is considered. PMID:22312900

Sudakov, K V

2011-01-01

189

Face inversion superiority in a case of prosopagnosia following congenital brain abnormalities: What can it tell us about the specificity and origin of face-processing mechanisms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study we describe J.M., a 15-year-old boy with a history of congenital brain abnormalities and concomitant visual-processing impairments. J.M.'s most prominent deficit is his impaired face recognition, but formal testing also revealed deficits in other domains of visual processing. One aspect that emerged from J.M.'s visual-processing assessment was a tendency to focus on local features and to

Laura Schmalzl; Romina Palermo; Irina M. Harris; Max Coltheart

2009-01-01

190

Electrophysiological Imaging of Brain Activity and Connectivity - Challenges and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Unlocking the dynamic inner workings of the brain continues to remain a grand challenge of the 21st century. To this end, functional neuroimaging modalities represent an outstanding approach to better understand the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal brain function. The ability to image brain function with ever increasing spatial and temporal resolution utilizing minimal or non-invasive procedures has made a significant leap over the past several decades. Further delineation of functional networks could lead to improved understanding of brain function in both normal as well as diseased states. This article reviews recent advancements and current challenges in dynamic functional neuroimaging techniques, including electrophysiological source imaging, multimodal neuroimaging integrating fMRI with EEG/MEG, and functional connectivity imaging. PMID:21478071

He, Bin; Yang, Lin; Wilke, Christopher; Yuan, Han

2011-01-01

191

Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function. PMID:23304508

Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Hodzic, Jennifer C.; Erickson, Kirk I.

2012-01-01

192

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings  

E-print Network

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell,1 * Svetlana associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation Just3 The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many

193

Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait  

E-print Network

Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression Nelly Alia of this behavior. A potential neu- rochemical target is monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme involved in metabolism of monoamines in brain and other or- gans (Shih and Thompson, 1999). MAO A catalytic activity re

Goldstein, Rita

194

Stress-Induced Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Aggression Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impersonal stressors, not only interpersonal provocation, can instigate aggression through an associative network linking negative emotions to behavioral activation (L. Berkowitz, 1990). Research has not examined the brain mechanisms that are engaged by different types of stress and serve to promote hostility and aggression. The present study examined whether stress exposure elicits more left than right frontal brain activity implicated

Edelyn Verona; Naomi Sadeh; John J. Curtin

2009-01-01

195

Cerebral blood volume changes during brain activation.  

PubMed

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes significantly with brain activation, whether measured using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or optical microscopy. If cerebral vessels are considered to be impermeable, the contents of the skull incompressible, and the skull itself inextensible, task- and hypercapnia-related changes of CBV could produce intolerable changes of intracranial pressure. Because it is becoming clear that CBV may be useful as a well-localized marker of neural activity changes, a resolution of this apparent paradox is needed. We have explored the idea that much of the change in CBV is facilitated by exchange of water between capillaries and surrounding tissue. To this end, we developed a novel hemodynamic boundary-value model and found approximate solutions using a numerical algorithm. We also constructed a macroscopic experimental model of a single capillary to provide biophysical insight. Both experiment and theory model capillary membranes as elastic and permeable. For a realistic change of input pressure, a relative pipe volume change of 21±5% was observed when using the experimental setup, compared with the value of approximately 17±1% when this quantity was calculated from the mathematical model. Volume, axial flow, and pressure changes are in the expected range. PMID:22569192

Krieger, Steffen Norbert; Streicher, Markus Nikolar; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert

2012-08-01

196

Abnormal B cell response to T cell-independent polyclonal B cell activators in haemophilia A.  

PubMed Central

In addition to T cell abnormalities, patients with haemophilia A show a separate B cell dysfunction. Characteristic are elevated spontaneous IgG (not IgM) levels in the patient's sera and in the culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is also observed that these cells fail to show a differentiation response to T cell-independent B cell activators. The B cell dysfunction correlates with the amount of factor VIII concentrates given prophylactically to patients with severe haemophilia. In contrast to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the proliferation response to B cell mitogens is not affected. PMID:3017621

Kekow, J; Plendl, H; Gross, W L

1986-01-01

197

Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping  

PubMed Central

Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

2014-01-01

198

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies demonstrated that primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with abnormal brain structure; however, little is known about the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous activity. The main objective of this study was to investigate spontaneous brain activity in patients with POAG using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-nine POAG patients and forty-one age- and gender- matched healthy controls were finally included in the study. ReHo values were used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis of ReHo was carried out to detect differences by region in spontaneous brain activity between groups. Compared to controls, POAG patients showed increased ReHo in the right dorsal anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right cerebellar anterior lobe, and decreased ReHo in the bilateral calcarine, bilateral precuneus gryus, bilateral pre/postcentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule and left cerebellum posterior lobe. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the relationships between clinical measures and ReHo by region showed significant group differences in the POAG group. Negative correlations were found between age and the ReHo values of the superior frontal gyrus (r?=??0.323, p?=?0.045), left calcarine (r?=??0.357, p?=?0.026) and inferior parietal lobule (r?=??0.362, p?=?0.024). A negative correlation was found between the ReHo values of the left precuneus and the cumulative mean defect (r?=??0.400, p?=?0.012). Conclusions POAG was associated with abnormal brain spontaneous activity in some brain regions and such changed regional activity may be associated with clinical parameters. Spontaneous brain activity may play a role in POAG initiation and progression. PMID:24586822

Lin, Fuchun; Chen, Zhiqi; Yan, Xiaoqin; Hao, Yonghong; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

199

Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.  

PubMed

Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. PMID:24814208

Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

2014-09-01

200

Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and it is crucially needed for numerous key neuronal functions. Yet, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage by excitotoxicity--detrimental over activation of glutamate receptors. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the main pathological process taking place in many types of acute and chronic CNS diseases and injuries. In recent years, it became clear that not only excess glutamate can cause massive brain damage, but that several types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, that are present in the serum and CSF of subpopulations of patients with a kaleidoscope of human neurological diseases, can undoubtedly do so too, by inducing several very potent pathological effects in the CNS. Collectively, the family of anti-glutamate receptor autoimmune antibodies seem to be the most widespread, potent, dangerous and interesting anti-brain autoimmune antibodies discovered up to now. This impression stems from taking together the presence of various types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies in a kaleidoscope of human neurological and autoimmune diseases, their high levels in the CNS due to intrathecal production, their multiple pathological effects in the brain, and the unique and diverse mechanisms of action by which they can affect glutamate receptors, signaling and effects, and subsequently impair neuronal signaling and induce brain damage. The two main families of autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies that were already found in patients with neurological and/or autoimmune diseases, and that were already shown to be detrimental to the CNS, include the antibodies directed against ionotorpic glutamate receptors: the anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies and anti-NMDA-NR2 antibodies, and the antibodies directed against Metabotropic glutamate receptors: the anti-mGluR1 antibodies and the anti-mGluR5 antibodies. Each type of these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is discussed separately in this very comprehensive review, with regards to: the human diseases in which these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies were found thus far, their presence and production in the nervous system, their association with various psychiatric/behavioral/cognitive/motor impairments, their possible association with certain infectious organisms, their detrimental effects in vitro as well as in vivo in animal models in mice, rats or rabbits, and their diverse and unique mechanisms of action. The review also covers the very encouraging positive responses to immunotherapy of some patients that have either of the above-mentioned anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, and that suffer from various neurological diseases/problems. All the above are also summarized in the review's five schematic and useful figures, for each type of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies separately. The review ends with a summary of all the main findings, and with recommended guidelines for diagnosis, therapy, drug design and future investigations. In the nut shell, the human studies, the in vitro studies, as well as the in vivo studies in animal models in mice, rats and rabbit revealed the following findings regarding the five different types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: (1) Anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies are present in ~25-30% of patients with different types of Epilepsy. When these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies (or other types of autoimmune antibodies) are found in Epilepsy patients, and when these autoimmune antibodies are suspected to induce or aggravate the seizures and/or the cognitive/psychiatric/behavioral impairments that sometimes accompany the seizures, the Epilepsy is called 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. In some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies associate significantly with psychiatric/cognitive/behavior abnormalities. In vitro and/or in animal models, the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies by themselves induce many pathological effects: they activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, kill neurons by 'Excitotoxicity',

Levite, Mia

2014-08-01

201

Activated macrophages induce structural abnormalities of the T cell receptor-CD3 complex  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of the structural alterations of the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex, which appear to be greatly responsible for immunosuppression in the tumor-bearing status, was investigated in tumor-bearing mice. Splenic T cells from tumor-bearing hosts lost the expression of the CD3 zeta chain without being replaced by FcR gamma, despite the normal expression of other components of the TCR complex. Tumor growth induced the accumulation of non-T, non-B cells in the spleen in correlation with the loss of zeta. Those cells were found to be macrophages that were able to induce the loss of zeta, as well as structural changes of CD3 gamma delta epsilon, even in freshly isolated normal T cells by cell contact-dependent interaction. More importantly, macrophages activated with zymosan A+LPS but not residential macrophages were able to induce the similar abnormality of the TCR complex. These results indicate that macrophages in certain activation stages play a crucial role in causing an abnormal TCR complex in tumor- bearing conditions, as well as in regulating the structure of the TCR complex in immune responses. PMID:7722462

1995-01-01

202

Changes of Enzyme Activities and Compositions of Abnormal Fruiting Bodies Grown under Artificial Environmental Conditions in Pleurotus ostreatus  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the biochemical changes of abnormal fruiting bodies grown under artificial environmental conditions in P. ostreatus. Abnormal mushroom growth during cultivation damages the production of good quality mushroom. This study showed that different environmental conditions produced morphological changes in the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus. The fruiting bodies with morphological changes were collected and examined for differences in biochemical properties, enzyme activities, and carbohydrates composition. The enzyme activities assay showed that glucanase and chitinase activities decreased when the temperature was below or above the optimum cultivation temperature for P. ostreatus. The biochemical compositions of the abnormal mushroom were significantly different from the normal fruiting bodies. It was suggested that the changes in the biochemical composition of abnormal mushroom were caused by the unfavorable environmental conditions during mushroom cultivation. PMID:24049471

Cho, Soo Muk; June, Chang Sung; Weon, Hang Yeon; Park, Jeong Sik; Choi, Sun Gyu; Cheong, Jong Chun; Sung, Jae Mo

2005-01-01

203

Effects of a carbohydrate supplement upon resting brain activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides,\\u000a they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and\\u000a other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate

Chenghua Wang; Joanne S. Szabo; Roscoe A. Dykman

2004-01-01

204

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS

Ru-Rong Ji; Carlos D. Aizenman; Charles M. Epstein; Dike Qiu; Justin C. Huang; Fabio Rupp

1998-01-01

205

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns  

E-print Network

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell, Svetlana V activation Mean activation is over 60 different stimuli The difference images are used during analysis - = Bottle Activation Mean Activation Bottle - Mean Bottle #12;7 Motivation for the Model #12;8 How Does

Matwin, Stan

206

Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact  

PubMed Central

A widely held assumption is that spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity sum linearly, such that the recorded brain response in each single trial is the algebraic sum of the constantly changing ongoing activity and the stereotypical evoked activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals acquired from normal humans, we show that this assumption is invalid. Across widespread cortices, evoked activity interacts negatively with ongoing activity, such that higher prestimulus baseline results in less activation or more deactivation. As a consequence of this negative interaction, trial-to-trial variability of cortical activity decreases following stimulus onset. We further show that variability reduction follows overlapping but distinct spatial pattern from that of task activation/deactivation and it contains behaviorally relevant information. These results favor an alternative perspective to the traditional dichotomous framework of ongoing and evoked activity – one that views the brain as a nonlinear dynamical system whose trajectory is tighter when performing a task; further, incoming sensory stimuli modulate the brain’s activity in a manner that depends on its initial state. We propose that across-trial variability may provide a new approach to brain mapping in the context of cognitive experiments. PMID:23486941

He, Biyu J.

2013-01-01

207

Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping  

E-print Network

Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We ...

Alivisatos, A. Paul

208

Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study  

SciTech Connect

Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.

1989-05-01

209

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Tom M. Mitchell; Svetlana V. Shinkareva; Andrew Carlson; Kai-Min Chang; Vicente L. Malave; Robert A. Mason; Marcel Adam Just

2008-01-01

210

Imaging the Brain Activity Changes Underlying Impaired Visuospatial  

E-print Network

but interconnected brain regions. Here, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortices concurrent fMRI and magnetic brain stimulation during active task execution hold the potential to identify: functional magnetic resonance imaging, parietal cortex, simultaneous TMS-fMRI, transcranial magnetic

Wagner, Anthony

211

Physical activity, inflammation, and volume of the aging brain.  

PubMed

Physical activity influences inflammation, and both affect brain structure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that older adults with greater reported physical activity intensity and lower serum levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) would have larger regional brain volumes on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In 43 cognitively intact older adults (79.3±4.8 years) and 39 patients with AD (81.9±5.1 years at the time of MRI) participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study, we examined year-1 reported physical activity intensity, year-5 blood serum TNF? measures, and year-9 volumetric brain MRI scans. We examined how prior physical activity intensity and TNF? related to subsequent total and regional brain volumes. Physical activity intensity was measured using the modified Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activities questionnaire at year 1 of the study, when all subjects included here were cognitively intact. Stability of measures was established for exercise intensity over 9 years and TNF? over 3 years in a subset of subjects who had these measurements at multiple time points. When considered together, more intense physical activity intensity and lower serum TNF? were both associated with greater total brain volume on follow-up MRI scans. TNF?, but not physical activity, was associated with regional volumes of the inferior parietal lobule, a region previously associated with inflammation in AD patients. Physical activity and TNF? may independently influence brain structure in older adults. PMID:24836855

Braskie, M N; Boyle, C P; Rajagopalan, P; Gutman, B A; Toga, A W; Raji, C A; Tracy, R P; Kuller, L H; Becker, J T; Lopez, O L; Thompson, P M

2014-07-25

212

Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI???  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate whether blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics. Methods Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to measure BBB permeability in 27 patients with MS and compared to 24 matched healthy controls. Results Permeability measured as Ktrans was significantly higher in periventricular normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic gray matter in MS patients when compared to healthy controls, with periventricular NAWM showing the most pronounced difference. Recent relapse coincided with significantly higher permeability in periventricular NAWM, thalamic gray matter, and MS lesions. Immunomodulatory treatment and recent relapse were significant predictors of permeability in MS lesions and periventricular NAWM. Our results suggest that after an MS relapse permeability gradually decreases, possibly an effect of immunomodulatory treatment. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of BBB pathology in MS, which we find to be most prominent in the periventricular NAWM, an area prone to development of MS lesions. Both the facts that recent relapse appears to cause widespread BBB disruption and that immunomodulatory treatment seems to attenuate this effect indicate that BBB permeability is intricately linked to the presence of MS relapse activity. This may reveal further insights into the pathophysiology of MS. PMID:24371801

Cramer, S.P.; Simonsen, H.; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, E.; Larsson, H.B.W.

2013-01-01

213

Brain activation during mental rotation in school children and adults.  

PubMed

Mental rotation is a complex cognitive skill depending on the manipulation of mental representations. We aimed to investigate the maturing neuronal network for mental rotation by measuring brain activation in 20 children and 20 adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that brain activation patterns are very similar between children and adults. However, adults exhibit stronger activation in the left intraparietal sulcus compared to children. This finding suggests a shift of activation from a predominantly right parietal activation in children to a bilateral activation pattern in adults. Furthermore, adults show a deactivation of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, which is not observed in children. In conclusion, developmental changes of brain activation during mental rotation are leading to a bilateral parietal activation pattern and faster performance. PMID:17160371

Kucian, K; von Aster, M; Loenneker, T; Dietrich, T; Mast, F W; Martin, E

2007-01-01

214

Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI  

PubMed Central

In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

2014-01-01

215

Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI.  

PubMed

In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

2014-01-01

216

IMAGING BRAIN ACTIVATION: SIMPLE PICTURES OF COMPLEX BIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of biochemical, physiological, and cellular contributions to metabolic images of brain is important for interpretation of images of brain activation and disease. Discordant brain images obtained with [14C]deoxyglucose (DG) and [1- or 6-14C]glucose were previously ascribed to increased glycolysis and rapid [14C]lactate release from tissue, but direct proof of [14C]lactate release from activated brain structures is lacking. Analysis of factors contributing to images of focal metabolic activity evoked by monotonic acoustic stimulation of conscious rats reveals that labeled metabolites of [1- or 6-14C]glucose are quickly released from activated cells due to decarboxylation reactions, spreading via gap junctions, and efflux via lactate transporters. Label release from activated tissue accounts for most of the additional [14C]glucose consumed during activation compared to rest. Metabolism of [3,4-14C]glucose generates about four times more [14C]lactate compared to 14CO2 in extracellular fluid suggesting that most lactate is not locally oxidized. In brain slices, direct assays of lactate uptake from extracellular fluid demonstrate that astrocytes have faster influx and higher transport capacity than neurons. Also, lactate transfer from a single astrocyte to other gap junction-coupled astrocytes exceeds astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling. Astrocytes and neurons have excess capacities for glycolysis, and oxidative metabolism in both cell types rises during sensory stimulation. The energetics of brain activation is quite complex and the proportion of glucose consumed by astrocytes and neurons, lactate generation by either cell type, and the contributions of both cell types to brain images during brain activation are likely to vary with the stimulus paradigm and activated pathways. PMID:19076439

Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

2009-01-01

217

Treatment of Brain Tumors in Children Is Associated with Abnormal MR Spectroscopic Ratios in Brain Tissue Remote from the Tumor Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Children who have brain tumors are at risk for a variety of treatment-related sequelae, including neuropsychological and cognitive impairment, neurologic deficits, and neuroendocrinologic disturbances. We sought to determine the value of proton MR spectros- copy in assessing brain tissue remote from the tumor site to ascertain the effects of chemo- therapy and radiation treatment in these patients. METHODS: Single-voxel

Sandra M. Waldrop; Patricia C. Davis; Carol A. Padgett; Marla B. Shapiro; Robin Morris

1998-01-01

218

Correlation between platelet and brain PLA(2) activity.  

PubMed

The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in several neuropsychiatry disorders and activity alterations have been described in brain and platelet. Since brain tissue is not readily available for the measurement of PLA2 activity, it would be of interest to test directly whether PLA2 activities in both tissues are correlated. We performed this task assessing PLA2 activity in platelets and hippocampus collected simultaneously from 19 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Our findings suggest that total PLA2 activity in platelets may reflect the total activity of the enzyme in the brain (rs=0.59, p=0.008). However in our sample no correlations were found between the subgroups of the enzyme in brain and in platelets. This lack of correlations may be due to different effects of drug treatment on the PLA2 subtypes. In face of the difficulty to obtain brain tissues from living patients, further studies with larger drug-free samples are warranted to clarify whether the use of platelets is a reliable strategy to reflect the subtypes of PLA2 activity in the brain. PMID:23880350

Talib, Leda L; Valente, Kette D; Vincentiis, Silvia; Gattaz, Wagner F

2013-09-01

219

The Influence of Video Games on Adolescent Brain Activity.  

