A source model is proposed to simulate spatial distributions of abnormal MEG and EEG activities generated by abnormal neural activities such as the delta activity associated with brain tumors. Brain tumor itself is electrically silent and the spherical shell around the tumor might generate abnormal neural activities. The sources of these neural activities are represented by combinations of multiple current dipoles. The head is assumed to be a spherical volume conductor. Electrical potentials and magnetic fields over the surface of the spheres are calculated. The computer simulation shows that the MEG topography and EEG topography vary variously with combinations of location and orientation of the dipoles. In a special case, however, that the dipoles orient in the same direction or orient radially, the spatial patterns of the MEGs and EEGs generated by numerous dipoles are analogous to those generated by single dipoles.
Ueno, S.; Iramina, K.; Ozaki, H.; Harada, K.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of schizophrenia have revealed white matter abnormalities in several areas of the brain. The functional impact on either psychopathology or cognition remains, however, poorly understood. Here we analysed both functional MRI (during a working memory task) and DTI data sets in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 controls. Firstly, DTI analyses revealed reductions of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right medial temporal lobe adjacent to the right parahippocampal gyrus, likely to contain fibres of the inferior cingulum bundle, and in the right frontal lobe. Secondly, functional MRI revealed prefrontal, superior parietal and occipital relative hypoactivation in patients with the main effect of task. This was accounted for by reduced prefrontal activation during the encoding phase of the task, but not during maintenance or retrieval phases. Thirdly, we found a direct correlation in patients between the frontal FA reduction (but not medial temporal reductions) and fMRI activation in regions in the prefrontal and occipital cortex. Our study combining fMRI and DTI thus demonstrates altered structure-function relationships in schizophrenia. It highlights a potential relationship between anatomical changes in a frontal-temporal anatomical circuit and functional alterations in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:17085018
Schlösser, Ralf G M; Nenadic, Igor; Wagner, Gerd; Güllmar, Daniel; von Consbruch, Katrin; Köhler, Sabine; Schultz, C Christoph; Koch, Kathrin; Fitzek, Clemens; Matthews, Paul M; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich
Dissociative paralysis in conversion disorders has variably been attributed to a lack of movement initiation or an inhibition of movement. While psychodynamic theory suggests altered movement conceptualization, brain activation associated with observation and replication of movements has so far not been assessed neurobiologically. Here, we measured brain activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging during observation and subsequent imitative execution of movements in four patients with dissociative hand paralysis. Compared to healthy controls conversion disorder patients showed decreased activation of cortical hand areas during movement observation. This effect was specific to the side of their dissociative paralysis. No brain activation compatible with movement inhibition was observed. These findings indicate that in dissociative paralysis, there is not only derangement of movement initiation but already of movement conceptualization. This raises the possibility that strategies targeted at reestablishing appropriate movement conceptualization may contribute to the therapy of dissociative paralysis. PMID:16213162
Burgmer, Markus; Konrad, Carsten; Jansen, Andreas; Kugel, Harald; Sommer, Jens; Heindel, Walter; Ringelstein, Erich B; Heuft, Gereon; Knecht, Stefan
Brain electrical activity associated with inhibitory control was recorded in ten ADHD and ten healthy children using high density event related potentials (ERPs) during the Stop Signal Task (SST). SST is a two-choice reaction time (RT) paradigm, in which subjects are required, on 25% of the trials, to withdraw their response upon presentation of a “Stop Signal”. In the healthy
Mario Liotti; Steven R. Pliszka; Ricardo Perez; Delia Kothmann; Marty G. Woldorff
In the present study, we investigated differences in resting-state brain activity in patients with bipolar depression (BD) and unipolar depression (UD) by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. Twenty-one BD and 21 gender-, age-, and education-matched UD patients participated in the fMRI analysis. We compared the differences in the ALFF between the two groups and investigated the correlation between clinical measurements and ALFF in the regions displaying significant group differences. BD subjects displayed significantly decreased ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and the left posterior insula (l-PI). They also displayed increased ALFF in the right dorsal anterior insula (r-dAI) when compared to the UD group. Moderate negative correlations were found between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score (HAMD) and the ALFF in the l-PI for the BD (r=-0.44, P=0.02) and UD (r=-0.45, P=0.02) groups. Our results support the notion that insular subregions may contribute to the precise differentiation between BD and UD. PMID:22503728
Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Wu, Xia; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Wang, Yong-Jun; Tie, Chang-Le; Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Jie; Yao, Li; Wang, Chuan-Yue
We examined resting state brain activity in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder (BD) by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. Unlike functional connectivity, the ALFF approach reflects local properties in specific regions and provides direct information about impaired foci. Groups of 26 patients with BD depression and 26 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects participated in fMRI scans. We examined group differences in ALFF findings as well as correlations between clinical measurements and ALFF in the regions showing significant group differences. Our results showed that patients with BD depression had significantly increased ALFF in the left insula, the right caudate nucleus, the temporal gyrus, the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. They also had decreased ALFF in the left postcentral gyrus, the left parahippocampal gyrus, and the cerebellum. Moderate negative correlations were found between the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score and ALFF in the left insular cortex in the patient group. These results support a model of BD that involves dysfunction in the prefrontal-limbic networks and associated striatal systems. We also demonstrated the feasibility of ALFF as a technique to investigate persistent cerebral dysfunction in BD. PMID:23017873
Liu, Chun-Hong; Li, Feng; Li, Su-Fang; Wang, Yong-Jun; Tie, Chang-Le; Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Jie; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue
The report shows that Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain creatine kinase (CK) is modified such that the nucleotide binding site of CK is blocked and that abnormal partitioning of CK between the soluble and pellet fractions occurs. First, CK activity was 86% decreased in AD brain homogenates in comparison to age-matched controls. Secondly, over a 23.5 fold greater 32P photoincorporation of [alpha 32P]8N3ATP was observed into CK of control vs. AD samples. Also, a 7.4-fold increase of enzyme induced 32P incorporation was observed in controls vs. AD samples by incubation with [gamma 32P]ATP. Thirdly, Western blot analysis showed that CK copy numbers in the AD homogenate were decreased by less than 14% in comparison to controls. However, analysis showed that control supernatant and pellet fractions contained 10.3 and 0.4 times the CK copy number found in the corresponding AD fractions. 32P incorporation by both photolabeling and enzyme catalyzed incorporation of radiolabel followed CK activity and not CK copy number. Further, [alpha 32P]ADP and [gamma 32P]ATP incorporated 32P into control brain and purified brain CK equally well, indicating that a mechanism different from gamma-phosphoryl transfer is involved in the enzymatic incorporation of radiolabel. Also, the level of abnormal partitioning of CK into AD brain pellet correlated with the decreased [32P]8N3GTP photolabeling and abnormal partitioning of beta-tubulin, a protein known to be aberrantly modified in the AD brain. This indicates that a common chemistry is affecting both CK and tubulin in AD. PMID:9555058
David, S; Shoemaker, M; Haley, B E
Thought disorder is a symptom of schizophrenia expressed as disorganized or incoherent speech. Severity of thought disorder correlates with decreased left superior temporal gyrus grey matter volume and cortical activation in posterior temporal regions during the performance of language tasks. The goal of this study was to determine whether language-related activation mediates the associa- tion between thought disorder and left
Sara Weinstein; Todd S. Woodward; Elton T. C. Ngan
Objectives: To identify metabolic brain networks that are associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: We utilized [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and PET imaging to examine brain metabolism in 12 unmedicated patients with TS and 12 age-matched controls. We utilized a spatial covariance analysis to identify 2 disease-related metabolic brain networks, one associated with TS in general (distinguishing TS subjects from controls), and another correlating with OCD severity (within the TS group alone). Results: Analysis of the combined group of patients with TS and healthy subjects revealed an abnormal spatial covariance pattern that completely separated patients from controls (p < 0.0001). This TS-related pattern (TSRP) was characterized by reduced resting metabolic activity of the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex associated with relative increases in premotor cortex and cerebellum. Analysis of the TS cohort alone revealed the presence of a second metabolic pattern that correlated with OCD in these patients. This OCD-related pattern (OCDRP) was characterized by reduced activity of the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortical regions associated with relative increases in primary motor cortex and precuneus. Subject expression of OCDRP correlated with the severity of this symptom (r = 0.79, p < 0.005). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the different clinical manifestations of TS are associated with the expression of 2 distinct abnormal metabolic brain networks. These, and potentially other disease-related spatial covariance patterns, may prove useful as biomarkers for assessing responses to new therapies for TS and related comorbidities.
Pourfar, M.; Tang, C.C.; Carbon-Correll, M.; Bussa, M.; Budman, C.; Dhawan, V.; Eidelberg, D.
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.
Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit characteristic cognitive and behavioral differences, but no systematic pattern of neuroanatomical differences has been consistently found. Recent neurodevelopmental models posit an abnormal early surge in subcortical white matter growth in at least some autistic children, perhaps normalizing by adulthood, but other studies report subcortical white matter deficits. To investigate the profile of these alterations in 3D, we mapped brain volumetric differences using a relatively new method, tensor-based morphometry (TBM). 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 24 male children with ASD (age: 9.5 years ± 3.2 SD) and 26 age-matched healthy controls (age: 10.3 ± 2.4 SD) were fluidly registered to match a common anatomical template. Autistic children had significantly enlarged frontal lobes (by 3.6% on the left and 5.1% on the right), and all other lobes of the brain were enlarged significantly, or at trend level. By analyzing the applied deformations statistically point-by-point, we detected significant gray matter volume deficits in bilateral parietal, left temporal and left occipital lobes (p=0.038, corrected), trend-level cerebral white matter volume excesses, and volume deficits in the cerebellar vermis, adjacent to volume excesses in other cerebellar regions. This profile of excesses and deficits in adjacent regions may (1) indicate impaired neuronal connectivity, resulting from aberrant myelination and/or an inflammatory process, and (2) help to understand inconsistent findings of regional brain tissue excesses and deficits in autism.
Brun, Caroline; Nicolson, Rob; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Vidal, Christine N.; DeVito, Timothy J.; Drost, Dick J.; Williamson, Peter C.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.
|Memory consolidation is defined temporally based on pharmacological interventions such as inhibitors of mRNA translation (molecular consolidation) or post-acquisition deactivation of specific brain regions (systems level consolidation). However, the relationship between molecular and systems consolidation are poorly understood. Molecular…
Gildish, Iness; Manor, David; David, Orit; Sharma, Vijendra; Williams, David; Agarwala, Usha; Wang, Xuemin; Kenney, Justin W.; Proud, Chris G.; Rosenblum, Kobi
Schizophrenia is associated with changes in the structure and functioning of a number of key brain systems, including prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions involved in working memory and declarative memory, respectively. Imaging techniques provide an unparalleled window into these changes, allowing repeated assessments across pre- and post-onset stages of the disorder and in relation to critical periods of brain
Katherine H. Karlsgodt; Daqiang Sun; Tyrone D. Cannon
Article abstract—Background: Studies examining the brains of individuals with autism have identified anatomic and pathologic changes in regions such as the cerebellum and hippocampus. Little, if anything, is known, however, about the molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Objective: To identify genes with abnormal expression levels in the cerebella of subjects with autism. Methods: Brain samples
A. E. Purcell; O. H. Jeon; A. W. Zimmerman; M. E. Blue; J. Pevsner
The most replicated finding in autism neuroanatomy—a tendency to unusually large brains—has seemed paradoxical in relation to the specificity of the abnormalities in three behavioral domains that define autism. We now know a range of things about this phenomenon, including that brains in autism have a growth spurt shortly after birth and then slow in growth a few short years
MARTHA R. HERBERT
Estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed at high levels in both neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system. The development of ER knockout (BERKO) mice has provided a model to study the function of this nuclear receptor in the brain. We have found that the brains of BERKO mice show several morphological abnormalities. There is a regional neuronal hypocellularity
Ling Wang; Sandra Andersson; Margaret Warner; Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Down Syndrome is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability, yet the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in Down Syndrome is unknown. We compared fMRI scans of 15 individuals with Down Syndrome to 14 typically developing control subjects while they viewed 50 min of cartoon video clips. There was widespread increased synchrony between brain regions, with only a small subset of strong, distant connections showing underconnectivity in Down Syndrome. Brain regions showing negative correlations were less anticorrelated and were among the most strongly affected connections in the brain. Increased correlation was observed between all of the distributed brain networks studied, with the strongest internetwork correlation in subjects with the lowest performance IQ. A functional parcellation of the brain showed simplified network structure in Down Syndrome organized by local connectivity. Despite increased interregional synchrony, intersubject correlation to the cartoon stimuli was lower in Down Syndrome, indicating that increased synchrony had a temporal pattern that was not in response to environmental stimuli, but idiosyncratic to each Down Syndrome subject. Short-range, increased synchrony was not observed in a comparison sample of 447 autism vs. 517 control subjects from the Autism Brain Imaging Exchange (ABIDE) collection of resting state fMRI data, and increased internetwork synchrony was only observed between the default mode and attentional networks in autism. These findings suggest immature development of connectivity in Down Syndrome with impaired ability to integrate information from distant brain regions into coherent distributed networks.
Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Ferguson, Michael A.; Burback, Melissa C.; Cox, Elizabeth T.; Dai, Li; Gerig, Guido; Edgin, Jamie O.; Korenberg, Julie R.
Since the 19th century it has been speculated that structural and functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex predisposes\\u000a to antisocial, psychopathic behaviour, but it is only in the last few years that brain imaging research has been utilised\\u000a to scientifically test this hypothesis. This review summarises findings from brain imaging research on antisocial, psychopathic,\\u000a and aggressive individuals. It is concluded
Yaling Yang; Adrian Raine
Microglial cells are resident mononuclear phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). Active proliferation of microglia in the brain has been identified in neurodegenerative disorders, including some kinds of prion disease. However, the detailed regional distribution between microglia and PrP(Sc) deposition has not been presented, and investigation of fractalkine signaling which is involved in the regulation of activation of microglia in prion disease is not well documented. In this study, the disease phenomenon of microglial accumulation in the CNS was thoroughly analyzed using a scrapie-infected experimental model. Western blots of microglia-specific markers Iba1 and CD68, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays demonstrated obviously activation of microglia in almost whole brain regions in the infected animals. Under the dynamic analysis on hallmarks of activation of microglia, a time-dependent increase of Iba1 and CD68 was detected, accompanied by accumulation of PrP(Sc) and progression of neurodegenerative symptoms. With serial brain sections and double staining of Iba1 and PrP(Sc), we observed that the microglia distributed around PrP(Sc) deposits in 263K-infected hamsters' brains, proposing PrP(Sc) phagocytosis. Flow cytometry assays with the single-cell suspensions prepared from the cortical region of the infected brains verified an activation of microglial population. ELISA assays of the cytokines in brain homogenates revealed significant upregulations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? when infected. Evaluation of fractalkine signaling in the infected hamsters' brains showed progressively downregulation of CX3CL1 during the incubation. Prion peptide PrP106-126 also disrupted fractalkine and evoked microglial activation in rat primary neuron-glia mixed cultures. Our data here demonstrate an activated status of microglia in CNS tissues of infectious prion disease, possibly through fractalkine signaling deficiency. PMID:23526370
Xie, Wu-Ling; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Gong, Han-Shi; Guo, Yan; Wang, Shao-Bin; Xu, Yin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Cao; Liu, Yong; Dong, Xiao-Ping
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of a group of complex developmental disabilities characterized by impaired social interactions, deficits in communication and repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD. In postmortem BA21 temporal cortex, a region that exhibits synaptic pathology in ASD, we found that compared to controls, ASD patients exhibited altered protein levels of mitochondria respiratory chain protein complexes, decreased Complex I and IV activities, decreased mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme SOD2, and greater oxidative DNA damage. Mitochondrial membrane mass was higher in ASD brain, as indicated by higher protein levels of mitochondrial membrane proteins Tom20, Tim23 and porin. No differences were observed in either mitochondrial DNA or levels of the mitochondrial gene transcription factor TFAM or cofactor PGC1?, indicating that a mechanism other than alterations in mitochondrial genome or mitochondrial biogenesis underlies these mitochondrial abnormalities. We further identified higher levels of the mitochondrial fission proteins (Fis1 and Drp1) and decreased levels of the fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) in ASD patients, indicating altered mitochondrial dynamics in ASD brain. Many of these changes were evident in cortical pyramidal neurons, and were observed in ASD children but were less pronounced or absent in adult patients. Together, these findings provide evidence that mitochondrial function and intracellular redox status are compromised in pyramidal neurons in ASD brain and that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs during early childhood when ASD symptoms appear. PMID:23333625
Tang, Guomei; Gutierrez Rios, Puri; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Akman, Hasan Orhan; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Tanji, Kurenai; Dwork, Andrew; Schon, Eric A; Dimauro, Salvatore; Goldman, James; Sulzer, David
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when reporting brain abnormalities in Williams syndrome (WS). This makes\\u000a an interpretation of clinical and behavioural data uncertain in terms of anatomical localization of brain tissue changes.\\u000a In this study we employed voxel based morphometry to directly investigate the regional distribution of grey matter (GM) density\\u000a as a function of individual neuropsychological profiles in
Deny Menghini; Margherita Di Paola; Francesca Federico; Stefano Vicari; Laura Petrosini; Carlo Caltagirone; Marco Bozzali
Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous disorder of brain development with wide ranging cognitive deficits. Typically diagnosed before age 3, autism spectrum disorder is behaviorally defined but patients are thought to have protracted alterations in brain maturation. With longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we mapped an anomalous developmental trajectory of the brains of autistic compared with those of typically developing children and adolescents. Using tensor-based morphometry, we created 3D maps visualizing regional tissue growth rates based on longitudinal brain MRI scans of 13 autistic and seven typically developing boys (mean age/interscan interval: autism 12.0 ± 2.3 years/2.9 ± 0.9 years; control 12.3 ± 2.4/2.8 ± 0.8). The typically developing boys demonstrated strong whole brain white matter growth during this period, but the autistic boys showed abnormally slowed white matter development (P = 0.03, corrected), especially in the parietal (P = 0.008), temporal (P = 0.03), and occipital lobes (P = 0.02). We also visualized abnormal overgrowth in autism in gray matter structures such as the putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Our findings reveal aberrant growth rates in brain regions implicated in social impairment, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors in autism, suggesting that growth rate abnormalities persist into adolescence. Tensor-based morphometry revealed persisting growth rate anomalies long after diagnosis, which has implications for evaluation of therapeutic effects. PMID:22021093
Hua, Xue; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex D; Madsen, Sarah K; Caplan, Rochelle; Alger, Jeffry R; O'Neill, Joseph; Joshi, Kishori; Smalley, Susan L; Toga, Arthur W; Levitt, Jennifer G
We investigated the presence of postural abnormalities in a consecutive sample of stroke patients, with either left or right brain damage, in relation to their perceived body position in space. The presence or absence of posture-related symptoms was judged by two trained therapists and subsequently analysed by hierarchical classes analysis (HICLAS). The subject classes resulting from the HICLAS model were
C. Lafosse; E. Kerckhofs; L. Vereeck; M. Troch; G. Van Hoydonck; M. Moeremans; C. Sneyers; J. Broeckx; L. Dereymaeker
An effective and simple algorithm for localization of abnormal sources of the EEG signals within the brain has been developed here. In this method the signals are separated first, then the estimated independent components are lowpass filtered and normalized. In the next stage the correlation values between the estimated sources and the electrode signals are measured. On the other hand
M. A. Latif; S. Sanei
Biochemical and structural abnormalities have been reported in postmortem brain tissue from patients with mood disorders. Studies of the molecular pharmacology of drugs used in the treatment of mood disorders have led to a reinterpretation of earlier models of neuropathology in these diseases. Noradrenergic and serotonergic hypotheses have been expanded to include postsynaptic intracellular signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene
Biochemical and structural abnormalities have been reported in postmortem brain tissue from patients with mood disorders. Studies of the molecular pharmacology of drugs used in the treatment of mood disorders have led to a reinterpretation of earlier models of neuropathology in these diseases. Noradrenergic and serotonergic hypotheses have been expanded to include postsynaptic intracellular signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene
|Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…
Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate
CONTEXT Schizophrenic symptoms are linked to a dysfunction of dopamine neurotransmission and the brain reward system. However, it remains unclear whether antipsychotic treatment, which blocks dopamine transmission, improves, alters, or even worsens the reward-related abnormalities. OBJECTIVE To investigate changes in reward-related brain activations in schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic monotherapy with a dopamine D2/D3 antagonist. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Psychiatric inpatients and outpatients in the Capital Region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-three antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 24 healthy controls initially matched on age, sex, and parental socioeconomic status were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a variant of the monetary incentive delay task. INTERVENTIONS Patients were treated for 6 weeks with the antipsychotic compound amisulpride. Controls were followed up without treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Task-related blood oxygen level-dependent activations as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after antipsychotic treatment. RESULTS At baseline, patients, as compared with controls, demonstrated an attenuation of brain activation during reward anticipation in the ventral striatum, bilaterally. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients showed an increase in the anticipation-related functional magnetic resonance imaging signal and were no longer statistically distinguishable from healthy controls. Among the patients, there was a correlation between the improvement of positive symptoms and normalization of reward-related activation. Those who showed the greatest clinical improvement in positive symptoms also showed the greatest increase in reward-related activation after treatment. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first controlled, longitudinal study of reward disturbances in schizophrenic patients before and after their first antipsychotic treatment. Our results demonstrate that alterations in reward processing are fundamental to the illness and are seen prior to any treatment. Antipsychotic treatment tends to normalize the response of the reward system; this was especially seen in the patients with the most pronounced treatment effect on the positive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01154829. PMID:22868877
Nielsen, Mette Odegaard; Rostrup, Egill; Wulff, Sanne; Bak, Nikolaj; Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Lublin, Henrik; Kapur, Shitij; Glenthoj, Birte
Sexually active teenagers are at increased risk of developing cervical abnormalities. It is therefore important to screen them with an annual Pap smear. The techniques of this test are reviewed, as are the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in the development of cytologic abnormalities, the pathophysiology of virus-induced changes, and the terminology of reporting.
Erdstein, Julius; Pavilanis, Alan V.
Non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain development for healthy adolescents and for patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare form of the disorder. The implications of these findings are explored. Cross-sectional and longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are reviewed. The pattern
Nitin Gogate; Jay Giedd; Kristin Janson; Judith L. Rapoport
Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) gene have been identified in patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; formerly Hallervorden-Spatz disease). However, the mechanisms by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration are unclear, especially given the existence of multiple pantothenate kinase genes in humans and multiple PanK2 transcripts with potentially different subcellular localizations. We demonstrate that PanK2 protein is localized to mitochondria of neurons in human brain, distinguishing it from other pantothenate kinases that do not possess mitochondrial-targeting sequences. PanK2 protein translated from the most 5' start site is sequentially cleaved at two sites by the mitochondrial processing peptidase, generating a long-lived 48 kDa mature protein identical to that found in human brain extracts. The mature protein catalyzes the initial step in coenzyme A (CoA) synthesis but displays feedback inhibition in response to species of acyl CoA rather than CoA itself. Some, but not all disease-associated point mutations result in significantly reduced catalytic activity. The most common mutation, G521R, results in marked instability of the intermediate PanK2 isoform and reduced production of the mature isoform. These results suggest that NBIA is caused by altered neuronal mitochondrial lipid metabolism caused by mutations disrupting PanK2 protein levels and catalytic activity. PMID:15659606
Kotzbauer, Paul T; Truax, Adam C; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y
The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks ('in attack') and headache-free intervals ('out of attack') using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during 'in attack' and 'out of attack' periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals. PMID:23460913
Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan
The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks (‘in attack’) and headache-free intervals (‘out of attack’) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during ‘in attack’ and ‘out of attack’ periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.
Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan
This series of meta-analyses examined structural abnormalities of the hippocampus and other brain regions in persons with PTSD compared to trauma-exposed and non-exposed control groups. The findings were significantly smaller hippocampal volumes in persons with PTSD compared to controls with and without trauma exposure, but group differences were moderated by MRI methodology, PTSD severity, medication, age and gender. Trauma-exposed persons
Anke Karl; Michael Schaefer; Loretta S. Malta; Denise Dörfel; Nicolas Rohleder; Annett Werner
Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p=0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p=0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention. PMID:23787273
Cianfoni, A; Caulo, M; Cerase, A; Della Marca, G; Falcone, C; Di Lella, G M; Gaudino, S; Edwards, J; Colosimo, C
Objective Shortly after infection, HIV enters the brain and causes widespread inflammation and neuronal damage, which ultimately leads to neuropsychological impairments. Despite a large body of neuroscience and imaging studies, the pathophysiology of these HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains unresolved. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown greater activation in HIV-infected patients during strenuous tasks in frontal and parietal cortices, and less activation in the primary sensory cortices during rest and sensory stimulation. Methods High-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) was utilized to evaluate the basic neurophysiology underlying attentive, visual processing in older HIV-infected adults and a matched non-infected control group. Unlike other neuroimaging methods, MEG is a direct measure of neural activity that is not tied to brain metabolism or hemodynamic responses. During MEG, participants fixated on a centrally-presented crosshair while intermittent visual stimulation appeared in their top-right visual-field quadrant. All MEG data was imaged in the time-frequency domain using beamforming. Results Uninfected controls had increased neuronal synchronization in the 6–12 Hz range within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right frontal eye-fields, and the posterior cingulate. Conversely, HIV-infected patients exhibited decreased synchrony in these same neural regions, and the magnitude of these decreases was correlated with neuropsychological performance in several cortical association regions. Conclusions MEG-based imaging holds potential as a noninvasive biomarker for HIV-related neuronal dysfunction, and may help identify patients who have or may develop HAND. Reduced synchronization of neural populations in the association cortices was strongly linked to cognitive dysfunction, and likely reflects the impact of HIV on neuronal and neuropsychological health.
Wilson, Tony W.; Fox, Howard S.; Robertson, Kevin R.; Sandkovsky, Uriel; O'Neill, Jennifer; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Knott, Nichole L.; Swindells, Susan
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability. Previous studies suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing. The purpose of this study was to probe whole-brain and regional white matter network organization in BDD, and to relate this to specific metrics of symptomatology. We acquired diffusion-weighted 34-direction MR images from 14 unmedicated participants with DSM-IV BDD and 16 healthy controls, from which we conducted whole-brain deterministic diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We then constructed white matter structural connectivity matrices to derive whole-brain and regional graph theory metrics, which we compared between groups. Within the BDD group, we additionally correlated these metrics with scores on psychometric measures of BDD symptom severity as well as poor insight/delusionality. The BDD group showed higher whole-brain mean clustering coefficient than controls. Global efficiency negatively correlated with BDD symptom severity. The BDD group demonstrated greater edge betweenness centrality for connections between the anterior temporal lobe and the occipital cortex, and between bilateral occipital poles. This represents the first brain network analysis in BDD. Results suggest disturbances in whole brain structural topological organization in BDD, in addition to correlations between clinical symptoms and network organization. There is also evidence of abnormal connectivity between regions involved in lower-order visual processing and higher-order visual and emotional processing, as well as interhemispheric visual information transfer. These findings may relate to disturbances in information processing found in previous studies. PMID:23322186
Arienzo, Donatello; Leow, Alex; Brown, Jesse A; Zhan, Liang; Gadelkarim, Johnson; Hovav, Sarit; Feusner, Jamie D
We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain structure.
Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.
Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22809542
Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios
The aim of the present study was to test a new hypothesis that brain cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and CPR-dependent enzymes play important roles in behavioral performance. A mouse model with brain neuron-specific deletion of the Cpr gene (brain-Cpr-null) was recently generated. Brain-Cpr-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were compared in a variety of behavioral assays. Notable differences were found in the exploratory behavior assay: for both males and females, activity in the center of the chamber was significantly higher for brain-Cpr-null than for WT mice on days 2 and 3 of the assay, although no significant difference was found between the two groups in anxiety-like behavior in the elevated zero maze. Furthermore, in the fear-conditioning assay, brain-Cpr-null mice exhibited significantly less activity suppression than did WT controls. This deficit in activity suppression was not accompanied by any difference between WT and brain-Cpr-null mice in nociceptive responses to foot shocks. Abnormal activity suppression was also observed in both male and female brain-Cpr-null mice during the contextual memory test. However, in the Morris water maze assay, the brain-Cpr-null and WT mice were indistinguishable, indicating normal spatial memory in the mutant mice. These data collectively indicate a novel role of the Cpr gene in fear conditioning and memory.