E-print Network

??The current study examined electrical brain activation in adolescent participants playing three different video games. Forty-five school aged children (M=14.3 years, SD=1.5) were randomly assigned… (more)

Lianekhammy, Joann

2014-01-01

220

Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with

Yun Xuan; Chun Meng; Yanhui Yang; Chaozhe Zhu; Liang Wang; Qian Yan; Chunlan Lin; Chunshui Yu

2012-01-01

221

fMRI and Brain Activation after Sport Concussion: A Tale of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Sport-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern: the number of participants in sport and recreation is growing, possibly playing their games faster, and there is heightened public awareness of injuries to some high-profile athletes. However, many clinicians still rely on subjective symptom reports for the clinical determination of recovery. Relying on subjective symptom reports can be problematic, as it has been shown that some concussed athletes may downplay their symptoms. The use of neuropsychological (NP) testing has enabled clinicians to measure the effects and extent of impairment following concussion more precisely, providing more objective metrics for determining recovery. Nevertheless, there is a remaining concern that brain abnormalities may exist beyond the point at which individuals achieve recovery in self-reported symptoms and cognition measured by NP testing. Our understanding of brain recovery after concussion is important, not only from a neuroscience perspective, but also from the perspective of clinical decision-making for safe return-to-play. A number of advanced neuroimaging tools, including blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have independently yielded early information on abnormal brain functioning. In the two cases presented in this article, we report contrasting brain activation patterns and recovery profiles using fMRI. Importantly, fMRI was conducted using adapted versions of the most sensitive computerized NP tests administered in our current clinical practice to determine impairments and recovery after sport-related concussion. One of the cases is consistent with the concept of lagging brain recovery. PMID:24782819

Hutchison, Michael G.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Tam, Fred; Graham, Simon J.; Comper, Paul

2013-01-01

222

Deep brain stimulation suppresses pallidal low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonic movements.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus alleviates involuntary movements in patients with dystonia. However, the mechanism is still not entirely understood. One hypothesis is that deep brain stimulation suppresses abnormally enhanced synchronized oscillatory activity within the motor cortico-basal ganglia network. Here, we explore deep brain stimulation-induced modulation of pathological low frequency (4-12 Hz) pallidal activity that has been described in local field potential recordings in patients with dystonia. Therefore, local field potentials were recorded from 16 hemispheres in 12 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for severe dystonia using a specially designed amplifier allowing simultaneous high frequency stimulation at therapeutic parameter settings and local field potential recordings. For coherence analysis electroencephalographic activity (EEG) over motor areas and electromyographic activity (EMG) from affected neck muscles were recorded before and immediately after cessation of high frequency stimulation. High frequency stimulation led to a significant reduction of mean power in the 4-12 Hz band by 24.8 ± 7.0% in patients with predominantly phasic dystonia. A significant decrease of coherence between cortical EEG and pallidal local field potential activity in the 4-12 Hz range was revealed for the time period of 30 s after switching off high frequency stimulation. Coherence between EMG activity and pallidal activity was mainly found in patients with phasic dystonic movements where it was suppressed after high frequency stimulation. Our findings suggest that high frequency stimulation may suppress pathologically enhanced low frequency activity in patients with phasic dystonia. These dystonic features are the quickest to respond to high frequency stimulation and may thus directly relate to modulation of pathological basal ganglia activity, whereas improvement in tonic features may depend on long-term plastic changes within the motor network. PMID:25212852

Barow, Ewgenia; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Brücke, Christof; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Brown, Peter; Krauss, Joachim K; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Kühn, Andrea A

2014-11-01

223

Sequential relationships between grey matter and white matter atrophy and brain metabolic abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease  

E-print Network

abnormalities in early Alzheimer's disease Nicolas Villain, PhD1 , Marine Fouquet, MSc1 , Jean-Claude Baron, MD3 Alzheimer's disease Keywords: Alzheimers disease, MRI/fMRI, PET imaging, white matter, hippocampus-matter tract disruption are well-described early macroscopic events in Alzheimers disease. The relationships

Boyer, Edmond

224

Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. Methods First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Results Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. Conclusions The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported. PMID:23988084

2013-01-01

225

GABAergic activities enhance macrophage inflammatory protein-1? release from microglia (brain macrophages) in postnatal mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Microglial cells (brain macrophages) invade the brain during embryonic and early postnatal development, migrate preferentially along fibre tracts to their final position and transform from an amoeboid to a ramified morphology. Signals by which the invading microglia communicate with other brain cells are largely unknown. Here, we studied amoeboid microglia in postnatal corpus callosum obtained from 6- to 8-day-old mice. These cells accumulated on the surface of acute brain slices. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that the specific GABAA receptor agonist muscimol triggered a transient increase in conductance typical for inward rectifying potassium channels in microglia. This current increase was not mediated by microglial GABAA receptors since microglial cells removed from the slice surface no longer reacted and cultured microglia only responded when a brain slice was placed in their close vicinity. Muscimol triggered a transient increase in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) in brain slices and an experimental elevation of [K+]o mimicked the muscimol response in microglial cells. Moreover, in adult brain slices, muscimol led only to a minute increase in [K+]o and microglial cells failed to respond to muscimol. In turn, an increase in [K+]o stimulated the release of chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP1-?) from brain slices and from cultures of microglia but not astrocytes. Our observations indicate that invading microglia in early postnatal development sense GABAergic activities indirectly via sensing changes in [K+]o which results in an increase in MIP1-? release. PMID:19047202

Cheung, Giselle; Kann, Oliver; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Faerber, Katrin; Kettenmann, Helmut

2009-01-01

226

Sustained Versus Transient Brain Responses in Schizophrenia: The Role of Intrinsic Neural Activity  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia patients (SZ) show early visual processing deficits in many, but not all, tasks. These deficits may be associated with dysregulation of intrinsic oscillatory activity that compromises signal-to-noise in the SZ brain. This question was studied using visual steady-state stimulation and post-steady-state presentation of transient visual stimuli. SZ had higher intrinsic oscillatory activity at the steady-state stimulation frequency (12.5 Hz) and at the 6.25 Hz subharmonic, showed a significant decrease in visual steady-state magnitude over 2 sec of stimulation, and were unable to promptly terminate the steady-state response following stimulation offset. If adjustment for levels of intrinsic brain activity were made, however, it would have appeared that SZ had activity of similar magnitude as healthy subjects following steady-state stimulus termination, indicating that such adjustments could substantially alter theoretical interpretations. Visual evoked potential abnormalities (N1/P2 amplitudes) present among SZ at the initiation of steady-state stimulation were less apparent in the 750 ms immediately following steady-state stimulation offset. Higher intrinsic oscillatory brain activity may be a fundamental characteristic of SZ that merits further evaluation for understanding this disorder’s neuropathological correlates and associated symptomatology. PMID:21839617

Ethridge, Lauren; Moratti, Stephan; Gao, Yuan; Keil, Andreas; Clementz, Brett A.

2011-01-01

227

Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

2014-12-01

228

The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders.

da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

2014-01-01

229

Differential effects of chronic lead intoxication on circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and on regional brain norepinephrine levels in rats  

SciTech Connect

Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.

Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.

1986-01-01

230

Brain state-triggered stimulus delivery: An efficient tool for probing ongoing brain activity  

PubMed Central

What is the relationship between variability in ongoing brain activity preceding a sensory stimulus and subsequent perception of that stimulus? A challenge in the study of this key topic in systems neuroscience is the relative rarity of certain brain ‘states’—left to chance, they may seldom align with sensory presentation. We developed a novel method for studying the influence of targeted brain states on subsequent perceptual performance by online identification of spatiotemporal brain activity patterns of interest, and brain-state triggered presentation of subsequent stimuli. This general method was applied to an electroencephalography study of human auditory selective listening. We obtained online, time-varying estimates of the instantaneous direction of neural bias (towards processing left or right ear sounds). Detection of target sounds was influenced by pre-target fluctuations in neural bias, within and across trials. We propose that brain state-triggered stimulus delivery will enable efficient, statistically tractable studies of rare patterns of ongoing activity in single neurons and distributed neural circuits, and their influence on subsequent behavioral and neural responses. PMID:23275858

Andermann, ML; Kauramaki, J; Palomaki, T; Moore, CI; Hari, R; Jaaskelainen, IP; Sams, M

2012-01-01

231

NEAR-TERM FETAL HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA IN RABBITS: MRI CAN PREDICT MUSCLE TONE ABNORMALITIES AND DEEP BRAIN INJURY  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The pattern of antenatal brain injury varies with gestational age at the time of insult. Deep brain nuclei are often injured at older gestational ages. Having previously shown postnatal hypertonia following preterm fetal rabbit hypoxia-ischemia (H-I), the objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between the dynamic regional pattern of brain injury on MRI and the evolution of muscle tone in the near-term rabbit fetus. Methods Serial MRI was performed on New Zealand White rabbit fetuses to determine equipotency of fetal H-I during uterine ischemia comparing 29 days gestation (E29, 92% gestation) with E22 and E25. E29 postnatal kits at 4, 24, 72 hours after H-I underwent T2- and diffusion weighted imaging. Quantitative assessments of tone were made serially using a torque apparatus in addition to clinical assessments. Results Based on the brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), 32 min of uterine ischemia was selected for E29 fetuses. At E30, 58% of the survivors manifested hind limb hypotonia. By E32, 71% of the hypotonic kits developed dystonic hypertonia. Marked and persistent ADC reduction in basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem was predictive of these motor deficits. Conclusions MRI observation of deep brain injury 6–24 hours following near-term H-I predicts dystonic hypertonia postnatally. Torque-displacement measurements indicate that motor deficits in rabbits progressed from initial hypotonia to hypertonia, similar to human CP, but in a compressed time-frame. The presence of deep brain injury and quantitative shift from hypo- to hypertonia may identify patients at risk for developing CP. PMID:22829546

Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Derrick, Matthew; Luo, Kehuan; Zhang, Li-Qun; Wu, Yi-Ning; Takada, Silvia Honda; Yu, Lei; Tan, Sidhartha

2012-01-01

232

Fibrinolytic Activity of Human Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Fibrinolytic activity (FA) of brain tissue, meninges and choroid plexus from 41 human cadavers without intracranial disorders was studied by Astrup's biochemical method and Todd's histochemical method. FA of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and after pneumoencephalography (PEG) was also studied by Astrup's method. FA of human brain was higher in the adults than in the newborn and infants, and increased with ageing in infants. No significant difference was found among age groups in the adults. There was no detectable difference of FA in various regions of the brain. Higher FA was recognized in meninges and choroid plexus. Liquefaction of the extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space was considered to be produced by the high fibrinolytic activity of the meninges. The lysed zones on fibrin plate by Todd's method were found at the vessels of the brain tissue and meninges, especially at small blood vessels. FA was found to be localized at the vascular endothelial cells. The lytic areas in the adult brain were relatively larger than those in the newborn brain at the same incubation time. CSF produced small lysed zones on human fibrin plate. CSF and plasma after PEG showed larger lysed zones than those before PEG, and plasminogen activator and/or proactivator in CSF and plasma seemed to be increased after PEG. Plasmin activity was not found in CSF before and after PEG. ImagesFigs. 2-5 PMID:4243674

Takashima, S.; Koga, M.; Tanaka, K.

1969-01-01

233

Telomerase activity in human brain tumors: astrocytoma and meningioma.  

PubMed

Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85 % of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65 %) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P < 0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors. PMID:23512291

Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin

2013-05-01

234

Metabolically active rat brain slices as a model to study the regulation of protein phosphorylation in mammalian brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversible protein phosphorylation is the most important cellular regulation of the biological functions of many proteins. Disregulation of protein phosphorylation is involved in pathogeneses of several human diseases. The abnormal hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau and its aggregation into neurofibrillary tangles in selective neurons is one of the major brain pathologies of Alzheimer’s disease and several other related neurodegenerative

Cheng-Xin Gong; Theodore Lidsky; Jerzy Wegiel; Inge Grundke-Iqbal; Khalid Iqbal

2001-01-01

235

Electrodermal Activity in Patients with Unilateral Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrodermal activity has been studied in patients with focal brain injury mainly to evaluate hypotheses about the relative\\u000a contribution of the two cerebral hemispheres to emotional processes. Theoretical proposals on this issue originated from the\\u000a clinical observations indicating different emotional reactions following damage in either hemisphere. Left brain damaged (LBD)\\u000a patients display what has been defined as a “catastrophic reaction”:

Pierluigi Zoccolotti; Carlo Caltagirone; Anna Pecchinenda I; Elio Troisi

236

Fluctuations in Neuronal Activity: Clues to Brain Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as "noise". Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the "meaningful" neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.

Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis

2005-08-01

237

Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives  

PubMed Central

For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Hyona, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

2014-01-01

238

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity  

PubMed Central

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-01-01

239

Mapping Functional Brain Activation Using [14C]-Iodoantipyrine in Male Serotonin Transporter Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin transporter knockout mice have been a powerful tool in understanding the role played by the serotonin transporter in modulating physiological function and behavior. However, little work has examined brain function in this mouse model. We tested the hypothesis that male knockout mice show exaggerated limbic activation during exposure to an emotional stressor, similar to human subjects with genetically reduced transcription of the serotonin transporter. Methodology/Principal Findings Functional brain mapping using [14C]-iodoantipyrine was performed during recall of a fear conditioned tone. Regional cerebral blood flow was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping from autoradiographs of the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. During recall, knockout mice compared to wild-type mice showed increased freezing, increased regional cerebral blood flow of the amygdala, insula, and barrel field somatosensory cortex, decreased regional cerebral blood flow of the ventral hippocampus, and conditioning-dependent alterations in regional cerebral blood flow in the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate). Anxiety tests relying on sensorimotor exploration showed a small (open field) or paradoxical effect (marble burying) of loss of the serotonin transporter on anxiety behavior, which may reflect known abnormalities in the knockout animal's sensory system. Experiments evaluating whisker function showed that knockout mice displayed impaired whisker sensation in the spontaneous gap crossing task and appetitive gap cross training. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate altered functional activation in the serotonin transporter knockout mice of critical nodes of the fear conditioning circuit. Alterations in whisker sensation and functional activation of barrel field somatosensory cortex extend earlier reports of barrel field abnormalities, which may confound behavioral measures relying on sensorimotor exploration. PMID:21886833

Pang, Raina D.; Wang, Zhuo; Klosinski, Lauren P.; Guo, Yumei; Herman, David H.; Celikel, Tansu; Dong, Hong Wei; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

240

Brain activity and medical diagnosis: an EEG study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite new brain imaging techniques that have improved the study of the underlying processes of human decision-making, to the best of our knowledge, there have been very few studies that have attempted to investigate brain activity during medical diagnostic processing. We investigated brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity associated with diagnostic decision-making in the realm of veterinary medicine using X-rays as a fundamental auxiliary test. EEG signals were analysed using Principal Components (PCA) and Logistic Regression Analysis Results The principal component analysis revealed three patterns that accounted for 85% of the total variance in the EEG activity recorded while veterinary doctors read a clinical history, examined an X-ray image pertinent to a medical case, and selected among alternative diagnostic hypotheses. Two of these patterns are proposed to be associated with visual processing and the executive control of the task. The other two patterns are proposed to be related to the reasoning process that occurs during diagnostic decision-making. Conclusions PCA analysis was successful in disclosing the different patterns of brain activity associated with hypothesis triggering and handling (pattern P1); identification uncertainty and prevalence assessment (pattern P3), and hypothesis plausibility calculation (pattern P2); Logistic regression analysis was successful in disclosing the brain activity associated with clinical reasoning success, and together with regression analysis showed that clinical practice reorganizes the neural circuits supporting clinical reasoning. PMID:24083668

2013-01-01

241

Lateralization of Brain Activation in Fluent and Non-Fluent Preschool Children: A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Picture-Naming  

PubMed Central

The neural causes of stuttering remain unknown. One explanation comes from neuroimaging studies that have reported abnormal lateralization of activation in the brains of people who stutter. However, these findings are generally based on data from adults with a long history of stuttering, raising the possibility that the observed lateralization anomalies are compensatory rather than causal. The current study investigated lateralization of brain activity in language-related regions of interest in young children soon after the onset of stuttering. We tested 24 preschool-aged children, half of whom had a positive diagnosis of stuttering. All children participated in a picture-naming experiment whilst their brain activity was recorded by magnetoencephalography. Source analysis performed during an epoch prior to speech onset was used to assess lateralized activation in three regions of interest. Activation was significantly lateralized to the left hemisphere in both groups and not different between groups. This study shows for the first time that significant speech preparatory brain activation can be identified in young children during picture-naming and supports the contention that, in stutterers, aberrant lateralization of brain function may be the result of neuroplastic adaptation that occurs as the condition becomes chronic. PMID:24904388

Sowman, Paul F.; Crain, Stephen; Harrison, Elisabeth; Johnson, Blake W.

2014-01-01

242

Lateralization of brain activation in fluent and non-fluent preschool children: a magnetoencephalographic study of picture-naming.  

PubMed

The neural causes of stuttering remain unknown. One explanation comes from neuroimaging studies that have reported abnormal lateralization of activation in the brains of people who stutter. However, these findings are generally based on data from adults with a long history of stuttering, raising the possibility that the observed lateralization anomalies are compensatory rather than causal. The current study investigated lateralization of brain activity in language-related regions of interest in young children soon after the onset of stuttering. We tested 24 preschool-aged children, half of whom had a positive diagnosis of stuttering. All children participated in a picture-naming experiment whilst their brain activity was recorded by magnetoencephalography. Source analysis performed during an epoch prior to speech onset was used to assess lateralized activation in three regions of interest. Activation was significantly lateralized to the left hemisphere in both groups and not different between groups. This study shows for the first time that significant speech preparatory brain activation can be identified in young children during picture-naming and supports the contention that, in stutterers, aberrant lateralization of brain function may be the result of neuroplastic adaptation that occurs as the condition becomes chronic. PMID:24904388

Sowman, Paul F; Crain, Stephen; Harrison, Elisabeth; Johnson, Blake W

2014-01-01

243

Males and females differ in brain activation during cognitive tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated,

Emily C. Bell; Morgan C. Willson; Alan H. Wilman; Sanjay Dave; Peter H. Silverstone

2006-01-01

244

Transglutaminase activity is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transglutaminase is a calcium-activated enzyme that crosslinks substrate proteins into insoluble, often filamentous aggregates resistant to proteases. Because the neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease have similar characteristics, and because tau protein, the major component of these tangles is an excellent substrate of transglutaminase in vitro, transglutaminase activity and levels were measured in control and Alzheimer's disease brain. Frozen prefrontal cortex

Gail V. W Johnson; Teresa M Cox; Jason P Lockhart; Marcus D Zinnerman; Michael L Miller; Richard E Powers

1997-01-01

245

Detection of whole-brain abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy using tensor-based morphometry with DARTEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an automated technique for detecting the anatomical differences between populations by examining the gradients of the deformation fields used to nonlinearly warp MR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain volume changes between the patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the controls using TBM with DARTEL, which could achieve more accurate inter-subject registration of brain images. T1-weighted images were acquired from 21 left-TLE patients, 21 right-TLE patients and 21 healthy controls, which were matched in age and gender. The determinants of the gradient of deformation fields at voxel level were obtained to quantify the expansion or contraction for individual images relative to the template, and then logarithmical transformation was applied on it. A whole brain analysis was performed using general lineal model (GLM), and the multiple comparison was corrected by false discovery rate (FDR) with p<0.05. For left-TLE patients, significant volume reductions were found in hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, right temporal lobe and cerebellum. These results potentially support the utility of TBM with DARTEL to study the structural changes between groups.

Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Lv, Bin; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

2009-10-01

246

Involvement of oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in ceramide and cholesterol metabolism in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related disorder characterized by deposition of amyloid -peptide (A) and degeneration of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus, resulting in progressive cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of AD is tightly linked to A deposition and oxidative stress, but it remains unclear as to how these factors result in neuronal dysfunction and death. We report alterations in sphingolipid and cholesterol metabolism during normal brain aging and in the brains of AD patients that result in accumulation of long-chain ceramides and cholesterol. Membrane-associated oxidative stress occurs in association with the lipid alterations, and exposure of hippocampal neurons to A induces membrane oxidative stress and the accumulation of ceramide species and cholesterol. Treatment of neurons with -tocopherol or an inhibitor of sphingomyelin synthesis prevents accumulation of ceramides and cholesterol and protects them against death induced by A. Our findings suggest a sequence of events in the pathogenesis of AD in which A induces membrane-associated oxidative stress, resulting in perturbed ceramide and cholesterol metabolism which, in turn, triggers a neurodegenerative cascade that leads to clinical disease. amyloid | apoptosis | hippocampus | lipid peroxidation | sphingomyelin

Cutler, Roy G.; Kelly, Jeremiah; Storie, Kristin; Pedersen, Ward A.; Tammara, Anita; Hatanpaa, Kimmo; Troncoso, Juan C.; Mattson, Mark P.

2004-02-01

247

Consumption of Fermented Milk Product With Probiotic Modulates Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Changes in gut microbiota have been reported to alter signaling mechanisms, emotional behavior, and visceral nociceptive reflexes in rodents. However, alteration of the intestinal microbiota with antibiotics or probiotics has not been shown to produce these changes in humans. We investigated whether consumption of a fermented milk product with probiotic (FMPP) for 4 weeks by healthy women altered brain intrinsic connectivity or responses to emotional attention tasks. METHODS Healthy women with no gastrointestinal or psychiatric symptoms were randomly assigned to groups given FMPP (n = 12), a nonfermented milk product (n = 11, controls), or no intervention (n = 13) twice daily for 4 weeks. The FMPP contained Bifidobacterium animalis subsp Lactis, Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp Lactis. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention to measure brain response to an emotional faces attention task and resting brain activity. Multivariate and region of interest analyses were performed. RESULTS FMPP intake was associated with reduced task-related response of a distributed functional network (49% cross-block covariance; P = .004) containing affective, viscerosensory, and somatosensory cortices. Alterations in intrinsic activity of resting brain indicated that ingestion of FMPP was associated with changes in midbrain connectivity, which could explain the observed differences in activity during the task. CONCLUSIONS Four-week intake of an FMPP by healthy women affected activity of brain regions that control central processing of emotion and sensation. PMID:23474283

TILLISCH, KIRSTEN; LABUS, JENNIFER; KILPATRICK, LISA; JIANG, ZHIGUO; STAINS, JEAN; EBRAT, BAHAR; GUYONNET, DENIS; LEGRAIN-RASPAUD, SOPHIE; TROTIN, BEATRICE; NALIBOFF, BRUCE; MAYER, EMERAN A.

2013-01-01

248

Superoxide Dismutase Activities in Aging Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in cerebral cortex of rat during aging are reported. The specific activity of cytosol SOD (Cu\\/Zn dismutase) decreases progressively from the 1st to the 30th month of postnatal life, whereas the specific activity of mitochondrial SOD increases with age. The alterations in the two enzymatic forms of SOD in the cerebral cortex of rat during

A. Vanella; E. Geremia; G. D’Urso; P. Tiriolo; I. Di Silvestro; R. Grimaldi; R. Pinturo

1982-01-01

249

Brain dead donor kidneys are immunologically active: is intervention justified?  

PubMed

The improvement in the field of kidney transplantation, during the last decades, has brought kindey transplantation to the top of patient preference as the best kidney replacement therapy. The use of marginal kidney grafts, which are highly immunogenic has become common practice because of lack of kidney donors. Inflammatory activity in the kidneys after brain death is an ongoing phenomenon. The inappropriate treatment of brain dead donor may result to primary non function (PNF) of the graft, delayed graft function (DGF) or to long term graft dysfunction and shortened graft survival. Therefore correct handling of the brain dead donor is of paramount importance. The impact of various pharmacologic agents (catecholamines, glucocorticoids, carbamylated recombinant human erythropoietin, recombinant soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligant, heme oxygenase-1, carbon monoxide, and mycophenolate mofetil) on the immunogenicity of brain dead donor kidneys is discussed. PMID:20011083

Vergoulas, G; Boura, P; Efstathiadis, G

2009-10-01

250

Brain dead donor kidneys are immunologically active: is intervention justified?  

PubMed Central

The improvement in the field of kidney transplantation, during the last decades, has brought kindey transplantation to the top of patient preference as the best kidney replacement therapy1. The use of marginal kidney grafts, which are highly immunogenic has become common practice because of lack of kidney donors. Inflammatory activity in the kidneys after brain death is an ongoing phenomenon. The inappropriate treatment of brain dead donor may result to primary non function (PNF) of the graft, delayed graft function (DGF) or to long term graft dysfunction and shortened graft survival. Therefore correct handling of the brain dead donor is of paramount importance. The impact of various pharmacologic agents (catecholamines, glucocorticoids, carbamylated recombinant human erythropoietin, recombinant soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligant, heme oxygenase-1, carbon monoxide, and mycophenolate mofetil) on the immunogemicity of brain dead donor kidneys is discussed. PMID:20011083

Vergoulas, G; Boura, P; Efstathiadis, G

2009-01-01

251

Whole-brain gray matter volume abnormalities in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: voxel-based morphometry.  

PubMed

Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience psychological distress because of excessive and uncontrollable anxiety in everyday life. Only a few morphological studies have so far focused on specific brain regions of interest as well as the gray matter volume changes in GAD patients. This study evaluated gray matter volume alterations in whole-brain areas between GAD patients and healthy controls, and sex differences between the specific brain areas with significant volume changes in GAD patients using voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-two patients with GAD (13 men and nine women), who were diagnosed using the DSM-IV-TR, and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 men and nine women) participated in this study. The high-resolution MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry analysis on the basis of diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. There was no significant difference in the total intracranial volume between GAD patients and controls, but a significant difference was observed between sexes (P<0.05). Patients with GAD showed significant volume reductions in the hippocampus, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls. As for the sex comparison, female patients showed a significant increase in the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to male patients. Also, the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in female patients was correlated positively with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score (?=0.68, P=0.04). The specific morphological variations in patient with GAD will be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with a symptom of GAD. Furthermore, the findings would be valuable for the diagnostic accuracy of GAD using morphometric MRI analysis. PMID:24476839

Moon, Chung-Man; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

2014-02-12

252

On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities  

SciTech Connect

The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

Fichtner, K.-H. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Applied Mathematics, E.-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fichtner, L. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Psychology, Am Steiger 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Freudenberg, W. [Brandenb. Techn. University Cottbus, Dep. of Mathematics, PO box 10 13 44, 03013 Cottbus (Germany); Ohya, M. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Information Science, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

2007-12-03

253

Attention processing abnormalities in children with traumatic brain injury and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential impairment of component processes.  

PubMed

Individuals with acquired and neurodevelopmental brain disorders often exhibit deficits in attention. Recent models of attention have conceptualized it as a multicomponent system. One influential model proposed by Mirsky et al. (1991) consists of factors that include focus, sustain, shift, and encode components. This model has been used to examine the structure of attention in a variety of clinical populations although few studies have contrasted performance of various clinical groups in order to determine whether these components are differentially affected. To address this issue, the current study investigated the differential sensitivity of these attention components in 90 children: 30 who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI), 30 who were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 30 normal controls. Results demonstrated that the TBI group had significantly lower focus factor scores, the ADHD group had significantly lower sustain scores, and that both clinical groups had lower encode factor scores than controls. Stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) retained the focus and encode factors in predicting clinical groups from controls with 75.6% accuracy. A second DFA retained the focus factor in differentiating the two clinical groups with 70.0% accuracy. These findings provide evidence of differential attention deficits resulting from TBI and ADHD. PMID:20401771

Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Park, Brandon S; McMurray, Janice C; Mayfield, Joan

2010-11-01

254

Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo  

PubMed Central

Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, ?-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG is not a substrate for GLUT1 at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo delivery of the probe into the brain was achieved after opening of the BBB by an established procedure, osmotic shock. Ex vivo autoradiography showed that Me-4-FDG accumulated in regions of the cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, amygdala, parietal cortex, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Little or no Me-4-FDG accumulated in the brain stem. The regional accumulation of Me-4-FDG overlapped the distribution of SGLT1 protein detected by immunohistochemistry. In summary, after the BBB is opened, the specific substrate for SGLTs, Me-4-FDG, enters the brain and accumulates in selected regions shown to express SGLT1 protein. This localization and the sensitivity of these neurons to anoxia prompt the speculation that SGLTs may play an essential role in glucose utilization under stress such as ischemia. The expression of SGLTs in the brain raises questions about the potential effects of SGLT inhibitors under development for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23151803

Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng

2013-01-01

255

Altered baseline brain activity in children with bipolar disorder during mania state: a resting-state study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in regions involved in emotion processing and regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Recent studies indicate, however, that task-dependent neural changes only represent a small fraction of the brain’s total activity. How the brain allocates the majority of its resources at resting state is still unknown. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method of fMRI to explore the spontaneous neuronal activity in resting state in PBD patients. Methods Eighteen PBD patients during the mania phase and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and all patients underwent fMRI scanning. The ALFF method was used to compare the resting-state spontaneous neuronal activity between groups. Correlation analysis was performed between the ALFF values and Young Mania Rating Scale scores. Results Compared with healthy controls, PBD patients presented increased ALFF in bilateral caudate and left pallidum as well as decreased ALFF in left precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus. Additionally, ALFF values in left pallidum were positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale score in PBD. Conclusion The abnormal resting-state neuronal activities of the basal ganglia, parietal cortex, and occipital cortex may play an important role in the pathophysiology in PBD patients. PMID:24570585

Lu, Dali; Jiao, Qing; Zhong, Yuan; Gao, Weijia; Xiao, Qian; Liu, Xiaoqun; Lin, Xiaoling; Cheng, Wentao; Luo, Lanzhu; Xu, Chuanjian; Lu, Guangming; Su, Linyan

2014-01-01

256

Ammonia reduction with ornithine phenylacetate restores brain eNOS activity via the DDAH-ADMA pathway in bile duct-ligated cirrhotic rats.  

PubMed

Ammonia is central in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, which is associated with dysfunction of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. Ornithine phenylacetate (OP) reduces hyperammonemia and brain water in cirrhotic animals. This study aimed to determine whether endothelial NO synthase activity is altered in the brain of cirrhotic animals, whether this is associated with changes in the endogenous inhibitor, asymmetric-dimethylarginine (ADMA) and its regulating enzyme, dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH-1), and whether these abnormalities are restored by ammonia reduction using OP. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied 4-wk after bile duct ligation (BDL) (n = 16) or sham operation (n = 8) and treated with placebo or OP (0.6 g/kg). Arterial ammonia, brain water, TNF-?, plasma, and brain ADMA were measured using standard techniques. NOS activity was measured radiometrically, and protein expression for NOS enzymes, ADMA, DDAH-1, 4-hydroxynonenol ((4)HNE), and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 were measured by Western blotting. BDL significantly increased arterial ammonia (P < 0.0001), brain water (P < 0.05), and brain TNF-? (P < 0.01). These were reduced significantly by OP treatment. The estimated eNOS component of constitutive NOS activity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in BDL rat, and this was significantly attenuated in OP-treated animals. Brain ADMA levels were significantly higher and brain DDAH-1 significantly lower in BDL compared with sham (P < 0.01) and restored toward normal following treatment with OP. Brain (4)HNE and NOX-1 protein expression were significantly increased in BDL rat brain, which were significantly decreased following OP administration. We show a marked abnormality of NO regulation in cirrhotic rat brains, which can be restored by reduction in ammonia concentration using OP. PMID:21903766

Balasubramaniyan, Vairappan; Wright, Gavin; Sharma, Vikram; Davies, Nathan A; Sharifi, Yalda; Habtesion, Abeba; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P; Jalan, Rajiv

2012-01-01

257

BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF BOBWHITE ACUTELY EXPOSED TO CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, were orally dosed with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to examine effects on brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity. wo-week-old quail were acutely exposed and euthanized at selected times following gavage-dosing, ranging from 1...

258

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involved in virtually every aspect of our daily life. The motor arm

Napadow, Vitaly

259

Research Report A decrease in brain activation associated with driving  

E-print Network

driving task. Participants steered a vehicle along a curving virtual road, either undisturbed or while driving an actual or virtual car substan- tially degrades driving performance (Alm and Nilsson, 1994, 1995Research Report A decrease in brain activation associated with driving when listening to someone

260

Biometrics from Brain Electrical Activity: A Machine Learning Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of brain electrical activity generated as a response to a visual stimulus is examined in the context of the identification of individuals. Specifically, a framework for the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)-based biometrics is established, whereby energy features of the gamma band within VEP signals were of particular interest. A rigorous analysis is conducted which unifies and extends results

Ramaswamy Palaniappan; Danilo P. Mandic

2007-01-01

261

Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion

Masahide Yuasa; Keiichi Saito; Naoki Mukawa

2009-01-01

262

Resting-State Brain Activity in Schizophrenia and Major Depression: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic activity of the brain during resting-state is not random and is currently discussed as a neural reflection of self-referential processing. Self-reference is typically reduced in schizophrenia as a disorder of the self while extensive self-attribution of, eg, negative thoughts is characteristic for major depression. However, a quantitative meta-analysis targeting the resting-state brain activity in both disorders is lacking. Here, we predict primarily abnormal resting-state activity in brain regions related to self-referential processing. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) on functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies, we investigated concurrence of hyperactivation and hypoactivation in resting-state measurements of schizophrenic and depressed patients compared with healthy controls. We found hypoactivation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), left hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, lower precueus and the precuneus, and hyperactivation in bilateral lingual gyrus of schizophrenic patients. In major depression, we found hyperactivation in vmPFC, left ventral striatum, and left thalamus and hypoactivation in left postcentral gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and left insula. An overall ALE analysis confirmed the proximity of hypoactivation in schizophrenia and hyperactivation in major depression in the vmPFC.The opposing resting-state activity in vmPFC for the 2 disorders is in line with the different expression of dysfunctional self-reference as core characteristics of schizophrenia and major depression. The vmPFC has previously been identified as a crucial area for self-referential processing and may represent a target to increase the diagnostic validity of resting-state activity for disorders with dysfunctions of the self. PMID:22080493

Kuhn, Simone; Gallinat, Jurgen

2013-01-01

263

Ablation of NF1 function in neurons induces abnormal development of cerebral cortex and reactive gliosis in the brain  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a prevalent genetic disorder that affects growth properties of neural-crest-derived cell populations. In addition, approximately one-half of NF1 patients exhibit learning disabilities. To characterize NF1 function both in vitro and in vivo, we circumvent the embryonic lethality of NF1 null mouse embryos by generating a conditional mutation in the NF1 gene using Cre/loxP technology. Introduction of a Synapsin I promoter driven Cre transgenic mouse strain into the conditional NF1 background has ablated NF1 function in most differentiated neuronal populations. These mice have abnormal development of the cerebral cortex, which suggests that NF1 has an indispensable role in this aspect of CNS development. Furthermore, although they are tumor free, these mice display extensive astrogliosis in the absence of conspicuous neurodegeneration or microgliosis. These results indicate that NF1-deficient neurons are capable of inducing reactive astrogliosis via a non-cell autonomous mechanism. PMID:11297510

Zhu, Yuan; Romero, Mario I.; Ghosh, Pritam; Ye, Zhengyi; Charnay, Patrick; Rushing, Elizabeth J.; Marth, Jamey D.; Parada, Luis F.

2001-01-01

264

Composition and On Demand Deployment of Distributed Brain Activity Analysis Application on Global Grids  

E-print Network

1 Composition and On Demand Deployment of Distributed Brain Activity Analysis Application on Global are brain science and high-energy physics. The analysis of brain activity data gathered from the MEG and analyze brain functions and requires access to large-scale computational resources. The potential platform

Abramson, David

265

Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

266

A subspace approach to learning recurrent features from brain activity.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a novel technique to address the instability and time variability challenges associated with brain activity recorded on different days. A critical challenge when working with brain signal activity is the variability in their characteristics when the signals are collected in different sessions separated by a day or more. Such variability is due to the acute and chronic responses of the brain tissue after implantation, variations as the subject learns to optimize performance, physiological changes in a subject due to prior activity or rest periods and environmental conditions. We propose a novel approach to tackle signal variability by focusing on learning subspaces which are recurrent over time. Furthermore, we illustrate how we can use projections on those subspaces to improve classification for an application such as brain-machine interface (BMI). In this paper, we illustrate the merits of finding recurrent subspaces in the context of movement direction decoding using local field potential (LFP). We introduce two methods for using the learned subspaces in movement direction decoding and show a decoding power improvement from 76% to 88% for a particularly unstable subject and consistent decoding across subjects. PMID:21257387

Gowreesunker, B Vikrham; Tewfik, Ahmed H; Tadipatri, Vijay A; Ashe, James; Pellize, Giuseppe; Gupta, Rahul

2011-06-01

267

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.  