Fang, Cheng; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Gu, Jun; Yang, Weizhu; Zeitlin, Scott O.; Ding, Xinxin
Objective: The availability of non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain abnormalities of two conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), and illustrates how such findings are bringing clinical and preclinical perspectives closer together.Method: A selected review is presented of
Judith L. Rapoport; Xavier F. Castellanos; Nitin Gogate; Kristin Janson; Shawn Kohler; Phillip Nelson
Background Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD. Our primary objective was to investigate whether female adolescents with CD show changes in grey matter volume. Our secondary aim was to assess for sex differences in the relationship between CD and brain structure. Methods Female adolescents with CD (n = 22) and healthy control participants matched in age, performance IQ and handedness (n = 20) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Group comparisons of grey matter volume were performed using voxel-based morphometry. We also tested for sex differences using archive data obtained from male CD and control participants. Results Female adolescents with CD showed reduced bilateral anterior insula and right striatal grey matter volumes compared with healthy controls. Aggressive CD symptoms were negatively correlated with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume, whereas callous-unemotional traits were positively correlated with bilateral orbitofrontal cortex volume. The sex differences analyses revealed a main effect of diagnosis on right amygdala volume (reflecting reduced amygdala volume in the combined CD group relative to controls) and sex-by-diagnosis interactions in bilateral anterior insula. Conclusions We observed structural abnormalities in brain regions involved in emotion processing, reward and empathy in female adolescents with CD, which broadly overlap with those reported in previous studies of CD in male adolescents.
Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C; Walsh, Nicholas D; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M
Structural and metabolic abnormalities in fronto-striatal structures have been reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure. The current study was designed to quantify functional alterations to the fronto-striatal circuit in children with prenatal MA exposure using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because many women who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined 50 children
Florence F. Roussotte; Jennifer E. Bramen; S. Christopher Nunez; Lorna C. Quandt; Lynne Smith; Mary J. O'Connor; Susan Y. Bookheimer; Elizabeth R. Sowell
Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc)), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrP(C)). Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s) leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion disease-affected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II) iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)-affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrP(Sc) as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrP(Sc)-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrP(Sc)-ferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion disease-affected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These data implicate redox-iron in prion disease-associated neurotoxicity, a novel observation with significant implications for prion disease pathogenesis. PMID:19283067
Singh, Ajay; Isaac, Alfred Orina; Luo, Xiu; Mohan, Maradumane L; Cohen, Mark L; Chen, Fusong; Kong, Qingzhong; Bartz, Jason; Singh, Neena
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP) injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120), an experimental model of ongoing production of gp120] disrupted the BBB, and led to leakage of vascular contents. Gp120 was directly toxic to brain endothelial cells. Abnormalities of the BBB reflect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These target laminin and attack the tight junctions between endothelial cells and BBB basal laminae. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated following gp120-injection. Gp120 reduced laminin and tight junction proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate MMPs. Injecting gp120 induced lipid peroxidation. Gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes protected against gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. NMDA upregulates the proform of MMP-9. Using the NMDA receptor (NMDAR-1) inhibitor, memantine, we observed partial protection from gp120-induced BBB injury. Thus, (1) HIV-envelope gp120 disrupts the BBB; (2) this occurs via lesions in brain microvessels, MMP activation and degradation of vascular basement membrane and vascular tight junctions; (3) NMDAR-1 activation plays a role in this BBB injury; and (4) antioxidant gene delivery as well as NMDAR-1 antagonists may protect the BBB.
Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S.
This series of meta-analyses examined structural abnormalities of the hippocampus and other brain regions in persons with PTSD compared to trauma-exposed and non-exposed control groups. The findings were significantly smaller hippocampal volumes in persons with PTSD compared to controls with and without trauma exposure, but group differences were moderated by MRI methodology, PTSD severity, medication, age and gender. Trauma-exposed persons without PTSD also showed significantly smaller bilateral hippocampal compared to non-exposed controls. Meta-analyses also found significantly smaller left amygdala volumes in adults with PTSD compared to both healthy and trauma-exposed controls, and significantly smaller anterior cingulate cortex compared to trauma-exposed controls. Pediatric samples with PTSD exhibited significantly smaller corpus callosum and frontal lobe volumes compared to controls, but there were no group differences in hippocampal volume. The overall findings suggested a dimensional, developmental psychopathology systems model in which: (1) hippocampal volumetric differences covary with PTSD severity; (2) hippocampal volumetric differences do not become apparent until adulthood; and (3) PTSD is associated with abnormalities in multiple frontal-limbic system structures. PMID:16730374
Karl, Anke; Schaefer, Michael; Malta, Loretta S; Dörfel, Denise; Rohleder, Nicolas; Werner, Annett
Background Structural brain abnormalities have been demonstrated in subjects with BPD in prefrontal and fronto-limbic regions involved in the regulation of emotion and impulsive behavior, executive cognitive function and episodic memory. Impairment in these cognitive functions is associated with increased vulnerability to suicidal behavior. We compared BPD suicide attempters and non-attempters, high and low lethality attempters to healthy controls to identify neural circuits associated with suicidal behavior in BPD. Methods Structural MRI scans were obtained on 68 BPD subjects (16 male, 52 female), defined by IPDE and DIB/R criteria, and 52 healthy controls (HC: 28 male, 24 female). Groups were compared by diagnosis, attempt status, and attempt lethality. ROIs were defined for areas reported to have structural or metabolic abnormalities in BPD, and included: mid-inf. orbitofrontal cortex, mid-sup temporal cortex, anterior cingulate, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, fusiform, lingual and parahippocampal gyri. Data were analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry implemented with DARTEL in SPM5, co-varied for age and gender, corrected for cluster extent (p<.001). Results Compared to HC, BPD attempters had significantly diminished gray matter concentrations in 8 of 9 ROIs, non-attempters in 5 of 9 ROIs. Within the BPD sample, attempters had diminished gray matter in Lt. insula compared to non-attempters. High lethality attempters had significant decreases in Rt. mid-sup. temporal gyrus, Rt. mid-inf. orbitofrontal gyrus, Rt. insular cortex, Lt. fusiform gyrus, Lt. lingual gyrus and Rt. parahippocampal gyrus compared to low lethality attempters. Conclusions Specific structural abnormalities discriminate BPD attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters.
Soloff, Paul H.; Pruitt, Patrick; Sharma, Mohit; Radwan, Jacqueline; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.
A 46-year-old man inhaled combustible smoke of unknown chemical composition for 15-20 min in an automobile body shop. Within 1 month, he noted headache, sadness, anergia, anhedonia, agitation, poor sleep and impairment of concentration, attention and learning skills. Three years later, mental status examination showed major depression and cognitive disorder manifested by apprehension, continuous sadness, agitation, exhaustion, difficulty with word finding, bradyphrenia, short-term and long-term memory impairment, and judgement impaired by impulsive and affect-laden reactions without reflection. Impairments were noted on neuropsychiatric tests, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the brain with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose showed globally decreased and heterogeneous metabolic activity in the entire brain. Treatment included sertraline, methylphenidate, valproic acid and topiramate. At 14 years after smoke inhalation injury, he had persistent cognitive impairment. Repeat brain PET scan showed areas of improvement and deterioration. This case shows long-term brain and psychiatric dysfunction resulting after toxic smoke inhalation, with some areas of the brain having progressive deterioration between years 3 and 14 after smoke inhalation. PMID:22878982
IMPORTANCE Brain imaging studies have identified robust changes in brain structure and function during the development of psychosis, but the contribution of abnormal brain connectivity to the onset of psychosis is unclear. Furthermore, antipsychotic treatment can modulate brain activity and functional connectivity during cognitive tasks. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether dysfunctional brain connectivity during working memory (WM) predates the onset of psychosis and whether connectivity parameters are related to antipsychotic treatment. DESIGN Dynamic causal modeling study of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. SETTING Participants were recruited from the specialized clinic for the early detection of psychosis at the Department of Psychiatry, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen participants with an at-risk mental state (mean [SD] age, 25.24 [6.3] years), 21 individuals with first-episode psychosis (mean [SD] age, 28.57 [7.2] years), and 20 healthy controls (mean [SD] age, 26.5  years). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded while participants performed an N-back WM task. Functional interactions among brain regions involved in WM, in particular between frontal and parietal brain regions, were characterized using dynamic causal modeling. Bayesian model selection was performed to evaluate the likelihood of alternative WM network architectures across groups, whereas bayesian model averaging was used to examine group differences in connection strengths. RESULTS We observed a progressive reduction in WM-induced modulation of connectivity from the middle frontal gyrus to the superior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere in healthy controls, at-risk mental state participants, and first-episode psychosis patients. Notably, the abnormal modulation of connectivity in first-episode psychosis patients was normalized by treatment with antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our findings suggest that the vulnerability to psychosis is associated with a progressive failure of functional integration of brain regions involved in WM processes, including visual encoding and rule updating, and that treatment with antipsychotics may have the potential to counteract this. PMID:23824230
Schmidt, André; Smieskova, Renata; Aston, Jacqueline; Simon, Andor; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; McGuire, Philip K; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Stephan, Klaas E; Borgwardt, Stefan
Chronic pain is associated with reduced brain gray matter and impaired cognitive ability. In this longitudinal study, we assessed whether neuroanatomical and functional abnormalities were reversible and dependent on treatment outcomes. We acquired MRI scans from chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients before (n = 18) and 6 months after (spine surgery or facet joint injections; n = 14) treatment. In addition, we scanned 16 healthy controls, 10 of which returned 6 months after the first visit. We performed cortical thickness analysis on structural MRI scans, and subjects performed a cognitive task during the functional MRI. We compared patients and controls, as well as patients before versus after treatment. After treatment, patients had increased cortical thickness in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which was thinner before treatment compared with controls. Increased DLPFC thickness correlated with the reduction of both pain and physical disability. Additionally, increased thickness in primary motor cortex was associated specifically with reduced physical disability, and right anterior insula was associated specifically with reduced pain. Left DLPFC activity during an attention-demanding cognitive task was abnormal before treatment, but normalized following treatment. These data indicate that functional and structural brain abnormalities-specifically in the left DLPFC-are reversible, suggesting that treating chronic pain can restore normal brain function in humans. PMID:21593339
Seminowicz, David A; Wideman, Timothy H; Naso, Lina; Hatami-Khoroushahi, Zeinab; Fallatah, Summaya; Ware, Mark A; Jarzem, Peter; Bushnell, M Catherine; Shir, Yoram; Ouellet, Jean A; Stone, Laura S
Chronic interictal psychotic syndromes, often resembling schizophrenia, develop in some patients with epilepsy. Although widespread brain abnormalities are recognized as characteristic of schizophrenia, prevailing but controversial hypotheses on the co-occurrence of epilepsy and psychosis implicate left temporal lobe pathology. In this study, quantitative MRI methods were used to address the regional specificity of structural brain abnormalities in patients with epilepsy
Laura Marsh; Edith V Sullivan; Martha Morrell; Kelvin O Lim; Adolf Pfefferbaum
The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232
Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas
Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776
Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob
We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior frontal cortex and decreased in the right caudate nucleus and superior temporal cortex bilaterally. The unaffected siblings also showed reduced grey matter in the caudate nucleus relative to controls. In an auditory covert naming task, the SLI group showed reduced activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, right putamen, and in the superior temporal cortex bilaterally. Despite spatially coincident structural and functional abnormalities in frontal and temporal areas, the relationships between structure and function in these regions were different. These findings suggest multiple structural and functional abnormalities in SLI that are differently associated with receptive and expressive language processing.
Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.
With the increasing popularity in the use of brain imaging on antisocial individuals, an increasing number of brain imaging studies have revealed structural and functional impairments in antisocial, psychopathic, and violent indi- viduals. This review summarizes key findings from brain imaging studies on antisocial\\/aggressive behavior. Key regions commonly found to be impaired in antisocial popu- lations include the prefrontal cortex
Yaling Yang; Andrea L. Glenn; Adrian Raine
Background Previous studies have defined low-frequency, spatially consistent intrinsic connectivity networks (ICN) in resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data which reflect functional interactions among distinct brain areas. We sought to explore whether and how repeated migraine attacks influence intrinsic brain connectivity, as well as how activity in these networks correlates with clinical indicators of migraine. Methods/Principal Findings Resting-state fMRI data in twenty-three patients with migraines without aura (MwoA) and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA), in combination with a “dual-regression” technique to identify the group differences of three important pain-related networks [default mode network (DMN), bilateral central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN)] between the MwoA patients and HC. Compared with the HC, MwoA patients showed aberrant intrinsic connectivity within the bilateral CEN and SN, and greater connectivity between both the DMN and right CEN (rCEN) and the insula cortex - a critical region involving in pain processing. Furthermore, greater connectivity between both the DMN and rCEN and the insula correlated with duration of migraine. Conclusions Our findings may provide new insights into the characterization of migraine as a condition affecting brain activity in intrinsic connectivity networks. Moreover, the abnormalities may be the consequence of a persistent central neural system dysfunction, reflecting cumulative brain insults due to frequent ongoing migraine attacks.
Zhao, Ling; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Tao; Cheng, Ping; von Deneen, Karen M.; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
BACKGROUND: A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia).
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a 3-year-old girl with the central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome (Ondine's syndrome). Abnormal findings were seen at the level of the mid to upper brain stem (wave III), which was not reproducibly recordable on the left side. This electrophysiologic abnormality is consistent with a previous finding in a patient with sleep apnea. PMID:9003972
Litscher, G; Schwarz, G; Reimann, R
Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients. PMID:24170965
Kaga, Akimune; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma
Abstract. Several studies have described brain white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children and adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while the brain MRI findings of newborn infants with CAH have not been clarified. We report a newborn boy with CAH who presented brain white matter abnormality on MRI. He was diagnosed as having salt-wasting CAH with a high 17-OHP level at neonatal screening and was initially treated with hydrocortisone at 8 days of age. On day 11 after birth, he had a generalized tonic seizure. No evidence of serum electrolyte abnormalities was observed. Brain MRI revealed white matter abnormalities that consisted of bilateral small diffuse hyperintensities on T1-weighted images with slightly low intensity on T2-weighted images in the watershed area. Several factors associated with brain white matter abnormalities in adults with CAH, such as increasing age, hypertension, diabetes and corticosteroid replacement, were not applicable. Although the cause of the phenomenon in this case is unclear, brain white matter abnormality could be observed in newborn infants with CAH as well as in adult patients.
Kaga, Akimune; Saito-hakoda, Akiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Kamimura, Miki; Kanno, Junko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma
|Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…
Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad
Behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies indicate deficits in verbal working memory (WM) and frontoparietal dysfunction in individuals with dyslexia. Additionally, structural brain abnormalities in dyslexics suggest a dysconnectivity of brain regions associated with phonological processing. However, little is known about the functional…
Wolf, Robert Christian; Sambataro, Fabio; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Vasic, Nenad
Brain abnormalities are found in association with antisocial personality disorder and schizophrenia, the two mental disorders most implicated in violent behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the whole brain, cerebellum, temporal lobe, lateral ventricles, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal, pre-motor, sensorimotor, occipito-parietal regions in 13 men with antisocial personality disorder, 13 men with
Ian Barkataki; Veena Kumari; Mrigendra Das; Pamela Taylor; Tonmoy Sharma
Functional MRI (fMRI) studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other
Bradford C. Dickerson; Reisa A. Sperling
A hallmark feature of Huntington's disease pathology is the atrophy of brain regions including, but not limited to, the striatum. Though MRI studies have identified structural CNS changes in several Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models, the functional consequences of HD pathology during the progression of the disease have yet to be investigated using in vivo functional MRI (fMRI). To address this issue, we first established the structural and functional MRI phenotype of juvenile HD mouse model R6/2 at early and advanced stages of disease. Significantly higher fMRI signals [relative cerebral blood volumes (rCBVs)] and atrophy were observed in both age groups in specific brain regions. Next, fMRI results were correlated with electrophysiological analysis, which showed abnormal increases in neuronal activity in affected brain regions, thus identifying a mechanism accounting for the abnormal fMRI findings. [(14)C] 2-deoxyglucose maps to investigate patterns of glucose utilization were also generated. An interesting mismatch between increases in rCBV and decreases in glucose uptake was observed. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity of this mouse line to audiogenic seizures early in the disease course. We found that R6/2 mice had an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. Together, these findings identified seizure activity in R6/2 mice and show that neuroimaging measures sensitive to oxygen metabolism can be used as in vivo biomarkers, preceding the onset of an overt behavioral phenotype. Since fMRI-rCBV can also be obtained in patients, we propose that it may serve as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic responses in humans and HD mouse models. PMID:22573668
Cepeda-Prado, Efrain; Popp, Susanna; Khan, Usman; Stefanov, Dimitre; Rodríguez, Jorge; Menalled, Liliana B; Dow-Edwards, Diana; Small, Scott A; Moreno, Herman
Associative learning experiments in schizophrenia and other psychoses reveal subtle abnormalities in patients’ brain responses. These are sometimes accompanied by intact task performance. An important question arises: How can learning occur if the brain system is not functioning normally? Here, we examine a series of possible explanations for this apparent discrepancy: (1) standard brain activation patterns may be present in psychosis but partially obscured by greater noise, (2) brain signals may be more sensitive to real group differences than behavioral measures, and (3) patients may achieve comparable levels of performance to control subjects by employing alternative or compensatory neural strategies. We consider these explanations in relation to data from causal- and reward-learning imaging experiments in first-episode psychosis patients. The findings suggest that a combination of these factors may resolve the question of why performance is sometimes preserved when brain patterns are disrupted.
Murray, Graham K.; Corlett, Philip R.; Fletcher, Paul C.
Multivariate supervised learning methods exhibit a remarkable ability to decode externally driven sensory, behavioral, and cognitive states from functional neuroimaging data. Although they are typically applied to task-based analyses, supervised learning methods are equally applicable to intrinsic effective and functional connectivity analyses. The obtained models of connectivity incorporate the multivariate interactions between all brain regions simultaneously, which will result in a more accurate representation of the connectome than the ones available with standard bivariate methods. Additionally the models can be applied to decode or predict the time series of intrinsic brain activity of a region from an independent dataset. The obtained prediction accuracy provides a measure of the integration between a brain region and other regions in its network, as well as a method for evaluating acquisition and preprocessing pipelines for resting state fMRI data. This article describes a method for learning multivariate models of connectivity. The method is applied in the non-parametric prediction accuracy, influence, and reproducibility-resampling (NPAIRS) framework, to study the regional variation of prediction accuracy and reproducibility (Strother et al., 2002). The resulting spatial distribution of these metrics is consistent with the functional hierarchy proposed by Mesulam (1998). Additionally we illustrate the utility of the multivariate regression connectivity modeling method for optimizing experimental parameters and assessing the quality of functional neuroimaging data. PMID:23707580
Craddock, R Cameron; Milham, Michael P; Laconte, Stephen M
Clinical manifestations of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia, arise from neurophysiological changes within the cortico-striato-pallidothalamocortical (CSPTC) and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CbTC) circuits. Neuroimaging techniques that probe connectivity within these circuits can be used to understand how these disorders develop as well as identify potential targets for medical and surgical therapies. Indeed, network analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has identified abnormal metabolic networks associated with the cardinal motor symptoms of PD, such as akinesia and tremor, as well as PD-related cognitive dysfunction. More recent task-based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have reproduced several of the altered connectivity patterns identified in these abnormal PD-related networks. A similar network analysis approach in dystonia revealed abnormal disease related metabolic patterns in both manifesting and non-manifesting carriers of dystonia mutations. Other multimodal imaging approaches using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging in patients with primary genetic dystonia suggest abnormal connectivity within the CbTC circuits mediate the clinical manifestations of this inherited neurodevelopmental disorder. Ongoing developments in functional imaging and future studies in early patients are likely to enhance our understanding of these movement disorders and guide novel targets for future therapies.
Poston, Kathleen L.; Eidelberg, David
Cobblestone brain malformation (COB) is a neuronal migration disorder characterized by protrusions of neurons beyond the first cortical layer at the pial surface of the brain. It is usually seen in association with dystroglycanopathy types of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) and ocular abnormalities termed muscle-eye-brain disease. Here we report homozygous deleterious mutations in LAMB1, encoding laminin subunit beta-1, in two families with autosomal-recessive COB. Affected individuals displayed a constellation of brain malformations including cortical gyral and white-matter signal abnormalities, severe cerebellar dysplasia, brainstem hypoplasia, and occipital encephalocele, but they had less apparent ocular or muscular abnormalities than are typically observed in COB. LAMB1 is localized to the pial basement membrane, suggesting that defective connection between radial glial cells and the pial surface mediated by LAMB1 leads to this malformation. PMID:23472759
Radmanesh, Farid; Caglayan, Ahmet Okay; Silhavy, Jennifer L; Yilmaz, Cahide; Cantagrel, Vincent; Omar, Tarek; Rosti, Ba?ak; Kaymakcalan, Hande; Gabriel, Stacey; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad; Bilguvar, Kaya; Dobyns, William B; Zaki, Maha S; Gunel, Murat; Gleeson, Joseph G
Even in the absence of stimulation or task, the cerebral cortex shows an incessant pattern of ultra slow fluctuations which are coherent across brain regions. In the healthy brain these coherent patterns (also termed resting state functional connectivity) often exhibit spatial similarity to the large scale organization of task-induced functional networks. However, it is not clear to what extent the resting state patterns can also reflect task-induced abnormalities in cortical activations which are often detected in various brain pathologies. Here we examined whether an abnormal visual activation pattern is recapitulated in the resting state functional connectivity. We examined LG, a sighted young adult with developmental object agnosia and no apparent cortical structural abnormality. We have previously reported that upon visual stimulation, LG's intermediate visual areas (V2, V3) are paradoxically deactivated. Here, examining LG's resting state functional connectivity revealed the same pattern of functional abnormality - including a strong atypical decorrelation between areas V2-V3 and the rest of the visual system. Thus, our results suggest that resting-state functional connectivity could provide a powerful tool which could complement task-specific paradigms in detecting task-related abnormalities in cortical activity without resorting to task performance. PMID:23296180
Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Hahamy-Dubossarsky, Avital; Nir, Yuval; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Bentin, Shlomo; Malach, Rafael
Electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities arising from the midline region were identified in 154 of 1008 (15.2%) consecutive neonatal EEGs during a 24-month period. These records were obtained on 97 neonates with a variety of clinical diagnoses. Premature infants made up 79% (77\\/97) of this group. All patients received at least one cranial ultrasound at 7 to 10 days of life. Sixty-two
Mark S. Scher
Summary \\u000a Background. Brain morphometry in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis offer a unique opportunity for pathogenetic investigations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. We compared high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain in 29 patients (schizophrenia, schizotypal\\u000a disorder, delusional disorder or other non-organic psychosis), aged 10–18 to those of 29 matched controls, using optimized\\u000a voxel-based morphometry.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results. Psychotic patients had frontal white
A. K. Pagsberg; W. F. C. Baaré; A. M. Raabjerg Christensen; B. Fagerlund; M.-B. Hansen; J. LaBianca; K. Krabbe; T. Aarkrog; O. B. Paulson; R. P. Hemmingsen
We examined the relationship between cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and urinary dysfunction in 70 consecutive patients with definite multiple sclerosis. MRI-weighted lesion scores for seven different brain regions were recorded according to the number and size of cerebral lesions. Thirty-two subjects (46%) had urinary symptoms and 38 (54%) were asymptomatic. Subjects with urinary symptoms exhibited greater overall functional disability and a higher midbrain MRI-weighted lesion score than asymptomatic patients. No statistically significant group differences were found for the other brain regions. PMID:1505594
Pozzilli, C; Grasso, M G; Bastianello, S; Anzini, A; Salvetti, M; Bozzao, L; Von Heland, M; Fieschi, C
|Background: Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the adult onset disorder. While structural brain imaging studies show robust, widespread, and progressive gray matter loss in COS during adolescence, there have been no longitudinal studies of sufficient duration to examine comparability with the more common adult onset…
Greenstein, Deanna; Lerch, Jason; Shaw, Philip; Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin
|Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with…
Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.
Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…
Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.
Two patients are presented who had suffered episodes of ischaemia of the brain-stem, mainly affecting one side of the pons. In addition to the more usual neurological signs, these two patients had cardiac arrhythmia: one had a sinus arrhythmia, the other a wandering pacemaker. In both patients the hemidiaphragm on the side ipsilateral to the lesion was transiently elevated. The
A D Korczyn
Disturbances in lateral preference in autism are of interest because of their potential to shed light on brain maturational processes in this disorder. Forty-seven autistic individuals with a history of disordered early language development and 22 autistic individuals with normal early language acquisition were matched with 112 healthy individuals and compared on a standardized measure of lateral preference, the Edinburgh
Paul R. Escalante-Mead; Nancy J. Minshew; John A. Sweeney
Impaired GABA-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in many neurologic diseases, including epilepsy, intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. We found that inhibitory neuron transplantation into the hippocampus of adult mice with confirmed epilepsy at the time of grafting markedly reduced the occurrence of electrographic seizures and restored behavioral deficits in spatial learning, hyperactivity and the aggressive response to handling. In the recipient brain, GABA progenitors migrated up to 1,500 ?m from the injection site, expressed genes and proteins characteristic for interneurons, differentiated into functional inhibitory neurons and received excitatory synaptic input. In contrast with hippocampus, cell grafts into basolateral amygdala rescued the hyperactivity deficit, but did not alter seizure activity or other abnormal behaviors. Our results highlight a critical role for interneurons in epilepsy and suggest that interneuron cell transplantation is a powerful approach to halting seizures and rescuing accompanying deficits in severely epileptic mice. PMID:23644485
Hunt, Robert F; Girskis, Kelly M; Rubenstein, John L; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Baraban, Scott C
Acrocallosal syndrome (ACS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism, agenesis or hypoplasia\\u000a of the corpus callosum, duplication of the phalanges of the hallux, more rarely the thumbs, post-axial polydactyly, syndactyly\\u000a and severe mental retardation. Here we report the two first descriptions of acrocallosal syndrome in fetus with extensive\\u000a neuropathological study and provide new data regarding additional brain
Carla Fernandez; Marie Soulier; Béma Coulibaly; Agnès Liprandi; Bernard Benoit; Fabienne Giuliano; Sabine Sigaudy; Dominique Figarella-Branger; Catherine Fallet-Bianco
Cholinergic imbalances occur after traumatic effects and in the initial stages of neuro- degenerative diseases, but their long-lasting effects remained largely unexplained. To address this, we used TgS transgenic mice constitutively overexpress- ing synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE-S) and pre- senting a complex phenotype of progressive neuro- deterioration. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images appeared similar. How- ever, diffusion-weighted MRI
Eran Meshorer; Inbal E. Biton; Yoram Ben-Shaul; Shani Ben-Ari; Yaniv Assaf; Hermona Soreq; Yoram Cohen
We examined the relationship between cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and urinary dysfunction in 70 consecutive patients with definite multiple sclerosis. MRI-weighted lesion scores for seven different brain regions were recorded according to the number and size of cerebral lesions. Thirty-two subjects (46%) had urinary symptoms and 38 (54%) were asymptomatic. Subjects with urinary symptoms exhibited greater overall functional
C. Pozzilli; M. G. Grasso; S. Bastianello; A. Anzini; M. Salvetti; L. Bozzao; M. Von Heland; C. Fieschi
As a group, people with the sex chromosome aneuploidy 49,XXXXY have characteristic physical and cognitive/behavioral tendencies, although there is high individual variation. In this study we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain morphometry in 14 youth with 49,XXXXY compared to 42 age-matched healthy controls. Total brain size was significantly smaller (t = 9.0, p < .001), and rates of brain abnormalities such as colpocephaly, plagiocephaly, periventricular cysts, and minor craniofacial abnormalities were significantly increased. White matter lesions were identified in 50% of subjects, supporting the inclusion of 49,XXXXY in the differential diagnosis of small multifocal white matter lesions. Further evidence of abnormal development of white matter was provided by the smaller cross sectional area of the corpus callosum. These results suggest that increased dosage of genes on the X chromosome has adverse effects on white matter development.
Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Baker, Eva H.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Wade, Benjamin; Clasen, Liv S.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.