PubMed

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-12-01

268

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

1998-12-01

269

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children  

PubMed Central

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-01-01

270

Chondroitinase Enhances Cortical Map Plasticity and Increases Functionally Active Sprouting Axons after Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract The beneficial effect of interventions with chondroitinase ABC enzyme to reduce axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulphate side chains after central nervous system injuries has been mainly attributed to enhanced axonal sprouting. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is unknown whether newly sprouting axons that occur as a result of interventional strategies are able to functionally contribute to existing circuitry, and it is uncertain whether maladaptive sprouting occurs to increase the well-known risk for seizure activity after TBI. Here, we show that after a controlled cortical impact injury in rats, chondroitinase infusion into injured cortex at 30?min and 3 days reduced c-Fos+ cell staining resulting from the injury alone at 1 week postinjury, indicating that at baseline, abnormal spontaneous activity is likely to be reduced, not increased, with this type of intervention. c-Fos+ cell staining elicited by neural activity from stimulation of the affected forelimb 1 week after injury was significantly enhanced by chondroitinase, indicating a widespread effect on cortical map plasticity. Underlying this map plasticity was a larger contribution of neuronal, rather than glial cells and an absence of c-Fos+ cells surrounded by perineuronal nets that were normally present in stimulated naïve rats. After injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan digestion produced the expected increase in growth-associated protein 43–positive axons and perikarya, of which a significantly greater number were double labeled for c-Fos after intervention with chondroitinase, compared to vehicle. These data indicate that chondroitinase produces significant gains in cortical map plasticity after TBI, and that either axonal sprouting and/or changes in perineuronal nets may underlie this effect. Chondroitinase dampens, rather than increases nonspecific c-Fos activity after brain injury, and induction of axonal sprouting is not maladaptive because greater numbers are functionally active and provide a significant contribution to forelimb circuitry after brain injury. PMID:23517225

Nogueira, Marcia S.M.; Verley, Derek R.; Sutton, Richard L.

2013-01-01

271

DRR regulates AKT activation to drive brain cancer invasion.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and invasive adult brain cancer. The rapid invasion of cancer cells into the normal brain is a major cause of treatment failure, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process are poorly understood. We have identified a novel mechanism of brain cancer invasion. We show that downregulated in renal cell carcinoma (DRR), which is newly expressed in invasive gliomas, recruits AKT to focal adhesions. This DRR- induced pathological relocalization of AKT bypasses commonly altered upstream signaling events and leads to AKT activation and invasion. We also developed an oligonucleotide therapeutic that reduces DRR expression and prevents glioma invasion in an in vivo preclinical model of the disease. Our findings identify DRR as a novel GBM target and show that oligonucleotides targeting DRR is a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of DRR-positive GBMs. PMID:24141773

Dudley, A; Sater, M; Le, P U; Trinh, G; Sadr, M S; Bergeron, J; Deleavey, G F; Bedell, B; Damha, M J; Petrecca, K

2014-10-01

272

Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

2011-01-01

273

Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.  

PubMed

The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data. PMID:18511683

Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

2008-05-30

274

Prognostic Implication of Telomerase Activity in Patients with Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Telomerase adds telomeric repeats to the ends of telomeres to compensate for their progressive loss. A favorable prognosis is associated with low or no telomerase in some tumors. The authors investigated whether telomerase activity is associated with survival of patients with brain tumors. Sixty-two consecutive patients with brain tumors underwent surgery, and their surgical specimens were investigated. The patients were pathologically categorized as group I (aggressive group) and group II (non-aggressive group). Telomerase activity was examined by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. The median time was calculated in association with overall survival and progression-free survival in each group. The significant difference was noted in telomerase activity between high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas (p=0.022). Telomerase activity was significantly associated with the median overall survival and progression-free survival in all tumors of the aggressive group. On the other hand, the median overall survival in the non-aggressive group was not dependent on telomerase activity, while the median progression-free survival was. Our data suggests that telomerase is an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with brain tumors. PMID:16479078

Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Jae Min; Oh, Suck Jun

2006-01-01

275

Temporally-independent functional modes of spontaneous brain activity.  

PubMed

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has become a powerful tool for the study of functional networks in the brain. Even "at rest," the brain's different functional networks spontaneously fluctuate in their activity level; each network's spatial extent can therefore be mapped by finding temporal correlations between its different subregions. Current correlation-based approaches measure the average functional connectivity between regions, but this average is less meaningful for regions that are part of multiple networks; one ideally wants a network model that explicitly allows overlap, for example, allowing a region's activity pattern to reflect one network's activity some of the time, and another network's activity at other times. However, even those approaches that do allow overlap have often maximized mutual spatial independence, which may be suboptimal if distinct networks have significant overlap. In this work, we identify functionally distinct networks by virtue of their temporal independence, taking advantage of the additional temporal richness available via improvements in functional magnetic resonance imaging sampling rate. We identify multiple "temporal functional modes," including several that subdivide the default-mode network (and the regions anticorrelated with it) into several functionally distinct, spatially overlapping, networks, each with its own pattern of correlations and anticorrelations. These functionally distinct modes of spontaneous brain activity are, in general, quite different from resting-state networks previously reported, and may have greater biological interpretability. PMID:22323591

Smith, Stephen M; Miller, Karla L; Moeller, Steen; Xu, Junqian; Auerbach, Edward J; Woolrich, Mark W; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Andersson, Jesper; Glasser, Matthew F; Van Essen, David C; Feinberg, David A; Yacoub, Essa S; Ugurbil, Kamil

2012-02-21

276

Alzheimer Disease in a Mouse Model: MR Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound Targeted to the Hippocampus Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improves Pathologic Abnormalities and Behavior.  

PubMed

Purpose To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease ( AD Alzheimer disease ), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound-treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Conclusion Repeated MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of AD Alzheimer disease . The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal plasticity. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25222068

Burgess, Alison; Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo

2014-12-01

277

Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

2010-05-01

278

Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010

Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I; Delgado, Mauricio R; Clegg, Nancy J; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

2010-01-01

279

Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

280

Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals.  

PubMed

Sharing others' emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas "tick together" in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants' brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness-unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal-calmness. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel-based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals' brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another's actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals' attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko

2012-06-12

281

Rapid and reversible inhibition of brain aromatase activity.  

PubMed

Many actions of androgens require their conversion via the enzyme aromatase into oestrogens. Changes in brain aromatase activity are thought to take place via changes in enzyme concentration mediated by effects of sex steroids on aromatase transcription. These changes are relatively slow which fits in well with the fact that oestrogens are generally viewed as slow-acting messengers that act via changes in gene transcription. More recently, fast actions of oestrogens, presumably at the level of the cell membrane, have been described both in the female brain and in the male brain after the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. It is difficult to reconcile the slow regulation of oestrogen synthesis (that occurs via changes in aromatase concentration) with a rapid action at the membrane level. Even if fast transduction mechanisms are available, this will not result in rapid changes in brain function if the availability of the ligand does not also change rapidly. Here, we report that aromatase activity in neural tissue of male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is rapidly downregulated in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and ATP in hypothalamic homogenates and in brain explants exposed to high Ca(2+) levels following a K(+)-induced depolarization or the stimulation of glutamate receptors. The K(+)-induced inhibition of aromatase activity is observed within minutes and reversible. Given that aromatase is present in presynaptic boutons, it is possible that rapidly changing levels of locally produced oestrogen are available for nongenomic regulation of neuronal physiology in a manner more akin to the action of a neuropeptide than previously hypothesized. PMID:11123516

Balthazart, J; Baillien, M; Ball, G F

2001-01-01

282

Disruption of Wave-associated Rac GTPase-activating Protein (Wrp) Leads to Abnormal Adult Neural Progenitor Migration Associated with Hydrocephalus*  

PubMed Central

Hydrocephalus is the most common developmental disability and leading cause of brain surgery for children. Current treatments are limited to surgical intervention, as the factors that contribute to the initiation of hydrocephalus are poorly understood. Here, we describe the development of obstructive hydrocephalus in mice that are null for Wrp (Srgap3). Wrp is highly expressed in the ventricular stem cell niche, and it is a gene required for cytoskeletal organization and is associated with syndromic and psychiatric disorders in humans. During the postnatal period of progenitor cell expansion and ventricular wall remodeling, loss of Wrp results in the abnormal migration of lineage-tagged cells from the ventricular region into the corpus callosum. Within this region, mutant progenitors appear to give rise to abnormal astroglial cells and induce periventricular lesions and hemorrhage that leads to cerebral aqueductal occlusion. These results indicate that periventricular abnormalities arising from abnormal migration from the ventricular niche can be an initiating cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. PMID:23007397

Kim, Il Hwan; Carlson, Benjamin R.; Heindel, Clifford C.; Kim, Hyun; Soderling, Scott H.

2012-01-01

283

Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns  

PubMed Central

Recent fMRI studies have shown that analysis of the human brain's spontaneous activity may provide a powerful approach to reveal its functional organization. Dedicated methods have been proposed to investigate co-variation of signals from different brain regions, with the goal of revealing neuronal networks (NNs) that may serve specialized functions. However, these analysis methods generally do not take into account a potential non-stationary (variable) interaction between brain regions, and as a result have limited effectiveness. To address this, we propose a novel analysis method that uses clustering analysis to sort and selectively average fMRI activity time frames to produce a set of co-activation patterns. Compared to the established networks extracted with conventional analysis methods, these co-activation patterns demonstrate novel network features with apparent relevance to the brain's functional organization. PMID:24550788

Liu, Xiao; Chang, Catie; Duyn, Jeff H.

2013-01-01

284

Polycythemia vera erythroid precursors exhibit increased proliferation and apoptosis resistance associated with abnormal RAS and PI3-Kinase pathway activation  

PubMed Central

Objective Polycythemia vera (PV) is characterized by erythrocytosis associated with the presence of the activating JAK2V617F mutation in a variable proportion of hematopoietic cells. JAK2V617F is detected in other myeloproliferative neoplasms, does not appear to be the PV-initiating event, and its specific role in deregulated erythropoiesis in PV is incompletely understood. We investigated the pathogenesis of PV to characterize abnormal proliferation and apoptosis responses and aberrant oncogenic pathway activation in primary PV erythroid precursors. Patients and Methods Peripheral blood CD34+ cells isolated from PV patients and healthy controls were grown in liquid culture to expand a population of primary erythroblasts for experiments designed to analyze cellular proliferation, apoptosis, JAK2V617F mutation status, cytokine-dependent protein phosphorylation and gene expression profiling using Affymetrix microarrays. Results The survival and proliferation of PV erythroblasts were growth factor-dependent under strict serum-free conditions, requiring both erythropoietin (EPO) and stem cell factor. PV erythroblasts exhibited EPO hypersensitivity and enhanced cellular proliferation associated with increased EPO-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. EPO-induced AKT phosphorylation was observed in PV but not normal erythroblasts, an effect associated with apoptosis resistance in PV erythroblasts. Analysis of gene expression and oncogenic pathway activation signatures revealed increased RAS (P<0.01) and PI3-kinase (P<0.05) pathway activation in PV erythroblasts. Conclusion Deregulated erythropoiesis in PV involves EPO hypersensitivity and apoptosis resistance of erythroid precursor cells associated with abnormally increased activation of RAS-ERK and PI3-kinase-AKT pathways. These data suggest that investigation of the mechanisms of abnormal RAS and PI3-kinase pathway activation in erythroblasts may contribute to our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PV. PMID:19815050

Laubach, Jacob P.; Fu, Ping; Jiang, Xiaohong; Salter, Kelly H.; Potti, Anil; Arcasoy, Murat O.

2009-01-01

285

Acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain after pneumococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by acute purulent infection of the meninges causing neuronal injury, cortical necrosis and hippocampal apoptosis. Cholinergic neurons and their projections are extensively distributed throughout the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain after pneumococcal meningitis. In the hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid, acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be increased at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hr without antibiotic treatment, and at 48 and 96 hr with antibiotic treatment. Our data suggest that acetylcholinesterase activity could be related to neuronal damage induced by pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:22188584

Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Collodel, Allan; Moreira, Ana Paula; Michelon, Cleonice M; Raupp, Alice; Cipriano, Andreza L; Fraga, Daiane de Bittencourt; Zugno, Alexandra I

2012-03-01

286

Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the

Mercè Correa; Carles Sanchis-Segura; Carlos M. G. Aragon

2001-01-01

287

Abnormal Expression and Functional Characteristics of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Response Element Binding Protein in Postmortem Brain of Suicide Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate re- sponse element binding protein (CREB) is a transcrip- tion factor that, on phosphorylation by protein kinases, is activated, and in response, regulates the transcription of many neuronally expressed genes. In view of the re- centobservationsthatcatalyticpropertiesand\\/orexpres- sion of many kinases that mediate their physiological re- sponsesthroughtheactivationofCREBarealteredinthe postmortembrainofsubjectswhocommitsuicide(here- after referred to as suicide subjects), we examined the

Yogesh Dwivedi; Jagadeesh Sridhara Rao; Hooriyah S. Rizavi; Jacek Kotowski; Robert R. Conley; Rosalinda C. Roberts; Carol A. Tamminga; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

2003-01-01

288

Frequency Dependent Alterations in Regional Homogeneity of Baseline Brain Activity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5?0.01–0.027 Hz; slow-4?0.027–0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent. PMID:23483911

Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

2013-01-01

289

From the Cover: Reactivation of encoding-related brain activity during memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal models predict that retrieval of specific event information reactivates brain regions that were active during encoding of this information. Consistent with this prediction, this positron-emission tomography study showed that remembering that visual words had been paired with sounds at encoding activated some of the auditory brain regions that were engaged during encoding. After word-sound encoding, activation of auditory brain

Lars Nyberg; Reza Habib; Anthony R. McIntosh; Endel Tulving

2000-01-01

290

Error-related brain activity in obsessive–compulsive undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-related negativity (ERN\\/Ne) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with monitoring action and detecting errors. It is a sharp negative deflection that generally occurs from 50 to 150 ms following response execution and has been associated with activity involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An enhanced ERN has recently been observed in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

Greg Hajcak; Robert F. Simons

2002-01-01

291

Controlling limit-cycle behaviors of brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit cycles of brain activity are studied using a compact continuum model that reproduces the main features of electroencephalographic signals, including bifurcations of fixed points and limit cycles in seizures. Frequencies and amplitudes are predicted analytically and related to physiology. Gaussian stimuli yield two distinct evoked responses in the linearly stable zone, consistent with experiment. Limit cycles can be initiated or suppressed by control signals or stimuli.

Kim, J. W.; Robinson, P. A.

2008-05-01

292

Differentiated baroreflex modulation of sympathetic nerve activity during deep brain stimulation in humans.  

PubMed

Targeted electric deep brain stimulation in midbrain nuclei in humans alters cardiovascular parameters, presumably by modulating autonomic and baroreflex function. Baroreflex modulation of sympathetic outflow is crucial for cardiovascular regulation and is hypothesized to occur at 2 distinct brain locations. The aim of this study was to evaluate sympathetic outflow in humans with deep brain stimulating electrodes during ON and OFF stimulation of specific midbrain nuclei known to regulate cardiovascular function. Multiunit muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded in 17 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation for treatment of chronic neuropathic pain (n=7) and Parkinson disease (n=10). Sympathetic outflow was recorded during ON and OFF stimulation. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were monitored during the recording session, and spontaneous vasomotor and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity were assessed. Head-up tilt testing was performed separately in the patients with Parkinson disease postoperatively. Stimulation of the dorsal most part of the subthalamic nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray resulted in improved vasomotor baroreflex sensitivity, decreased burst frequency and blood pressure, unchanged burst amplitude distribution, and a reduced fall in blood pressure after tilt. Stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray resulted in a shift in burst amplitude distribution toward larger amplitudes, decreased spontaneous beat-to-beat blood pressure variability, and unchanged burst frequency, baroreflex sensitivity, and blood pressure. Our results indicate that a differentiated regulation of sympathetic outflow occurs in the subthalamic nucleus and periaqueductal gray. These results may have implications in our understanding of abnormal sympathetic discharge in cardiovascular disease and provide an opportunity for therapeutic targeting. PMID:24516109

Sverrisdóttir, Yrsa B; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu Z; Bahuri, Nor Faizal A; Hyam, Jonathan; Basnayake, Shanika D; Paterson, David J

2014-05-01

293

Functional interactions between intrinsic brain activity and behavior.  

PubMed

The brain continuously maintains a remarkably high level of intrinsic activity. This activity is non-stationary and its dynamics reveal highly structured patterns across several spatial scales, from fine-grained functional architecture in sensory cortices to large-scale networks. The mechanistic function of this activity is only poorly understood. The central goal of the current review is to provide an integrated summary of recent studies on structure, dynamics and behavioral consequences of spontaneous brain activity. In light of these empirical observations we propose that the structure of ongoing activity and its itinerant nature can be understood as an indispensible memory system modeling the statistical structure of the world. We review the dynamic properties of ongoing activity, and how they are malleable over short to long temporal scales that permit adapting over a range of short- to long-term cognitive challenges. We conclude by reviewing how the functional significance of ongoing activity manifests in its impact on human action, perception, and higher cognitive function. PMID:23643921

Sadaghiani, Sepideh; Kleinschmidt, Andreas

2013-10-15

294

The brain in micro- and hypergravity: The effects of changing gravity on the brain electrocortical activity.  

PubMed

Abstract Understanding the effects of increased and decreased gravity on central nervous system is essential for developing proper physical and cognitive countermeasures to assure safe and effective space missions and human survival in space. This short review covers the available literature on the brain electrocortical activity effects of decreased and increased gravitational force comparing to the 1g Earth conditions. Among all neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the electroencephalography (EEG) was found to be suitable method to monitor brain electrocortical activity in the extreme environments. Due to complexity and high cost of space flight missions, ground-based models have been employed to simulate microgravity effects on human body. Surprisingly, there is very limited number of publications reporting gravity-dependent EEG spectral changes. With increased gravity there are initially increased EEG activity in higher frequencies and at around 4g appears loss of consciousness with accompanying slowing of EEG due to hypoxia. In microgravity, the most prevalent changes in EEG are faster frequencies such as alpha and beta. The results from simulated microgravity (bed rest) are pointing to changes in theta and alpha, representing signs of cortical inhibition. The changes in EEG activity in space flight are attributed to a decreased sensorimotor input while in parabolic flights short and fast transitions from hyper to microgravity presumably reflect lower arousal levels and emotional processes in microgravity. Thus, based on limited research about gravity-related changes in EEG from different environments it is difficult to draw any unequivocal conclusions. Additional systematic studies about electrocortical activity in space and parabolic flights, as well as longer bed rest studies are needed in order to advance knowledge about brain functioning in extreme conditions such as space flights. PMID:24734884

Maruši?, Uroš; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado; Kavcic, Voyko

2014-11-01

295

Doxofylline in rat brain in relation to locomotor activity.  

PubMed

Doxofylline is a new xanthine derivative with significant bronchodilatatory activity. We have studied in HPLC the distribution of doxofylline in various areas of rat brain (cortex, cerebellum, limbic system) and its activity on the central nervous system by using a spontaneous motility test comparing it with aminophylline administered orally in equimolar doses (4.7 - 9.4 - 19 x 10(-5) mol/kg). Doxofylline is absorbed 3 or 4 times less than aminophylline at the same doses. Nevertheless, the quantity of doxofylline that goes to the brain is equivalent to that absorbed, whereas the quantity of aminophylline is about one-third. This is due to the greater liposolubility of doxofylline in comparison to aminophylline. In spite of the fact that doxofylline is easily distributed in the brain, spontaneous motility in animals is not modified, whereas aminophylline increases this activity significantly. The low affinity of doxofylline with adenosine receptors (A1 and A2) in comparison with aminophylline explains the lack of side effects on the central nervous system which has been amply documented for theophylline and for other methylxanthine derivatives. PMID:2571486

Cravanzola, C; Reboani, M C; Grosa, G; Franzone, J S

1989-01-01

296

Chlorpromazine confers neuroprotection against brain ischemia by activating BKCa channel.  

PubMed

Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a well-known antipsychotic drug, still widely being used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia, psychotic depression and organic psychoses. We have previously reported that CPZ activates the BKCa (KCa1.1) channel at whole cell level. In the present study, we demonstrated that CPZ increased the single channel open probability of the BKCa channels without changing its single channel amplitude. As BKCa channel is one of the molecular targets of brain ischemia, we explored a possible new use of this old drug on ischemic brain injury. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) focal cerebral ischemia, a single intraperitoneal injection of CPZ at several dosages (5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) could exert a significant neuroprotective effect on the brain damage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockade of BKCa channels abolished the neuroprotective effect of CPZ on MCAO, suggesting that the effect of CPZ is mediated by activation of the BKCa channel. These results demonstrate that CPZ could reduce focal cerebral ischemic damage through activating BKCa channels and merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating ischemic stroke. PMID:24755143

Li, Hua-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Li; Han, Feng; Wang, Ming-Yan; Xue, Mao-Qiang; Qi, Zhi

2014-07-15

297

Brain activation to cocaine cues and motivation/treatment status.  

PubMed

Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of 'motivation to change': (1) current treatment status (i.e. currently receiving versus not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and (2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale. Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients. PMID:22458561

Prisciandaro, James J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T

2014-03-01

298

Amygdala and whole brain activity to emotional faces distinguishes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives It can be clinically difficult to distinguish depressed individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). To examine potential biomarkers of difference between the two disorders, the current study examined differences in the functioning of emotion processing neural regions during a dynamic emotional faces task. Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging, healthy control adults (HC) (n = 29) and depressed adults with MDD (n = 30) and BD (n = 22) performed an implicit emotional-faces task in which they identified a color label superimposed on neutral faces that dynamically morphed into one of four emotional faces (angry, fearful, sad, happy). We compared neural activation between the groups in an amygdala region-of-interest and at the whole brain level. Results Adults with MDD showed significantly greater activity than adults with BD in the left amygdala to the anger condition (p = 0.01). Results of whole brain analyses (at p < 0.005, k ? 20) revealed that adults with BD showed greater activity to sad faces in temporoparietal regions, primarily in the left hemisphere, whereas individuals with MDD demonstrated greater activity than those with BD to displays of anger, fear, and happiness. Many of the observed BD–MDD differences represented abnormalities in functioning compared to HC. Conclusions We observed a dissociation between depressed adults with BD and MDD in the processing of emerging emotional faces. Those with BD showed greater activity during mood-congruent (i.e., sad) faces, whereas, those with MDD showed greater activity for mood-incongruent (i.e., fear, anger, and happy) faces. Such findings may reflect markers of differences between BD and MDD depression in underlying pathophysiological processes. PMID:23911154

Fournier, Jay C.; Keener, Matthew T.; Almeida, Jorge; Kronhaus, Dina M.; Phillips, Mary L.

2013-01-01

299

Decreased activity and increased aggregation of brain calcineurin during aging.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in strength of synaptic transmission and memory formation has been attributed to age-associated increases in the activity of calcineurin (Cn) in hippocampus neurons. In the present study, we examined how brain Cn activity, Cn subunit levels, and Cn protein oxidation were changing during the aging process. Cn activity decreased with advancing age in three brain subcellular fractions, homogenate, cytosol, and synaptic membranes, obtained from F344/BNF1 rats of 5-6, 22-24, and 34-36 months of age. Cn activity also decreased during aging in homogenate, cytosol, and a nerve ending-enriched fraction from the hippocampus. Cn protein levels in homogenate and cytosol, as determined by the immune reactivity of its subunits A and B, were not altered during aging. But, in synaptic membranes, there was an age-related decrease in CnA levels, but not of CnB. Another important observation was that of an oxidative modification of CnA, not CnB, with increasing age. Such modification caused the formation of large aggregates of CnA. Aggregate formation was due to SH-group oxidation as the monomeric form of CnA was recovered upon disulfide reduction of the proteins with dithiothreitol. The age-related formation of aggregates of the catalytic subunit of Cn was suggestive of a correlation between aggregate formation and diminished enzyme activity. The loss of Cn activity may alter signal transduction at synapses during the aging process. PMID:16150427

Agbas, Abdulbaki; Zaidi, Asma; Michaelis, Elias K

2005-10-12

300

Altered baseline brain activity in children with ADHD revealed by resting-state functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), functional neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities in various brain regions, including prefrontal-striatal circuit, cerebellum, and brainstem. In the current study, we used a new marker of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), amplitude of low-frequency (0.01–0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate the baseline brain function of this disorder. Thirteen boys with ADHD (13.0±1.4 years)

Zang Yu-Feng; He Yong; Zhu Chao-Zhe; Cao Qing-Jiu; Sui Man-Qiu; Liang Meng; Tian Li-Xia; Jiang Tian-Zi; Wang Yu-Feng

2007-01-01

301

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

302

Scaling laws and persistence in human brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the temporal variability of human brain activity in timeseries of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We find that these timeseries show scaling behavior which is quantified by computing various scaling exponents. We demonstrate that mentally active zones are one-to-one related to large exponents, or equivalently, to highly temporally correlated processes, while mentally inactive zones are well described by a simple random walk model. Activation maps of scaling exponents are presented and compared to standard results in fMRI. In contrast to standard model-based activation analyses no prior knowledge of the experimental stimulation paradigm has to be assumed for extracting activation patterns from fMRI timeseries. We mention consequences of persistence in fMRI timeseries for standard statistical analysis.

Thurner, Stefan; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Walla, Peter; Barth, Markus

2003-08-01

303

Altered temporal variance and neural synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in anesthesia.  

PubMed

Recent studies at the cellular and regional levels have pointed out the multifaceted importance of neural synchronization and temporal variance of neural activity. For example, neural synchronization and temporal variance has been shown by us to be altered in patients in the vegetative state (VS). This finding nonetheless leaves open the question of whether these abnormalities are specific to VS or rather more generally related to the absence of consciousness. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of inter- and intra-regional neural synchronization and temporal variance of resting state activity in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness state. Applying an intra-subject design, we compared resting state activity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between awake versus anesthetized states in the same subjects. Replicating previous studies, we observed reduced functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and thalamocortical network in the anesthetized state. Importantly, intra-regional synchronization as measured by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and temporal variance as measured by standard deviation (SD) of the BOLD signal were significantly reduced in especially the cortical midline regions, while increased in the lateral cortical areas in the anesthetized state. We further found significant frequency-dependent effects of SD in the thalamus, which showed abnormally high SD in Slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the anesthetized state. Our results show for the first time of altered temporal variance of resting state activity in anesthesia. Combined with our findings in the vegetative state, these findings suggest a close relationship between temporal variance, neural synchronization and consciousness. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5368-5378, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24867379

Huang, Zirui; Wang, Zhiyao; Zhang, Jianfeng; Dai, Rui; Wu, Jinsong; Li, Yuan; Liang, Weimin; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhong; Holland, Giles; Zhang, Jun; Northoff, Georg

2014-11-01

304

Brain activity in adults who stutter: Similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate  

PubMed Central

Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n = 12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749

Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

2012-01-01

305

Brain activation patterns during visual episodic memory processing among first-degree relatives of schizophrenia subjects  

PubMed Central

Episodic memory deficits are proposed as a potential intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. We examined deficits in visual episodic memory and associated brain activation differences among early course schizophrenia (n=22), first-degree relatives (n=16) and healthy controls without personal or family history of psychotic disorders (n=28). Study participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T scanner while performing visual episodic memory encoding and retrieval task. We examined in-scanner behavioral performance evaluating response time and accuracy of performance. Whole-brain BOLD response differences were analyzed using SPM5 correcting for multiple comparisons. There was an incremental increase in response time among the study groups (Healthy Controlsabnormalities in visual episodic memory retrieval but not for encoding in the prefrontal cortex and thalamus. PMID:22992490

Stolz, Erin R.; Pancholi, Krishna; Goradia, Dhruman; Paul, Sarah; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Prasad, Konasale

2012-01-01

306

Brain activation patterns during visual episodic memory processing among first-degree relatives of schizophrenia subjects.  

PubMed

Episodic memory deficits are proposed as a potential intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. We examined deficits in visual episodic memory and associated brain activation differences among early course schizophrenia (n=22), first-degree relatives (n=16) and healthy controls without personal or family history of psychotic disorders (n=28). Study participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T scanner while performing visual episodic memory encoding and retrieval task. We examined in-scanner behavioral performance evaluating response time and accuracy of performance. Whole-brain BOLD response differences were analyzed using SPM5 correcting for multiple comparisons. There was an incremental increase in response time among the study groups (healthy controlsabnormalities in visual episodic memory retrieval but not for encoding in the prefrontal cortex and thalamus. PMID:22992490

Stolz, Erin; Pancholi, Krishna M; Goradia, Dhruman D; Paul, Sarah; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Prasad, Konasale M

2012-11-15

307

Pattern of brain activation during social cognitive tasks is related to social competence in siblings discordant for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Measures of social competence are closely related to actual community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying competence in schizophrenia are not fully understood. We hypothesized that social deficits in schizophrenia are explained, at least in part, by abnormally lateralized patterns of brain activation in response to tasks engaging social cognition, as compared to healthy individuals. We predicted such patterns would be partly heritable, and therefore affected in patients' nonpsychotic siblings as well. We used a functional magnetic resonance image paradigm to characterize brain activation induced by theory of mind tasks, and two tests of social competence, the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS), and the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) in siblings discordant for schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls (n = 14 per group). Healthy individuals showed the strongest correlation between social competence and activation of right hemisphere structures involved in social cognitive processing, whereas in patients, the correlation pattern was lateralized to left hemisphere areas. Unaffected siblings of patients exhibited a pattern intermediate between the other groups. These results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal functioning of nondominant hemisphere structures involved in the processing of socially salient information. PMID:24927685

Villarreal, Mirta F; Drucaroff, Lucas J; Goldschmidt, Micaela G; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Castro, Mariana N; Ladrón-de-Guevara, M Soledad; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Guinjoan, Salvador M

2014-09-01

308

Fast 3D Brain Segmentation Using Dual-Front Active Contours with Optional User-Interaction  

E-print Network

Fast 3D Brain Segmentation Using Dual-Front Active Contours with Optional User-Interaction Hua Li1 attributes of 3D brain segmentation algorithms in- clude robustness, accuracy, computational efficiency result. We propose a novel 3D brain cortex segmentation procedure utilizing dual- front active contours

Cohen, Laurent

309

Neuroimaging and neuroenergetics: Brain activations as information-driven reorganization of energy flows  

E-print Network

Neuroimaging and neuroenergetics: Brain activations as information-driven reorganization of energy 25 January 2010 Keywords: Neuroimaging Neuroenergetics Brain activation Cortical response Deviance detection a b s t r a c t There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain

310

Categories and Functional Units: An Infinite Hierarchical Model for Brain Activations  

E-print Network

Categories and Functional Units: An Infinite Hierarchical Model for Brain Activations Danial present a model that describes the structure in the responses of different brain areas to a set of stimuli encodes the relationship between brain activations and fMRI time courses. A variational inference

Golland, Polina

311

Exploring the network dynamics underlying brain activity during rest Joana Cabral a,b,  

E-print Network

Exploring the network dynamics underlying brain activity during rest§ Joana Cabral a,b, *, Morten L. Kringelbach b,c , Gustavo Deco a,d a Theoretical and Computational Neuroscience Group, Center of Brain Recerca i Estudis Avanc¸ats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain Contents 1. Brain activity during rest

Deco, Gustavo

312

Multi-subject dictionary learning to segment an atlas of brain spontaneous activity  

E-print Network

Multi-subject dictionary learning to segment an atlas of brain spontaneous activity G. Varoquaux123 in the dictionary learning framework, learning simultaneously la- tent spatial maps and the corresponding brain-sur-Yvette, cedex France Abstract. Fluctuations in brain on-going activity can be used to reveal its intrinsic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Learning from M/EEG data with variable brain activation delays  

E-print Network

Learning from M/EEG data with variable brain activation delays Wojciech Zaremba1,2 , M. Pawan Kumar- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the electromagnetic signals produced by brain activity. In order to ad- dress repetitions of the same experiment. An important challenge arising from such data is the variability of brain

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

A NEW MULTIPLE-KERNEL-LEARNING WEIGHTING METHOD FOR LOCALIZING HUMAN BRAIN MAGNETIC ACTIVITY  

E-print Network

A NEW MULTIPLE-KERNEL-LEARNING WEIGHTING METHOD FOR LOCALIZING HUMAN BRAIN MAGNETIC ACTIVITY T School of System Informatics, Kobe University, Japan Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences classification based on machine learning is a powerful tool to analyze human brain activity data obtained

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

315

Acute Methamphetamine Intoxication: Brain Hyperthermia, Blood-Brain Barrier and Brain Edema  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally assumed that multiple chemical substances released in the brain following METH-induced metabolic activation (or oxidative stress) are primary factors underlying damage of neural cells, in this work we will present data suggesting a role of brain hyperthermia and associated leakage of the brain-blood barrier (BBB) in acute METH-induced toxicity. First, we show that METH induces a dose-dependent brain and body hyperthermia, which is strongly potentiated by associated physiological activation and in warm environments that prevent proper heat dissipation to the external environment. Second, we demonstrate that acute METH intoxication induces robust, widespread but structure-specific leakage of the BBB, acute glial activation, and increased water content (edema), which are related to drug-induced brain hyperthermia. Third, we document widespread morphological abnormalities of brain cells, including neurons, glia, epithelial and endothelial cells developing rapidly during acute METH intoxication. These structural abnormalities are tightly related to the extent of brain hyperthermia, leakage of the BBB, and brain edema. While it is unclear whether these rapidly developed morphological abnormalities are reversible, this study demonstrates that METH induces multiple functional and structural perturbations in the brain, determining its acute toxicity and possibly contributing to neurotoxicity. PMID:19897075

Kiyatkin, Eugene A.; Sharma, Hari S.

2011-01-01

316

Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

2012-01-01

317

Brain Activity Associated with Emoticons: An fMRI Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe that brain activities associated with emoticons by using fMRI. In communication over a computer network, we use abstract faces such as computer graphics (CG) avatars and emoticons. These faces convey users' emotions and enrich their communications. However, the manner in which these faces influence the mental process is as yet unknown. The human brain may perceive the abstract face in an entirely different manner, depending on its level of reality. We conducted an experiment using fMRI in order to investigate the effects of emoticons. The results show that right inferior frontal gyrus, which associated with nonverbal communication, is activated by emoticons. Since the emoticons were created to reflect the real human facial expressions as accurately as possible, we believed that they would activate the right fusiform gyrus. However, this region was not found to be activated during the experiment. This finding is useful in understanding how abstract faces affect our behaviors and decision-making in communication over a computer network.

Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

318

Fetal brain mTOR signaling activation in tuberous sclerosis complex.  

PubMed

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by developmental malformations of the cerebral cortex known as tubers, comprised of cells that exhibit enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. To date, there are no reports of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in fetal tubers or in neural progenitor cells lacking Tsc2. We demonstrate mTORC1 activation by immunohistochemical detection of substrates phospho-p70S6K1 (T389) and phospho-S6 (S235/236), and mTORC2 activation by substrates phospho-PKC? (S657), phospho-Akt (Ser473), and phospho-SGK1 (S422) in fetal tubers. Then, we show that Tsc2 shRNA knockdown (KD) in mouse neural progenitor cells (mNPCs) in vitro results in enhanced mTORC1 (phospho-S6, phospho-4E-BP1) and mTORC2 (phospho-Akt and phospho-NDRG1) signaling, as well as a doubling of cell size that is rescued by rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor. Tsc2 KD in vivo in the fetal mouse brain by in utero electroporation causes disorganized cortical lamination and increased cell volume that is prevented with rapamycin. We demonstrate for the first time that mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling is activated in fetal tubers and in mNPCs following Tsc2 KD. These results suggest that inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling during embryogenesis could prevent abnormal brain development in TSC. PMID:23081885

Tsai, Victoria; Parker, Whitney E; Orlova, Ksenia A; Baybis, Marianna; Chi, Anthony W S; Berg, Benjamin D; Birnbaum, Jacqueline F; Estevez, Jacqueline; Okochi, Kei; Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Aronica, Eleonora; Crino, Peter B

2014-02-01

319

A single PHN subject brain activityA single PHN subject brain activity for tactile stimulation in thefor tactile stimulation in the  

E-print Network

as in back pain, and different from arthritis pain. � LidoDerm treatment seems to decrease brain activity are usually resistant to pharmaco-therapy. LidoDerm patch is shown to be effective in reducing post herpetic LidoDerm therapy (acute and long-term); and compare it to brain activity for inflammatory pain

Apkarian, A. Vania

320

A review of fronto-striatal and fronto-cortical brain abnormalities in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and new evidence for dysfunction in adults with ADHD during motivation and attention.  