We used coordinate-based meta-analysis in order to objectively quantify gray matter abnormalities reported in nine Voxel-Based Morphometry studies of developmental dyslexia. Consistently across studies, reduced gray matter volume in dyslexic readers was found in the right superior temporal gyrus and left superior temporal sulcus. These results were related to findings from previous meta-analyses on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Convergence of gray matter reduction and reading-related underactivation was found for the left superior temporal sulcus. Recent studies point to the presence of both functional and structural abnormalities in left temporal and occipito-temporal brain regions before reading onset. Hum Brain Mapp 34:3055-3065, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22711189
Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz
Presence of MRI brain abnormalities in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) was determined and the profile of MRI abnormalities was compared between 39 CFS patients, 18 with (CFS-Psych) and 21 without (CFS-No Psych) a DSM-III-R Axis I psychiatric diagnosis since illness onset, and 19 healthy, sedentary controls (HC). Two neuroradiologists, blind to group membership, separately read the MR films
Gudrun Lange; John DeLuca; Joseph A Maldjian; Huey-Jen Lee; Lana A Tiersky; Benjamin H Natelson
Summary. This review discusses functional and structural brain abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia identified by neuroimaging\\u000a techniques. Published literature regarding both morphological and functional neuroimaging is discussed, regarding also the\\u000a diversity of neuroimaging findings which partly reduces their reliability. The findings in early onset schizophrenia are compared\\u000a with those of adult patients. The results of long-term investigations of structural abnormalities in
C. Mehler; A. Warnke
Resting state functional brain networks have been widely studied in brain disease research. However, it is currently unclear whether abnormal resting state functional brain network metrics can be used with machine learning for the classification of brain diseases. Resting state functional brain networks were constructed for 28 healthy controls and 38 major depressive disorder patients by thresholding partial correlation matrices of 90 regions. Three nodal metrics were calculated using graph theory-based approaches. Nonparametric permutation tests were then used for group comparisons of topological metrics, which were used as classified features in six different algorithms. We used statistical significance as the threshold for selecting features and measured the accuracies of six classifiers with different number of features. A sensitivity analysis method was used to evaluate the importance of different features. The result indicated that some of the regions exhibited significantly abnormal nodal centralities, including the limbic system, basal ganglia, medial temporal, and prefrontal regions. Support vector machine with radial basis kernel function algorithm and neural network algorithm exhibited the highest average accuracy (79.27 and 78.22%, respectively) with 28 features (P<0.05). Correlation analysis between feature importance and the statistical significance of metrics was investigated, and the results revealed a strong positive correlation between them. Overall, the current study demonstrated that major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal functional brain network topological metrics and statistically significant nodal metrics can be successfully used for feature selection in classification algorithms. PMID:23044496
Guo, Hao; Cao, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Haifang; Chen, Junjie; Zhang, Kerang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of neuroendocrine dysfunction typically in male adults. Head injuries are also common in childhood, but only a few case reports outlined the endocrine consequences. The aim of this study was to reveal anterior pituitary function in children with history of hospitalization due to mild to severe head trauma. Our endocrine follow-up study was performed between October 2003 and February 2004 in the Pediatric Department of Petz Aladár County Teaching Hospital, Gyor, Hungary. Twenty-six children (17 boys and nine girls, aged 11.47 +/- 0.75 years) at 30.6 +/- 8.3 months after head injury and 21 age-matched controls were enrolled. Basal and stimulated anterior pituitary and peripheral hormone concentrations were measured by routine laboratory methods. Pituitary dysfunction was detected in 61% of patients with TBI history. All growth hormone (GH) parameters measured and calculated were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in TBI group than in controls after L-DOPA stimulation. Similar difference was detected 60 min after insulin provocation. Forty-two percent of all TBI children showed insufficient growth hormone (GH) response in both stimulation tests, 73% of these cases were boys. Cortisol levels of TBI patients were significantly (p < 0.05) lower all through the insulin test than values measured in control group. The degree of pituitary dysfunction was independent from the severity of TBI. Our study confirms the high risk for hypopituitarism in children with TBI despite the lack of obvious clinical symptoms. We suggest screening of pituitary function after any kind of brain trauma requiring hospitalization in childhood. PMID:17263675
Niederland, Tamás; Makovi, Helga; Gál, Veronika; Andréka, Bertalan; Abrahám, Csongor S; Kovács, József
Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia). The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene) based on currently available clinical and experimental studies.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that has a strong genetic basis. Converging evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder, with earlier onset cases resulting in more profound brain abnormalities. Siblings of patients with schizophrenia provide an invaluable resource for differentiating between trait and state markers, thus highlighting possible endophenotypes for ongoing research. However, findings from sibling studies have not been systematically put together in a coherent story across the broader age span. We review here the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings of patients with schizophrenia from childhood to adulthood, by reviewing sibling studies from both childhood-onset schizophrenia, and the more common adult-onset schizophrenia. When reviewed together, studies suggest that siblings of patients with schizophrenia display significant brain abnormalities that highlight both similarities and differences between the adult and childhood populations, with shared developmental risk patterns, and segregating trajectories. Based on current research it appears that the cortical grey matter abnormalities in siblings are likely to be an age-dependent endophenotype, which normalize by the typical age of onset of schizophrenia unless there has been more genetic or symptom burdening. With increased genetic burdening (e.g. discordant twins of patients) the grey matter abnormalities in (twin) siblings are progressive in adulthood. This synthesis of the literature clarifies the importance of brain plasticity in the pathophysiology of the illness, indicating that probands may lack protective factors critical for healthy development. PMID:23698280
Moran, Marcel E; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke; Gogtay, Nitin
Article abstract-Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are autosomal recessive, heterogeneous disorders. The most frequent form in the Caucasian population is classic (occidental) CMD, characterized by exclusive muscle involve- ment, although abnormal brain white matter signals are occasionally observed on MRI. Recently, deficiency of merosin, the laminin isoform in skeletal muscle, has been identified in classic CMD patients. In skeletal muscle, merosin
Y. Sunada; T. S. Edgar; B. P. Lotz; R. S. Rust; K. P. Campbell
Chronic interictal psychotic syndromes, often resembling schizophrenia, develop in some patients with epilepsy. Although widespread brain abnormalities are recognized as characteristic of schizophrenia, prevailing but controversial hypotheses on the co-occurrence of epilepsy and psychosis implicate left temporal lobe pathology. In this study, quantitative MRI methods were used to address the regional specificity of structural brain abnormalities in patients with epilepsy plus chronic interictal psychosis (E+PSY, n=9) relative to three comparison groups: unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy without chronic psychosis (TLE, n=18), schizophrenia (SCZ, n=46), and healthy control subjects (HC, n=57). Brain measures, derived from a coronal spin-echo MRI sequence, were adjusted for age and cerebral volume. Relative to HC, all patient groups had ventricular enlargement and smaller temporal lobe, frontoparietal, and superior temporal gyrus gray matter volumes, with the extent of these abnormalities greatest in E+PSY. Only TLE had temporal lobe white matter deficits, as well as smaller hippocampi, which were ipsilateral to the seizure focus. Structural brain abnormalities in E+PSY are not restricted to the left temporal lobe. The confluence of cortical gray matter deficits in E+PSY and SCZ suggests salience to chronic psychosis. PMID:11677063
Marsh, L; Sullivan, E V; Morrell, M; Lim, K O; Pfefferbaum, A
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:WM injury is the dominant form of injury in preterm infants. However, other cerebral structures, including the deep gray matter and the cerebellum, can also be affected by injury and/or impaired growth. Current MR imaging injury assessment scales are subjective and are challenging to apply. Thus, we developed a new assessment tool and applied it to MR imaging studies obtained from very preterm infants at term age.MATERIALS AND METHODS:MR imaging scans from 97 very preterm infants (< 30 weeks' gestation) and 22 healthy term-born infants were evaluated retrospectively. The severity of brain injury (defined by signal abnormalities) and impaired brain growth (defined with biometrics) was scored in the WM, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Perinatal variables for clinical risks were collected.RESULTS:In very preterm infants, brain injury was observed in the WM (n=23), deep GM (n=5), and cerebellum (n=23). Combining measures of injury and impaired growth showed moderate to severe abnormalities most commonly in the WM (n=38) and cerebellum (n=32) but still notable in the cortical gray matter (n=16) and deep gray matter (n=11). WM signal abnormalities were associated with a reduced deep gray matter area but not with cerebellar abnormality. Intraventricular and/or parenchymal hemorrhage was associated with cerebellar signal abnormality and volume reduction. Multiple clinical risk factors, including prolonged intubation, prolonged parenteral nutrition, postnatal corticosteroid use, and postnatal sepsis, were associated with increased global abnormality on MR imaging.CONCLUSIONS:Very preterm infants demonstrate a high prevalence of injury and growth impairment in both the WM and gray matter. This MR imaging scoring system provides a more comprehensive and objective classification of the nature and extent of abnormalities than existing measures. PMID:23620070
Kidokoro, H; Neil, J J; Inder, T E
Tauopathies represent a class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal tau phosphorylation and aggregation\\u000a into neuronal paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic\\u000a sensor expressed in most mammalian cell types. In the brain, AMPK controls neuronal maintenance and is overactivated during\\u000a metabolic stress. Here, we show that activated AMPK (p-AMPK) is abnormally accumulated
Valérie Vingtdeux; Peter Davies; Dennis W. Dickson; Philippe Marambaud
|This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…
Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.
Covert brain infarction is an emerging concern in patients with ?-thalassemia intermedia (TI). We have recently observed a high prevalence (60%) of silent brain infarction on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 30 splenectomized adults with TI. In this work, we further evaluate cerebral involvement in the same 30 patients using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning. The median age was 32 years (range, 18-54 years) with a male to female ratio of 13:17. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had evidence of decreased neuronal function on PET-CT. Involvement was mostly left sided, multiple, and most commonly in the temporal and parietal lobes. Elevated liver iron concentration, beyond 15 mg Fe/g dry weight, characterized patients with decreased neuronal function. The concordance rate between brain MRI and PET-CT for the detection of brain abnormality was only 36.7% (Kappa 0.056, P?=?0.757), highlighting that both modalities reveal different types of brain pathology. Decreased neuronal function is a common finding in patients with TI and is associated with iron overload. Moreover, the addition of PET-CT to MRI identifies a greater proportion of TI patients with silent neuroimaging abnormalities. PMID:21750926
Musallam, Khaled M; Nasreddine, Wassim; Beydoun, Ahmad; Hourani, Roula; Hankir, Ahmed; Koussa, Suzanne; Haidar, Mohamad; Taher, Ali T
In this study of 23 hypopituitary patients and 26 healthy con- trols, we have addressed whether the obese state of sub- stituted hypopituitary patients is facilitated by abnormal sympathoadrenal activity or energy expenditure (EE). All patients received adequate substitution therapy including GH therapy. The investigation program included assessment of sympathoadrenal activity (urinary catecholamines), body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), appetite sensations
HENRIETTE MERSEBACH; OLE LANDER SVENDSEN; ARNE ASTRUP; ULLA FELDT-RASMUSSEN
The general purpose of this research was to relate topographical mapping of brain electrical activity to performance on several tasks with different cognitive demands. A total of 35 subjects were studied. Fifteen subjects participated in a linguistic cogn...
E. S. Barrett G. F. Wilson
The aim of this study was to investigate limbic metabolic abnormalities in remote traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their psychiatric correlates. Twenty patients and 13 age-matched comparison subjects received complete psychiatric evaluation and brain MRI and MR spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. Patients had reduced NAA to creatine ratio in the left hippocampus relative to comparison subjects (mean=1.3 [SD=0.21] compared with mean=1.55 [SD=0.21]; F=10.73, df=1, 30, p=0.003), which correlated with the Social Functioning Examination scores (rs=?0.502, p=0.034). Furthermore, patients with mood disorders had reduced NAA to creatine ratio in the left cingulate relative to patients without mood disorders (1.47 compared with 1.68; F=3.393, df=3, 19, p=0.044). Remote TBI displays limbic metabolic abnormalities, which correlate to social outcome and psychiatric status.
Capizzano, Aristides A.; Jorge, Ricardo E.; Robinson, Robert G.
Background Previous studies revealed microstructural abnormalities in prefrontal white matter and corpus callosum of long-term abstinent\\u000a chronic methamphetamine abusers. In view of the importance of the early abstinence period in treatment retention, we compared\\u000a 23 methamphetamine-dependent subjects abstinent from methamphetamine for 7–13 days with 18 healthy comparison subjects. As\\u000a certain metabolic changes in the brain first manifest after early abstinence from methamphetamine,
Marc C. Tobias; Joseph O’Neill; Matthew Hudkins; George Bartzokis; Andrew C. Dean; Edythe D. London
We demonstrated brain perfusion abnormalities in a sibship with parkin-linked parkinsonism. The sibship consisted of a 64-year-old man and a 62-year-old woman. Both patients had homozygous deletions of exon 4 in the parkin gene. Hypoperfusion in the superior and middle frontal gyrus, and head of caudate nucleus was seen by SPECT with easy Z score imaging system in both patients.
Zen Kobayashi; Hirotomo Miake; Hiroto Fujigasaki
This series of meta-analyses examined structural abnormalities of the hippocampus and other brain regions in persons with PTSD compared to trauma-exposed and non-exposed control groups. The findings were significantly smaller hippocampal volumes in persons with PTSD compared to controls with and without trauma exposure, but group differences were moderated by MRI methodology, PTSD severity, medication, age and gender. Trauma-exposed persons
Anke Karl; Michael Schaefer; Loretta S. Malta; Denise Dorfel; Nicolas Rohleder; Annett Wernere
Several studies suggest that the nonschizophrenic relatives of schizophrenic patients exhibit structural brain abnormalities that may be manifestations of genes that predispose to schizophrenia. In this work, we examine the utility of such measures for linkage analyses. Subjects were 45 nonpsychotic first-degree adult relatives of schizophrenic patients and 48 normal controls. Sixty contiguous 3-mm coronal, T1-weighted 3D magnetic resonance images
Stephen V. Faraone; Larry J. Seidman; William S. Kremen; David Kennedy; Nikos Makris; Verne S. Caviness; Jill Goldstein; Ming T. Tsuang
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often produces lasting detrimental effects on cognitive processes. The mechanisms underlying neurological abnormalities have not been fully identified, in part due to the diffuse pathology underlying mTBI. Here we employ a mouse model of mTBI that allows for identification of both axotomized and intact neurons in the living cortical slice via neuronal expression of yellow fluorescent protein. Both axotomized and intact neurons recorded within injured cortex are healthy with a normal resting membrane potential, time constant (?), and input resistance (Rin). In control cortex, 25% of cells show an intrinsically bursting action potential (AP) firing pattern, and the rest respond to injected depolarizing current with a regular-spiking pattern. At 2 d postinjury, intrinsic bursting activity is lost within the intact population. The AP amplitude is increased and afterhyperpolarization duration decreased in axotomized neurons at 1 and 2 d postinjury. In contrast, intact neurons also show these changes at 1 d, but recover by 2 d postinjury. Two measures suggest an initial decrease in excitability in axotomized neurons followed by an increase in excitability within intact neurons. The rheobase is significantly increased in axotomized neurons at 1 d postinjury. The slope of the plot of AP frequency versus injected current is larger for intact neurons at 2 d postinjury. Together, these results demonstrate that intact and axotomized neurons are both affected by mTBI, resulting in different changes in neuronal excitability that may contribute to network dysfunction following TBI.
Greer, John E.; Povlishock, John T.
Biased recruitment and sample selection may cause variability in neuroimaging studies. Epidemiologically principled population-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of schizophrenia are very rare. We gathered structural MRI data on 154 subjects from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, aged 33–35 (100 controls, 54 schizophrenia patients). Regional differences in density of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were identified between groups using nonparametric statistical analysis, and the relationship of the regional differences to duration of illness was explored. Gray matter reductions were found bilaterally in the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, insula, superior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, cuneus, and lingual gyrus; in the left posterior cingulate, superior frontal gyrus, transverse temporal gyrus, and precuneus; and in the right postcentral gyrus. Gray matter excesses were observed bilaterally in the basal ganglia, anterior cingulate, and medial orbitofrontal cortices. There were white matter deficits in an extensive network including inter- and intrahemispheric tracts bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, subcortical structures, cerebellum, and brain stem. CSF excesses were found bilaterally in the lateral ventricles, third ventricle, interhemispheric, and left Sylvian fissure. We replicated the previous findings of structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia on a general population level. Gray and white matter deficits were associated with duration of illness suggesting either that developmental brain deficits relate to an earlier age of onset or that brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are progressive in nature.
Tanskanen, Paivikki; Ridler, Khanum; Murray, Graham K.; Haapea, Marianne; Veijola, Juha M.; Jaaskelainen, Erika; Miettunen, Jouko; Jones, Peter B.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Isohanni, Matti K.
Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.
Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.
Aim of the study Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Previously we demonstrated that administration of sodium sulfide (Na2S), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, markedly improved the neurological outcome and survival rate at 24h after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Na2S and its impact on the long-term survival after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min at 37°C whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. Mice received Na2S (0.55 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle 1 min before CPR. Results Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and received vehicle exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/12) and depressed neurological function. Cardiac arrest and CPR induced abnormal water diffusion in the vulnerable regions of the brain, as demonstrated by hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 24h after CA/CPR. Extent of hyperintense DWI was associated with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, worse neurological outcomes, and poor survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR. Administration of Na2S prevented the development of abnormal water diffusion and MMP-9 activation and markedly improved neurological function and long-term survival (9/12, P<0.05 vs. vehicle) after CA/CPR. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of Na2S 1 min before CPR improves neurological function and survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR by preventing water diffusion abnormality in the brain potentially via inhibiting MMP-9 activation early after resuscitation.
Kida, Kotaro; Minamishima, Shizuka; Wang, Huifang; Ren, JiaQian; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Nozari, Ala; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Ichinose, Fumito
1.Geckos adapt their head-position to the spatial orientation of substrates they are actively moving on. Furthermore an adaptation of head-position is carried out in response to structures in the animal's vicinity. We found a tendency to keep the ventral side of the head orientated towards such objects. Thus, in geckos, visual guidance overrides vestibular mechanisms inducing compensatory head-movements during abnormal
D. L. Meyer; W. Graf; U. v. Seydlitz-Kurzbach
The problem of free will lies at the heart of modern scientific studies of consciousness. An influential series of experiments by Libet has suggested that conscious intentions arise as a result of brain activity. This contrasts with tradi- tional concepts of free will, in which the mind controls the body. A more recent study by Haggard and Eimer has further
Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having “pure” dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or “pure” dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening.
Bruder, Gerard E.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E.; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J.
Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse.
Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay
Abnormal tau proteins (PHF-tau) were isolated from Alzheimer's disease brains by treatment of paired helical filament enriched-fractions with perchloric acid and boiling of the acid precipitable fraction with beta-mercaptoethanol. These proteins were purified further by a second perchloric acid treatment. The purified PHF-tau proteins were soluble in buffers devoid of sodium dodecyl sulfate. However, they were similar to the abnormal tau extracted from paired helical filaments with sodium dodecyl sulfate, also named A68, in molecular mass (68, 64, and 60 kDa), isoelectric point (pI 5.5-6.5), reactivity with anti-tau antibodies, and in requirement for alkaline phosphatase treatment to bind the Tau-1 antibody. Compared to normal tau, the soluble PHF-tau contained 100% more glycine and 35% less lysine residue. The results suggest that besides phosphorylation other types of modification may be involved in differentiating PHF-tau from normal tau. PMID:1939196
Liu, W K; Ksiezak-Reding, H; Yen, S H
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age?=?58 years, standard deviation?=?6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value?=?0.008) and lower FA (FDR critical p value?=?0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value?=?0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:22585287
Nakamoto, Beau K; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Chow, Dominic C; Valcour, Victor G; Paul, Robert H; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M; Shikuma, Cecilia M
Objective: To investigate the association between fish consumption and subclinical brain abnormalities. Methods: In the population-based Cardiovascular Health Study, 3,660 participants age ?65 underwent an MRI scan in 1992–1994. Five years later, 2,313 were scanned. Neuroradiologists assessed MRI scans in a standardized and blinded manner. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess dietary intakes. Participants with known cerebrovascular disease were excluded from the analyses. Results: After adjustment for multiple risk factors, the risk of having one or more prevalent subclinical infarcts was lower among those consuming tuna/other fish ?3 times/week, compared to <1/month (relative risk 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54–1.01, p = 0.06, p trend = 0.03). Tuna/other fish consumption was also associated with trends toward lower incidence of subclinical infarcts. Additionally, tuna/other fish intake was associated with better white matter grade, but not with sulcal and ventricular grades, markers of brain atrophy. No significant associations were found between fried fish consumption and any subclinical brain abnormalities. Conclusions: Among older adults, modest consumption of tuna/other fish, but not fried fish, was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white matter abnormalities on MRI examinations. Our results add to prior evidence that suggest that dietary intake of fish with higher eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid content, and not fried fish intake, may have clinically important health benefits. GLOSSARY ARR = absolute risk reduction; BMI = body mass index; CHD = coronary heart disease; CHS = Cardiovascular Health Study; DHA = docosahexaenoic acid; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; FFQ = food frequency questionnaire; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid; RR = relative risk.
Virtanen, J K.; Siscovick, D S.; Longstreth, W T.; Kuller, L H.; Mozaffarian, D
Allogenic stem cell transplantation can reduce lysosomal storage of heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides by up to 27 % in Sanfilippo MPS3a brain, but does not reduce the abnormal storage of sialolactosylceramide (GM3) or improve neurological symptoms, suggesting that ganglioside storage is in a non-lysosomal compartment. To investigate this further we isolated the Triton X100-insoluble at 4 °C, lipid raft (LR) fraction from a sucrose-density gradient from cerebral hemispheres of a 7 month old mouse model of Sanfilippo MPS3a and age-matched control mouse brain. HPLC/MS/MS analysis revealed the expected enrichment of normal complex gangliosides, ceramides, galatosylceramides and sphingomyelin enrichment in this LR fraction. The abnormal HS-derived oligosaccharide storage material was in the Triton X100-soluble at 4 °C fractions (8–12), whereas both GM3 and sialo [GalNAc]lactosylceramide (GM2) were found exclusively in the LR fraction (fractions 3 and 4) and were >90 % C18:0 fatty acid, suggesting a neuronal origin. Further analysis also revealed a >threefold increase in the late-endosome marker bis (monoacylglycerol) phosphate (>70 % as C22:6/22:6-BMP) in non-LR fractions 8–12 whereas different forms of the proposed BMP precursor, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were in both LR and non-LR fractions and were less elevated in MPS3a brain. Thus heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharide storage is associated with abnormal lipid accumulation in both lysosomal (BMP) and non-lysosomal (GM3 and GM2) compartments.
Dawson, G.; Fuller, M.; Helmsley, K. M.; Hopwood, J. J.
In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle and somatosensory-evoked potentials were recorded with 128-channel EEG with and without concurrent induced tonic neck\\/shoulder muscle
L. Buchgreitz; LL Egsgaard; R. Jensen; L. Arendt-Nielsen; L. Bendtsen
A 16-year-old boy presented with progressive dysarthria and gait and behavior disorders. The diagnosis of Wilson disease was made, based on Kayser-Fleischer rings, hypocupremia, hypoceruloplasminemia, and increased 24-hour urinary copper, and confirmed by molecular analysis (homozygous state, p.[Glu1382*]; [Glu1382*]). Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse bilateral cortical and subcortical abnormalities (figure). Chelator therapy (D-penicillamine) produced partial improvement, although the patient developed epileptic seizures, presumably due to the cortical involvement. Wilson disease with extensive cortical-subcortical lesions is rare,(1,2) but should be considered as a possible etiology of diffuse leukoencephalopathy with cystic evolution. PMID:24145882
Trocello, Jean-Marc; Woimant, France; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Poupon, Joel; Chappuis, Philippe; Feillet, Francois
A 16-month-old girl was admitted because of bilateral ophthalmoplegia, left blepharoptosis, and disturbance of consciousness. Her symptoms resolved spontaneously within a week after admission, but mild left abducens palsy remained. The cranial computed tomography showed a mild non-specific brain atrophy. The auditory brain stem response was normal. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to flash stimuli were repeated serially after the onset. No significative patterns of VEP were evoked during the acute stage. However, three months after the onset, an asymmetrical pattern, namely left-sided abnormalities (not-identified P 100 wave, etc.), was observed. The asymmetrical pattern of VEP diminished six months after. And a bilaterally normal VEP pattern was found twelve months after. PMID:2223189
Kataoka, K; Okuno, T; Mikawa, H
Background Abnormalities in the white matter of the brain may occur in individuals with schizophrenia as well as with normal aging. Therefore, elderly schizophrenic patients may suffer further cognitive decline as they age. This study determined whether elderly schizophrenia participants, especially those with declined cognitive function (CDR>1), show white matter metabolite abnormalities on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), and whether there are group differences in age-dependent changes in these brain metabolites. Method 23 elderly schizophrenic and 22 comparison participants fulfilling study criteria were enrolled. Localized, short echo-time 1H MRS at 4 Tesla was used to assess neurometabolite concentrations in several white matter regions. Results Compared to healthy subjects, schizophrenic participants had lower N-acetyl compounds (NA, ?12.6%, p=0.0008), lower myoinositol (MI, ?16.4%, p=0.026) and higher glutamate+glutamine (GLX, +28.7%, p=0.0016) concentrations across brain regions. Schizophrenic participants with CDR?1 showed the lowest NA in the frontal and temporal regions compared to controls. Interactions between age and schizophrenia status on total creatine (CR) and choline-containing compounds (CHO) were observed; only schizophrenic participants showed age-related decreases of these two metabolites in the right frontal region. Conclusion Decreased NA in these white matter brain regions likely reflects reduced neuronal content associated with decreased synapses and neuronal cell volumes. The elevated GLX, if reflecting elevated glutamate, could result from excess neuronal glutamate release or glial dysfunction in glutamate re-uptake. The decreased MI in participants with schizophrenia suggests decreased glial content or dysfunctional glia, which might result from glutamate-mediated toxicity.
Chang, Linda; Friedman, Joseph; Ernst, Thomas; Zhong, Kai; Tsopelas, Nicholas D.; Davis, Kenneth
This study describes morphological abnormalities of brain cells during acute methamphetamine (METH) intoxication in the rat and demonstrates the role of hyperthermia, disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and edema in their development. Rats with chronically implanted brain, muscle and skin temperature probes and an intravenous (i.v.) catheter were exposed to METH (9mg\\/kg) at standard (23°C) and warm (29°C) ambient
Hari S. Sharma; Eugene A. Kiyatkin
Auditory hallucinations are a frequent symptom in schizophrenia. While functional imaging studies have suggested the association of certain patterns of brain activity with sub-syndromes or single symp- toms (e.g. positive symptoms such as hallucinations), there has been only limited evidence from structural imaging or post-mortem studies. In this study, we investigated the relation of local brain structural deficits to severity
Christian Gaser; Igor Nenadic; Hans-Peter Volz; Christian Büchel; Heinrich Sauer
BACKGROUND: Slow waves in the delta (0.5–4 Hz) frequency range are indications of normal activity in sleep. In neurological disorders, focal electric and magnetic slow wave activity is generated in the vicinity of structural brain lesions. Initial studies, including our own, suggest that the distribution of the focal concentration of generators of slow waves (dipole density in the delta frequency
Brigitte S Rockstroh; Christian Wienbruch; William J Ray; Thomas Elbert
Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders.
Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Buhler, Mira; Lemenager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin
Many patients with compensated cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy have deficits in visual-spatial perception, a condition we call minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Five patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis and nine control subjects underwent positron-emission tomographic imaging of the brain with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Patients also underwent neuropsychological and clinical chemistry tests. The patients had mild arterial hyperammonemia (62 +/- 13 mumol/L, range = 11 to 35 mumol/L) and other abnormalities typical of patients with cirrhosis. The patients' mean percentile scores on the digit symbol and block design subtests, from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (revised), and Purdue pegboard test were 11 +/- 7, 24 +/- 7 and 7 +/- 8 (right hand). Tests of vocabulary, memory, and new learning were normal. The technique of statistical parametric mapping was used to identify regions where cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and metabolism were abnormal. We noted significant reductions in the cingulate gyrus, a center mediating attention, target analysis and response formulation and significant increases in visual associative regions subserving motion and color perception and object orientation. We suggest that minimal hepatic encephalopathy is due to a deficit in the detection and formulation of responses to visual stimuli, a function of the cingulate, which is a part of the anterior attentional system of the brain. Increases in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism may be compensatory. These studies show that brain regions differ in their sensitivity to the agents that cause hepatic encephalopathy and that positron-emission tomography is useful in studying the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:8225210
Lockwood, A H; Murphy, B W; Donnelly, K Z; Mahl, T C; Perini, S
Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282
Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M; Kronbichler, Martin
The goal of the study is to determine the extent of structural brain abnormalities in a multicenter sample of children and adolescents with a recent-onset first episode of psychosis (FEP), compared with a sample of healthy controls. Total brain and lobar volumes and those of gray matter (GM), white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in 92 patients with a FEP and in 94 controls, matched for age, gender, and years of education. Male patients (n = 64) showed several significant differences when compared with controls (n = 61). GM volume in male patients was reduced in the whole brain and in frontal and parietal lobes compared with controls. Total CSF volume and frontal, temporal, and right parietal CSF volumes were also increased in male patients. Within patients, those with a further diagnosis of “schizophrenia” or “other psychosis” showed a pattern similar to the group of all patients relative to controls. However, bipolar patients showed fewer differences relative to controls. In female patients, only the schizophrenia group showed differences relative to controls, in frontal CSF. GM deficit in male patients with a first episode correlated with negative symptoms. Our study suggests that at least part of the GM deficit in children and adolescent-onset schizophrenia and in other psychosis occurs before onset of the first positive symptoms and that, contrary to what has been shown in children-onset schizophrenia, frontal GM deficits are probably present from the first appearance of positive symptoms in children and adolescents.
Reig, Santiago; Parellada, Mara; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Janssen, Joost; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Bargallo, Nuria; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Graell, Montserrat; Ortuno, Felipe; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel
Several case definitions of chronic illness in veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War have been linked epidemiologically with environmental exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting chemicals, which cause chronic changes in cholinergic receptors in animal models. Twenty-one chronically ill Gulf War veterans (5 with symptom complex 1, 11 with complex 2, and 5 with complex 3) and 17 age-, sex- and education-matched controls, underwent an 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT brain scan following infusion of saline and >48 h later a second scan following infusion of physostigmine in saline. From each SPECT image mean normalized regional cerebral blood flow (nrCBF) from 39 small blocks of correlated voxels were extracted with geostatistical spatial modeling from eight deep gray matter structures in each hemisphere. Baseline nrCBF in symptom complex 2 was lower than controls throughout deep structures. The change in nrCBF after physostigmine (challenge minus baseline) was negative in complexes 1 and 3 and controls but positive in complex 2 in some structures. Since effects were opposite in different groups, no finding typified the entire patient sample. A hold-out discriminant model of nrCBF from 17 deep brain blocks predicted membership in the clinical groups with sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity of 0.82. Gulf War-associated chronic encephalopathy in a subset of veterans may be due to neuronal dysfunction, including abnormal cholinergic response, in deep brain structures. PMID:19230625
Haley, Robert W; Spence, Jeffrey S; Carmack, Patrick S; Gunst, Richard F; Schucany, William R; Petty, Frederick; Devous, Michael D; Bonte, Frederick J; Trivedi, Madhukar H
Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…
Lynch, Marion E.
Exogenously administered melatonin causes a 2-fold rise in glutathione peroxidase activity within 30 min in the brain of the rat. Furthermore, brain glutathione peroxidase activity is higher at night than during the day and is correlated with high night-time tissue melatonin levels. Glutathione peroxidase is thought to be the principal enzyme eliminating peroxides in the brain. This antioxidative enzyme reduces
L. R. Barlow-Walden; R. J. Reiter; M. Abe; M. Pablos; A. Menendez-Pelaez; L.-D. Chen; B. Poeggeler
The spectral analysis of multichannel magnetoencephalographic data is presented. This analysis revealed a local similarity regime in brain activity (in more than two decades of frequencies) and provided new parameters for noninvasive experimental studies of the brain.
E. Novikov; A. Novikov; D. Shannahoff-Khalsa; B. Schwartz; J. Wright
Considerable information about mental states can be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activity patterns can reveal what a person is seeing, perceiving, attending to, or remembering. Moreover, multidimensional models can be used to investigate how the brain encodes complex visual scenes or abstract semantic information. Such feats of "brain reading" or "mind reading," though impressive, raise important conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues. What does successful decoding reveal about the cognitive functions performed by a brain region? How should brain signals be spatially selected and mathematically combined to ensure that decoding reflects inherent computations of the brain rather than those performed by the decoder? We highlight recent advances and describe how multivoxel pattern analysis can provide a window into mind-brain relationships with unprecedented specificity, when carefully applied. However, as brain-reading technology advances, issues of neuroethics and mental privacy will be important to consider. PMID:21943172
Tong, Frank; Pratte, Michael S
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that brain activation during performance of working memory (WM) tasks under high memory loads is altered in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to uninjured subjects (Perlstein et al., 2004; Scheibel et al., 2003). Our study attempted to equate TBI patients and orthopedically injured (OI) subjects on performance of an N-Back
Mary R. Newsome; Randall S. Scheibel; Joel L. Steinberg; Maya Troyanskaya; Rajkumar G. Sharma; Ronald A. Rauch; Xioaqi Li; Harvey S. Levin
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism has been proposed as a possible candidate for involvement in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). To determine whether an association exists between the BDNF Val66Met genotype and morphometric abnormalities of the brain regions involved in memory and learning in BD and healthy subjects. Forty-two BD patients and 42 healthy subjects were studied.
Koji Matsuo; Consuelo Walss-Bass; Fabiano G Nery; Mark A Nicoletti; John P Hatch; Benicio N Frey; Emel S Monkul; Giovana B Zunta-Soares; Charles L Bowden; Michael A Escamilla; Jair C Soares
The local translation of ?-actin is one mechanism proposed to regulate spatially-restricted actin polymerization crucial for nearly all aspects of neuronal development and function. However, the physiological significance of localized ?-actin translation in neurons has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. To investigate the role of ?-actin in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), we characterized brain structure and function in a CNS-specific ?-actin knock-out mouse (CNS-ActbKO). ?-actin was rapidly ablated in the embryonic mouse brain, but total actin levels were maintained through upregulation of other actin isoforms during development. CNS-ActbKO mice exhibited partial perinatal lethality while survivors presented with surprisingly restricted histological abnormalities localized to the hippocampus and cerebellum. These tissue morphology defects correlated with profound hyperactivity as well as cognitive and maternal behavior impairments. Finally, we also identified localized defects in axonal crossing of the corpus callosum in CNS-ActbKO mice. These restricted defects occurred despite the fact that primary neurons lacking ?-actin in culture were morphologically normal. Altogether, we identified novel roles for ?-actin in promoting complex CNS tissue architecture while also demonstrating that distinct functions for the ubiquitously expressed ?-actin are surprisingly restricted in vivo.
Cheever, Thomas R.; Li, Bin; Ervasti, James M.
Objectives: To establish the frequency of cognitive impairment in a population based sample of patients with recently diagnosed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine the relation between cognitive abnormalities and the extent of macroscopic and microscopic tissue damage revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging. Methods: 58 patients with RRMS consecutively diagnosed in the previous six months in Aquitaine and 70 healthy controls underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. Lesion load and atrophy indices (brain parenchymal fraction and ventricular fraction) were measured on brain MRI. MT ratio (MTR) histograms were obtained from lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and normal appearing grey matter (NAGM). Gadolinium enhanced lesions were counted. Results: 44 RRMS patients could be individually matched with healthy controls for age, sex, and education. Patients performed worse in tests of verbal and spatial memory, attention, information processing speed, inhibition, and conceptualisation. Measures of attention and information processing speed were correlated with lesion load, mean NAWM MTR, and the peak location of the NAGM MTR histogram in the patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that lesion load and mean NAWM MTR were among the MR indices that were most significantly associated with impairment of attention and information processing speed in these early RRMS cases. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment appears to be common in the early stages of RRMS, mainly affecting attention, information processing speed, memory, inhibition, and conceptualisation. The severity of these deficits reflects the extent of the lesions and the severity of tissue disorganisation outside lesions.
Deloire, M; Salort, E; Bonnet, M; Arimone, Y; Boudineau, M; Amieva, H; Barroso, B; Ouallet, J; Pachai, C; Galliaud, E; Petry, K; Dousset, V; Fabrigoule, C; Brochet, B
IMPORTANCE The appearance of ?-amyloidosis and brain injury biomarkers in cognitively normal (CN) persons is thought to define risk for the future development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but their interaction is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that the joint presence of ?-amyloidosis and brain injury biomarkers would lead to more rapid neurodegeneration. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. PARTICIPANTS One hundred ninety-one CN persons (median age, 77 years; range, 71-93 years) in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent magnetic resonance, fludeoxyglucose F 18 (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging at least twice 15 months apart. Participants were grouped according to the recommendations of the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer Association preclinical AD criteria based on the presence of ?-amyloidosis, defined as a PiB PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) greater than 1.5, alone (stage 1) or with brain injury (stage 2?+?3), defined as hippocampal atrophy or FDG hypometabolism. We also studied a group of patients with mild cognitive impairment (n?=?17) or dementia (n?=?9) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging or the Mayo Alzheimer Center with similar follow-up times who had undergone comparable imaging and had a PiB PET SUVr greater than 1.5. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Rate of change of cortical volume on volumetric magnetic resonance images and rate of change of glucose metabolism on FDG PET scan results. RESULTS There were 25 CN participants with both high PiB retention and low hippocampal volume or FDG hypometabolism at baseline (preclinical AD stages 2?+?3). On follow-up scans, the preclinical AD stage 2?+?3 participants had greater loss of medial temporal lobe volume and greater glucose hypometabolism in the medial temporal lobe compared with the other CN groups. The changes were similar to those in the cognitively impaired participants. Extratemporal regions did not show similar changes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher rates of medial temporal neurodegeneration occur in CN individuals who, on their initial scans, had abnormal levels of both ?-amyloid and brain injury biomarkers. Although preclinical AD is currently only a research topic, the description of its brain structural changes will be critical for trials designed to prevent or forestall dementia due to AD. PMID:23797806
Knopman, David S; Jack, Clifford R; Wiste, Heather J; Weigand, Stephen D; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lowe, Val J; Kantarci, Kejal; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Mielke, Michelle M; Roberts, Rosebud O; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C
Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX (age: 14.66+/?1.58SD, 18 females/18 males), and 33 age-matched healthy controls (age: 14.67+/?2.2SD, 17 females/16 males), using high-dimensional elastic image registration. All 69 subjects' 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs were spatially deformed to match a high-resolution single-subject average MRI scan in ICBM space, whose geometry was optimized to produce a minimal deformation target. Maps of the local Jacobian determinant (expansion factor) were computed from the deformation fields. Statistical maps showed increased caudate (10% higher; p=0.001) and lateral ventricle volumes (19% higher; p=0.003), and trend-level parietal and temporal white matter excesses (10% higher locally; p=0.04). In affected females, volume abnormalities correlated with reduction in systemically measured levels of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP; Spearman's r0.5 locally). Decreased FMRP correlated with ventricular expansion (p=0.042; permutation test), and anterior cingulate tissue reductions (p=0.0026; permutation test) supporting theories that FMRP is required for normal dendritic pruning in fronto-striatal-limbic pathways. No sex differences were found; findings were confirmed using traditional volumetric measures in regions of interest. Deficit patterns were replicated using Lie group statistics optimized for tensor-valued data. Investigation of how these anomalies emerge over time will accelerate our understanding of FraX and its treatment.
Lee, Agatha D.; Leow, Alex D.; Lu, Allen; Reiss, Allan L.; Hall, Scott; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.
Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. PMID:23856299
Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo
Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…
Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen
Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were
David G. Hughes; Alan Jackson; Damon L. Mason; Elizabeth Berry; Sally Hollis; David W. Yates
Background. African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The
K. D. Morgan; P. Dazzan; C. Morgan; J. Lappin; G. Hutchinson; X. Chitnis; J. Suckling; P. Fearon; P. B. Jones; J. Leff; R. M. Murray
|Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…
Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen
Clinical abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) have classically been considered to be caused by demyelination and/or axonal degeneration; the possibility of molecular changes in neurons, such as the deployment of abnormal repertoires of ion channels that would alter neuronal electrogenic properties, has not been considered. Sensory Neuron-Specific sodium channel SNS displays a depolarized voltage dependence, slower activation and inactivation kinetics, and more rapid recovery from inactivation than classical "fast" sodium channels. SNS is selectively expressed in spinal sensory and trigeminal ganglion neurons within the peripheral nervous system and is not expressed within the normal brain. Here we show that sodium channel SNS mRNA and protein, which are not present within the cerebellum of control mice, are expressed within cerebellar Purkinje cells in a mouse model of MS, chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We also demonstrate SNS mRNA and protein expression within Purkinje cells from tissue obtained postmortem from patients with MS, but not in control subjects with no neurological disease. These results demonstrate a change in sodium channel expression in neurons within the brain in an animal model of MS and in humans with MS and suggest that abnormal patterns of neuronal ion channel expression may contribute to clinical abnormalities such as ataxia in these disorders.
Black, Joel A.; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman; Baker, David; Newcombe, Jia; Cuzner, M. Louise; Waxman, Stephen G.
Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion. Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently concussed but asymptomatic individuals. Specifically, we report performance of spatial memory navigation tasks in a VR environment and fMRI data in 15 athletes suffering from MTBI and 15 neurologically normal, athletically active age matched controls. No differences in performance were observed between these two groups of subjects in terms of success rate (94 and 92%) and time to complete the spatial memory navigation tasks (mean = 19.5 and 19.7 s). Whole brain analysis revealed that similar brain activation patterns were observed during both encoding and retrieval among the groups. However, concussed athletes showed larger cortical networks with additional increases in activity outside of the shared region of interest (ROI) during encoding. Quantitative analysis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal revealed that concussed individuals had a significantly larger cluster size during encoding at parietal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right hippocampus. In addition, there was a significantly larger BOLD signal percent change at the right hippocampus. Neither cluster size nor BOLD signal percent change at shared ROIs was different between groups during retrieval. These major findings are discussed with respect to current hypotheses regarding the neural mechanism responsible for alteration of brain functions in a clinical setting.
Slobounov, Semyon M.; Zhang, K.; Pennell, D.; Ray, W.; Johnson, B.; Sebastianelli, W.
Cholinergic deafferentation/recovery in rats mainly impinges on the fronto-parietal coupling of brain rhythms [D. P. Holschneider et al. (1999) Exp. Brain Res., 126, 270-280]. Is this reflected by the functional coupling of fronto-parietal cortical rhythms at an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (mild AD)? Resting electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms were studied in 82 patients with mild AD and in control subjects, such as 41 normal elderly (Nold) subjects and 25 patients with vascular dementia (VaD). Patients with AD and VaD had similar mini-mental state evaluation scores of 17-24. The functional coupling was estimated by means of the synchronization likelihood (SL) of the EEG data at electrode pairs, accounting for linear and non-linear components of that coupling. Cortical rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (1 8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz) and gamma (30-40 Hz). A preliminary data analysis (Nold) showed that surface Laplacian transformation of the EEG data reduced the values of SL, possibly because of the reduction of influences due to head volume conduction. Therefore, the final analysis was performed on Laplacian-transformed EEG data. The SL was dominant at alpha 1 band in all groups. Compared with the Nold subjects, patients with VaD and mild AD presented a marked reduction of SL at both fronto-parietal (delta-alpha) and inter-hemispherical (delta-beta) electrode pairs. The feature distinguishing the patients with mild AD with respect to patients with VaD groups was a more prominent reduction of fronto-parietal alpha 1 SL. These results suggest that mild AD is characterized by an abnormal fronto-parietal coupling of the dominant human cortical rhythm at 8-10.5 Hz. PMID:15128412
Babiloni, Claudio; Ferri, Raffaele; Moretti, Davide V; Strambi, Andrea; Binetti, Giuliano; Dal Forno, Gloria; Ferreri, Florinda; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Bonato, Claudio; Nobili, Flavio; Rodriguez, Guido; Salinari, Serenella; Passero, Stefano; Rocchi, Raffaele; Stam, C J; Rossini, Paolo M
Comments on a central disagreement in a dialog between D. Bindra and R. W. Sperry (1970) as to whether subjective experience (e.g., pain) can have a causal effect of brain activity. Sperry maintains that subjective experience itself directly determines the further course of brain activity. The author's views are that emergent properties are presumably \\
Zenon W. Pylyshyn
The MARCKS protein is a widely distributed cellular substrate for protein kinase C. It is a myristoylprotein that binds calmodulin and actin in a manner reversible by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. It is also highly expressed in nervous tissue, particularly during development. To evaluate a possible developmental role for MARCKS, we disrupted its gene in mice by using the techniques of homologous recombination. Pups homozygous for the disrupted allele lacked detectable MARCKS mRNA and protein. All MARCKS-deficient pups died before or within a few hours of birth. Twenty-five percent had exencephaly and 19% had omphalocele (normal frequencies, < 1%), indicating high frequencies of midline defects, particularly in cranial neurulation. Nonexencephalic MARCKS-deficient pups had agenesis of the corpus callosum and other forebrain commissures, as well as failure of fusion of the cerebral hemispheres. All MARCKS-deficient pups also displayed characteristic lamination abnormalities of the cortex and retina. These studies suggest that MARCKS plays a vital role in the normal developmental processes of neurulation, hemisphere fusion, forebrain commissure formation, and formation of cortical and retinal laminations. We conclude that MARCKS is necessary for normal mouse brain development and postnatal survival. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Stumpo, D J; Bock, C B; Tuttle, J S; Blackshear, P J
Cognitive and neural abnormalities are known to accompany chronic drug abuse, with impairments in cognition and changes in cortical structure seen in stimulant-dependent individuals. However, premorbid differences have also been observed in the brains and behavior of individuals at risk for substance abuse, before they develop dependence. Endophenotype research has emerged as a useful method for assessing preclinical traits that may be risk factors for pathology by studying patient populations and their undiagnosed first-degree relatives. This study used the color-word Stroop task to assess executive functioning in stimulant-dependent individuals, their unaffected biological siblings and unrelated healthy control volunteers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm. Both the stimulant-dependent and sibling participants demonstrated impairments in cognitive control and processing speed on the task, registering significantly longer response latencies. However, the two groups generated very different neural responses, with the sibling participants exhibiting a significant decrease in activation in the inferior frontal gyrus compared with both stimulant-dependent individuals and control participants. Both target groups also demonstrated a decrease in hemispheric laterality throughout the task, exhibiting a disproportionate increase in right hemispheric activation, which was associated with their behavioral inefficiencies. These findings not only suggest a possible risk factor for stimulant abuse of poor inhibitory control and cortical inefficiency but they also demonstrate possible adaptations in the brains of stimulant users. PMID:23673468
Smith, D G; Jones, P S; Bullmore, E T; Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D
Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients with BBS, which parallel the findings, described in BBS mutant mouse models. Some of these brain abnormalities may be progressive and associated with the reported neurological and behavioral problems. Further future correlation of these MRI scan findings with detailed neurologic and neuropsychological exams together with genotype data will provide better understanding of the pathophysiology of BBS.
Even though recent studies have suggested that seizures do not occur suddenly and that before a seizure there is a period with an increased probability of seizure occurrence, neurophysiological mechanisms of interictal and pre-seizure states are unknown. The ability of mathematical methods to provide much more sensitive tools for the detection of subtle changes in the electrical activity of the brain gives promise that electrophysiological markers of enhanced seizure susceptibility can be found even during interictal periods when EEG of epilepsy patients often looks 'normal'. Previously, we demonstrated in animals that hippocampal and neocortical gamma-band rhythms (30-100 Hz) intensify long before seizures caused by systemic infusion of kainic acid. Other studies in recent years have also drawn attention to the fast activity (>30 Hz) as a possible marker of epileptogenic tissue. The current study quantified gamma-band activity during interictal periods and seizures in intracranial EEG (iEEG) in 5 patients implanted with subdural grids/intracranial electrodes during their pre-surgical evaluation. In all our patients, we found distinctive (abnormal) bursts of gamma activity with a 3 to 100 fold increase in power at gamma frequencies with respect to selected by clinicians, quiescent, artifact-free, 7-20 min "normal" background (interictal) iEEG epochs 1 to 14 hours prior to seizures. Increases in gamma activity were largest in those channels which later displayed the most intensive electrographic seizure discharges. Moreover, location of gamma-band bursts correlated (with high specificity, 96.4% and sensitivity, 83.8%) with seizure onset zone (SOZ) determined by clinicians. Spatial localization of interictal gamma rhythms within SOZ suggests that the persistent presence of abnormally intensified gamma rhythms in the EEG may be an important tool for focus localization and possibly a determinant of epileptogenesis. PMID:21442774
Medvedev, Andrei V; Murro, Anthony M; Meador, Kimford J
Modern technical and biochemical methods allow investigation of hemodynamic and metabolic responses of the human brain during muscular work. Following a general introduction to the topic results from selected studies on endogenous opioid peptides, pain sensitivity and psyche, regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral glucose metabolism, amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier, impact of physical work on the serotonergic system, influence of oxygen partial pressure on neurotransmitters and hormones during exercise, role of the brain as performance limiting factor as well as age-related changes in cerebral blood flow and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/-gonadal axis function will be presented. PMID:11149280
Hollmann, W; Strüder, H K
To determine whether phospholipid abnormality in Alzheimers disease is associated with modification of phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, the activity of the enzyme was analysed in the frontal and occipital cortex of the brain from patients with Alzheimers disease and from aged-matched control. The optimum pH for phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase in human brain was 9.0. The enzyme activity was stimulated by detergent TWEEN 20 but inhibited
Z.-Z Guan; Y.-N Wang; K.-Q Xiao; P.-S Hu; J.-L Liu
This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…
Gellens, Suzanne R.
Recognizing abnormal breathing activity from body movement is a challenging task in machine vision. In this paper, we present a non-intrusive automatic video monitoring technique for detecting abnormal breathing activities and assisting in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. The proposed technique utilizes infrared video information and avoids imposing geometric or positional constraints on the patient. The technique also deals with
Ching Wei Wang; Amr Ahmed; Andrew Hunter
We report on a girl presenting with facial dysmorphic features and breathing difficulties upon birth. She was hypotonic, developed a metabolic acidosis, and died two days old of heart failure. Post-mortem examination revealed abnormalities of brain, lungs, heart and liver. In cultured skin fibroblasts activities of enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, beta-oxidation and other mitochondrial (mt) metabolic pathways were
Etienne Agsteribbe; Anke Huckriede; Marten Veenhuis; Marcel H. J. Ruiters; Klary E. Niezen-Koning; Ola H. Skjeldal; Kari Skullerud; Radhey S. Gupta; Richard Hallberg; Otto P. van Diggelen; Hans R. Scholte
MRI alterations in the cerebral white (WM) and gray matter (GM) are common in HIV infection, even during successful combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), and their pathophysiology and clinical significance are unclear. We evaluated the association of these alterations with recovery of CD4+ T cells. Seventy-five HIV-infected (HIV+) volunteers in the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research study underwent brain MRI at two visits. Multi-channel morphometry yielded volumes of total cerebral WM, abnormal WM, cortical and subcortical GM, and ventricular and sulcal CSF. Multivariable linear regressions were used to predict volumetric changes with change in current CD4 and detectable HIV RNA. On average, the cohort (79 % initially on CART) demonstrated loss of total cerebral WM alongside increases in abnormal WM and ventricular volumes. A greater extent of CD4 recovery was associated with increases in abnormal WM and subcortical GM volumes. Virologic suppression was associated with increased subcortical GM volume, independent of CD4 recovery. These findings suggest a possible link between brain alterations and immune recovery, distinct from the influence of virologic suppression. The association of increasing abnormal WM and subcortical GM volumes with CD4+ T cell recovery suggests that neuroinflammation may be one mechanism in CNS pathogenesis. PMID:23838849
Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ellis, Ronald J; Archibald, Sarah L; Jernigan, Terry L; Letendre, Scott L; Notestine, Randy J; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Julaton, Michelle D; Croteau, David J; Wolfson, Tanya; Heaton, Robert K; Gamst, Anthony C; Franklin, Donald R; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; Marra, Christina; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Grant, Igor
The BEAM equipment is a neurophysiological diagnostic device which converts the output of a 20-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) into a color contour map of the electrical activity at the surface of the brain. Preliminary data on clinical efficacy indic...
Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Su-Fang, Li; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li
Background Structural brain abnormalities are consistently found in schizophrenia (Sz) and have been associated with the familial risk for the disorder. We aim to define the relative contributions of genetic and nongenetic factors to the association between structural brain abnormalities and Sz in a uniquely powered cohort (Schizophrenia Twins and Relatives consortium). Methods An international multicenter magnetic resonance imaging collaboration was set up to pool magnetic resonance imaging scans from twin pairs in Utrecht (The Netherlands), Helsinki (Finland), London (United Kingdom), and Jena (Germany). A sample of 684 subjects took part, consisting of monozygotic twins (n = 410, with 51 patients from concordant and 52 from discordant pairs) and dizygotic twins (n = 274, with 39 patients from discordant pairs). The additive genetic, common, and unique environmental contributions to the association between brain volumes and risk for Sz were estimated by structural equation modeling. Results The heritabilities of most brain volumes were significant and ranged between 52% (temporal cortical gray matter) and 76% (cerebrum). Heritability of cerebral gray matter did not reach significance (34%). Significant phenotypic correlations were found between Sz and reduced volumes of the cerebrum (?.22 [?.30/?.14]) and white matter (?.17 [?.25/?.09]) and increased volume of the third ventricle (.18 [.08/.28]). These were predominantly due to overlapping genetic effects (77%, 94%, and 83%, respectively). Conclusions Some of the genes that transmit the risk for Sz also influence cerebral (white matter) volume.
van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Schnack, Hugo G.; Picchioni, Marco M.; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Weisbrod, Matthias; Sauer, Heinrich; van Erp, Theo G.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Huttunen, Matti O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Murray, Robin M.; Kahn, Rene S.
Summary We investigated various magnetic resonance MRI parameters for both brain and spinal cord to see if any improved the clinicoradiological correlation in multiple sclerosis. Ninety- one multiple sclerosis patients (28 relapsing-remitting, 32 secondary progressive and 31 primary progressive) were imaged using conventional T 1, proton density- and T 2- weighted MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Focal brain
G. Nijeholt; M. A. A. van Walderveen; J. A. Castelijns; C. Polman; P. Scheltens; P. F. W. M. Rosier; P. J. H. Jongen; F. Barkhof; Dutch MRI
There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration (hyperventilation) is a common event in panic disorder patients during panic attack episodes. Further, a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in panic patients. This led some to posit that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control
Smit Sinha; Laszlo A Papp; Jack M Gorman
The case of a nineteen-year-old female with a three-year history of psychiatric symptomatology clinically consistent with the DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia is presented. Neurophysiologic assessment using topographic brain mapping demonstrated auditory evoked potential P300 asymmetry with left temporal inactivation and increased latency, while EEG frequency analysis was remarkable for left hemispheric slow wave predominance as well as increased left temporal beta activity. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) in the same patient revealed radionucleide uptake reductions in the frontotemporal cortical regions. The clinical presentation of schizophrenia in the context of these imaging correlations is reviewed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Sieg, K G; Willsie, D A; Preston, D F; Gaffney, G R
The comprehension of visually presented sentences produces brain activation that increases with the linguistic complexity of the sentence. The volume of neural tissue activated (number of voxels) during sentence comprehension was measured with echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging. The modulation of the volume of activation by sentence complexity was observed in a network of four areas: the classical left-hemisphere language
Marcel Adam Just; Patricia A. Carpenter; Timothy A. Keller; William F. Eddy; Keith R. Thulborn
The level of core body, and presumably brain temperature during sleep varies with clinical state in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), becoming elevated during winter depression and lowered during clinical remission induced by either light treatment or summer. During sleep, brain temperatures are in part determined by the level of brain cooling activity, which may be reflected by facial skin temperatures. In many animals, the level of brain cooling activity oscillates across the NREM-REM sleep cycle. Facial skin temperatures during sleep in patients with winter depression are abnormally low and uncorrelated with rectal temperatures, although their relationship to EEG-defined sleep stages remains unknown. We therefore measured the sleep EEG, core body and facial skin temperatures in 23 patients with winter depression and 23 healthy controls, and tested the hypothesis that ultradian oscillations in facial skin temperatures exist in humans and are abnormal in patients with winter depression. We found that facial skin temperatures oscillated significantly across the NREM-REM sleep cycle, and were again significantly lower and uncorrelated with rectal temperatures in patients with winter depression. Mean slow-wave activity and NREM episode duration were significantly greater in patients with winter depression, whereas the intraepisodic dynamics of slow-wave activity were normal in patients with winter depression. These results suggest that brain cooling activity oscillates in an ultradian manner during sleep in humans and is reduced during winter depression, and provide additional support for the hypothesis that brain temperatures are elevated during winter depression. PMID:10825491
Schwartz, P J; Rosenthal, N E; Kajimura, N; Han, L; Turner, E H; Bender, C; Wehr, T A
Background: Asymmetric patterns of frontal brain activity and brain corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems have both been separately implicated in the processing of normal and abnormal emotional responses. Previous studies in rhesus monkeys demonstrated that individuals with extreme right frontal asymmetric brain electrical activity have high levels of trait-like fearful behavior and increased plasma cortisol concentrations.Methods: In this study we assessed
Ned H. Kalin; Steven E. Shelton; Richard J. Davidson
Measurement of tissue spin lattice relaxation time (T1) has been used to characterize brain development in healthy children. Here we report the first study of brain T1 in young children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The T1 in 10 tissue samples was measured by established techniques; 46 SCD patients under the age of 4 years were compared to 267 controls,
R. Grant Steen; Michael Hunte; Elfreides Traipe; Peter Hurh; Shengjie Wu; Larissa Bilaniuk; John Haselgrove
Apert syndrome (AS), the most severe form craniosynostosis, is characterized by premature fusion of coronal sutures. Approximately 70% of AS patients carry S252W gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2. Besides the cranial phenotype, brain dysmorphologies are present and are not seen in other FGFR2-asociated craniosynostosis, such as Crouzon syndrome (CS). Here, we hypothesized that S252W mutation leads not only to overstimulation of FGFR2 downstream pathway, but likewise induces novel pathological signaling. First, we profiled global gene expression of wild-type and S252W periosteal fibroblasts stimulated with FGF2 to activate FGFR2. The great majority (92%) of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were divergent between each group of cell populations and they were regulated by different transcription factors. We than compared gene expression profiles between AS and CS cell populations and did not observe correlations. Therefore, we show for the first time that S252W mutation in FGFR2 causes a unique cell response to FGF2 stimulation. Since our gene expression results suggested that novel signaling elicited by mutant FGFR2 might be associated with central nervous system (CNS) development and maintenance, we next investigated if DEGs found in AS cells were also altered in the CNS of an AS mouse model. Strikingly, we validated Strc (stereocilin) in newborn Fgfr2S252W/+ mouse brain. Moreover, immunostaining experiments suggest a role for endothelial cells and cerebral vasculature in the establishment of characteristic CNS dysmorphologies in AS that has not been proposed by previous literature. Our approach thus led to the identification of new target genes directly or indirectly associated with FGFR2 which are contributing to the pathophysiology of AS.