PubMed

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has long been associated with abnormalities in frontal brain regions. In this paper we review the current structural and functional imaging evidence for abnormalities in children and adults with ADHD in fronto-striatal, fronto-parieto-temporal, fronto-cerebellar and fronto-limbic regions and networks. While the imaging studies in children with ADHD are more numerous and consistent, an increasing number of studies suggests that these structural and functional abnormalities in fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical networks persist into adulthood, despite a relative symptomatic improvement in the adult form of the disorder. We furthermore present new data that support the notion of a persistence of neurofunctional deficits in adults with ADHD during attention and motivation functions. We show that a group of medication-naïve young adults with ADHD behaviours who were followed up 20 years from a childhood ADHD diagnosis show dysfunctions in lateral fronto-striato-parietal regions relative to controls during sustained attention, as well as in ventromedial orbitofrontal regions during reward, suggesting dysfunctions in cognitive-attentional as well as motivational neural networks. The lateral fronto-striatal deficit findings, furthermore, were strikingly similar to those we have previously observed in children with ADHD during the same task, reinforcing the notion of persistence of fronto-striatal dysfunctions in adult ADHD. The ventromedial orbitofrontal deficits, however, were associated with comorbid conduct disorder (CD), highlighting the potential confound of comorbid antisocial conditions on paralimbic brain deficits in ADHD. Our review supported by the new data therefore suggest that both adult and childhood ADHD are associated with brain abnormalities in fronto-cortical and fronto-subcortical systems that mediate the control of cognition and motivation. The brain deficits in ADHD therefore appear to be multi-systemic and to persist throughout the lifespan. PMID:21575934

Cubillo, Ana; Halari, Rozmin; Smith, Anna; Taylor, Eric; Rubia, Katya

2012-02-01

321

Intranasal insulin restores insulin signaling, increases synaptic proteins, and reduces A? level and microglia activation in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice.  

PubMed

Decreased brain insulin signaling has been found recently in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intranasal administration of insulin, which delivers the drug directly into the brain, improves memory and cognition in both animal studies and small clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we treated 9-month-old 3xTg-AD mice, a commonly used mouse model of AD, with daily intranasal administration of insulin for seven days and then studied brain abnormalities of the mice biochemically and immunohistochemically. We found that intranasal insulin restored insulin signaling, increased the levels of synaptic proteins, and reduced A?40 level and microglia activation in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice. However, this treatment did not affect the levels of glucose transporters and O-GlcNAcylation or tau phosphorylation. Our findings provide a mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin treatment and support continuous clinical trials of intranasal insulin for the treatment of AD. PMID:24918340

Chen, Yanxing; Zhao, Yang; Dai, Chun-Ling; Liang, Zhihou; Run, Xiaoqin; Iqbal, Khalid; Liu, Fei; Gong, Cheng-Xin

2014-11-01

322

Brain efflux index to investigate the influence of active efflux on brain distribution of pemetrexed and methotrexate.  

PubMed

Antifolates, in particular methotrexate (MTX), have been widely used in the treatment of primary and secondary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Pemetrexed (PMX) is a novel antifolate that also exhibits potent antitumor activity against CNS malignancies. Studies have shown that brain distribution of both antifolates is significantly restricted, possible due to active efflux transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study characterizes the brain-to-blood transport of PMX and MTX and examines the role of several efflux transporters in brain distribution of the antifolates by use of the intracerebral microinjection technique (brain efflux index). The results from this study show that both PMX and MTX undergo saturable efflux transport across the BBB, with elimination half-lives of approximately 39 minutes and 29 minutes, respectively. Of the various efflux transporters this study investigated, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) does not play an important role in the brain distribution of the two antifolate drugs. Interestingly, breast-cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) makes a significant contribution to the brain elimination of MTX but not PMX. In addition, the brain-to-blood transport of both antifolates was inhibited by probenecid and benzylpenicillin, suggesting the involvement of organic anion transporters in the efflux of these compounds from the brain, with organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) being a possibility. Our results suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms behind the limited brain distribution of PMX and MTX is active efflux transport processes at the BBB, including a benzylpenicillin-sensitive transport system and/or the active transporter Bcrp. PMID:23297298

Li, Li; Agarwal, Sagar; Elmquist, William F

2013-03-01

323

Decoding the Representation of Numerical Values from Brain Activation Patterns  

PubMed Central

Human neuroimaging studies have increasingly converged on the possibility that the neural representation of specific numbers may be decodable from brain activity, particularly in parietal cortex. Multivariate machine learning techniques have recently demonstrated that the neural representation of individual concrete nouns can be decoded from fMRI patterns, and that some patterns are general over people. Here we use these techniques to investigate whether the neural codes for quantities of objects can be accurately decoded. The pictorial mode (nonsymbolic) depicted a set of objects pictorially (e.g., a picture of three tomatoes), whereas the digit-object mode depicted quantities as combination of a digit (e.g., 3) with a picture of a single object. The study demonstrated that quantities of objects were decodable from neural activation patterns, in parietal regions. These brain activation patterns corresponding to a given quantity were common across objects and across participants in the pictorial mode. Other important findings included better identification of individual numbers in the pictorial mode, partial commonality of neural patterns across the two modes, and hemispheric asymmetry with pictorially-depicted numbers represented bilaterally and numbers in the digit-object mode represented primarily in the left parietal regions. The findings demonstrate the ability to identify individual quantities of objects based on neural patterns, indicating the presence of stable neural representations of numbers. Additionally, they indicate a predominance of neural representation of pictorially depicted numbers over the digit-object mode. PMID:22505340

Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Just, Marcel Adam

2014-01-01

324

Slow Brain Activity (ISA/DC) Detected by MEG  

PubMed Central

Infraslow Activity (ISA), Direct Coupled (DC), or Direct Current (DC) are the terms used to describe brain activity that occurs in frequencies below 0.1Hz. ISA amplitude increase is also associated with epilepsy, traumatic brain injuries, strokes, tumors and migraines and has been studied since the early 90’s at the Henry Ford Hospital MEG Laboratory. We have used a DC based MEG system to validate and characterize the ISA from animal models of cortical spreading depression (CSD) thought to be the underlying mechanism of migraine as well as other CSD-like events seen during ischemia, anoxia, and epilepsy. MEG characterizes these slow shifts easier than EEG as there is no attenuation of these signals by the skull. In the current study we report on ISA MEG signals of 12 patients with epilepsy in the pre- and postictal state. In the minutes just prior to the onset of a seizure, large amplitude, ISA MEG waveforms were detected, signaling the onset of the seizure. It is suggested that MEG assessment of ISA, in addition to activity in the conventional frequency band, can at times be useful in the lateralization of epileptic seizures. PMID:22854765

Bowyer, Susan M.; Shvarts, Vladimir; Moran, John E.; Mason, Karen M.; Barkley, Gregory L.; Tepley, Norman

2012-01-01

325

Probabilistic analysis of activation volumes generated during deep brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and shows great promise for the treatment of several other disorders. However, while the clinical analysis of DBS has received great attention, a relative paucity of quantitative techniques exists to define the optimal surgical target and most effective stimulation protocol for a given disorder. In this study we describe a methodology that represents an evolutionary addition to the concept of a probabilistic brain atlas, which we call a probabilistic stimulation atlas (PSA). We outline steps to combine quantitative clinical outcome measures with advanced computational models of DBS to identify regions where stimulation-induced activation could provide the best therapeutic improvement on a per-symptom basis. While this methodology is relevant to any form of DBS, we present example results from subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS for PD. We constructed patient-specific computer models of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) for 163 different stimulation parameter settings which were tested in six patients. We then assigned clinical outcome scores to each VTA and compiled all of the VTAs into a PSA to identify stimulation-induced activation targets that maximized therapeutic response with minimal side effects. The results suggest that selection of both electrode placement and clinical stimulation parameter settings could be tailored to the patient's primary symptoms using patient-specific models and PSAs. PMID:20974269

Butson, Christopher R; Cooper, Scott E; Henderson, Jaimie M; Wolgamuth, Barbara; McIntyre, Cameron C

2011-02-01

326

Comparison of O6-Methylguanine-DNAMethyltransferase Activity in Brain T\\\\imors and Adjacent Normal Brain1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assayed the activity of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in 60 human brain tumors to assess the effects of tumorigenesis in brain on DNA repair capability. Activity was not detectable (<0.5 fmol\\/10* cells, i.e., <300 molecules\\/cells) in 27% of the tumors. Measurable MGMT varied by more than 2 orders of magni tude, 0.5-104.1 fmol\\/106 cells. Mean

John R. Silber; Beth A. Mueller; Timothy G. Ewers; Mitchel S. Berger

327

Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation  

PubMed Central

The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK??/?? mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK??/?? mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Be; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

2010-01-01

328

Flexible, Foldable, Actively Multiplexed, High-Density Electrode Array for Mapping Brain Activity in vivo  

PubMed Central

Arrays of electrodes for recording and stimulating the brain are used throughout clinical medicine and basic neuroscience research, yet are unable to sample large areas of the brain while maintaining high spatial resolution because of the need to individually wire each passive sensor at the electrode-tissue interface. To overcome this constraint, we have developed new devices integrating ultrathin and flexible silicon nanomembrane transistors into the electrode array, enabling new dense arrays of thousands of amplified and multiplexed sensors connected using many fewer wires. We used this system to record novel spatial properties of brain activity in vivo, including sleep spindles, single-trial visual evoked responses, and electrographic seizures. Our electrode array allowed us to discover that seizures may manifest as recurrent spiral waves which propagate in the neocortex. The developments reported here herald a new generation of diagnostic and therapeutic brain-machine interface (BMI) devices. PMID:22081157

Viventi, Jonathan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Vigeland, Leif; Frechette, Eric S.; Blanco, Justin A.; Kim, Yun-Soung; Avrin, Andrew E.; Tiruvadi, Vineet R.; Hwang, Suk-Won; Vanleer, Ann C.; Wulsin, Drausin F.; Davis, Kathryn; Gelber, Casey E.; Palmer, Larry; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Wu, Jian; Xiao, Jianliang; Huang, Yonggang; Contreras, Diego; Rogers, John A.; Litt, Brian

2011-01-01

329

Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.  

PubMed

Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more pleasant than the same sound lacking an HFC. These results suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized response to complex sound containing particular types of high frequencies above the audible range. We term this phenomenon the "hypersonic effect." PMID:10848570

Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

2000-06-01

330

Spatiotemporal characteristics of electrocortical brain activity during mental calculation.  

PubMed

Mental calculation is a complex mental procedure involving a frontoparietal network of brain regions. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have revealed interesting characteristics of these regions, but the precise function of some areas remains elusive. In the present study, we used electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings to chronometrically assess the neuronal processes during mental arithmetic. A calculation task was performed during presurgical 3T fMRI scanning and subsequent ECoG monitoring. Mental calculation induced an increase in fMRI blood oxygen level dependent signal in prefrontal, parietal and lower temporo-occipital regions. The group-fMRI result was subsequently used to cluster the implanted electrodes into anatomically defined regions of interest (ROIs). We observed remarkable differences in high frequency power profiles between ROIs, some of which were closely associated with stimulus presentation and others with the response. Upon stimulus presentation, occipital areas were the first to respond, followed by parietal and frontal areas, and finally by motor areas. Notably, we demonstrate that the fMRI activation in the middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus is associated with two subfunctions during mental calculation. This finding reveals the significance of the temporal dynamics of neural ensembles within regions with an apparent uniform function. In conclusion, our results shed more light on the spatiotemporal aspects of brain activation during a mental calculation task, and demonstrate that the use of fMRI data to cluster ECoG electrodes is a useful approach for ECoG group analysis. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5903-5920, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044370

Vansteensel, Mariska J; Bleichner, Martin G; Freudenburg, Zac V; Hermes, Dora; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Ferrier, Cyrille H; Jansma, Johan Martijn; Ramsey, Nick F

2014-12-01

331

Real-time classification of activated brain areas for fMRI-based human-brain-interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional MR imaging (fMRI) enables to detect different activated brain areas according to the performed tasks. However, data are usually evaluated after the experiment, which prohibits intra-experiment optimization or more sophisticated applications such as biofeedback experiments. Using a human-brain-interface (HBI), subjects are able to communicate with external programs, e.g. to navigate through virtual scenes, or to experience and modify their own brain activation. These applications require the real-time analysis and classification of activated brain areas. Our paper presents first results of different strategies for real-time pattern analysis and classification realized within a flexible experiment control system that enables the volunteers to move through a 3D virtual scene in real-time using finger tapping tasks, and alternatively only thought-based tasks.

Moench, Tobias; Hollmann, Maurice; Grzeschik, Ramona; Mueller, Charles; Luetzkendorf, Ralf; Baecke, Sebastian; Luchtmann, Michael; Wagegg, Daniela; Bernarding, Johannes

2008-03-01

332

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

333

A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication  

PubMed Central

We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

2009-01-01

334

The Impact of Glial Activation in the Aging Brain  

PubMed Central

The past decade or so has witnessed a rekindling of interest in glia requiring a re-evaluation of the early descriptions of astrocytes as merely support cells, and microglia as adopting either a resting state or an activated state in a binary fashion. We now know that both cell types contribute to the optimal functioning of neurons in the healthy brain, and that altered function of either cell impacts on neuronal function and consequently cognitive function. The evidence indicates that both astrocytic and microglial phenotype change with age and that the shift from the resting state is associated with deterioration in synaptic function. In this review, we consider the rapidly-expanding array of functions attributed to these cells and focus on evaluating the changes in cell activation that accompany ageing. PMID:22396865

Lynch, Aileen M.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Deighan, Brian F.; O'Reilly, Julie-Ann.; Gun'ko, Yuri K.; Cowley, Thelma R.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Rodrigo E.; Lynch, Marina A.

2010-01-01

335

Brain activity and emotional processing in smokers treated with varenicline.  

PubMed

Prior evidence suggests that varenicline, an effective smoking cessation treatment, may relieve negative affective signs of nicotine withdrawal. We examined varenicline effects on emotional processing in 25 abstinent smokers after 13 days of varenicline and placebo using a within-subject cross-over design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired while subjects completed a face emotion identification task. Results showed a significant drug effect, characterized by decreased BOLD signal in dorsal anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortex, occipital cortex and thalamus. Increased BOLD signal was observed in the middle temporal gyrus. Varenicline improved correct response time; however, neither BOLD signal nor performance effects were moderated by emotion type. An exploratory region of interest analysis suggests that varenicline reduced amygdala activity independent of emotional valence. Taken together, these results suggest that observed drug effects on brain activity do not reflect affective changes but rather enhanced early processing of perceptual features of facial stimuli. PMID:21507156

Loughead, James; Ray, Riju; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; O'Donnell, Gregory P; Senecal, Nicole; Siegel, Steven; Gur, Ruben C; Lerman, Caryn

2013-07-01

336

Spatial attention affects brain activity in human primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Functional MRI was used to test whether instructing subjects to attend to one or another location in a visual scene would affect neural activity in human primary visual cortex. Stimuli were moving gratings restricted to a pair of peripheral, circular apertures, positioned to the right and to the left of a central fixation point. Subjects were trained to perform a motion discrimination task, attending (without moving their eyes) at any moment to one of the two stimulus apertures. Functional MRI responses were recorded while subjects were cued to alternate their attention between the two apertures. Primary visual cortex responses in each hemisphere modulated with the alternation of the cue; responses were greater when the subject attended to the stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. The attentional modulation of the brain activity was about 25% of that evoked by alternating the stimulus with a uniform field. PMID:10077681

Gandhi, S P; Heeger, D J; Boynton, G M

1999-03-16

337

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? and traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health care problem and a significant socioeconomic challenge worldwide. No specific therapy for TBI is available. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Although PPAR-? was originally characterized in adipose tissue as a regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, recent studies showed that PPAR-? is present in most cell types and plays a central role in the regulation of adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, cellular differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the molecular mechanisms of PPAR-?-related neuroprotection after TBI. Growing evidence has indicated that the beneficial effects of PPAR-? activation in TBI appear to be mediated through downregulation of inflammatory responses, reduction of oxidative stress, inhibition of apoptosis, and promotion of neurogenesis. A thorough understanding of the PPAR-? pathway will be critical to the development of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of patients with TBI. PMID:21072262

Qi, Lei; Jacob, Asha; Wang, Ping; Wu, Rongqian

2010-01-01

338

Written distractor words influence brain activity during overt picture naming  

PubMed Central

Language production requires multiple stages of processing (e.g., semantic retrieval, lexical selection), each of which may involve distinct brain regions. Distractor words can be combined with picture naming to examine factors that influence language production. Phonologically-related distractors have been found to speed picture naming (facilitation), while slower response times and decreased accuracy (interference) generally occur when a distractor is categorically related to the target image. However, other types of semantically-related distractors have been reported to produce a facilitative effect (e.g., associative, part-whole). The different pattern of results for different types of semantically-related distractors raises the question about how the nature of the semantic relation influences the effect of the distractor. To explore the nature of these semantic effects further, we used functional MRI to examine the influence of four types of written distractors on brain activation during overt picture naming. Distractors began with the same sound, were categorically-related, part of the object to be named, or were unrelated to the picture. Phonologically-related trials elicited greater activation than both semantic conditions (categorically-related and part-whole) in left insula and bilateral parietal cortex, regions that have been attributed to phonological aspects of production and encoding, respectively. Semantic conditions elicited greater activation than phonological trials in left posterior MTG, a region that has been linked to concept retrieval and semantic integration. Overall, the two semantic conditions did not differ substantially in their functional activation which suggests a similarity in the semantic demands and lexical competition across these two conditions. PMID:24715859

Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.; Zhuang, Jie; Voyvodic, James T.; Johnson, Micah A.; Camblin, C. Christine

2014-01-01

339

Mechanisms underlying abnormalities of immune activation/coagulation in HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Immune activation has been recognized as an important component of the pathogenesis of HIV infection since the first recognition of cases of AIDS in the early 1980s. Early in the AIDS epidemic, patients with HIV infection were noted to have elevated levels of serum immunoglobulins. CD38 expression on CD4+ T cells was shown to be an independent predictor of survival in 1999. The characterization of HIV-associated immune activation has become progressively sophisticated over the past several years. A consistent finding has been an association of poor clinical outcomes with markers of monocyte activation (IL-6 and sCD14) and/or coagulation (D-dimer). These relationships have been shown to exist even in patients with plasma levels of HIV-1<50 copies/ml. While it is generally accepted that immune activation is related to HIV infection, there is less clarity regarding the pathways that lead to its expression. Among the forces reported to drive HIV-associated immune activation are innate and adaptive immune responses to HIV and related co-infections, homeostatic responses to CD4+ T cell depletion and translocation of microbial products across the intestinal wall. Recent work has identified a potential role for “defective” HIV-1 transcripts in driving immune activation. Studies examining the connections between the adaptive immune system and the coagulation cascade have led to the identification of PAR-1 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Despite the successes experienced with cART, persistent immune activation in association with HIV infection remains a scientific and clinical problem that is yet to be solved.

Lane, Clifford

2014-01-01

340

Factor XII Osaka: abnormal factor XII with partially defective prekallikrein cleavage activity.  