Yeh, Erika; Fanganiello, Roberto D.; Sunaga, Daniele Y.; Zhou, Xueyan; Holmes, Gregory; Rocha, Katia M.; Alonso, Nivaldo; Matushita, Hamilton; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin W.; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita
The sleep-deprived brain has principally been characterized by examining dysfunction during cognitive task performance. However, far less attention has been afforded the possibility that sleep deprivation may be as, if not more, accurately characterized on the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity. Here we report that one night of sleep deprivation significantly disrupts the canonical signature of task-related deactivation, resulting
Ninad Gujar; Seung-Schik Yoo; Peter Hu; Matthew P. Walker
The sleep-deprived brain has principally been characterized by examining dysfunction during cognitive task performance. However, far less attention has been afforded the possibility that sleep deprivation may be as, if not more, accurately characterized on the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity. Here we re- port that one night of sleep deprivation significantly disrupts the canonical signature of task-related deactivation,
Ninad Gujar; Seung-Schik Yoo; Peter Hu; Matthew P. Walker
A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities.
Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah
In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. PMID:23085449
Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L
Abnormal trajectory of brain development has been suggested by previous structural magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the neurochemical backgrounds remain unclear. To elucidate neurochemical processes underlying aberrant brain growth in ASD, we conducted a comprehensive literature search and a meta-analysis of (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies in ASD. From the 22 articles identified as satisfying the criteria, means and s.d. of measure of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, choline-containing compounds, myo-Inositol and glutamate+glutamine in frontal, temporal, parietal, amygdala-hippocampus complex, thalamus and cerebellum were extracted. Random effect model analyses showed significantly lower NAA levels in all the examined brain regions but cerebellum in ASD children compared with typically developed children (n=1295 at the maximum in frontal, P<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected), although there was no significant difference in metabolite levels in adulthood. Meta-regression analysis further revealed that the effect size of lower frontal NAA levels linearly declined with older mean age in ASD (n=844, P<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected). The significance of all frontal NAA findings was preserved after considering between-study heterogeneities (P<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected). This first meta-analysis of (1)H-MRS studies in ASD demonstrated robust developmental changes in the degree of abnormality in NAA levels, especially in frontal lobes of ASD. Previously reported larger-than-normal brain size in ASD children and the coincident lower-than-normal NAA levels suggest that early transient brain expansion in ASD is mainly caused by an increase in non-neuron tissues, such as glial cell proliferation. PMID:22832731
Aoki, Y; Kasai, K; Yamasue, H
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. Mutations in any of its five subunits lead to leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease with unknown aetiology, which is among the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders. We generated the first animal model for the disease by introducing a point mutation into the mouse Eif2b5 gene locus, leading to R132H replacement corresponding to the clinically significant human R136H mutation in the catalytic subunit. In contrast to human patients, mice homozygous for the mutant Eif2b5 allele (Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice) enable multiple analyses under a defined genetic background during the pre-symptomatic stages and during recovery from a defined brain insult. Time-course magnetic resonance imaging revealed for the first time the delayed development of the brain white matter due to the mutation. Electron microscopy demonstrated a higher proportion of small-calibre nerve fibres. Immunohistochemistry detected an abnormal abundance of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the brain of younger animals, as well as an abnormal level of major myelin proteins. Most importantly, mutant mice failed to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, reflecting an increased sensitivity to brain insults. The anomalous development of white matter in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice underscores the importance of tight translational control to normal myelin formation and maintenance. PMID:20826436
Geva, Michal; Cabilly, Yuval; Assaf, Yaniv; Mindroul, Nina; Marom, Liraz; Raini, Gali; Pinchasi, Dalia; Elroy-Stein, Orna
Abnormal trajectory of brain development has been suggested by previous structural magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the neurochemical backgrounds remain unclear. To elucidate neurochemical processes underlying aberrant brain growth in ASD, we conducted a comprehensive literature search and a meta-analysis of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies in ASD. From the 22 articles identified as satisfying the criteria, means and s.d. of measure of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, choline-containing compounds, myo-Inositol and glutamate+glutamine in frontal, temporal, parietal, amygdala-hippocampus complex, thalamus and cerebellum were extracted. Random effect model analyses showed significantly lower NAA levels in all the examined brain regions but cerebellum in ASD children compared with typically developed children (n=1295 at the maximum in frontal, P<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected), although there was no significant difference in metabolite levels in adulthood. Meta-regression analysis further revealed that the effect size of lower frontal NAA levels linearly declined with older mean age in ASD (n=844, P<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected). The significance of all frontal NAA findings was preserved after considering between-study heterogeneities (P<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected). This first meta-analysis of 1H-MRS studies in ASD demonstrated robust developmental changes in the degree of abnormality in NAA levels, especially in frontal lobes of ASD. Previously reported larger-than-normal brain size in ASD children and the coincident lower-than-normal NAA levels suggest that early transient brain expansion in ASD is mainly caused by an increase in non-neuron tissues, such as glial cell proliferation.
Aoki, Y; Kasai, K; Yamasue, H
Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function.
Alivisatos, A. Paul; Andrews, Anne M.; Boyden, Edward S.; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Fraser, Scott E.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S.; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L.; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Shepard, Kenneth L.; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S.; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei
Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We attribute this disparity, in part, to limitations in current methodologies. Traditional neurophysiological approaches record the activities of one neuron or a few neurons at a time. Neurochemical approaches focus on single neurotransmitters. Yet, there is an increasing realization that neural circuits operate at emergent levels, where the interactions between hundreds or thousands of neurons, utilizing multiple chemical transmitters, generate functional states. Brains function at the nanoscale, so tools to study brains must ultimately operate at this scale, as well. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are poised to provide a rich toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function by enabling simultaneous measurement and manipulation of activity of thousands or even millions of neurons. We and others refer to this goal as the Brain Activity Mapping Project. In this Nano Focus, we discuss how recent developments in nanoscale analysis tools and in the design and synthesis of nanomaterials have generated optical, electrical, and chemical methods that can readily be adapted for use in neuroscience. These approaches represent exciting areas of technical development and research. Moreover, unique opportunities exist for nanoscientists, nanotechnologists, and other physical scientists and engineers to contribute to tackling the challenging problems involved in understanding the fundamentals of brain function. PMID:23514423
Alivisatos, A Paul; Andrews, Anne M; Boyden, Edward S; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Fraser, Scott E; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Looger, Loren L; Masmanidis, Sotiris; McEuen, Paul L; Nurmikko, Arto V; Park, Hongkun; Peterka, Darcy S; Reid, Clay; Roukes, Michael L; Scherer, Axel; Schnitzer, Mark; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Shepard, Kenneth L; Tsao, Doris; Turrigiano, Gina; Weiss, Paul S; Xu, Chris; Yuste, Rafael; Zhuang, Xiaowei
The presence of even one extra chromosome severely impairs cellular growth. This effect of aneuploidy (a term describing chromosome numbers deviating from multiples of haploid chromosome content) has been observed in many different organisms, from yeast to humans. Accordingly, abnormal karyotypes are detected in nearly 30% of spontaneously aborted embryos. The rarely surviving infants, such as with trisomy of chromosome 21, are severely handicapped. The causes remain enigmatic, although recent studies exploiting yeast and mouse models provided first glimpses of the imbalanced inner life of aneuploid cells. Using comparative genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics we have analyzed the fate of the transcripts and proteins coded on the extra chromosomes as well as the general response to aneuploidy in human cells. PMID:23108329
Stingele, Silvia; Stoehr, Gabriele; Storchova, Zuzana
Phospholipids are essential components of cell membranes which may also function to mediate some of the behavioural effects of dopamine receptor stimulation caused by psychostimulant drugs. Neuroimaging and pharmacological data suggest that abnormal brain metabolism of phospholipids might explain some of the consequences of chronic exposure to drugs of abuse including drug craving. We previously reported decreased activity of calcium-stimulated
Brian M. Ross; Anna Moszczynska; Frank J. Peretti; Vernard Adams; Gregory A. Schmunk; Kathryn S. Kalasinsky; Lee Ang; Nikolaos Mamalias; Sylvie D. Turenne; Stephen J. Kish
The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal
Summary Chronic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating pain condition accompanied by autonomic abnormalities. We investigated gray matter morphometry and white matter anisotropy in CRPS patients and matched controls. Patients exhibited 1) a disrupted relationship between white matter anisotropy and whole-brain gray matter volume, 2) gray matter atrophy in a single cluster encompassing right insula, right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), and right nucleus accumbens, and 3) a decrease in fractional anisotropy in the left cingulum-callosal bundle. Reorganization of white matter connectivity in these regions was characterized by branching pattern alterations, and increased (VMPFC to insula) and decreased connectivity (VMPFC to basal ganglion). While regional atrophy differentially related to pain intensity and duration, the strength of connectivity between specific atrophied regions related to anxiety. These abnormalities encompass emotional, autonomic, and pain perception regions, implying that they likely play a critical role in the global clinical picture of CRPS.
Geha, Paul Y.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Harden, R. Norman; Bauer, William R.; Parrish, Todd B.; Apkarian, A. Vania
The fine structure, histometric characteristics, and permeability of microvessels were studied by electron microscopy in normal and in ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-induced glioma tissue from rats, using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a tracer. The tumor vessels were classified into (1) capillary buds (Type I); (2) round small to large capillaries (Type II); (3) sinusoidal or venule-like microvessels (Type III), and (4) abnormal
S. Nishio; M. Ohta; M. Abe; K. Kitamura
SUMMARY We induced experimental concussive brain injury by a fluid percussion device in anes- thetized cats equipped with a cranial window for the observation of the pial microcirculation of the parietal cortex. Brain injury resulted in transient but pronounced increases in arterial blood pressure and in sustained arteriolar vasodilation associated with reduced or absent responsiveness to the vasoconstrictor effect of
ENOCH P. WEI; W. DALTON DIETRICH; JOHN T. POVLISHOCK; RUDOLPH M. NAVARI; HERMES A. KONTOS
BackgroundHeart failure patients show substantial gray matter loss in brain areas that mediate autonomic control. Those injuries may lead to the aberrant autonomic patterns found in the syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine if functional responses in the brain to an autonomic challenge would differ from normal patterns and would appear in areas of previously-demonstrated gray matter
Mary A. Woo; Paul M. Macey; Peter T. Keens; Rajesh Kumar; Gregg C. Fonarow; Michele A. Hamilton; Ronald M. Harper
Although key to understanding individual variation in task-related brain activation, the genetic contribution to these individual differences remains largely unknown. Here we report voxel-by-voxel genetic model fitting in a large sample of 319 healthy, young adult, human identical and fraternal twins (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 1.8 years) who performed an n-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a high magnetic field (4 tesla). Patterns of task-related brain response (BOLD signal difference of 2-back minus 0-back) were significantly heritable, with the highest estimates (40-65%) in the inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri, left supplementary motor area, precentral and postcentral gyri, middle cingulate cortex, superior medial gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, including precuneus, and superior occipital gyri. Furthermore, high test-retest reliability for a subsample of 40 twins indicates that nongenetic variance in the fMRI brain response is largely due to unique environmental influences rather than measurement error. Individual variations in activation of the working memory network are therefore significantly influenced by genetic factors. By establishing the heritability of cognitive brain function in a large sample that affords good statistical power, and using voxel-by-voxel analyses, this study provides the necessary evidence for task-related brain activation to be considered as an endophenotype for psychiatric or neurological disorders, and represents a substantial new contribution to the field of neuroimaging genetics. These genetic brain maps should facilitate discovery of gene variants influencing cognitive brain function through genome-wide association studies, potentially opening up new avenues in the treatment of brain disorders. PMID:21795540
Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; McMahon, Katie L; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J
High incidence of progressive postnatal cerebellar enlargement in Costello syndrome: brain overgrowth associated with HRAS mutations as the likely cause of structural brain and spinal cord abnormalities.
Costello syndrome is a rasopathy caused by germline mutations in the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its presentation includes failure-to-thrive with macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, papillomata, malignant tumors, and cognitive impairment. In a systematic review we found absolute or relative macrocephaly (100%), ventriculomegaly (50%), and other abnormalities on brain and spinal cord imaging studies in 27/28 individuals. Posterior fossa crowding with cerebellar tonsillar herniation (CBTH) was noted in 27/28 (96%), and in 10/17 (59%) with serial studies posterior fossa crowding progressed. Sequelae of posterior fossa crowding and CBTH included hydrocephalus requiring shunt or ventriculostomy (25%), Chiari 1 malformation (32%), and syrinx formation (25%). Our data reveal macrocephaly with progressive frontal bossing and CBTH, documenting an ongoing process rather than a static congenital anomaly. Comparison of images obtained in young infants to subsequent studies demonstrated postnatal development of posterior fossa crowding. This process of evolving megalencephaly and cerebellar enlargement is in keeping with mouse model data, delineating abnormal genesis of neurons and glia, resulting in an increased number of astrocytes and enlarged brain volume. In Costello syndrome and macrocephaly-capillary malformation syndrome disproportionate brain growth is the main factor resulting in postnatal CBTH and Chiari 1 malformation. PMID:20425820
Gripp, Karen W; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Doyle, Daniel; Dobyns, William B
Context Older adults responding to executive control function (ECF) tasks show greater brain activation on functional MRI (fMRI). It is not clear whether greater fMRI activation indicates a strategy to compensate for underlying brain structural abnormalities while maintaining higher performance. Objective To identify the patterns of fMRI activation in relationship with ECF performance and with brain structural abnormalities. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Main variables of interest: fMRI activation, accuracy while performing an ECF task (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), volume of white matter hyperintensities and of total brain atrophy. Setting Cohort of community-dwelling older adults. Participants Data were obtained on 25 older adults (20 women, 81 years mean age). Outcome Measure Accuracy (number of correct response / total number of responses) while performing the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Results Greater accuracy was significantly associated with greater peak fMRI activation, from ECF regions, including left middle frontal gyrus and right posterior parietal cortex. Greater WMH was associated with lower activation within accuracy-related regions. The interaction of accuracy by white matter hyperintensities volume was significant within the left posterior parietal region. Specifically, the correlation of white matter hyperintensities volume with fMRI activation varied as a function of accuracy and it was positive for greater accuracy. Associations with brain atrophy were not significant. Conclusions Recruitment of additional areas and overall greater brain activation in older adults is associated with higher performance. Posterior parietal activation may be particularly important to maintain higher accuracy in the presence of underlying brain connectivity structural abnormalities.
Venkatraman, Vijay K.; Aizenstein, Howard; Guralnik, Jack; Newman, Anne B.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher; Studenski, Stephanie; Launer, Lenore; Pahor, Marco; Williamson, Jeff; Rosano, Caterina
Tauopathies represent a class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal tau phosphorylation and aggregation into neuronal paired helical filaments (PHFs) and neurofibrillary tangles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor expressed in most mammalian cell types. In the brain, AMPK controls neuronal maintenance and is overactivated during metabolic stress. Here, we show that activated AMPK (p-AMPK) is abnormally accumulated in cerebral neurons in 3R+4R and 3R tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), tangle-predominant dementia, Guam Parkinson dementia complex, Pick's disease, and frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17, and to a lesser extent in some neuronal and glial populations in the 4R tauopathies, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and argyrophilic grain disease. In AD brains, p-AMPK accumulation decorated neuropil threads and dystrophic neurites surrounding amyloid plaques, and appeared in more than 90% of neurons bearing pre-tangles and tangles. Granular p-AMPK immunoreactivity was also observed in several tauopathies in apparently unaffected neurons devoid of tau inclusion, suggesting that AMPK activation preceded tau accumulation. Less p-AMPK pathology was observed in PSP and CBD, where minimal p-AMPK accumulation was also found in tangle-positive glial cells. p-AMPK was not found in purified PHFs, indicating that p-AMPK did not co-aggregate with tau in tangles. Finally, in vitro assays showed that AMPK can directly phosphorylate tau at Thr-231 and Ser-396/404. Thus, activated AMPK abnormally accumulated in tangle- and pre-tangle-bearing neurons in all major tauopathies. By controlling tau phosphorylation, AMPK might regulate neurodegeneration and therefore could represent a novel common determinant in tauopathies. PMID:20957377
Vingtdeux, Valérie; Davies, Peter; Dickson, Dennis W; Marambaud, Philippe
In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.
Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu
This paper aims to study the abnormal patterns of brain glucose metabolism co-variations in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients compared to Normal healthy controls (NC) using the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) in a set of 90 structures belonging to the AAL atlas was obtained from Fluro-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography data in resting state. It is assumed that brain regions whose CMRgl values are significantly correlated are functionally associated; therefore, when metabolism is altered in a single region, the alteration will affect the metabolism of other brain areas with which it interrelates. The glucose metabolism network (represented by the matrix of the CMRgl co-variations among all pairs of structures) was studied using the graph theory framework. The highest concurrent fluctuations in CMRgl were basically identified between homologous cortical regions in all groups. Significant differences in CMRgl co-variations in AD and MCI groups as compared to NC were found. The AD and MCI patients showed aberrant patterns in comparison to NC subjects, as detected by global and local network properties (global and local efficiency, clustering index, and others). MCI network's attributes showed an intermediate position between NC and AD, corroborating it as a transitional stage from normal aging to Alzheimer disease. Our study is an attempt at exploring the complex association between glucose metabolism, CMRgl covariations and the attributes of the brain network organization in AD and MCI. PMID:23894356
Sanabria-Diaz, Gretel; Martínez-Montes, Eduardo; Melie-Garcia, Lester
Fragile X syndrome (FraX), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, results in impaired cognition with particular deficits in executive function and visuo-spatial skills. Here we report the first detailed 3D maps of the effects of the Fragile X mutation on brain structure, using tensor-based morphometry. TBM visualizes structural brain deficits automatically, without time-consuming specification of regions-of-interest. We compared 36 subjects with FraX
Agatha D. Lee; Alex D. Leow; Allen Lu; Allan L. Reiss; Scott Hall; Ming-Chang Chiang; Arthur W. Toga; Paul M. Thompson
A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by impulsive behaviours and compulsive drug-taking. Here we compared self-report, behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging data on a relatively large sample of cocaine-dependent individuals (n?=?60) with data on healthy volunteers (n?=?60); and we investigated the relationships between grey matter volume variation, duration of cocaine use, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in the cocaine-dependent group. Cocaine dependence was associated with an extensive system of abnormally decreased grey matter volume in orbitofrontal, cingulate, insular, temporoparietal and cerebellar cortex, and with a more localized increase in grey matter volume in the basal ganglia. Greater duration of cocaine dependence was correlated with greater grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, cingulate and insular cortex. Greater impairment of attentional control was associated with reduced volume in insular cortex and increased volume of caudate nucleus. Greater compulsivity of drug use was associated with reduced volume in orbitofrontal cortex. Cocaine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption.
Barnes, Anna; Simon Jones, P.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.
Central sensitization caused by prolonged nociceptive input from muscles is considered to play an important role for chronification of tension-type headache. In the present study we used a new high-density EEG brain mapping technique to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of brain activity in response to muscle pain in 19 patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) and 19 healthy, age- and sex-matched
L. Buchgreitz; L. L. Egsgaard; R. Jensen; L. Arendt-Nielsen; L. Bendtsen
Neural activity in the brain is accompanied by changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood oxygenation that are detectable with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques. In this paper, recent mathematical models of this hemodynamic response are reviewed and integrated. Models are described for: (1) the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal as a function of changes in cerebral
Richard B. Buxton; Kâmil Uluda?; David J. Dubowitz; Thomas T. Liu
The reflex approach to brain activity is in harmony with the anatomical structure of the CNS and its afferent, effector, and central-integrative formations; it is this last component that is most difficult for neurophysiologlcal analysis so far as behavior is concerned. To show conclusively that this statement is correct, it is only necessary to compare advances in the physiology of
P. V. Simonov
Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach i...
J. Mosher R. Leahy P. Lewis J. Lewine J. George
This letter reports a method to extract a functional network of the human brain from electroencephalogram measurements. A network analysis was performed on the resultant network and the statistics of the cluster coefficient, node degree, path length, and physical distance of the links, were studied. Even given the low electrode count of the experimental data the method was able to extract networks with network parameters that clearly depend on the type of stimulus presented to the subject. This type of analysis opens a door to studying the cerebral networks underlying brain electrical activity, and links the fields of complex networks and cognitive neuroscience.
Ray, C.; Ruffini, G.; Marco-Pallarés, J.; Fuentemilla, L.; Grau, C.
This exploratory study investigated EEG power changes during memory activation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve MCI patients and 16 age-matched controls underwent EEG registration during two conventional EEG conditions (‘eyes closed’ and ‘eyes open’) and three memory conditions (‘word memory’, ‘picture memory’ and ‘animal fluency’). For all conditions, EEG power in the theta (4–8Hz), lower alpha
K. van der Hiele; A. A. Vein; C. G. S. Kramer; R. H. A. M. Reijntjes; M. A. van Buchem; R. G. J. Westendorp; E. L. E. M. Bollen; J. G. van Dijk; H. A. M. Middelkoop
The hypothesis that specific computerized tomography brain-scan findings are associated with infantile autism was tested in 45 cases and 19 controls The autistic group was subdivided into serious and less-serious languageimpaired subgroups. The analysis of Euclidean Distances, a type of cluster analysis, showed that neuroradiological parameters of cases and controls, including ventricular sizes, were on the whole significantly different, but
Umberto Balottin; Maurizio Bejor; Ambrogio Cecchini; Adelaide Martelli; Stefano Palazzi; Giovanni Lanzi
Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n: 55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI. Seven healthy young dogs
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas; Antonieta Mora-Tiscareño; Esperanza Ontiveros; Gilberto Gómez-Garza; Gerardo Barragán-Mejía; James Broadway; Susan Chapman; Gildardo Valencia-Salazar; Valerie Jewells; Robert R. Maronpot; Carlos Henríquez-Roldán; Beatriz Pérez-Guillé; Ricardo Torres-Jardón; Lou Herrit; Diane Brooks; Norma Osnaya-Brizuela; Maria E. Monroy; Angelica González-Maciel; Rafael Reynoso-Robles; Rafael Villarreal-Calderon; Anna C Solt; Randall W. Engle
|Exposure to air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation in healthy children and dogs in Mexico City. Comparative studies were carried out in healthy children and young dogs similarly exposed to ambient pollution in Mexico City. Children from Mexico City (n:55) and a low polluted city (n:18) underwent psychometric testing and brain magnetic…
Calderon-Garciduenas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareno, Antonieta; Ontiveros, Esperanza; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Barragan-Mejia, Gerardo; Broadway, James; Chapman, Susan; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Jewells, Valerie; Maronpot, Robert R.; Henriquez-Roldan, Carlos; Perez-Guille, Beatriz; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Herrit, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Osnaya-Brizuela, Norma; Monroy, Maria E.; Gonzalez-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Solt, Anna C.; Engle, Randall W.
Brain overgrowth in early developmental stages of children with autism is well documented. This paper explores the possibility that increases in propagation delays of stimuli and the signals triggered by them, resulting from this overgrowth, may be conducive to the development of poorly structured cortical maps, which may in turn be associated with autistic characteristics. We use a framework based
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease mostly affecting the basal forebrain, cortex and hippocampus whereas the cerebellum is relatively spared. The reason behind this region-specific brain damage in AD is not well understood. Here, we report our data suggesting \\
Sachin Patil; Deebika Balu; Joseph Melrose; Christina Chan
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between thalamic volume and brain size in individuals with Asperger's disorder (ASP). Volumetric measurements of the thalamus were performed on MRI scans obtained from 12 individuals with ASP (age range: 10-35 years) and 12 healthy controls (age range: 9-33 years). A positive correlation…
Hardan, Antonio Y.; Girgis, Ragy R.; Adams, Jason; Gilbert, Andrew R.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.
We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…
Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.
Summary Analyses of brain structure in genetic speech and lan- guage disorders provide an opportunity to identify neu- robiological phenotypes and further elucidate the neural bases of language and its development. Here we report such investigations in a large family, known as the KE family, half the members of which are affected by a severe disorder of speech and language,
K. E. Watkins; F. Vargha-Khadem; J. Ashburner; R. E. Passingham; A. Connelly; K. J. Friston; R. S. J. Frackowiak; M. Mishkin; D. G. Gadian
|For the rehabilitation process, the treatment of patients surviving brain injury in a vegetative state is still a serious challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate patients exhibiting severely disturbed consciousness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five cases of posttraumatic vegetative state and one with minimal…
The studies conducted in this thesis explored brain structures in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analysis that Boos and colleagues performed showed that relatives of patients with schizophrenia had smaller hippocampal volumes, smaller gray matter volumes and larger third ventricle volumes compared to controls. These volumetric differences are similar to the areas that are affected in patients with
H. B. M. Boos
Aim: It was to establish whether brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) might predict cardiac dysfunction in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: The relation between BNP, echocardiography and risk factors (hypertension, anemia, lipids, CRP, hyperparathyroidism) was investigated in 46 children (10 pre-dialysis patients, 14 on dialysis, 11 children with kidney transplants, and 11 healthy controls). Data on BNP were transformed
For the rehabilitation process, the treatment of patients surviving brain injury in a vegetative state is still a serious challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate patients exhibiting severely disturbed consciousness using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Five cases of posttraumatic vegetative state and one with minimal…
We assessed whether the nuclear localization sequences (NLS) and C terminus of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) play critical roles in brain development and function. We used histology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry, Western blots and electrophysiological recordings to compare the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, neuronal hippocampal synaptic transmission, and brain phenotypes including shape and structures, in Pthrp knock-in mice, which express PTHrP (1–84), a truncated form of the protein that is missing the NLS and the C-terminal region of the protein, and their wild-type littermates. Results showed that Pthrp knock-in mice display abnormal brain shape and structures; decreased neural cell proliferative capacity and increased apoptosis associated with up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p21, p27 and p53 and down-regulation of the Bmi-1 oncogene; delayed neural cell differentiation; and impaired hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. These findings provide in vivo experimental evidence that the NLS and C-terminus of PTHrP are essential not only for the regulation of neural cell proliferation and differentiation, but also for the maintenance of normal neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity.
Gu, Zhen; Liu, Yahong; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Shulei; Chen, Qi; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Miao, Dengshun
Purpose Group-wise analyses of DTI in mTBI have demonstrated evidence of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although mTBI is likely to have a unique spatial pattern in each patient, group analyses implicitly assume that location of injury will be the same across patients. The purpose of this study was to optimize and validate a procedure for analysis of DTI images acquired in individual patients, which could detect inter-individual differences and be applied in the clinical setting, where patients must be assessed as individuals. Materials and Methods After informed consent and in compliance with HIPAA, 34 mTBI patients and 42 normal subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla DTI. Four voxelwise assessment methods (standard Z-score, “one vs. many” t-test, Family-Wise Error Rate control using pseudo t-distribution, EZ-MAP) for use in individual patients, were applied to each patient’s fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and tested for its ability to discriminate patients from controls. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to define optimal thresholds (voxel-level significance and spatial extent) for reliable and robust detection of mTBI pathology. Results ROC analyses showed EZ-MAP (specificity 71%, sensitivity 71%), “one vs. many” t-test and standard Z-score (sensitivity 65%, specificity 76% for both methods) resulted in a significant area under the curve (AUC) score for discriminating mTBI patients from controls in terms of the total number of abnormal white matter voxels detected while the FWER test was not significant. EZ-MAP is demonstrated to be robust to assumptions of Gaussian behavior and may serve as an alternative to methods that require strict Gaussian assumptions. Conclusion EZ-MAP provides a robust approach for delineation of regional abnormal anisotropy in individual mTBI patients.
Kim, Namhee; Branch, Craig A.; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Michael L.