PubMed

A healthy Japanese male had reduced factor XII (FXII) activity (35%) in contrast to normal antigen levels (81%). The F12 of this proband had a 9775G to C mutation in exon 10 and an 11276G to A mutation in exon 13 that resulted in two amino acid substitutions of Ala324Pro (GCG?CCG) in the proline-rich connecting region and Gly531Glu (GGG?GAG) near the active Ser544 in the catalytic domain. His father had the nucleotide 46T/T and a heterozygous 9775G/C mutation. The FXII activity (32%) and antigen level (38%) of the father were about half that of normal individuals with 46T/T, suggesting a heterozygous cross reacting material (CRM)-negative deficiency. His mother had a 46C/T and heterozygous 11276G/A mutation, and 80% FXII activity was incompatible with the corresponding antigen level (125%), suggesting a heterozygous CRM-positive deficiency. The substitution of Ala324Pro probably caused the CRM-negative mutation and the Gly531Glu caused the CRM-positive mutation. We developed three methods based on chromogenic substrates to assay the distinct functions of FXII, namely its autoactivation on a negatively charged surface, activation by kallikrein cleavage and the prekallikrein cleavage activity of FXIIa. The ratios of autoactivated FXIIa/FXII antigen (0.80-1.10) and of kallikrein-induced FXIIa/FXII antigen (0.86-1.00) in plasma from the proband were within normal ranges, whereas those of FXIIa-induced kallikrein/FXII antigen were reduced to 0.41-0.45. In conclusion, the 9775G to C and 11276G to A mutations of F12 led to a CRM-negative and -positive FXII deficiency, and the F12 with 11276A produced a dysfunctional type of FXII with a partial defect (0.41-0.45) in prekallikrein cleavage activity. PMID:21264442

Iijima, Kenji; Arakawa, Yuya; Sugahara, Yuya; Matsushita, Michiko; Moriguchi, Yuki; Shimohiro, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Mayumi

2011-03-01

341

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

342

Aligning context-based statistical models of language with brain activity during reading  

E-print Network

Aligning context-based statistical models of language with brain activity during reading Leila for incoming words given the context. On the other hand, brain imaging studies have sug- gested that during reading, the brain (a) continu- ously builds a context from the successive words and every time

Knight, Kevin

343

Voting-based active contour segmentation of fMRI images of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an algorithm for automated segmentation of white mat- ter in brain MRI images, which can be used to create connected rep- resentations of the gray matter in the cerebral cortex of the brain. These representations then provide meaningful visualizations of brain activity data obtained from fMRI studies. Our algorithm to seg- ment the white matter from the rest

Gowri Srinivasa; Vivek S. Oak; Siddharth J. Garg; Matthew C. Fickus; Jelena Kovacevic

2008-01-01

344

Preponderant mitotic activity of nonleukemic cells plays an important role in failures to detect abnormal clone in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

At diagnosis, clonal chromosomal abnormalities are found in the bone marrow blasts in more than two thirds of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Practically, however, failure to detect these abnormalities is frequent and usually attributed to poor marrow sampling, inadequate metaphases, and/or a preponderant mitotic activity among nonleukemic cells. The authors applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to re-examine 30 cases of karyotypically "normal" childhood ALL to explore the role of preponderant mitotic activities of nonleukemic cells in failures to detect clonal abnormalities. The FISH test were performed using TEL/AML1 fusion gene probe and the centromere probes for chromosome 8 and 10 to detect the t(12;21) translocation and/or hyperdiploidy. Half of the karyotypically "normal" ALL cases examined have been found to have abnormal clones with t(12;21) rearrangement and/or hyperdiploidy by this specially designed FISH assay. Contrary to expectation, the authors found a higher incidence (52%) of clonal abnormalities in cases where over 20 metaphases had been examined than in cases (44%) where fewer than 20 metaphases had been analyzed. These findings suggest that a preponderant mitotic activity of nonleukemic cells plays an important role in failures to detect an abnormal clone by conventional cytogenetic studies. Therefore, karyotypically "normal" childhood ALL patients should undergo FISH studies to rule out the presence of t(12;21) and/or hyperdiploid clone. PMID:12847317

Wu, Shi Qi; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Joo, Wan Jong; Quinn, John J; Franklin, Janet; Siegel, Stuart E; Gaynon, Paul S

2003-07-01

345

Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during "Target" sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma  

E-print Network

an auditory "oddball" attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflexMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

2009-01-01

347

Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2–3 days and used 1–2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

2014-01-01

348

Accumulated source imaging of brain activity with both low and high-frequency neuromagnetic signals.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed the importance of high-frequency brain signals (>70 Hz). One challenge of high-frequency signal analysis is that the size of time-frequency representation of high-frequency brain signals could be larger than 1 terabytes (TB), which is beyond the upper limits of a typical computer workstation's memory (<196 GB). The aim of the present study is to develop a new method to provide greater sensitivity in detecting high-frequency magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in a single automated and versatile interface, rather than the more traditional, time-intensive visual inspection methods, which may take up to several days. To address the aim, we developed a new method, accumulated source imaging, defined as the volumetric summation of source activity over a period of time. This method analyzes signals in both low- (1~70 Hz) and high-frequency (70~200 Hz) ranges at source levels. To extract meaningful information from MEG signals at sensor space, the signals were decomposed to channel-cross-channel matrix (CxC) representing the spatiotemporal patterns of every possible sensor-pair. A new algorithm was developed and tested by calculating the optimal CxC and source location-orientation weights for volumetric source imaging, thereby minimizing multi-source interference and reducing computational cost. The new method was implemented in C/C++ and tested with MEG data recorded from clinical epilepsy patients. The results of experimental data demonstrated that accumulated source imaging could effectively summarize and visualize MEG recordings within 12.7 h by using approximately 10 GB of computer memory. In contrast to the conventional method of visually identifying multi-frequency epileptic activities that traditionally took 2-3 days and used 1-2 TB storage, the new approach can quantify epileptic abnormalities in both low- and high-frequency ranges at source levels, using much less time and computer memory. PMID:24904402

Xiang, Jing; Luo, Qian; Kotecha, Rupesh; Korman, Abraham; Zhang, Fawen; Luo, Huan; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F

2014-01-01

349

Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.  

PubMed

Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process. PMID:22651549

Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

2012-10-01

350

Abnormal neutrophil chemotactic activity in children with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA): the role of nerve growth factor.  

PubMed

A 1926-ins-T mutation in the TrkA gene encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) was previously documented in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA). These patients suffer from skin lacerations which often evolve into deep tissue infections. Abnormality in neutrophil functions may explain this high rate of severe infections. In this study we show that chemotaxis was significantly (P<0.001) suppressed in patients' neutrophils, compared to healthy controls. Although NGF alone did not exert a chemotactic effect, its presence enhanced both migration toward fMLP and phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and JNK) in neutrophils from healthy controls, but not in neutrophils from CIPA patients. The significantly impaired chemotactic activity of neutrophils from a CIPA patient, which has been attributed to the molecular defect in the TrkA receptor, may contribute to the high rate of infection. PMID:18955016

Beigelman, Avraham; Levy, Jacov; Hadad, Nurit; Pinsk, Vered; Haim, Alon; Fruchtman, Yariv; Levy, Rachel

2009-03-01

351

Enhanced resting-state brain activities in ADHD patients: A fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) could be an advantageous choice for clinical applications by virtue of its clinical convenience and non-invasiveness. Without explicit stimulus, resting-state brain activity patterns cannot be obtained using any model-driven method. In this study, we advanced a measure named resting-state activity index (RSAI) to evaluate the resting-state brain activities. Using RSAI, we first investigated the resting-state brain

Lixia Tian; Tianzi Jiang; Meng Liang; Yufeng Zang; Yong He; Manqiu Sui; Yufeng Wang

2008-01-01

352

BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF NESTLING GREAT EGRETS, SNOWY EGRETS AND BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in birds is often used to diagnose exposure or death from organophosphorus or carbamate pesticides. Brain ChE activity in the young of altricial species increases with age; however, this relationship has only been demonstrated in tile European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Brain ChE activity of nestling great egrets (Casme- rodius albus) collected from a colony

Thomas W. Custer; Harry M. Ohlendorf

1989-01-01

353

Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. PMID:23805935

2013-01-01

354

The EEG signal: a window on the cortical brain activity.  

PubMed

The accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia, allowing a more accurate adaptation of the doses of hypnotics, is an important end point for the anesthesiologist. It is a particularly crucial issue in pediatric anesthesia, in the context of the recent controversies about the potential neurological consequences of the main anesthetic drugs on the developing brain. The electroencephalogram signal reflects the electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex. It is thus the key to assessment of the level of hypnosis. Beyond visual analysis, several monitoring devices allow an automated treatment of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, combining time and frequency domain analysis. Each of these monitors focuses on a specific combination of characteristics of the signal and provides the clinician with useful information that remains, however, partial. For a comprehensive approach of the EEG-derived indices, the main features of the normal EEG, in adults and children, will be presented in the awake state and during sleep. Age-related modifications accompanying cerebral maturation during infancy and childhood will be detailed. Then, this review will provide an update on how anesthetic drugs, particularly hypnotics, influence the EEG signal, and how the main available monitors analyze these drug-induced modifications. The relationships between pain, memory, and the EEG will be discussed. Finally, this review will focus on some specific EEG features such as the electrical epileptoid activity observed under sevoflurane anesthesia. The EEG signal is the best window we have on cortical brain activity and provides a fair pharmacodynamic feedback of the effects of hypnotics. However, the cortex is only one of several targets of anesthesia. Hypnotics and opiates, have also subcortical primary targets, and the EEG performances in the evaluation or prediction of nociception are poor. Monitoring subcortical structures in combination with the EEG might in the future allow a better evaluation and a more precise adaptation of balanced anesthesia. PMID:22594406

Constant, Isabelle; Sabourdin, Nada

2012-06-01

355

Probabilistic word pre-activation during language comprehension inferred from electrical brain activity  

E-print Network

words in a graded fashion to a degree that can be estimated from the probability that each word is given in a sentence (as cues to their world knowledge) to estimate relative likelihoods for upcoming words. DespiteProbabilistic word pre-activation during language comprehension inferred from electrical brain

Kutas, Marta

356

Monocular and binocular neuronal activity in human visual cortex revealed by electrical brain activity mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated topographical differences between monocularly and binocularly evoked potential fields related to the retinal location and spatial frequency of grating stimuli. Electrical brain activity was recorded in 18 healthy adults using an array of 21 electrodes over the occipital areas. Vertical black-and-white grating patterns of different spatial frequencies were presented with central fixation or lateralized

Wolfgang Skrandies

1993-01-01

357

The information content of physiological and epileptic brain activity  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cortex is a highly sophisticated computing machine, feeding on information provided by the senses, which is integrated with other, internally generated patterns of neural activity, to trigger behavioural outputs. Bit by bit, we are coming to understand how this may occur, but still, the nature of the ‘cortical code’ remains one of the greatest challenges in science. As with other great scientific challenges of the past, fresh insights have come from a coalescence of different experimental and theoretical approaches. These theoretical considerations are typically reserved for cortical function rather than cortical pathology. This approach, though, may also shed light on cortical dysfunction. The particular focus of this review is epilepsy; we will argue that the information capacity of different brain states provides a means of understanding, and even assessing, the impact and locality of the epileptic pathology. Epileptic discharges, on account of their all-consuming and stereotyped nature, represent instances where the information capacity of the network is massively compromised. These intense discharges also prevent normal processing in surrounding territories, but in a different way, through enhanced inhibition in these territories. Information processing is further compromised during the period of post-ictal suppression, during interictal bursts, and also at other times, through more subtle changes in synaptic function. We also comment on information processing in other more physiological brain states. PMID:23027823

Trevelyan, Andrew J; Bruns, Willy; Mann, Edward O; Crepel, Valerie; Scanziani, Massimo

2013-01-01

358

Abnormal activation of autophagy-induced crinophagy in Paneth cells from patients with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Autophagy-related 16 like-1 (ATG16L-1), immunity-related GTPase-M (IRGM), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (NOD2) regulate autophagy, and variants in these genes have been associated with predisposition to Crohn's disease (CD). However, little is known about the role of autophagy in CD. Intestinal biopsies from untreated pediatric patients with CD, celiac disease, or ulcerative colitis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We observed that autophagy was specifically activated in Paneth cells from patients with CD, independently of mucosal inflammation or disease-associated variants of ATG16L1 or IRGM. In these cells, activation of autophagy was associated with a significant decrease in number of secretory granules and features of crinophagy. These observations might account for the disorganization of secretory granules previously reported in Paneth cells from patients with CD. PMID:22285936

Thachil, Elodie; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Arbeille, Brigitte; Paris, Régine; Grodet, Alain; Peuchmaur, Michel; Codogno, Patrice; Barreau, Frédérick; Ogier-Denis, Eric; Berrebi, Dominique; Viala, Jérôme

2012-05-01

359

Functional coupling of simultaneous electrical and metabolic activity in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between brain electrical and metabolic activity are being uncovered currently in animal models using invasive methods; however, in the human brain this relationship remains not well understood. In particular, the relationship between noninvasive measurements of electrical activity and metabolism remains largely undefined. To understand better these relations, cerebral activity was measured simultaneously with electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission

Terrence R. Oakes; Diego A. Pizzagalli; Andrew M. Hendrick; Katherine A. Horras; Christine L. Larson; Heather C. Abercrombie; Stacey M. Schaefer; John V. Koger; Richard J. Davidson

2004-01-01

360

Spatial rotation and recognizing emotions: Gender related differences in brain activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity – assessed with EEG methodology – while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2 alpha band. Males and females displayed an inverse IQ-activation relationship

Norbert Jaušovec; Ksenija Jaušovec

2008-01-01

361

Ecto-5V-nucleotidase activity in brain membranes of zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

E-print Network

hydrolysis in a pH range of 7.0­7.5 in the presence of Mg2+ . The enzyme presented a maximal activity for AMPEcto-5V-nucleotidase activity in brain membranes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) Mario Roberto Sengera nucleotides. This study reports the enzymatic properties of an ecto-5V-nucleotidase activity in brain

Eizirik, Eduardo

362

Brain activity and desire for internet video game play  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those which have been linked with craving for drugs or pathological gambling. Methods This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic MRI and fMRI data from 19 healthy male adults (ages 18–23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel internet video game, “War Rock” (K-network®). Using segments of videotape consisting of five contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a seven point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape. Results In responding to internet video game stimuli, compared to neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (FDR <0.05, p<0.009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the beta values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared to the general players, members who played more internet video game (MIGP) cohort showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal pre-central gyrus, right parietal post-central gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the internet video game in the MIGP cohort was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus. Discussion The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathological gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. PMID:21220070

Han, Doug Hyun; Bolo, Nicolas; Daniels, Melissa A.; Arenella, Lynn; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

2010-01-01

363

Genetic and environmental contributions to brain activation during calculation.  

PubMed

Twin studies have long suggested a genetic influence on inter-individual variations in mathematical abilities, and candidate genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies. However, the localization of the brain regions under genetic influence during number manipulation is still unexplored. Here we investigated fMRI data from a group of 19 MZ (monozygotic) and 13 DZ (dizygotic) adult twin pairs, scanned during a mental calculation task. We examined both the activation and the degree of functional lateralization in regions of interest (ROIs) centered on the main activated peaks. Heritability was first investigated by comparing the respective MZ and DZ correlations. Then, genetic and environmental contributions were jointly estimated by fitting a ACE model classically used in twin studies. We found that a subset of the activated network was under genetic influence, encompassing the bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL), the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and a left superior frontal region. An additional region of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC), whose deactivation correlated with a behavioral calculation score, also presented higher similarity between MZ than between DZ twins, thus offering a plausible physiological basis for the observable inheritance of math scores. Finally, the main impact of the shared environment was found in the lateralization of activation within the intraparietal sulcus. These maps of genetic and environmental contributions provide precise candidate phenotypes for further genetic association analyses, and illuminate how genetics and education shape the development of number processing networks. PMID:23664947

Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

2013-11-01

364

NMDA receptor activation strengthens weak electrical coupling in mammalian brain.  

PubMed

Electrical synapses are formed by gap junctions and permit electrical coupling, which shapes the synchrony of neuronal ensembles. Here, we provide a direct demonstration of receptor-mediated strengthening of electrical coupling in mammalian brain. Electrical coupling in the inferior olive of rats was strengthened by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs), which were found at synaptic loci and at extrasynaptic loci 20-100 nm proximal to gap junctions. Electrical coupling was strengthened by pharmacological and synaptic activation of NMDARs, whereas costimulation of ionotropic non-NMDAR glutamate receptors transiently antagonized the effect of NMDAR activation. NMDAR-dependent strengthening (1) occurred despite increased input conductance, (2) induced Ca(2+)-influx microdomains near dendritic spines, (3) required activation of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein-kinase II, (4) was restricted to neurons that were weakly coupled, and (5) thus strengthened coupling, mainly between nonadjacent neurons. This provided a mechanism to expand the synchronization of rhythmic membrane potential oscillations by chemical neurotransmitter input. PMID:24656255

Turecek, Josef; Yuen, Genevieve S; Han, Victor Z; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Bayer, K Ulrich; Welsh, John P

2014-03-19

365

Working Memory Updating Function Training Influenced Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Recent studies demonstrated that working memory could be improved by training. We recruited healthy adult participants and used adaptive running working memory training tasks with a double-blind design, combined with the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach, to explore the influence of updating function training on brain activity. Participants in the training group underwent training for 20 days. Compared with the control group, the training group's accuracy (ACC) in the two-back working memory task had no significant differences after training, but reaction time (RT) was reduced significantly. Besides, the amplitudes of N160 and P300 increased significantly whereas that of P200 decreased significantly. The results suggest that training could have improved the participants' capacity on both inhibitory and updating. PMID:24015182

Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Renlai; Fu, Li

2013-01-01

366

Brain projects think big When you read these words, hundreds of million of nerve cells are electrically and chemically active in your brain. This  

E-print Network

Brain projects think big When you read these words, hundreds of million of nerve cells are electrically and chemically active in your brain. This activity enables you to recognize words, sense the world, learn, enjoy and create new things, and be curious about the world around you. Indeed, our brain

Segev, Idan

367

Mechanisms of brain ventricle development  

E-print Network

The brain ventricles are a conserved system of fluid-filled cavities within the brain that form during the earliest stages of brain development. Abnormal brain ventricle development has been correlated with neurodevelopmental ...

Lowery, Laura Anne

2008-01-01

368

Face gender modulates women's brain activity during face encoding.  