Schizophrenia patients have deficits in cognitive function that are a core feature of the disorder. AX-CPT is commonly used to study cognition in schizophrenia, and patients have characteristic pattern of behavioral and ERP response. In AX-CPT subjects respond when a flashed cue "A" is followed by a target "X," ignoring other letter combinations. Patients show reduced hit rate to "go" trials, and increased false alarms to sequences that require inhibition of a prepotent response. EEG recordings show reduced sensory (P1/N1), as well as later cognitive components (N2, P3, CNV). Behavioral deficits correlate most strongly with sensory dysfunction. Oscillatory analyses provide critical information regarding sensory/cognitive processing over and above standard ERP analyses. Recent analyses of induced oscillatory activity in single trials during AX-CPT in healthy volunteers showed characteristic response patterns in theta, alpha, and beta frequencies tied to specific sensory and cognitive processes. Alpha and beta modulated during the trials and beta modulation over the frontal cortex correlated with reaction time. In this study, EEG data was obtained from 18 schizophrenia patients and 13 controls during AX-CPT performance, and single trial decomposition of the signal yielded power in the target wavelengths. Significant task-related event-related desynchronization (ERD) was observed in both alpha and beta frequency bands over parieto-occipital cortex related to sensory encoding of the cue. This modulation was reduced in patients for beta, but not for alpha. In addition, significant beta ERD was observed over motor cortex, related to motor preparation for the response, and was also reduced in patients. These findings demonstrate impaired dynamic modulation of beta frequency rhythms in schizophrenia, and suggest that failures of oscillatory activity may underlie impaired sensory information processing in schizophrenia that in turn contributes to cognitive deficits. PMID:23986729
Dias, Elisa C; Bickel, Stephan; Epstein, Michael L; Sehatpour, Pejman; Javitt, Daniel C
The KE family is a large three-generational pedigree in which half of the members suffer from a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia in association with a point mutation in the FOXP2 gene. This report extends previous voxel-based morphometric analyses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (Watkins et al. (2002) Brain 125:465- 478) using a bilateral conjunction analysis. This searches specifically for
Emma Belton; Claire H. Salmond; Kate E. Watkins; Faraneh Vargha-Khadem; David G. Gadian
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients are thought to be particularly vulnerable to convert to clinical AD where functional disconnection is a major feature of the cortical neuropathology. However, the presence and extent of whole-brain connectivity disturbances is largely unknown in aMCI patients. Twenty-six aMCI patients and eighteen matched healthy subjects were evaluated at baseline and at mean 20 months
Feng Bai; Wei Liao; David R. Watson; Yongmei Shi; Yi Wang; Chunxian Yue; Yuhuan Teng; Di Wu; Yonggui Yuan; Jianping Jia; Zhijun Zhang
Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion.\\u000a Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments.\\u000a Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate\\u000a the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently
Semyon M. Slobounov; K. Zhang; D. Pennell; W. Ray; B. Johnson; W. Sebastianelli
BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine\\/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3? and GSK-3?. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3? gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3? KO mice by using a
Oksana Kaidanovich-Beilin; Tatiana V Lipina; Keizo Takao; Matthijs van Eede; Satoko Hattori; Christine Laliberté; Mustafa Khan; Kenichi Okamoto; John W Chambers; Paul J Fletcher; Katrina MacAulay; Bradley W Doble; Mark Henkelman; Tsuyoshi Miyakawa; John Roder; James R Woodgett
Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) when tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior. PMID:23146156
Brunberg, E; Jensen, P; Isaksson, A; Keeling, L J
Although possible sources and functions of the resting state networks (RSN) of the brain have been proposed, most evidence relies on circular logic and reverse inference. We propose that autonomic arousal provides an objective index of psychophysiological states during rest that may also function as a driving source of the activity and connectivity of RSN. Recording blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal using functional magnetic resonance imaging and skin conductance simultaneously during rest in human subjects, we found that the spontaneous fluctuations of BOLD signals in key nodes of RSN are associated with changes in non-specific skin conductance response, a sensitive psychophysiological index of autonomic arousal. Our findings provide evidence of an important role for the autonomic nervous system to the spontaneous activity of the brain during ‘rest’.
Fan, Jin; Xu, Pengfei; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Gu, Xiaosi; Luo, Yuejia; Hof, Patrick R.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with widespread structural and functional brain alterations. The current study examined the gray matter (GM) voxel based morphometric (VBM) correlates of cognitive and clinical severity scores in patients with AD. The study included 34 patients with AD according to NINCDS/ADRDA AD criteria and 28 matched elderly controls. All subjects were clinically evaluated using Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE), Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data were acquired using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner and VBM analysis was performed using VBM5.1 toolbox. The patients with AD had significantly lower GM volume, white matter volume and total brain volume as compared to controls. The HMSE scores were positively correlated (p=0.009) and EASI (p=0.04) & CDR (p=0.0004) were negatively correlated with the total GM volumes in patients with AD. The VBM analysis revealed diffuse GM atrophy in patients with AD. Frontal& temporal GM volumes were positively correlated with the HMSE scores. Thus the results of the study replicate the previous observations of generalized GM atrophy, in an Indian sample with AD. The cognitive decline, clinical dementia severity and impairment in activities of daily living were correlated whole brain GM and WM volumes as well as with specific brain regional atrophy in AD. However further studies with larger samples & with more detailed cognitive evaluation are required for confirmation & validation of the relationship between regional morphometric abnormalities and cognitive deficits in AD.
Bagepally, Bhavani S.; John, John P.; Varghese, Mathew; Halahalli, Harsha N.; Kota, Lakshminarayanan; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T.; Bharath, Srikala; Jain, Sanjeev
A relationship is considered between abnormal postural reflex activity and its effect on vocal processes in infants and very young children having cerebral palsy. Neurodevelopmental treatment concepts are interpreted as they may apply to evaluation and intiial management of hypertonic children who exhibit voice usage deviations. Interdisciplinary team function in the areas of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology is suggested. PMID:996091
Keesee, P D
Schizophrenia and autism are thought to result from the interaction between a susceptibility genotype and environmental risk factors. The offspring of women who experience infection while pregnant have an increased risk for these disorders. Maternal immune activation (MIA) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism, making MIA a useful model of the disorders. However, the mechanism by which MIA causes long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring is unknown. Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional changes in the offspring. A single maternal injection of IL-6 on day 12.5 of mouse pregnancy causes prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) deficits in the adult offspring. Moreover, coadministration of an anti-IL-6 antibody in the poly(I:C) model of MIA prevents the PPI, LI, and exploratory and social deficits caused by poly(I:C) and normalizes the associated changes in gene expression in the brains of adult offspring. Finally, MIA in IL-6 knock-out mice does not result in several of the behavioral changes seen in the offspring of wild-type mice after MIA. The identification of IL-6 as a key intermediary should aid in the molecular dissection of the pathways whereby MIA alters fetal brain development, which can shed new light on the pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to schizophrenia and autism. PMID:17913903
Smith, Stephen E P; Li, Jennifer; Garbett, Krassimira; Mirnics, Karoly; Patterson, Paul H
Schizophrenia and autism are thought to result from the interaction between a susceptibility genotype and environmental risk factors. The offspring of women who experience infection while pregnant have an increased risk for these disorders. Maternal immune activation (MIA) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism, making MIA a useful model of the disorders. However, the mechanism by which MIA causes long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring is unknown. Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional changes in the offspring. A single maternal injection of IL-6 on day 12.5 of mouse pregnancy causes prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) deficits in the adult offspring. Moreover, coadministration of an anti-IL-6 antibody in the poly(I:C) model of MIA prevents the PPI, LI, and exploratory and social deficits caused by poly(I:C) and normalizes the associated changes in gene expression in the brains of adult offspring. Finally, MIA in IL-6 knock-out mice does not result in several of the behavioral changes seen in the offspring of wild-type mice after MIA. The identification of IL-6 as a key intermediary should aid in the molecular dissection of the pathways whereby MIA alters fetal brain development, which can shed new light on the pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to schizophrenia and autism.
Smith, Stephen E. P.; Li, Jennifer; Garbett, Krassimira; Mirnics, Karoly; Patterson, Paul H.
The NLRP3 inflammasome complex is responsible for maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1?. Mutations in NLRP3 are responsible for the cryopyrinopathies, a spectrum of conditions including neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). While excessive production of IL-1? and systemic inflammation are common to all cryopyrinopathy disorders, skeletal abnormalities, prominently in the knees, and low bone mass are unique features of patients with NOMID. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying skeletal abnormalities in NOMID, we generated knock-in mice globally expressing the D301N NLRP3 mutation (ortholog of D303N in human NLRP3). NOMID mice exhibit neutrophilia in blood and many tissues, including knee joints, and high levels of serum inflammatory mediators. They also exhibit growth retardation and severe postnatal osteopenia stemming at least in part from abnormally accelerated bone resorption, attended by increased osteoclastogenesis. Histologic analysis of knee joints revealed abnormal growth plates, with loss of chondrocytes and growth arrest in the central region of the epiphyses. Most strikingly, a tissue “spike" was observed in the mid-region of the growth plate in the long bones of all NOMID mice that may be the precursor to more severe deformations analogous to those observed in NOMID patients. These findings provide direct evidence linking a NOMID-associated NLRP3-activating mutation to abnormalities of postnatal skeletal growth and bone remodeling.
McGeough, Matthew D.; Pena, Carla; Chen, Debbie; Grimston, Susan K.; Hickman-Brecks, Cynthia L.; Ravindran, Soumya; McAlinden, Audrey; Novack, Deborah V.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Civitelli, Roberto; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mbalaviele, Gabriel
We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.
Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai
The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.
Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.
Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three groups bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor, the thyroid hormone receptor and the serum thyroid hormone binding protein transthyretin. Depending upon the dose of toxin and the congener used, the toxins either decrease or mimic the biological action of the thyroid hormones. Either effect, if occurring during brain development, can have disastrous consequences. Children and animals exposed to PCBs or dioxins in utero and/or as infants can exhibit varying degrees of behavioral disorders. These disorders resemble those seen in children exposed to thyroid hormone deficiencies in utero and/or in infancy. The mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs and dioxins is not known but data suggest it could be partially or entirely mediated by alterations in availability and action of thyroid hormones during neurological development. It is possible that transient exposure of the mother to doses of toxins presently considered nontoxic to the mother could have an impact upon fetal or perinatal neurological development. If the toxins act via their effect on thyroid hormone action, it is possible that doses of toxins that would normally not alter fetal development, could become deleterious if superimposed on a pre-existing maternal/or fetal thyroid disorder.
Porterfield, S P
For many patients with medically refractory epilepsy surgical resection of the site of seizure onset (epileptic focus) offers the best hope for cure. Determination of the nature of seizure propagation should lead to improved methods for locating the epileptic focus (and hence reduce patient morbidity) and possibly to new treatment modalities directed at blocking seizure spread. Theoretical studies of neural networks emphasize the role of traveling waves for the propagation of activity. However, the nature of seizure propagation in human brain remains poorly characterized. The spread of epileptic activity in patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for epilepsy surgery was measured by placing subdural grids of electrodes (interelectrode spacings of 3-10 mm) over the frontal and temporal lobes. The exact location of each electrode relative to the surface of the brain was determined using 3--D MRI imaging techniques. Thus it is possible to monitor the spread of epileptic activity in both space and time. The observations are discussed in light of models for seizure propagation.
The accurate segmentation of the brain from three-dimensional medical imagery is important as the basis for visualization, morphometry, surgical planning and intraoperative navigation. The complex and variable nature of brain anatomy makes recognition of the brain boundaries a difficult problem and frustrates segmentation schemes based solely on local image features. We have developed a deformable surface model of the brain as a mechanism for utilizing a priori anatomical knowledge in the segmentation process. The active surface template uses an energy minimization scheme to find a globally consistent surface configuration given a set of potentially ambiguous image features. Solution of the entire 3D problem at once produces superior results to those achieved using a slice by slice approach. We have achieved good results with MR image volumes of both normal and abnormal subjects. Evaluation of the segmentation results has been performed using cadaver studies.
Snell, John W.; Merickel, Michael B.; Ortega, James M.; Goble, John C.; Brookeman, James R.; Kassell, Neal F.
Based on the human epidemiological association between prenatal infection and higher risk of schizophrenia, a number of animal models have been established to explore the long-term brain and behavioral consequences of prenatal immune challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that the vulnerability to specific forms of schizophrenia-related abnormalities is critically influenced by the precise timing of the prenatal immunological insult. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis whether late prenatal immune challenge in mice may induce long-term behavioral and neurochemical dysfunctions primarily associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. We found that prenatal exposure to the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (Poly-I:C; 5?mg/kg, i.v.) on gestation day (GD) 17 led to significant deficits in social interaction, anhedonic behavior, and alterations in the locomotor and stereotyped behavioral responses to acute apomorphine (APO) treatment in both male and female offspring. In addition, male but not female offspring born to immune challenged mothers displayed behavioral/cognitive inflexibility as indexed by the presence of an abnormally enhanced latent inhibition (LI) effect. Prenatal immune activation in late gestation also led to numerous, partly sex-specific changes in basal neurotransmitter levels, including reduced dopamine (DA) and glutamate contents in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as reduced ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine contents in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively. The constellation of behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities emerging after late prenatal Poly-I:C exposure in mice leads us to conclude that this immune-based experimental model provides a powerful neurodevelopmental animal model especially for (but not limited to) the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Bitanihirwe, Byron KY; Peleg-Raibstein, Daria; Mouttet, Forouhar; Feldon, Joram; Meyer, Urs
Background Brain-imaging literature of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) suggests an abnormal brain-gut communication. We analyzed the literature to evaluate and compare the aspects of brain activity in individuals with IBS and control subjects experiencing controlled rectal stimulation. Methods PubMed was searched until September 2010. Data from 16 articles reporting brain activity during rectal balloon distensions in IBS compared to control groups was analyzed. Prevalence rates and pairwise activations were assessed using binomial distributions for 11 selected regions of interest. The data was aggregated to adjust for center effect. Key Results There was considerable variability in the literature regarding regions and their activity patterns in controls and individuals with IBS. There was no significant difference found in the thalamus, ACC, PCC, and PFC, however results show limited evidence of consensus for the Anterior Insula (AI) (p = 0.22). Pairwise activity results suggest that pairs involving the AI tend to have more consistent activity together than pairs which do not involve the AI (Posterior Insula and AI, p = 0.08; Posterior Cingulate Cortex and AI, p = 0.16), however no pairwise evaluation reached significance. Conclusions & Inferences Our pooled analysis demonstrates that the literature reports are quite heterogeneous but there is some evidence that there may be patterns of higher activity more common in individuals with IBS than in controls. A consensus, though, regarding study designs, analysis approach and reporting could create a clearer understanding of brain involvement in IBS pathophysiology.
Sheehan, James; Gaman, Alexander; Vangel, Mark; Kuo, Braden
Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal.
Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
Poststimulus spectral EEG changes and their correlation with evoked potential (EP) were analyzed. The non-stationary components of the brain evoked activity were revealed in 32 volunteers during simple motor reaction and choice reaction to visual stimuli. This nonstationary activity was manifested in poststimulus changes in the mean wave half-period duration (MWHPD) and mean wave half-period power of the delta- and beta-frequency oscillations computed in the EEG realizations after the EP subtraction. The latencies of high-frequency EP components fell into the intervals of the MWHPD decrease and increase in the power of beta-oscillations, and the latencies of low-frequency EP components coincided with the intervals of the MWHPD increase and decrease in the power of delta and beta-oscillations, which pointed to correlation of these changes with the EP. PMID:9929901
Kovalev, V P; Novototski?-Vlasov, V Iu
ObjectiveAn abnormally increased activation in anterior brain networks, accompanied by normal task performance, has been reported in studies on biological mechanisms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We test a hypothesis, that this phenomenon, deemed specific to OCD, will be compromised by a very difficult task, which may lead to reduced cortical information processing and erroneous performance, as found in other disorders
Kristina T. Ciesielski; Laura M. Rowland; Richard J. Harris; Audra A. Kerwin; Alya Reeve; Jeanne E. Knight
Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate
CHENGHUA WANG; JOANNE S. SZABO; ROSCOE A. DYKMAN
Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631
Quintero, A; Ichesco, E; Myers, C; Schutt, R; Gerstner, G E
The current study investigated the neural networks activated during the anticipation of potentially threatening body symptoms evoked by a guided hyperventilation task in a group of participants reporting either high or low fear of unexplained somatic sensations. 15 subjects reporting high and 14 subjects reporting low fear of somatic symptoms first learned that one of two cues predicted the occurrence of a hyperventilation task reliably producing body symptoms in all participants that were rated as more intense and unpleasant in the high fear group. During anticipation of unpleasant symptoms, high fear participants reported more intense body symptoms and showed potentiation of the startle reflex. After this learning session, participants were taken into the fMRI where the same cues either predicted the occurrence of hyperventilation or normoventilation, although the task was never performed in the scanner. During anticipation of hyperventilation all participants showed an increased activation of anterior insula/orbitofrontal cortex and rostral parts of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dACC/dmPFC). Brain activation of high compared to low fear participants differed in two ways. First, high fear participants showed an overall stronger activation of this network during threat and safe conditions indexing stronger anxious apprehension during the entire context. Second, while low fear participants no longer responded with stronger activation to the threat cue after experiencing that the hyperventilation challenge did not follow this cue, high fear participants continued to show stronger activation of the network to this cue. Activation of the rostral dACC/dmPFC was significantly correlated with reported fear of somatic symptoms. These data demonstrate that anticipation of interoceptive threat activates the same network that has been found to be active during anticipation of exteroceptive threat cues. Thus, the current paradigm might provide an innovative method to study anxious apprehension and treatment effects in patients with panic disorder. PMID:22440646
Holtz, Katharina; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O
The neural networks that putatively modulate aspects of normal emotional behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by converging evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological and lesion analysis studies. These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital cortex (medial prefrontal network), amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial parts of the basal ganglia, where alterations in grey matter volume and neurophysiological activity are found in cases with recurrent depressive episodes. Such findings hold major implications for models of the neurocircuits that underlie depression. In particular evidence from lesion analysis studies suggests that the MPFC and related limbic and striato-pallido-thalamic structures organize emotional expression. The MPFC is part of a larger “default system” of cortical areas that include the dorsal PFC, mid- and posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, and entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex, which has been implicated in self-referential functions. Dysfunction within and between structures in this circuit may induce disturbances in emotional behavior and other cognitive aspects of depressive syndromes in humans. Further, because the MPFC and related limbic structures provide forebrain modulation over visceral control structures in the hypothalamus and brainstem, their dysfunction can account for the disturbances in autonomic regulation and neuroendocrine responses that are associated with mood disorders. This paper discusses these systems together with the neurochemical systems that impinge on them and form the basis for most pharmacological therapies.
Price, Joseph L.; Furey, Maura L.
The neural networks that putatively modulate aspects of normal emotional behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by converging evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological and lesion analysis studies. These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital cortex (medial prefrontal network), amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial parts of the basal ganglia, where alterations in grey matter volume and neurophysiological activity are found in cases with recurrent depressive episodes. Such findings hold major implications for models of the neurocircuits that underlie depression. In particular evidence from lesion analysis studies suggests that the MPFC and related limbic and striato-pallido-thalamic structures organize emotional expression. The MPFC is part of a larger "default system" of cortical areas that include the dorsal PFC, mid- and posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex, and entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex, which has been implicated in self-referential functions. Dysfunction within and between structures in this circuit may induce disturbances in emotional behavior and other cognitive aspects of depressive syndromes in humans. Further, because the MPFC and related limbic structures provide forebrain modulation over visceral control structures in the hypothalamus and brainstem, their dysfunction can account for the disturbances in autonomic regulation and neuroendocrine responses that are associated with mood disorders. This paper discusses these systems together with the neurochemical systems that impinge on them and form the basis for most pharmacological therapies. PMID:18704495
Drevets, Wayne C; Price, Joseph L; Furey, Maura L
Previously, we have shown manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity protects quiescent human normal skin fibroblasts (NHFs) from age associated loss in proliferative capacity. The loss in proliferative capacity of aged vs. young quiescent cells is often characterized as the chronological life span, which is clearly distinct from replicative senescence. We investigate the hypothesis that MnSOD activity protects the mitochondrial morphology from age associated damage and preserves the chronological life span of quiescent fibroblasts. Aged quiescent NHFs exhibited abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology including abnormal cristae formation and increased number of vacuoles. These results correlate with the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial morphology in MnSOD homozygous and heterozygous knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology in aged quiescent NHFs cultured in presence of 21% oxygen concentration were more severe than NHFs cultured in 4% oxygen environment. The alteration in mitochondrial morphology was associated with a significant increase in cell population doubling: 54h in 21% compared to 44h in 4% oxygen environment. Overexpression of MnSOD decreased ROS levels, and preserved mitochondrial morphology in aged quiescent NHFs. These results demonstrate that MnSOD activity protects mitochondrial morphology and preserves the proliferative capacities of quiescent NHFs from age associated loss. PMID:20206302
Sarsour, Ehab H; Goswami, Monali; Kalen, Amanda L; Goswami, Prabhat C
We present the pattern of metabolic brain abnormalities detected in patients undergoing whole body (WB) F-18 flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination for non-central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Knowledge of the PET/CT appearance of various intracranial metabolic abnormalities enables correct interpretation of PET scans in oncological patients where differentiation of metastasis from benign intracranial pathologies is important and improves specificity of the PET study. A complete clinical history and correlation with CT and MRI greatly helps in arriving at a correct imaging diagnosis.
Tripathi, Madhavi; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M; Sharma, Rajnish; Jain, Jyotika; Garg, Gunjan; Singh, Dinesh; Kumar, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K; Grover, Rajesh K; Mondal, Anupam
Unlocking the dynamic inner workings of the brain continues to remain a grand challenge of the 21st century. To this end, functional neuroimaging modalities represent an outstanding approach to better understand the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal brain function. The ability to image brain function with ever increasing spatial and temporal resolution utilizing minimal or non-invasive procedures has made a significant leap over the past several decades. Further delineation of functional networks could lead to improved understanding of brain function in both normal as well as diseased states. This article reviews recent advancements and current challenges in dynamic functional neuroimaging techniques, including electrophysiological source imaging, multimodal neuroimaging integrating fMRI with EEG/MEG, and functional connectivity imaging.
He, Bin; Yang, Lin; Wilke, Christopher; Yuan, Han
In hypertension, the blood pressure response to exercise is exaggerated. We demonstrated previously that this heightened pressor response to physical activity is mediated by an overactive skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR), with important contributions from its metaboreflex and mechanoreflex components. However, the mechanisms driving the abnormal blood pressure response to EPR activation are largely unknown. Recent evidence in humans suggests that the muscle metaboreflex partially mediates the enhanced EPR-induced pressor response via abnormally large changes in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Whether the muscle mechanoreflex induces similarly exaggerated alterations in SNA in hypertension remains unknown, as does the role of the mechanoreceptors mediating muscle reflex activity. To address these issues, the EPR was selectively activated by electrically inducing hindlimb muscle contraction in decerebrate normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Stimulation of the EPR evoked significantly larger increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal SNA (RSNA) in SHR compared with WKY (?RSNA from baseline: 140 ± 11 vs. 48 ± 8%). The mechanoreflex was stimulated by stretching hindlimb muscle which likewise elicited significantly greater elevations in MAP and RSNA in SHR than WKY (?RSNA from baseline: 105 ± 11 vs. 35 ± 7%). Blockade of mechanoreceptors in muscle with gadolinium significantly attenuated the MAP and RSNA responses to contraction and stretch in SHR. These data suggest that 1) the exaggerated pressor response to activation of the EPR and muscle mechanoreflex in hypertension is mediated by abnormally large reflex-induced augmentations in SNA and 2) this accentuated sympathetic responsiveness is evoked, in part, by stimulation of muscle mechanoreceptors.
Mizuno, Masaki; Murphy, Megan N.; Mitchell, Jere H.
Summary Psychometric tests which assess cognitive brain function in dementia disorders are partly prone to artifacts, e.g., the experience of the investigator and the cooperation of the patient influences the results. An objective way to assess the degree of cognitive disturbance could be to measure neuronal activity represented by the electrical brain activity. The aim of the present study was
T. Dierks; L. Frölich; R. Ihl; K. Maurer
A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images
Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio
Objective Impaired antisaccade performance is a consistent cognitive finding in schizophrenia. Antisaccades require both response inhibition and volitional motor programming, functions that are essential to flexible responding. We investigated whether abnormal timing of hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to antisaccades might contribute to perseveration of ocular motor responses in schizophrenia. We focused on the frontal eye field (FEF), which has been implicated in the persistent effects of antisaccades on subsequent responses in healthy individuals. Method Eighteen chronic, medicated schizophrenia outpatients and 15 healthy controls performed antisaccades and prosaccades during functional MRI. Finite impulse response models provided unbiased estimates of event-related HDRs. We compared groups on the peak amplitude, time-to-peak, and full-width half-max of the HDRs. Results In patients, HDRs in bilateral FEF were delayed and prolonged but ultimately of similar amplitude to that of controls. These abnormalities were present for antisaccades, but not prosaccades, and were not seen in a control region. More prolonged HDRs predicted slower responses in trials that followed an antisaccade. This suggests that persistent FEF activity following an antisaccade contributes to inter-trial effects on latency. Conclusions Delayed and prolonged HDRs for antisaccades in schizophrenia suggest that the functions necessary for successful antisaccade performance take longer to implement and are more persistent. If abnormally persistent neural responses on cognitively demanding tasks are a more general feature of schizophrenia, they may contribute to response perseveration, a classic behavioral abnormality. These findings also underscore the importance of evaluating the temporal dynamics of neural activity to understand cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Dyckman, Kara A.; Lee, Adrian K. C.; Agam, Yigal; Vangel, Mark; Goff, Donald C.; Barton, Jason J.S.; Manoach, Dara S.
Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls) were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine), parietal cortex (Pcu) and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu), frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum), occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus) and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.
Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.
Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi
Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1?year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1?year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation.
Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.
s To study the effect of special brain area regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormal perfusion on learning and memory function\\u000a and its molecular mechanism, 64 adult male healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, the false\\u000a operation group (control group) and the operation group (model group). After surgical operation, the operation group undertook\\u000a bilateral common carotid artery
Lingbin Kong; Zhiyin Yang; Rui An; Shouhua Ding
In the current study we describe J.M., a 15-year-old boy with a history of congenital brain abnormalities and concomitant visual-processing impairments. J.M.'s most prominent deficit is his impaired face recognition, but formal testing also revealed deficits in other domains of visual processing. One aspect that emerged from J.M.'s visual-processing assessment was a tendency to focus on local features and to
Laura Schmalzl; Romina Palermo; Irina M. Harris; Max Coltheart
Role of elevated lecithin: Cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities in abnormal lipoproteins from proteinuric patients. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in the esterification of free cholesterol, and the distribution of cholesteryl ester among lipoproteins in plasma. Alterations in these processes may play a role in the lipoprotein abnormalities associated with
Robin PF Dullaart; Ron T Gansevoort; Bert D Dikkeschei; Dick de Zeeuw; Paul E de Jong; Arie van Tol
We report two patients with adult Still’s disease with an abnormally high level of telomerase activity. The first patient was a 61-year-old woman. The mean telomerase activity value for peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy adults measured by our method was 0.13 ± 0.03, whereas that in this patient during the active phase was abnormally high, at more than 27.56.
Daitaro Kurosaka; Jun Yasuda; Isamu Kingetsu; Chiho Yasuda; Ken Yoshida; Yasuhiko Toyokawa; Toru Yokoyama; Akio Yamada
Impersonal stressors, not only interpersonal provocation, can instigate aggression through an associative network linking negative emotions to behavioral activation (L. Berkowitz, 1990). Research has not examined the brain mechanisms that are engaged by different types of stress and serve to promote hostility and aggression. The present study examined whether stress exposure elicits more left than right frontal brain activity implicated
Edelyn Verona; Naomi Sadeh; John J. Curtin
Objective: When an individual engages in a cognitive task, a multitude of diverse processes are activated in his\\/her brain and it is reasonable to assume that multiple brain sources are simultaneously active at any one time. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data recorded in such circumstances provide a picture of spatial distribution and time course of the sum of the magnetic fields generated
Carlo Salustri; Eugene Kronberg
Objective: When an individual engages in a cognitive task, a multitude of diverse processes are activated in his\\/her brain and it is reasonable to assume that multiple brain sources are simultaneously active at any one time. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data recorded in such circumstances provide a picture of spatial distribution and time course of the sum of the magnetic fields generated
Carlo Salustri; Eugene Kronberg
This work presents the development of a brain computer interface as an alternative communication channel to be used in Robotics. It encompasses the implementation of an electroencephalograph (EEG), as well as the development of all computational methods and necessary techniques to identify mental activities. The developed brain computer interface (BCI) is applied to activate the movements of a 120lb mobile
Alexandre Ormiga Galvão Barbosa; David Ronald Achanccaray; Marco A. Meggiolaro
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown etiology. In some cases, typically developing children regress into clinical symptoms of autism, a condition known as regressive autism. Protein kinases are essential for G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated signal transduction, and are involved in neuronal functions, gene expression, memory, and cell differentiation. Recently, we reported decreased activity of protein kinase A (PKA) in the frontal cortex of subjects with regressive autism. In the present study, we analyzed the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in the cerebellum and different regions of cerebral cortex from subjects with regressive autism, autistic subjects without clinical history of regression, and age-matched control subjects. In the frontal cortex of subjects with regressive autism, PKC activity was significantly decreased by 57.1% as compared to age-matched control subjects (p = 0.0085), and by 65.8% as compared to non-regressed autistic subjects (p = 0.0048). PKC activity was unaffected in the temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, and in the cerebellum in both autism groups, i.e., regressive and non-regressed autism as compared to control subjects. These results suggest brain region-specific alteration of PKC activity in the frontal cortex of subjects with regressive autism. Further studies showed a negative correlation between PKC activity and restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped pattern of behavior (r= -0.084, p = 0.0363) in autistic individuals, suggesting involvement of PKC in behavioral abnormalities in autism. These findings suggest that regression in autism may be attributed, in part, to alterations in G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated signal transduction involving PKA and PKC in the frontal cortex.
Ji, Lina; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate functional activity in the brain of adolescents with spina bifida when performing selective attention and response inhibition tasks. We then compared the results to that of age-matched controls. Our results showed that adolescents with spina bifida had decreased frontal and superior parietal activation and more apparently low involvement of left brain hemisphere during these tasks. Our results indicated activation deficits and possibly abnormal functional organization in adolescents with spina bifida and associated pathologies such as hydrocephalus. PMID:22145814
Ou, Xiawei; Snow, Jeffrey H; Byerley, Amy K; Hall, John J; Glasier, Charles M
Dynamic changes in brain structure, activation, and cognitive abilities co-occur during development, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to changes in cognitive function or brain activity. By using cortical pattern matching techniques to correlate cortical gray matter thickness and functional brain activity over the entire brain surface in 24 typically developing children, we integrated structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data with cognitive test scores to identify correlates of mature performance during orthographic processing. Fast-naming individuals activated the right fronto-parietal attention network in response to novel fonts more than slow-naming individuals, and increased activation of this network was correlated with more mature brain morphology in the same fronto-parietal region. These relationships remained even after effects of age or general cognitive ability were statistically controlled. These results localized cortical regions where mature morphology corresponds to mature patterns of activation, and may suggest a role for experience in mediating brain structure–activation relationships.
Lu, Lisa H.; Dapretto, Mirella; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Kan, Eric; McCourt, Sarah T.; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.
Background Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and persistent CD8+ lymphocyte depletion rapidly leads to encephalitis and neuronal injury. The objective of this study is to confirm that CD8-depletion alone does not affect brain pathology in the absence of SIV infection. Methods Four rhesus macaques were monitored by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) before and biweekly after anti-CD8 antibody treatment for eight weeks and compared to four SIV-infected animals. Postmortem immunohistochemistry was performed on these eight animals and compared to six uninfected, non-CD8-depleted controls. Results CD8-depleted animals showed stable metabolite levels and revealed no neuronal injury, astrogliosis or microglial activation in contrast to SIV-infected animals. Conclusions Alterations observed in MRS and lesions in this accelerated model of neuroAIDS result from unrestricted viral expansion in the setting of immunodeficiency rather than from CD8+ lymphocyte depletion alone.
Ratai, Eva-Maria; Pilkenton, Sarah; He, Julian; Fell, Robert; Bombardier, Jeffrey P.; Joo, Chan-Gyu; Lentz, Margaret R.; Kim, Woong-Ki; Burdo, Tricia H.; Autissier, Patrick; Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Curran, Elizabeth; O'Neil, Shawn; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Williams, Kenneth. C.; Masliah, Eliezer; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto
Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.
Vaidya, Chandan J.
Eight children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and eight matched, uninjured control children underwent fMRI during an N-back task to test effects of TBI on working memory performance and brain activation. Two patterns in the TBI group were observed. Patients whose criterion performance was reached at lower memory loads than control children demonstrated less extensive frontal and
Mary R. Newsome; Randall S. Scheibel; Jill V. Hunter; Zhiyue J. Wang; Zili Chu; Xiaoqi Li; Harvey S. Levin
Investigating gender differences of the brain is of both scientific and clinical importance, as understanding such differences may be helpful for improving gender specific treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders. As brain is a highly complex system, it is crucial to investigate its activity in terms of nonlinear dynamics. However, there are few studies that investigated gender differences based on dynamical characteristics of the brain. Fractal dimension (FD) is a key characteristic of the brain dynamics which indicates the level of complexity on which the neuronal regions function or interact and quantifies the associated brain processes on a scale ranging from fully deterministic to fully random. This study investigates the gender differences of brain dynamics, comparing fractal dimension of scalp EEGs (in eyes-closed resting state) of 34 female and 34 male healthy adults. The results showed significantly greater FDs in females compared to males in all brain regions except in lateral and occipital lobes. This indicates a higher complexity of the brain dynamics in females relative to males. The high accuracies of 87.8% and 93.1% obtained by logistic regression and enhanced probabilistic neural network, respectively, in discriminating between the gender groups based on the FDs also confirmed the great gender differences of complexity of brain activities. The results showed that delta, alpha, and beta bands are the frequency bands that contribute most to the gender differences in brain complexity. Furthermore, the lateralization analysis showed the leftward lateralization of complexity in females is greater than in males. PMID:23313595
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Ahmadlou, Mehran; Rezazade, Majid; Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Sajedi, Firoozeh
Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides,\\u000a they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and\\u000a other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate
Chenghua Wang; Joanne S. Szabo; Roscoe A. Dykman
Cholinesterases are a large family of enzymatic proteins widely distributed throughout both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), analytical as well as epidemiological studies suggest an implication of an abnormal focal accumulation of aluminum in the brain. In this devastating disease, aluminum may interfere with various biochemical processes including acetylcholine metabolism, and can thus act as a possible etiopathogenic cofactor. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) exists in several molecular forms that differ in solubility and mode of membrane attachment rather than in catalytic activity. Mice were treated orally with aluminum chloride or aluminum lactate (Al(lac)(3)), and AChE activity in their brain homogenates was then assayed. Results showed that this in vivo treatment augmented the activity of the enzyme. An activating effect was also observed in vitro, when the aluminum compounds were added directly to mouse brain homogenates. However, the activating effect observed in vivo was much more marked than that observed in vitro. In addition, the activation produced by Al(lac)(3) was higher than that obtained after aluminum chloride treatment. Kinetics measurements of AChE activity in the absence and presence of treatment with aluminum both in vivo and in vitro are reported. The influence of the metal speciation on enzymatic activity is discussed in relation to a possible implication of aluminum in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:12372547
Zatta, P; Ibn-Lkhayat-Idrissi, M; Zambenedetti, P; Kilyen, M; Kiss, T
The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances.
Job, Agnes; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal
Summary Autism is a common developmental disorder associated with structural and inferred neurochemical abnormal- ities of the brain. Cerebellar abnormalities frequently have been identified, based on neuroimaging or neuro- pathology. Recently, the cholinergic neurotransmitter system has been implicated on the basis of nicotinic receptor loss in the cerebral cortex. Cerebellar choliner- gic activities were therefore investigated in autopsy tissue from
M. Lee; C. Martin-Ruiz; A. Graham; J. Court; E. Jaros; R. Perry; P. Iversen; M. Bauman; E. Perry
Prior research has suggested that brain recordings such as the neuroelectric evoked potential (EP) and neuromagnetic fields may substantially augment personnel assessment procedures. Such procedures include the measurement and prediction of on-job perform...
G. W. Lewis R. C. Sorenson
Summary Mental rotation is a complex cognitive skill depending on the manipulation of mental representations. We aimed to investigate\\u000a the maturing neuronal network for mental rotation by measuring brain activation in 20 children and 20 adults using functional\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that brain activation patterns are very similar between children and adults.\\u000a However, adults exhibit stronger activation in
K. Kucian; M. von Aster; T. Loenneker; T. Dietrich; F. W. Mast; E. Martin
ObjectiveRecent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling.
Doug Hyun Han; Nicolas Bolo; Melissa A. Daniels; Lynn Arenella; In Kyoon Lyoo; Perry F. Renshaw
Neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone are potent agonists at the GABAA receptor and suppress the fetal CNS activity. These steroids are synthesized in the fetal brain either from cholesterol or from circulating precursors derived from the placenta. The concentrations of allopregnanolone are remarkably high in the fetal brain and rise further in response to acute hypoxic stress, induced by constriction of
Jonathan J. Hirst; Tamara Yawno; Phuong Nguyen; David W. Walker
This study examined the cerebral response to a verbal learning (VL) task in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Twelve OSA patients and 12 controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). As hypothesized, VL performance was similar for both groups, but OSA patients showed increased brain activation in several brain regions. These regions included bilateral inferior frontal and middle
Liat Ayalon; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Zoe Klemfuss; Mark D. Shalauta; Sean P. A. Drummond
Compared to lean subjects, obese men have less activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area implicated in the inhibition of inappropriate behavior, satiety, and meal termination. Whether this deficit precedes weight gain or is an acquired feature of obesity remains unknown. An adult animal model of obesity may provide insight to this question since brain imaging can be
David Val-Laillet; Sabrina Layec; Sylvie Guérin; Paul Meurice; Charles-Henri Malbert
Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in aging humans, especially on executive functions associated with frontal brain regions. In rodents, exercise has been shown to induce structural and neurophysiological changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve spatial learning. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, spatial learning and associated patterns of brain activation cross-sectionally and
Kathrin Holzschneider; Thomas Wolbers; Brigitte Röder; Kirsten Hötting
Eye blinking is not only a reflexive action to protect the ocular surface from injury and desiccation; it can also be done intentionally. However, only a few studies have investigated the brain mechanism controlling intentional blinking, and there are still inconsistencies among the reported activation patterns in the human brain evoked by intentional blinking. In monkeys, some areas where blinking
Makoto Kato; Satoru Miyauchi
Summary Tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the corpus striatum was measured in a large dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated rats in order to confirm whether brain catecholamine contents decrease in acute hepatic failure or not. Theoretical\\u000a amounts of dopa synthesized in the brain of the treated animals were calculated according to an equation of enzyme kinetics.\\u000a Tyrosine hydroxylase activities in CCl4-injured rats
Nobuyuki Takei; Akiharu Watanabe; Tatsuro Sakata; Shosaku Hayashi; Takahiro Obata; Tetsuya Shiota; Hideo Nagashima
Nr2e1 encodes a stem cell fate determinant of the mouse forebrain and retina. Abnormal regulation of this gene results in retinal, brain, and behavioral abnormalities in mice. However, little is known about the functionality of human NR2E1. We investigated this functionality using a novel knock-in humanized-mouse strain carrying a single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). We also documented, for the first time, the expression pattern of the human BAC, using an NR2E1-lacZ reporter strain. Unexpectedly, cerebrum and olfactory bulb hypoplasia, hallmarks of the Nr2e1-null phenotype, were not fully corrected in animals harboring one functional copy of human NR2E1. These results correlated with an absence of NR2E1-lacZ reporter expression in the dorsal pallium of embryos and proliferative cells of adult brains. Surprisingly, retinal histology and electroretinograms demonstrated complete correction of the retina-null phenotype. These results correlated with appropriate expression of the NR2E1-lacZ reporter in developing and adult retina. We conclude that the human BAC contained all the elements allowing correction of the mouse-null phenotype in the retina, while missing key regulatory regions important for proper spatiotemporal brain expression. This is the first time a separation of regulatory mechanisms governing NR2E1 has been demonstrated. Furthermore, candidate genomic regions controlling expression in proliferating cells during neurogenesis were identified.
Schmouth, J.-F.; Banks, K. G.; Mathelier, A.; Gregory-Evans, C. Y.; Castellarin, M.; Holt, R. A.; Gregory-Evans, K.; Wasserman, W. W.
The ability to assess brain tumor perfusion and abnormalities in the vascular structure in vivo could provide significant benefits in terms of lesion diagnosis and assessment of treatment response. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has emerged as an increasingly viable methodology for non-invasive assessment of perfusion. Although kinetic models have been developed to describe perfusion in healthy tissue, the dynamic behaviour of the ASL signal in the brain tumor environment has not been extensively studied. We show here that dynamic ASL data acquired in brain tumors displays an increased level of ‘biphasic’ behaviour, compared to that seen in healthy tissue. A new two-stage model is presented which more accurately describes this behaviour, and provides measurements of perfusion, pre-capillary blood volume fraction and transit time, and capillary bolus arrival time. These biomarkers offer a novel contrast in the tumor and surrounding tissue, and provide a means for measuring tumor perfusion and vascular structural abnormalities in a fully non-invasive manner.
Hales, Patrick W.; Phipps, Kim P.; Kaur, Ramneek; Clark, Christopher A.
The ability to assess brain tumor perfusion and abnormalities in the vascular structure in vivo could provide significant benefits in terms of lesion diagnosis and assessment of treatment response. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has emerged as an increasingly viable methodology for non-invasive assessment of perfusion. Although kinetic models have been developed to describe perfusion in healthy tissue, the dynamic behaviour of the ASL signal in the brain tumor environment has not been extensively studied. We show here that dynamic ASL data acquired in brain tumors displays an increased level of 'biphasic' behaviour, compared to that seen in healthy tissue. A new two-stage model is presented which more accurately describes this behaviour, and provides measurements of perfusion, pre-capillary blood volume fraction and transit time, and capillary bolus arrival time. These biomarkers offer a novel contrast in the tumor and surrounding tissue, and provide a means for measuring tumor perfusion and vascular structural abnormalities in a fully non-invasive manner. PMID:24098395
Hales, Patrick W; Phipps, Kim P; Kaur, Ramneek; Clark, Christopher A
Background The Rett Syndrome (RTT) brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. Results Using microarrays and quantitative PCR, the mRNA expression profiles of these two neuroanatomical regions were compared in postmortem brain tissue from RTT patients and normal controls. A subset of genes was differentially expressed in the frontal cortex of RTT brains, some of which are known to be associated with neurological disorders (clusterin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) or are involved in synaptic vesicle cycling (dynamin 1). RNAi-mediated knockdown of MeCP2 in vitro, followed by further expression analysis demonstrated that the same direction of abnormal expression was recapitulated with MeCP2 knockdown, which for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was associated with a functional respiratory chain defect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that MeCP2 associated with the promoter regions of some of these genes suggesting that loss of MeCP2 function may be responsible for their overexpression. Conclusions This study has shed more light on the subset of aberrantly expressed genes that result from MECP2 mutations. The mitochondrion has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of RTT, however it has not been at the forefront of RTT research interest since the discovery of MECP2 mutations. The functional consequence of the underexpression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 indicates that this is an area that should be revisited.
Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate supplement containing glucose and several of its derivatives on resting brain activity in 20 healthy male college students. The supplement provided an insignificant amount of carbohydrate (3.9 g), protein (0.28 g), fat (0 g), and calories (14 kcal). The amount of glucose in the supplement was 0.5 g (1% the amount of glucose used in adult studies of cognitive functioning and memory). We hypothesized that the glyconutrient supplement would enhance brain activity associated with alertness and attention. The study design was double blind, with subjects randomly assigned to one of two orders, either carbohydrate supplement week one followed by placebo a week later, or the opposite. Electrical brain activity was monitored by 15 electrodes positioned at nine standard international 10-20 system locations, including three bilateral pairs at frontal, parietal, and occipital sites. Thirty minutes following ingestion of a placebo or carbohydrate supplement drink, EEG activity was recorded for 10-mins while subjects focused on a stationary visual target. Spectral power of resting brain activity was computed and analyzed contrasting the placebo and supplement groups. Relative to placebo, the carbohydrate supplement significantly enhanced power in three brain wave frequencies (theta, alpha, and beta) that are known to be associated with attention and arousal. Since changes were observed in the supplement but not placebo group, our study suggests that additional sugars in the glyconutritional supplement facilitate enhancement of brain electrical activity. Whether the apparent enhancement of arousal in baseline recordings is associated with improved task performance remains to be determined. PMID:15759600
Wang, Chenghua; Szabo, Joanne S; Dykman, Roscoe A
Objective Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late phase of activation, suggesting different temporal characteristics of brain responses. Method Twenty euthymic adolescents with familial BD (14 male) and twenty-one healthy control subjects (13 male) underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of happy, sad, and neutral facial expressions. Whole brain voxel-wise analyses were conducted in SPM5, using a 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with factors group (BD and healthy control [HC]), facial expression (happy, sad, and neutral versus scrambled), and phase (early and late, corresponding to the first and second half of each block of faces). Results There were no significant group differences in task performance, age, gender, or IQ. Significant activation from the Main Effect of Group included greater DLPFC activation in the HC group, and greater amygdala/hippocampal activation in the BD group. The interaction of Group X Phase identified clusters in the superior temporal sulcus/insula and visual cortex, where activation increased from the early to late phase of the block for the BD but not the HC group. Conclusions These findings are consistent with previous studies that suggest deficient prefrontal cortex regulation of heightened amygdala response to emotional stimuli in pediatric BD. Increasing activation over time in superior temporal and visual cortices suggests difficulty processing or disengaging attention from emotional faces in BD.
Garrett, Amy; Reiss, Allan; Howe, Meghan; Kelley, Ryan; Singh, Manpreet; Adleman, Nancy; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki
Introduction Dysregulation of neuronal networks has been suggested to underlie the cognitive and perceptual abnormalities observed schizophrenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussions An in vitro model of psychosis is proposed based on the two different approaches to cause aberrant network activity in layer\\u000a V pyramidal cells of prefrontal brain slices: (1) psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide and (2) minimal\\u000a GABAA receptor antagonism, modeling the
George K. Aghajanian
The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation. PMID:6285685
Botvinick, E H; Frais, M A; Shosa, D W; O'Connell, J W; Pacheco-Alvarez, J A; Scheinman, M; Hattner, R S; Morady, F; Faulkner, D B
The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in several neuropsychiatry disorders and activity alterations have been described in brain and platelet. Since brain tissue is not readily available for the measurement of PLA2 activity, it would be of interest to test directly whether PLA2 activities in both tissues are correlated. We performed this task assessing PLA2 activity in platelets and hippocampus collected simultaneously from 19 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Our findings suggest that total PLA2 activity in platelets may reflect the total activity of the enzyme in the brain (rs=0.59, p=0.008). However in our sample no correlations were found between the subgroups of the enzyme in brain and in platelets. This lack of correlations may be due to different effects of drug treatment on the PLA2 subtypes. In face of the difficulty to obtain brain tissues from living patients, further studies with larger drug-free samples are warranted to clarify whether the use of platelets is a reliable strategy to reflect the subtypes of PLA2 activity in the brain. PMID:23880350
Talib, Leda L; Valente, Kette D; Vincentiis, Silvia; Gattaz, Wagner F
?B-crystallin is a member of the small heat shock protein family constitutively presenting in brains at a relatively low level. To address the alteration of ?B-crystallin in prion disease, the ?B-crystallin levels in the brains of scrapie agent 263 K-infected hamsters were analyzed. The levels of ?B-crystallin were remarkably increased in the brains of 263 K-infected hamsters, showing a time-dependent manner along with incubation time. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofluorescent (IFA) assays illustrated more ?B-crystallin-positive signals in the regions of the cortex and thalamus containing severe astrogliosis. Double-stained IFA verified that the ?B-crystallin signals colocalized with the enlarged glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes, but not with neuronal nuclei-positive cells. IHC and IFA of the serial brain sections of infected hamsters showed no colocalization and correlation between PrP(Sc) deposits and ?B-crystallin increase. Moreover, increased ?B-crystallin deposits were observed in the brain sections of parietal lobe of a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) case, parietal lobe and thalamus of a G114V genetic CJD case, and thalamus of a fatal family insomnia (FFI) case, but not in a parietal lobe of FFI where only very mild astrogliosis was addressed. Additionally, the molecular interaction between ?B-crystallin and PrP was only observed in the reactions of recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli, but not either in that of brain homogenates or in that of the cultured cell lysates expressing human PrP and ?B-crystallin. Our data indicate that brain ?B-crystallin is abnormally upregulated in various prion diseases, which is coincidental with astrogliosis. Direct interaction between ?B-crystallin and PrP seems not to be essential during the pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:23832485
Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Yin; Ren, Ke; Xie, Wu-Ling; Yan, Yu-E; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Shi, Qi; Liu, Yong; Dong, Xiao-Ping
An atypical EEG pattern of frontal brain activation, which has been found in children and adults with emotional disorders, also is hypothesized to be present in disruptive behavior disorders. One hundred nineteen children (4\\u000a
Lioba Baving; Manfred Laucht; Martin H. Schmidt
A new method has been developed to characterize the sources of spontaneous brain activity measured magnetically while avoiding any specific model for the neural generators. In an application of the technique, individual spindles of the alpha rhythm monito...
R. J. Ilmoniemi S. J. Williamson W. E. Hostetler
Prenatal viral infection has been associated with development of schizophrenia and autism. Our laboratory has previously shown that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) administration of influenza virus. We hypothesized that late second trimester infection (E18) in mice may lead to a different pattern of brain gene expression
S. Hossein Fatemi; Teri J. Reutiman; Timothy D. Folsom; Hao Huang; Kenichi Oishi; Susumu Mori; Donald F. Smee; David A. Pearce; Christine Winter; Reinhard Sohr; Georg Juckel
This paper describes the design, implementation and preliminary results of a technique for creat- ing a comprehensive probabilistic atlas of the human brain based on high-dimensional vector field transformations. The goal of the atlas is to detect and quantify distributed patterns of deviation from normal anatomy, in a 3-D brain image from any given subject. The algorithm analyzes a reference
Paul M. Thompson; Arthur W. Toga
Abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation and deposition in Pick bodies is a major abnormality in Pick’s disease (PiD). This is associated with increased expression of the stress-activated protein kinase, p38 kinase, which has the capacity to phosphorylate tau in vitro. The present study has shown increased expression of phosphorylated p38 (p38-P), which does not cross-react with phospho-tau, in sarcosyl-insoluble fractions enriched in
Berta Puig; Francesc Vinals; Isidre Ferrer
The tumultuous auricular activity which follows faradization of the auricles of mammals and which has been variously described, could be distinctly seen to consist almost constantly in our experiments on dogs of true fibrillatory movements of the separate muscle fibers coëxisting with a rapid auricular tachycardia. During peripheral stimulation of the right vagus nerve the true fibrillation alone existed, the tachycardia being inhibited. A comparison of the electrocardiograms from dogs with this abnormal auricular activity with those from patients with the type of cardiac arhythmia which has been attributed to auricular fibrillation, and from patients with so called auricular flutter, indicates that the auricular activity in patients with either of these conditions differs somewhat from that usually seen in the faradized auricles of the dog in our experiments. The auricular activity of the cases of cardiac arhythmia is apparently true fibrillation, similar to that seen in the faradized auricles of the dog during right vagus stimulation. The electrocardiograms from cases of so called auricular flutter usually give no evidence of auricular fibrillation, and the auricular activity seems to consist of tachycardia alone. Fibrillation may apparently coëxist with the tachycardia in some cases, when the auricular activity seems to resemble closely that usually seen in the dog after auricular faradization. During peripheral stimulation of the left vagus nerve, the electrocardiograms obtained after auricular faradization show changes which render them more nearly similar to those obtained from patients with auricular flutter. The facts that the auricular activity of the faradized auricles of the dog may apparently pass spontaneously into that closely resembling auricular flutter in man, that it may be changed into true fibrillation by right vagus stimulation, and that the abnormal auricular activity in man passes from a state of flutter to that of fibrillation in a similar manner, may be taken as evidence for the belief that auricular fibrillation and auricular flutter in man are closely allied cardiac disorders.
Robinson, G. Canby
Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with
Yun Xuan; Chun Meng; Yanhui Yang; Chaozhe Zhu; Liang Wang; Qian Yan; Chunlan Lin; Chunshui Yu
Preferences for purchasing goods and services may be shaped by many factors, including advertisements presenting logical, persuasive information or those using images or text that may modify behavior without requiring conscious recognition of a message. We tested the hypothesis that these two types of messages (logical persuasion [LP] vs. nonrational influence [NI]) might affect brain function differently in a pilot
Ian A. Cook; Clay Warren; Sarah K. Pajot; David Schairer; Andrew F. Leuchter
Angiogenesis is crucial for embryogenesis, reproduction, and wound healing and is a critical determinant of tumor growth and metastasis. The multi-functional signal transducer Ras is a proto-oncogene and frequently becomes mutated in a variety of human cancers, including angiosarcomas. Regulation of Ras is important for endothelial cell function and angiogenesis. Hyperactivation of Ras is linked with oncogene-induced senescence in many cell types. Given links between vascular malformations and angiosarcoma with activated Ras signaling we sought to determine the consequence of sustained Ras activation on endothelial cell function. We find sustained Ras activation in primary endothelial cells leads to prolonged activation of pro-growth signaling, accompanied by a senescence bypass, enhanced proliferation, autonomous growth, and increased survival. Moreover, Ras severely compromises the ability of these cells to organize into vascular structures, instead promoting formation of planar endothelial sheets. This abnormal phenotype is regulated by PI-3?-kinase signaling highlighting the therapeutic potential of agents targeting this axis in dealing with vascular morphogenic disorders and vascular normalization of tumors.
Bajaj, Anshika; Zheng, Qingxia; Adam, Alejandro; Vincent, Peter; Pumiglia, Kevin
Microglial cells (brain macrophages) invade the brain during embryonic and early postnatal development, migrate preferentially along fibre tracts to their final position and transform from an amoeboid to a ramified morphology. Signals by which the invading microglia communicate with other brain cells are largely unknown. Here, we studied amoeboid microglia in postnatal corpus callosum obtained from 6- to 8-day-old mice. These cells accumulated on the surface of acute brain slices. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that the specific GABAA receptor agonist muscimol triggered a transient increase in conductance typical for inward rectifying potassium channels in microglia. This current increase was not mediated by microglial GABAA receptors since microglial cells removed from the slice surface no longer reacted and cultured microglia only responded when a brain slice was placed in their close vicinity. Muscimol triggered a transient increase in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) in brain slices and an experimental elevation of [K+]o mimicked the muscimol response in microglial cells. Moreover, in adult brain slices, muscimol led only to a minute increase in [K+]o and microglial cells failed to respond to muscimol. In turn, an increase in [K+]o stimulated the release of chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP1-?) from brain slices and from cultures of microglia but not astrocytes. Our observations indicate that invading microglia in early postnatal development sense GABAergic activities indirectly via sensing changes in [K+]o which results in an increase in MIP1-? release.
Cheung, Giselle; Kann, Oliver; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Faerber, Katrin; Kettenmann, Helmut
Experiments were undertaken to define the role of the alternative route of glucose metabolism in the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP) during energy balanced, mild brain hypoxia. In similar hypoxic model in spite of the lack of the deficit of high energy compounds, the significant acceleration of glycolysis and inhibition of macromolecular syntheses (lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids) were previously observed. The HMP activity, although directly coupled to intracellular synthetic processes, has not been defined and little is known about the mechanisms of its regulation under brain hypoxia. HMP activity was examined in the rat brain in vivo by estimation of the increment of 6-phosphogluconate concentration after inhibition of its oxidation as achieved by injection of 6-aminonicotinamide. The activity of this alternative route of glucose metabolism was estimated to be 0.4 mmol/h/kg w.w. in the brain cortex and 0.7 mmol/h/kg w.w. in the brain stem. During 2 h of mild hypoxia (7% O2 in N2) the HMP activity dropped to 30% of control level, whereas during first hour of reoxygenation increased to 200% of control. Increased activity of HMP in posthypoxic brain during reoxygenation also was observed in vitro by measuring the rate of [1-14C]- and [6-14C]glucose conversion to 14CO2 in cerebral cortical slices. The possible mechanism of the rapid changes in the activity of HMP induced by hypoxia is discussed. The results suggest that the brain glucose metabolism under mild hypoxia is reoriented toward energy producing pathway (glycolysis) partially at the expense of HMP. The mechanism of this regulation seems not to be directly triggered by energy deficit. Activity of HMP in the brain is in accord with the intracellular synthetic processes and their demands on the metabolites produced by this pathway. Relying upon that, the posthypoxic stimulation of HMP would indicate the metabolic recovery during reoxygenation. PMID:2839885
PURPOSE: Children who have brain tumors are at risk for a variety of treatment-related sequelae, including neuropsychological and cognitive impairment, neurologic deficits, and neuroendocrinologic disturbances. We sought to determine the value of proton MR spectros- copy in assessing brain tissue remote from the tumor site to ascertain the effects of chemo- therapy and radiation treatment in these patients. METHODS: Single-voxel
Sandra M. Waldrop; Patricia C. Davis; Carol A. Padgett; Marla B. Shapiro; Robin Morris
We describe a neuro imaging protocol that utilizes an anatomical atlas of the human head to guide Diffuse optical tomography of human brain activation. The protocol is demonstrated by imaging the hemodynamic response to median nerve stimulation in three healthy subjects, and comparing the images obtained using a head atlas with the images obtained using the subject-specific head anatomy. The results indicate that using the head atlas anatomy it is possible to reconstruct the location of the brain activation to the expected gyrus of the brain, in agreement with the results obtained with the subject-specific head anatomy. The benefits of this novel method derive from eliminating the need for subject-specific head anatomy and thus obviating the need for a subject-specific MRI to improve the anatomical interpretation of Diffuse optical tomography images of brain activation.
Custo, Anna; Boas, David A.; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita; Mesquita, Rickson; Fischl, Bruce; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Wells, Williams
We describe a neuroimaging protocol that utilizes an anatomical atlas of the human head to guide diffuse optical tomography of human brain activation. The protocol is demonstrated by imaging the hemodynamic response to median-nerve stimulation in three healthy subjects, and comparing the images obtained using a head atlas with the images obtained using the subject-specific head anatomy. The results indicate that using the head atlas anatomy it is possible to reconstruct the location of the brain activation to the expected gyrus of the brain, in agreement with the results obtained with the subject-specific head anatomy. The benefits of this novel method derive from eliminating the need for subject-specific head anatomy and thus obviating the need for a subject-specific MRI to improve the anatomical interpretation of diffuse optical tomography images of brain activation. PMID:19643185
Custo, Anna; Boas, David A; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Dan, Ippeita; Mesquita, Rickson; Fischl, Bruce; Grimson, W Eric L; Wells, Williams
Fish serve as a good animal model for studying gravi-perception mechanism. Because they live in water, it is possible to see more natural effects of the gravity, with reduced influence on supporting tissue. Here, we investigated the effects of the gravity change on the brain of Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes ). Medaka fish kept at 1G were exposed to 2G, using a large centrifuge. Following the stimulation, we isolated mRNA from the Medaka brain, and studied the time-course and levels of their appearance. The gene expression pattern suggested the activation of the Medaka brain due to the hypergravity. Furthermore, we observed the areas in fish brain that are activated by hypergravity with an immunohistochemical method. Detailed pictures of the neural activity of Medaka fish due to a gravity shift are reported.