PubMed

Women typically remember more female than male faces, whereas men do not show a reliable own-gender bias. However, little is known about the neural correlates of this own-gender bias in face recognition memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whether face gender modulated brain activity in fusiform and inferior occipital gyri during incidental encoding of faces. Fifteen women and 14 men underwent fMRI while passively viewing female and male faces, followed by a surprise face recognition task. Women recognized more female than male faces and showed higher activity to female than male faces in individually defined regions of fusiform and inferior occipital gyri. In contrast, men's recognition memory and blood-oxygen-level-dependent response were not modulated by face gender. Importantly, higher activity in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) to one gender was related to better memory performance for that gender. These findings suggest that the FFG is involved in the gender bias in memory for faces, which may be linked to differential experience with female and male faces. PMID:23698075

Lovén, Johanna; Svärd, Joakim; Ebner, Natalie C; Herlitz, Agneta; Fischer, Håkan

2014-07-01

369

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Accompanied by Depressive Symptoms, as Revealed by Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal-Limbic System  

PubMed Central

As patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are at high risk for comorbid depression, it is hypothesized that these two diseases are sharing common pathogenic pathways. Using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity approaches, we characterized human regional brain activity at resting state to examine specific brain networks in patients with PD and those with PD and depression (PDD). This study comprised 41 PD human patients and 25 normal human subjects. The patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and were further divided into two groups: patients with depressive symptoms and non-depressed PD patients (nD-PD). Compared with the non-depressed patients, those with depressive symptoms exhibited significantly increased regional activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus, and decreased ReHo in the left amygdala and bilateral lingual gyrus. Brain network connectivity analysis revealed decreased functional connectivity within the prefrontal-limbic system and increased functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex and lingual gyrus in PDD compared with the nD-PD group. In summary, the findings showed regional brain activity alterations and disruption of the mood regulation network in PDD patients. The pathogenesis of PDD may be attributed to abnormal neural activity in multiple brain regions. PMID:24404185

Su, Meilan; Li, Rong; Zou, Dezhi; Han, Yu; Wang, Xuefeng; Cheng, Oumei

2014-01-01

370

Abnormal expression of plasminogen activator inhibitors in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease.  

PubMed Central

We previously reported significantly elevated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma and placenta from pregnant women with severe pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia is a frequent problem in molar pregnancies. As increases in PAI-1 may contribute to the placental alterations that occur in pre-eclampsia, we have begun to investigate changes in PAI-1 as well as PAI-2 and several other components of the fibrinolytic system in patients with trophoblastic disease. Significant increases in plasma PAI-1 and decreases in plasma PAI-2 levels were observed in molar pregnancies when compared with the levels in normal pregnant women of similar gestational age. PAI-1 antigen levels also were increased, and PAI-2 levels were decreased in placenta from women with molar pregnancies compared with placenta obtained by spontaneous abortion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong positive and specific staining of PAI-1 in trophoblastic epithelium in molar pregnancies and relatively weak staining of PAI-2. No association between the distribution of PAI-1 and vitronectin was found, and no specific signal for tissue type PA, urokinase type PA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or interleukin-1 was detected. In situ hybridization revealed an increase in PAI-1 but not PAI-2 mRNAs in placenta from molar pregnancies in comparison with placenta from abortions. These results demonstrate increased PAI-1 protein and mRNA in trophoblastic disease and suggest that localized elevated levels of PAI-1 may contribute to the hemostatic problems associated with this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8863672

Estelles, A.; Grancha, S.; Gilabert, J.; Thinnes, T.; Chirivella, M.; Espana, F.; Aznar, J.; Loskutoff, D. J.

1996-01-01

371

Stimulus-activated changes in brain tissue temperature in the anesthetized rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new thin-film, multisensor probe was used to determine tissue oxygen tension, tissue temperature, and electrical activity at two depths below the brain surface in chloral hydrateor nitrous oxide\\/halothane-anesthetized rats. Brain tissue temperature at both depths was found to be lower than core temperature by 1–2°C. Electrical activation, spreading depression, and pentylenetetrazol seizures all resulted in transient increases of brain

Joseph C. LaManna; Kimberly A. McCracken; Madhavi Patil; Otto J. Prohaska

1989-01-01

372

Optical imaging of neural and hemodynamic brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging technologies can be used to record neural and hemodynamic activity. Neural activity elicits physiological changes that alter the optical tissue properties. Specifically, changes in polarized light are concomitant with neural depolarization. We measured polarization changes from an isolated lobster nerve during action potential propagation using both reflected and transmitted light. In transmission mode, polarization changes were largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. To overcome irregular cell orientation found in the brain, we measured polarization changes from a nerve tied in a knot. Our results show that neural activation produces polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations. Neural activation expends energy resources and elicits metabolic delivery through blood vessel dilation, increasing blood flow and volume. We used spectroscopic imaging techniques combined with electrophysiological measurements to record evoked neural and hemodynamic responses from the auditory cortex of the rat. By using implantable optics, we measured responses across natural wake and sleep states, as well as responses following different amounts of sleep deprivation. During quiet sleep, evoked metabolic responses were larger compared to wake, perhaps because blood vessels were more compliant. When animals were sleep deprived, evoked hemodynamic responses were smaller following longer periods of deprivation. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma.

Schei, Jennifer Lynn

373

Features of the Diurnal Variations of the Total Electron Content during the Abnormal Low Solar Activity Maximum (2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the GIM (Global Ionospheric Maps) technology we studied the diurnal variations of the global distribution of the total electron content in the quiet helio-geomagnetic conditions during the period of abnormal low solar activity maximum (2012). It was shown that the global distribution of the total electron content reaches the maximum of daily values during spring (autumn) equinox: 60±5 TECU in equatorial latitudes; 35±5 TECU at middle latitudes; 10±5 TECU at high latitudes. There was carried out a comparison of the diurnal variations of the absolute values of the total electron content, which was calculated on the base of the IONEX maps under quiet geomagnetic conditions for different seasons, with variations of the median values of the electron concentration in the ionosphere according to the data from the vertical sounding ionosphere station Almaty. It was shown that in the diurnal variations of the electron concentration in the maximum of the F2 layer of the ionosphere there are observed the same features as in the variations of the total electron content. This paper was written as part of the Kazakhstan Republican program 002 "Applied scientific researches of space activities" under the theme "Develop methods for estimating the crust geomechanical crisis areas using mathematical modeling and satellite technologies".

Mukasheva, Saule; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan

374

Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

2014-03-01

375

Right Frontal Brain Activity, Cortisol, and Withdrawal Behavior in 6-Month-Old Infants  

E-print Network

Right Frontal Brain Activity, Cortisol, and Withdrawal Behavior in 6-Month-Old Infants Kristin A examined anterior asymmetric brain electrical activity and cortisol in infants, children, and adults, the direct association between asymmetry and cortisol has not systematically been reported. In nonhuman

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

376

Brain correlates underlying creative thinking: EEG alpha activity in professional vs. novice dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroscientific research on creativity has revealed valuable insights into possible brain correlates underlying this complex mental ability domain. However, most of the studies investigated brain activity during the performance of comparatively simple (verbal) type of tasks and the majority of studies focused on samples of the normal population. In this study we investigate EEG activity in professional dancers (n=15) who

Andreas Fink; Barbara Graif; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

2009-01-01

377

Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain Electrical Activity  

E-print Network

Dynamic Variation in Pleasure in Children Predicts Nonlinear Change in Lateral Frontal Brain frontal activity. Brain electrical measures have been used to study the asymmetric involvement of lateral in a sample of 128 children ages 6­10 years. Electroencephalographic activity was recorded during "pop-out toy

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

378

APOE-dependent PET patterns of brain activation in Alzheimer disease  

E-print Network

APOE-dependent PET patterns of brain activation in Alzheimer disease N. Scarmeas, MD; K.E. Anderson nonverbal recognition memory task. Patterns of brain activation differed as a function of APOE genotype: 4, precuneus, parahippocampal, and right precentral gyrus. The APOE genotype seems to play a role in cerebral

379

Roles of NMDA receptor activity and nitric oxide production in brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that neural activity is important for brain maturation has focused much research interest on the developmental role of the NMDA receptor, a key mediator of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, a mechanism able to link spatial and temporal parameters of synaptic activity during development emerged as a necessary condition to explain how axons segregate into a common brain region

Antonio Contestabile

2000-01-01

380

Two-photon microscopy to measure blood flow and concurrent brain cell activity  

E-print Network

to examine vascular dynamics and blood flow in multiple brain regions, including somatosensory cortex (4, 9-photon imaging of blood flow dynamics, concurrent with cellular activity, in the somatosenso 1 Two-photon microscopy to measure blood flow and concurrent brain cell activity Running title

Kleinfeld, David

381

Individual variability in brain activations associated with episodic retrieval: A role for large-scale databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of brain functions using neuroimaging techniques is commonly dependent on statistical analyses of groups of subjects in order to identify sites of activation, particularly in studies of episodic memory. Exclusive reliance on group analysis may be to the detriment of understanding the true underlying cognitive nature of brain activations. In this overview, we found that the patterns of

Michael B. Miller; John Darrell Van Horn

2007-01-01

382

Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

2008-01-01

383

Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

2005-01-01

384

Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUsing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of a

Dennis J. Grab; Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Olga V. Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; Amanda Brown; Carlos A. Pardo; Yongqing Zhang; Kevin G. Becker; Brenda A. Wilson; Julio Scharfstein; J. Stephen Dumler

2009-01-01

385

Protease Activated Receptor Signaling Is Required for African Trypanosome Traversal of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) as an in vitro model for how African trypanosomes cross the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) we recently reported that the parasites cross the BBB by generating calcium activation signals in HBMECs through the activity of parasite cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L (brucipain). In the current study, we examined the possible role of

Dennis J. Grab; Jose C. Garcia-Garcia; Olga V. Nikolskaia; Yuri V. Kim; Amanda Brown; Carlos A. Pardo; Yongqing Zhang; Kevin G. Becker; Brenda A. Wilson; Julio Scharfstein; J. Stephen Dumler

2009-01-01

386

Rat brain CYP2B-enzymatic activation of chlorpyrifos to the oxon mediates cholinergic neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos is a commonly used insecticide that can be metabolically activated by CYP2B to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyrifos-oxon causing cholinergic overstimulation and neurotoxicity. Rat brain extracts can also activate chlorpyrifos in vitro, and the lack of circulating oxon in serum suggests that metabolic activation within the brain may be responsible for chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity. Rats received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CYP2B mechanism-based inhibitors (MBI), once or repeatedly, followed by chlorpyrifos (62.5-250 mg/kg sc). Rats were assessed for neurochemical (acetylcholinesterase activity), physiological (temperature), and behavioral measures (e.g., gait, righting reflex, arousal, incline angles) at 4 hours 3 days after chlorpyrifos treatment. ICV CYP2B MBIs increased brain chlorpyrifos levels, decreased brain chlorpyrifos-oxon levels, and attenuated the reduction in brain acetylcholinesterase; there was no effect on serum chlorpyrifos levels or acetylcholinesterase activity reduction. Inhibition of brain chlorpyrifos metabolism by CYP2B MBIs blocked centrally mediated hypothermia but not peripherally mediated hyperthermia. A single ICV MBI treatment significantly attenuated chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity mediated behavioral outcomes at 1 day after chlorpyrifos treatment with a gradual worsening of behavioral scores through day 3, suggesting a recovery of brain CYP2B activity and an increase in local chlorpyrifos activation. Daily ICV MBI injections attenuated neurotoxicity across all test days consistent with prolonged inhibition of brain chlorpyrifos activation. Thus, rat brain CYP2B contributes significantly to chlorpyrifos's neurotoxic effects. Variable human brain CYP2B levels, influenced by genetics and environmental exposures, may contribute to interindividual differences in neurotoxicity. Therapeutic inhibition of brain CYP2B could also be explored as a treatment for exposure to CYP2B-activated neurotoxins. PMID:22287024

Khokhar, Jibran Y; Tyndale, Rachel F

2012-04-01

387

Experimental human endotoxemia enhances brain activity during social cognition.  

PubMed

Acute peripheral inflammation with corresponding increases in peripheral cytokines affects neuropsychological functions and induces depression-like symptoms. However, possible effects of increased immune responses on social cognition remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of experimentally induced acute inflammation on performance and neural responses during a social cognition task assessing Theory of Mind (ToM) ability. In this double-blind randomized crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 healthy right-handed male volunteers received an injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.4 ng/kg) or saline, respectively. Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as mood ratings were analyzed together with brain activation during a validated ToM task (i.e. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test). LPS administration induced pronounced transient increases in pro- (IL-6, TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1ra) cytokines as well as decreases in mood. Social cognition performance was not affected by acute inflammation. However, altered neural activity was observed during the ToM task after LPS administration, reflected by increased responses in the fusiform gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus. The increased task-related neural responses in the LPS condition may reflect a compensatory strategy or a greater social cognitive processing as a function of sickness. PMID:23547245

Kullmann, Jennifer S; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Engler, Harald; Oberbeck, Reiner; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Forsting, Michael; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke R

2014-06-01

388

Enhancing Physical Activity and Brain Reorganization after Stroke  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that, if reorganization of brain function is to be optimal after stroke, there needs to be a reorganisation of the methods used in physical rehabilitation and the time spent in specific task practice, strength and endurance training, and aerobic exercise. Frequency and intensity of rehabilitation need to be increased so that patients can gain the energy levels and vigour necessary for participation in physical activity both during rehabilitation and after discharge. It is evident that many patients are discharged from inpatient rehabilitation severely deconditioned, meaning that their energy levels are too low for active participation in daily life. Physicians, therapists, and nursing staff responsible for rehabilitation practice should address this issue not only during inpatient rehabilitation but also after discharge by promoting and supporting community-based exercise opportunities. During inpatient rehabilitation, group sessions should be frequent and need to include specific aerobic training. Physiotherapy must take advantage of the training aids available, including exercise equipment such as treadmills, and of new developments in computerised feedback systems, robotics, and electromechanical trainers. For illustrative purposes, this paper focuses on the role of physiotherapists, but the necessary changes in practice and in attitude will require cooperation from many others. PMID:21766024

Carr, Janet H.; Shepherd, Roberta B.

2011-01-01

389

The viral theory of schizophrenia revisited: Abnormal placental gene expression and structural changes with lack of evidence of H1N1 viral presence in placentae of infected mice or brains of exposed offspring  

PubMed Central

Researchers have long noted an excess of patients with schizophrenia were born during the months of January and March. This winter birth effect has been hypothesized to result either from various causes such as vitamin D deficiency (McGrath, 1999; McGrath et al., 2010), or from maternal infection during pregnancy. Infection with a number of viruses during pregnancy including influenza, and rubella are known to increase the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring (Brown, 2006). Animal models using influenza virus or PolyI:C, a viral mimic, have been able to replicate many of the brain morphological, genetic, and behavioral deficits of schizophrenia (Meyer et al., 2006, 2008a, 2009; Bitanihirwe et al. 2010; Meyer and Feldon, 2010; Short et al., 2010). Using a murine model of prenatal viral infection, our laboratory has shown that viral infection on embryonic days 9, 16, and 18 leads to abnormal expression of brain genes and brain structural abnormalities in the exposed offspring (Fatemi et al., 2005, 2008a,b, 2009a,b). The purpose of the current study was to examine gene expression and morphological changes in the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex as a result of viral infection on embryonic day 7 of pregnancy. Pregnant mice were either infected with influenza virus [A/WSN/33 strain (H1N1)] or sham-infected with vehicle solution. At E16, placentas were harvested and prepared for either microarray analysis or for light microscopy. We observed significant, upregulation of 77 genes and significant downregulation of 93 genes in placentas. In brains of exposed offspring following E7 infection, there were changes in gene expression in prefrontal cortex (6 upregulated and 24 downregulated at P0; 5 upregulated and 14 downregulated at P56) and hippocampus (4 upregulated and 6 downregulated at P0; 6 upregulated and 13 downregulated at P56). QRT-PCR verified the direction and magnitude of change for a number of genes associated with hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, and autism. Placentas from infected mice showed a number of morphological abnormalities including presence of thrombi and increased presence of immune cells. Additionally, we searched for presence of H1N1 viral-specific genes for M1/M2, NA, and NS1 in placentas of infected mice and brains of exposed offspring and found none. Our results demonstrate that prenatal viral infection disrupts structure and gene expression of the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex potentially explaining deleterious effects in the exposed offspring without evidence for presence of viral RNAs in the target tissues. PMID:21277874

Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rooney, Robert J.; Mori, Susumu; Kornfield, Tess E.; Reutiman, Teri J.; Kneeland, Rachel E.; Liesch, Stephanie B.; Hua, Kegang; Hsu, John; Patel, Divyen H.

2011-01-01

390

Functional Modularity of Background Activities in Normal and Epileptic Brain Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the connectivity structure of weighted brain networks extracted from spontaneous magnetoencephalographic signals of healthy subjects and epileptic patients (suffering from absence seizures) recorded at rest. We find that, for the activities in the 5-14 Hz range, healthy brains exhibit a sparse connectivity, whereas the brain networks of patients display a rich connectivity with a clear modular structure. Our results suggest that modularity plays a key role in the functional organization of brain areas during normal and pathological neural activities at rest.

Chavez, M.; Valencia, M.; Navarro, V.; Latora, V.; Martinerie, J.

2010-03-01

391

Brain activity in using heuristic prototype to solve insightful problems.  

PubMed

When confronted with a real-world problem, heuristic knowledge and experience can guide the solution of a specific technical problem as the key step toward innovation. In particular, a heuristic prototype must be used correctly to cue the technical problem that exists in a particular situation. The present study selected an innovative paradigm and scientific innovation materials to investigate the neural basis of insight induced by heuristic prototypes using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The day prior to undergoing fMRI scanning, participants were asked to solve 42 difficult technical problems that scientists might have already encountered but were unknown to the participants. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, the same participants were randomly presented with 84 prototypes classified into two types: related prototypes (RPs), which were useful for solving previously encountered problems, and unrelated prototypes (UPs), which sometimes did not contribute to problem solving. While being scanned, participants were asked to assess whether a prototype is relevant to any of the technical problems. This study comprised two conditions: solving technical problems when presented with a related heuristic prototype and failing to solve technical problems using unrelated heuristic prototypes. The authors assumed that the regions significantly activated by the RP condition, compared with the UP condition, reflected brain activity related to the role of heuristic prototypes in scientific insight. fMRI data showed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus (left DLFPC, BA9) and the left angular gyrus (left AG, BA39) were more significantly activated when presented with RPs than with UPs. The results suggest that the DLPFC may be involved in the automatic retrieval of technical problems and breaking of mental sets. Moreover, the left AG may be involved in forming novel associations between technical problems and related prototypes. PMID:23860118

Dandan, Tong; Haixue, Zhu; Wenfu, Li; Wenjing, Yang; Jiang, Qiu; Qinglin, Zhang

2013-09-15

392

Alterations in Regional Homogeneity of Spontaneous Brain Activity in Late-Life Subthreshold Depression  

PubMed Central

The early detection of major depression in elderly individuals who are at risk of developing the disease is of prime importance when it comes to the prevention of geriatric depression. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine changes in regional homogeneity (ReHo) of spontaneous activity in late-life subthreshold depression (StD), and we evaluated the sensitivity/specificity performance of these changes. Nineteen elderly individuals with StD and 18 elderly controls underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. The ReHo approach was employed to examine whether StD was related to alte