Shimomura, S.; Ijiri, K.
The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…
Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael
|The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…
Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael
This paper describes an activity-dependent intracor- tical microstimulation (ICMS) system-on-chip (SoC) that converts extracellular neural spikes recorded from one brain region to electrical stimuli delivered to another brain region in real time in vivo. The 10.9-mm SoC incorporates two identical 4-channel modules, each comprising an analog recording front-end with total input noise voltage of 3.12 V and noise efficiency factor
Meysam Azin; David J. Guggenmos; Scott Barbay; Randolph J. Nudo; Pedram Mohseni
Studies of abnormal eating behaviors in active duty military personal have found rates similar to or higher than the general population. We have reviewed these studies and extended the research to examine abnormal eating behaviors in a heterogeneous population at a major military medical center. We found high rates of body dissatisfaction, abnormal eating behaviors, and worry about passing the semiannual personal fitness assessment in both men and women. Abnormal eating behaviors were associated with worrying about the personal fitness assessment, and these measures were associated with body mass index and gender. Our data extend previous research indicating that cyclic or external pressure to maintain body weight within specified standards can produce unsafe eating and dieting behaviors. We recommend changes to the current system to incorporate treatment programs aimed at recognizing and treating eating disorders with a goal of producing more fit and healthy service members. PMID:16173205
Carlton, Janis R; Manos, Gail H; Van Slyke, John A
Aims: To study stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the basal ganglia in DYT1 primary dystonia. Methods: Twenty-five genetically confirmed DYT1 dystonia patients (age range, 8–66 years; mean age, 22 years) underwent brain MRI under general anesthesia at the time of globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. MR images were retrospectively reviewed for signal intensity alterations.
S. Gavarini; N. Vayssière; P. Delort; L. Cif; B. Biolsi; C. Tancu; X. Vasques; S. Plagnol; A. Bonafe; P. Coubes
Acid and alkaline activity of nucleases of the rats trained with emotional positive or negative reinforcement was estimated in the neocortex, hippocampus, midbrain, and in caudal portions of the brain-stem, using native and denaturated DNA as a substrate. The results showed the total increase in nuclease activity during learning. Nevertheless the dynamics of enzyme activation was different depending on the emotional state of rats during learning. The most active enzyme was found in the caudal portion of the brain-stem. PMID:37128
Tret'iak, T M; Semenova, T P; Smirnova, G N
Otto Warburg first proposed that cancer origi- nated from irreversible injury to mitochondrial respiration, but the structural basis for this injury has remained elusive. Cardiolipin (CL) is a complex phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is in- timately involved in maintaining mitochondrial functionality and membrane integrity. Abnormalities in CL can impair mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. We
Michael A. Kiebish; Xianlin Han; Hua Cheng; Jeffrey H. Chuang; Thomas N. Seyfried
Cediranib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family. Because of its potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activities, cediranib has been evaluated for therapy in glioma, a primary brain tumor. This study investigated the influence of two important efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the delivery of cediranib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies indicated that cediranib is a dual substrate for both P-gp and Bcrp. It is noteworthy that in spite of the in vitro data the in vivo mouse disposition studies conclusively showed that P-gp was the dominant transporter restricting the brain distribution of cediranib. The brain-to-plasma partitioning (AUCbrain/AUCplasma, where AUC is area under the curve) and the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of cediranib were approximately 20-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(?/?) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?) mice compared with wild-type and Bcrp1(?/?) mice. Moreover, there was no significant difference in brain distribution of cediranib between wild-type and Bcrp1(?/?) mice and between Mdr1a/b(?/?) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?) mice. These results show that, unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are dual substrates for P-gp and Bcrp, Bcrp does not restrict the distribution of cediranib across the blood-brain barrier. We also show that inhibition of P-gp using specific or nonspecific inhibitors resulted in significantly enhanced delivery of cediranib to the brain. Concurrent administration of cediranib with chemical modulators of efflux transporters can be used as a strategy to enhance delivery and thus efficacy of cediranib in the brain. These findings are clinically relevant to the efficacy of cediranib chemotherapy in glioma.
Wang, Tianli; Agarwal, Sagar
Changes in biochemical mechanisms and amine concentrations in the brain have been manifested in the form of varying disorders and abnormalities in behavior, including motor-activity, which has been proved with a number of psychoactive drugs. It has been reported that increased level of cerebral norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to be associated with motor hyper-activity, and in lead exposed rats. No study is available which could account for the pattern of changes in spontaneous ambulatory responses in an open field situation together with the steady state regional levels of NE in the brain of chronically lead exposed rats. Therefore, it seemed to be worthwhile to study the circadian rhythm of ambulatory activity and its association with NE levels in various brain regions of rats exposed to lead.
Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Khushnood-ur-Rehman; Kabir-ud-Din; Chandra, O.
The aim of this current opinion article is to provide a contemporary perspective on the role of brain regulatory control of paced performances in response to exercise challenges. There has been considerable recent conjecture as to the role of the brain during exercise, and it is now broadly accepted that fatigue does not occur without brain involvement and that all voluntary activity is likely to be paced at some level by the brain according to individualised priorities and knowledge of personal capabilities. This article examines the role of pacing in managing and distributing effort to successfully accomplish physical tasks, while extending existing theories on the role of the brain as a central controller of performance. The opinion proposed in this article is that a central regulator operates to control exercise performance but achieves this without the requirement of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, while larger metabolic disturbances attract conscious awareness and evoke a behavioural response. This supports the view that the brain regulates exercise performance but that the interpretation of the mechanisms underlying this effect have not yet been fully elucidated. PMID:23990402
Edwards, A M; Polman, R C J
Abnormalities in the density of neuroreceptors that regulate norepinephrine and serotonin release have been repeatedly reported in brains of suicide victims with mood disorders. Recently, the modulation of the [35S]GTP?S binding to G-proteins has been introduced as a suitable measure of receptor activity in postmortem human brain. The present study sought to evaluate the function of several G-protein coupled receptors
J González-Maeso; R Rodríguez-Puertas; J J Meana; J A García-Sevilla; J Guimón
Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation, having an incidence of 1 in 700 live births. In the present study we used a transgenic mouse in vivo library consisting of 4 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mouse lines, each bearing a different fragment of the Down syndrome critical region 1 (DCR-1), implicated in brain abnormalities characterizing this pathology. The 152F7 fragment, in addition to genes also located on the other DCR-1 fragments, bears the DYRK1A gene, encoding for a serine-threonine kinase. The neurobehavioral analysis of these mouse lines showed that DYRK1A overexpressing 152F7 mice but not the other lines display learning impairment and hyperactivity during development. Additionally, 152F7 mice display increased brain weight and neuronal size. At a biochemical level we found DYRK1A overexpression associated with a development-dependent increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factor FKHR and with high levels of cyclin B1, suggesting for the first time in vivo a correlation between DYRK1A overexpression and cell cycle protein alteration. In addition, we found an altered phosphorylation of transcription factors of CREB family. Our findings support a role of DYRK1A overexpression in the neuronal abnormalities seen in Down syndrome and suggest that this pathology is linked to altered levels of proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle. PMID:15198122
Branchi, Igor; Bichler, Zoë; Minghetti, Luisa; Delabar, Jean Maurice; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Gonzalez, Marie-Claude; Chettouh, Zoubidda; Nicolini, Alessia; Chabert, Caroline; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward M; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Alleva, Enrico
Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85 % of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65 %) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P < 0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors. PMID:23512291
Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin
In vivo electrophysiological recordings of neuronal circuits are necessary for diagnostic purposes and for brain-machine interfaces. Organic electronic devices constitute a promising candidate because of their mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here we demonstrate the engineering of an organic electrochemical transistor embedded in an ultrathin organic film designed to record electrophysiological signals on the surface of the brain. The device, tested in vivo on epileptiform discharges, displayed superior signal-to-noise ratio due to local amplification compared with surface electrodes. The organic transistor was able to record on the surface low-amplitude brain activities, which were poorly resolved with surface electrodes. This study introduces a new class of biocompatible, highly flexible devices for recording brain activity with superior signal-to-noise ratio that hold great promise for medical applications. PMID:23481383
Khodagholy, Dion; Doublet, Thomas; Quilichini, Pascale; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Ghestem, Antoine; Ismailova, Esma; Hervé, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Bernard, Christophe; Malliaras, George G
In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.
Even the simplest volitional movements must be precisely coordinated with anticipatory postural adjustments. Little is currently\\u000a known about the neural networks that coordinate these adjustments in healthy adults. We measured brain activity prior to movement\\u000a during a bimanual load-lifting task, designed to elicit anticipatory adjustments in a restricted and well-defined set of musculature\\u000a in the arm. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography brain
Tommy H. B. Ng; Paul F. Sowman; Jon Brock; Blake W. Johnson
Oscillatory activity of the human brain has received growing interest as a key mechanism of large-scale integration across different brain regions. Besides a crucial role of oscillatory activity in the emergence of other neurological and psychiatric diseases, recent evidence indicates a key role in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarizes the current knowledge on pathological alterations of oscillatory brain activity in association with liver dysfunction and HE in the context of spontaneous brain activity, motor symptoms, sensory processing, and attention. The existing literature demonstrates a prominent slowing of the frequency of oscillatory activity as shown for spontaneous brain activity at rest, with respect to deficits of motor behavior and motor symptoms, and in the context of visual attention processes. The observed slowing extends across different subsystems of the brain and has been confirmed across different frequency bands, providing evidence for ubiquitous changes of oscillatory activity in HE. For example, the frequency of cortico-muscular coherence in HE patients appears at the frequency of the mini-asterixis (?12Hz), while cirrhotics without overt signs of HE show coherence similar to healthy subjects, i.e. at 13-30Hz. Interestingly, the so-called critical flicker frequency (CFF) as a measure of the processing of an oscillating visual stimulus has emerged as a useful tool to quantify HE disease severity, correlating with behavioral and neurophysiological alterations. Moreover, the CFF reliably distinguishes patients with manifest HE from cirrhotics without any signs of HE and healthy controls using a cut-off frequency of 39Hz. In conclusion, oscillatory activity is globally slowed in HE in close association with HE symptoms and disease severity. Although the underlying causal mechanisms are not yet understood, these results indicate that pathological changes of oscillatory activity play an important role in the pathophysiology of HE. PMID:23603113
Butz, Markus; May, Elisabeth S; Häussinger, Dieter; Schnitzler, Alfons
Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as ``noise''. Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the ``meaningful'' neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.
Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis
Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013;36(5):651-659.
Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui
Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in\\u000a many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional\\u000a abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging\\u000a literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and
Florence Roussotte; Lindsay Soderberg; Elizabeth Sowell
To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated,
Emily C. Bell; Morgan C. Willson; Alan H. Wilman; Sanjay Dave; Peter H. Silverstone
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.
Rocke, T. E.; Samuel, M. D.
The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz), spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the “default” system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions) that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions) critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in the temporal and spatial brain functional networks of the human brain that underlie spontaneous neuronal dynamics, which provides important implications for our understanding of how intrinsically coherent spontaneous brain activity has evolved into an optimal neuronal architecture to support global computation and information integration in the absence of specific stimuli or behaviors.
He, Yong; Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Liang; Chen, Zhang J.; Yan, Chaogan; Yang, Hong; Tang, Hehan; Zhu, Chaozhe; Gong, Qiyong; Zang, Yufeng; Evans, Alan C.
The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz), spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions) that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions) critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in the temporal and spatial brain functional networks of the human brain that underlie spontaneous neuronal dynamics, which provides important implications for our understanding of how intrinsically coherent spontaneous brain activity has evolved into an optimal neuronal architecture to support global computation and information integration in the absence of specific stimuli or behaviors. PMID:19381298
He, Yong; Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Liang; Chen, Zhang J; Yan, Chaogan; Yang, Hong; Tang, Hehan; Zhu, Chaozhe; Gong, Qiyong; Zang, Yufeng; Evans, Alan C
Individuals with acquired and neurodevelopmental brain disorders often exhibit deficits in attention. Recent models of attention have conceptualized it as a multicomponent system. One influential model proposed by Mirsky et al. (1991) consists of factors that include focus, sustain, shift, and encode components. This model has been used to examine the structure of attention in a variety of clinical populations
Nicholas S. Thaler; Daniel N. Allen; Brandon S. Park; Janice C. McMurray; Joan Mayfield
Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an automated technique for detecting the anatomical differences between populations by examining the gradients of the deformation fields used to nonlinearly warp MR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain volume changes between the patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the controls using TBM with DARTEL, which could achieve more
Wenjing Li; Huiguang He; Jingjing Lu; Bin Lv; Meng Li; Zhengyu Jin
Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined. PMID:23719798
Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César
In this study the authors reviewed data from 136 patients (pts) in order to refine the interpretive criteria used to diagnose active osteomyelitis (AOM) in patients with previous bone disease (e.g., old osteomyelitis, fractures, orthopedic devices excluding prostheses). They evaluated bone (Tc-99mMDP) and gallium 67 studies and obtained followup in all pts. AOM was diagnosed by surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 pts and was excluded by the same criteria in 16 pts. An additional 71 pts had the diagnosis excluded by followup clinical criteria. Five patterns were found. T1: abnormal Tc-99m-MDP, normal Ga-67. T2: diffuse increased uptake of both radiopharmaceuticals with Tc-99m-MDP greater than Ga-67. T3: different geographic distribution, but similar intensities of uptake of both. T4: very similar uptake and distribution of both. T5: Ga-67 exceeded Tc-99m-MDP. The authors conclude that T5 is diagnostic of AOM, T3 and T4 raise the probability of AOM than before scanning, T1 and T2 decrease it.
Tumeh, S.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Weissman, B.; McNeil, B.J.
Functional imaging research has been heavily influenced by results based on population-level inference. However, group average results may belie the unique patterns of activity present in the individual that ordinarily are considered random noise. Recent advances in the evolution of MRI hardware have led to significant improvements in the stability and reproducibility of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) measurements. These enhancements provide a unique opportunity for closer examination of individual patterns of brain activity. Three objectives can be accomplished by considering brain scans at the individual level; (1) Mapping functional anatomy at a fine grained analysis; (2) Determining if an individual scan is normative with respect to a reference population; and (3) Understanding the sources of intersubject variability in brain activity. In this review, we detail these objectives, briefly discuss their histories and present recent trends in the analyses of individual variability. Finally, we emphasize the unique opportunities and challenges for understanding individual differences through international collaboration among Pacific Rim investigators.
Van Horn, John Darrell; Grafton, Scott T.; Miller, Michael B.
One of the most intriguing recent discoveries concerning brain function is that intrinsic neuronal activity manifests as spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal. These BOLD fluctuations exhibit temporal synchrony within widely distributed brain regions known as resting-state networks. Resting-state networks are present in the waking state, during sleep, and under general anesthesia, suggesting that spontaneous neuronal activity plays a fundamental role in brain function. Despite its ubiquitous presence, the physiological role of correlated, spontaneous neuronal activity remains poorly understood. One hypothesis is that this activity is critical for the development of synaptic connections and maintenance of synaptic homeostasis. We had a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis in a 5-y-old boy with severe epileptic encephalopathy. The child developed marked neurologic dysfunction in association with a seizure disorder, resulting in a 1-y period of behavioral regression and progressive loss of developmental milestones. His EEG showed a markedly abnormal pattern of high-amplitude, disorganized slow activity with frequent generalized and multifocal epileptiform discharges. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI showed reduced BOLD fluctuations and a pervasive lack of normal connectivity. The child underwent successful corpus callosotomy surgery for treatment of drop seizures. Postoperatively, the patient's behavior returned to baseline, and he resumed development of new skills. The waking EEG revealed a normal background, and functional connectivity MRI demonstrated restoration of functional connectivity architecture. These results provide evidence that intrinsic, coherent neuronal signaling may be essential to the development and maintenance of the brain's functional organization.
Pizoli, Carolyn E.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Limbrick, David D.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Smyth, Matthew D.
Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices showing abnormal activation among individuals with schizophrenia during working mem- ory tasks are associated with either 1) phonological coding processes that may be specific to verbal tasks (i.e., ventral pre- frontal and parietal cortices) or 2) do- main-general executive processes en- gaged
Deanna M. Barch; John G. Csernansky
This article presents a method for the modelling of cognitive activity using Object Petri Nets. The method includes the recognition of the various classes of situation (normal and abnormal) which human operators are likely to meet whilst performing their tasks. Each of these classes is described according to the characteristics of the state of the system. We will present the
Houcine Ezzedine; Christophe Kolski
The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board functionality for standing posture correction (i.e., actively adjust abnormal standing posture)
Ching-Hsiang Shih; Ching-Tien Shih; Chiung-Ling Chu
BACKGROUND: Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR) Spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to
Alexander Pérez-Ruiz; Margarida Julià-Sapé; Guillem Mercadal; Iván Olier; Carles Majós; Carles Arús
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related disorder characterized by deposition of amyloid -peptide (A) and degeneration of neurons in brain regions such as the hippocampus, resulting in progressive cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of AD is tightly linked to A deposition and oxidative stress, but it remains unclear as to how these factors result in neuronal dysfunction and death. We report alterations in sphingolipid and cholesterol metabolism during normal brain aging and in the brains of AD patients that result in accumulation of long-chain ceramides and cholesterol. Membrane-associated oxidative stress occurs in association with the lipid alterations, and exposure of hippocampal neurons to A induces membrane oxidative stress and the accumulation of ceramide species and cholesterol. Treatment of neurons with -tocopherol or an inhibitor of sphingomyelin synthesis prevents accumulation of ceramides and cholesterol and protects them against death induced by A. Our findings suggest a sequence of events in the pathogenesis of AD in which A induces membrane-associated oxidative stress, resulting in perturbed ceramide and cholesterol metabolism which, in turn, triggers a neurodegenerative cascade that leads to clinical disease. amyloid | apoptosis | hippocampus | lipid peroxidation | sphingomyelin
Cutler, Roy G.; Kelly, Jeremiah; Storie, Kristin; Pedersen, Ward A.; Tammara, Anita; Hatanpaa, Kimmo; Troncoso, Juan C.; Mattson, Mark P.
The concept of ‘cognitive reserve’, and a broader theory of ‘brain reserve’, were originally proposed to help explain epidemiological data indicating that individuals who engaged in higher levels of mental and physical activity via education, occupation and recreation, were at lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. Subsequently, behavioral, cellular and molecular studies in animals (predominantly
Jess Nithianantharajah; Anthony J. Hannan
Neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder compared with controls. However, there are inconsistencies between studies regarding the exact set of brain structures involved and the direction of anatomical and functional changes. These inconsistencies may reflect the differential impact of environmental and genetic risk factors for obsessive–compulsive disorder on different parts of the brain. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying environmentally and genetically mediated obsessive–compulsive disorder, we compared task performance and brain activation during a Tower of London planning paradigm in monozygotic twins discordant (n?=?38) or concordant (n?=?100) for obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Twins who score high on obsessive–compulsive symptoms can be considered at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder. We found that subjects at high risk for obsessive–compulsive disorder did not differ from the low-risk subjects behaviourally, but we obtained evidence that the high-risk subjects differed from the low-risk subjects in the patterns of brain activation accompanying task execution. These regions can be separated into those that were affected by mainly environmental risk (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lingual cortex), genetic risk (frontopolar cortex, inferior frontal cortex, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus) and regions affected by both environmental and genetic risk factors (cingulate cortex, premotor cortex and parts of the parietal cortex). Our results suggest that neurobiological changes related to obsessive–compulsive symptoms induced by environmental factors involve primarily the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas neurobiological changes induced by genetic factors involve orbitofrontal–basal ganglia structures. Regions showing similar changes in high-risk twins from discordant and concordant pairs may be part of compensatory networks that keep planning performance intact, in spite of cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical deficits.
van 't Ent, Dennis; Cath, Danielle C.; Wagner, Judith; Boomsma, Dorret I.; de Geus, Eco J. C.
The association between the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and psychiatric disorders, particularly psychosis, suggests a causal relationship between 22q11DS genes and abnormal brain function. The genes catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) and proline dehydrogenase both reside within the commonly deleted region of 22q11.2. COMT activity and proline levels may therefore be altered in 22q11DS individuals. Associations of both COMT158 genotype and elevated serum proline levels with abnormal brain function have been reported. Fifty-six 22q11DS children and 75 healthy controls were assessed on physiological measures of brain function, including prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, P50 auditory sensory gating and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). COMT158 genotype and plasma proline levels were determined in the 22q11DS children. We hypothesized an interaction between the COMT158 genotype and proline, predicting the strongest negative effect of high proline on brain function to occur in 22q11DS children who are carriers of the COMTmet allele. Of the three physiological measures, only SPEM and PPI were abnormal in the patient sample. With regard to the SPEM performance, there was a significant interaction between the COMT158 genotype and proline level with significantly decreased SPEM performance in children with high plasma proline levels and the low activity COMTmet allele. A similar interaction effect was not observed with regard to PPI. These findings are consistent with a model in which elevated proline negatively affects brain function by an increase in dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. 22q11DS patients with low dopamine catabolic capacity are therefore especially vulnerable to this functional disruption.
Vorstman, Jacob AS; Turetsky, Bruce I; Sijmens-Morcus, Monique EJ; de Sain, Monique G; Dorland, Bert; Sprong, Mirjam; Rappaport, Eric F; Beemer, Frits A; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, Rene S; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal
Objective: To examine the independent association between physical activity and subclinical cerebrovascular disease as measured by silent brain infarcts (SBI) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV). Methods: The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) is a population-based prospective cohort examining risk factors for incident vascular disease, and a subsample underwent brain MRI. Our primary outcomes were SBI and WMHV. Baseline measures of leisure-time physical activity were collected in person. Physical activity was categorized by quartiles of the metabolic equivalent (MET) score. We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between physical activity and SBI, and linear regression to examine the association with WMHV. Results: There were 1,238 clinically stroke-free participants (mean age 70 ± 9 years) of whom 60% were women, 65% were Hispanic, and 43% reported no physical activity. A total of 197 (16%) participants had SBI. In fully adjusted models, compared to those who did not engage in physical activity, those in the upper quartile of MET scores were almost half as likely to have SBI (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.4–0.9). Physical activity was not associated with WMHV. Conclusions: Increased levels of physical activity were associated with a lower risk of SBI but not WMHV. Engaging in moderate to heavy physical activities may be an important component of prevention strategies aimed at reducing subclinical brain infarcts.
Moon, Y.P.; Paik, M.C.; Yoshita, M.; DeCarli, C.; Sacco, R.L.; Elkind, M.S.V.; Wright, C.B.
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) impedes the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumors. While adequate delivery of drugs occurs in systemic tumors, the BTB limits delivery of anti-tumor agents into brain metastases. RESULTS: In this study, we examined the function and regulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in a rat metastatic brain tumor model. We showed that intravenous
Jinwei Hu; Xiangpeng Yuan; MinHee K Ko; Dali Yin; Manuel R Sacapano; Xiao Wang; Bindu M Konda; Andres Espinoza; Ksenia Prosolovich; John M Ong; Dwain Irvin; Keith L Black
Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in aging humans, especially on executive functions associated with frontal brain regions. In rodents, exercise has been shown to induce structural and neurophysiological changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve spatial learning. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, spatial learning and associated patterns of brain activation cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of middle-aged men and women (40-55 years) that took part in a six-month exercise intervention and an additional spatial training. Spatial learning capacities before and after the interventions were measured with a virtual maze task. During this task, participants were repeatedly moved through a virtual town and were instructed to infer the spatial layout of the environment. Brain activations during encoding of the virtual town were assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data revealed that brain activations during successful spatial learning were modulated by the individual fitness level in a neural network, comprising the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex, cuneus, precuneus, parahippocampal gyrus, caudate nucleus, insula, putamen, and further frontal, temporal, occipital and cingulate regions. Moreover, physical exercising induced changes in cardiovascular fitness that correlated positively with changes in brain activations in the medial frontal gyrus and the cuneus. However, overall spatial learning performance did not vary with cardiovascular fitness. These data suggest that cardiovascular fitness has an impact on brain regions associated with spatial learning in humans and hence, could be a potent intervention to prevent age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22027496
Holzschneider, Kathrin; Wolbers, Thomas; Röder, Brigitte; Hötting, Kirsten
Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare brain structure morphology of survivors of posterior fossa brain tumor (PFBT) with that of normal sibling controls to investigate disease- or cancer treatment–induced changes. Two different spatial normalization approaches that are available in public domain software (free-form deformation (FFD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT)) were compared for accuracy of normalization in the PFBT patients. Anatomical landmark matching demonstrated that spatial normalization was more accurate with FFD than with DCT. Voxel-based morphometry of the FFD-normalized magnetic resonance images from PFBT survivors and sibling controls detected reduced gray matter density in the thalamus and entorhinal cortex and reduced white matter density in the internal capsule, hypothalamus, corpus callosum, and cuneus of the occipital lobe in the PFBT survivors. Identification of these morphologic lesions may help localize the neural substrates of disease- or therapy-induced cognitive deficits in survivors of childhood cancer.
Zhang, Yong; Zou, Ping; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Butler, Robert W.; Laningham, Fred H.; Ogg, Robert J.
To examine the hypothesized role of the immediate early gene (IEG) response in synaptic plasticity and in epileptogenesis, we studied the spatial specificity of the expression of IEG in EL mice, a well known mutant model of epilepsy. Also to examine the ‘GABA hypothesis’ in epilepsy, GABA concentration and GAD activity was determined in micro brain regions (10–300 ng) of
Yoshiya L. Murashima; Kimihiro Kasamo; Jiro Suzuki
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs)1,2 use neuronal activity recorded from the brain to establish direct communication with external actuators, such as prosthetic arms. While BMIs aim to restore the normal sensorimotor functions of the limbs, so far they have lacked tactile sensation. Here we demonstrate the operation of a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI) that both controls the exploratory reaching movements of an actuator and enables the signalling of artificial tactile feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Monkeys performed an active-exploration task in which an actuator (a computer cursor or a virtual-reality hand) was moved using a BMBI that derived motor commands from neuronal ensemble activity recorded in primary motor cortex (M1). ICMS feedback occurred whenever the actuator touched virtual objects. Temporal patterns of ICMS encoded the artificial tactile properties of each object. Neuronal recordings and ICMS epochs were temporally multiplexed to avoid interference. Two monkeys operated this BMBI to search and discriminate one out of three visually undistinguishable objects, using the virtual hand to identify the unique artificial texture (AT) associated with each. These results suggest that clinical motor neuroprostheses might benefit from the addition of ICMS feedback to generate artificial somatic perceptions associated with mechanical, robotic, or even virtual prostheses.
O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Ifft, Peter J.; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Shokur, Solaiman; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.
Background Deregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling is a hallmark of malignant glioma. Two alternatively spliced PDGF-A mRNAs have been described, corresponding to a long (L) and a short (S) isoform of PDGF-A. In contrast to PDGF-A(S), the PDGF-A(L) isoform has a lysine and arginine rich carboxy-terminal extension that acts as an extracellular matrix retention motif. However, the exact role of PDGF-A(L) and how it functionally differs from the shorter isoform is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We overexpressed PDGF-A(L) as a transgene under control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter in the mouse brain. This directs expression of the transgene to astrocytic cells and GFAP expressing neural stem cells throughout the developing and adult central nervous system. Transgenic mice exhibited a phenotype with enlarged skull at approximately 6-16 weeks of age and they died between 1.5 months and 2 years of age. We detected an increased number of undifferentiated cells in all areas of transgene expression, such as in the subependymal zone around the lateral ventricle and in the cerebellar medulla. The cells stained positive for Pdgfr-?, Olig2 and NG2 but this population did only partially overlap with cells positive for Gfap and the transgene reporter. Interestingly, a few mice presented with overt neoplastic glioma-like lesions composed of both Olig2 and Gfap positive cell populations and with microvascular proliferation, in a wild-type p53 background. Conclusions Our findings show that PDGF-A(L) can induce accumulation of immature cells in the mouse brain. The strong expression of NG2, Pdgfr-? and Olig2 in PDGF-A(L) brains suggests that a fraction of these cells are oligodendrocyte progenitors. In addition, accumulation of fluid in the subarachnoid space and skull enlargement indicate that an increased intracranial pressure contributed to the observed lethality.
Nazarenko, Inga; Hedren, Anna; Sjodin, Hanna; Orrego, Abiel; Andrae, Johanna; Afink, Gijs B.
Although functional neuroimaging studies of human decision-making processes are increasingly common, most of the research in this area has relied on passive tasks that generate little individual variability. Relatively little attention has been paid to the ability of brain activity to predict overt behavior. Using functional magnetic resonance…
Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Green, Leonard
The potential of brain electrical activity generated as a response to a visual stimulus is examined in the context of the identification of individuals. Specifically, a framework for the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)-based biometrics is established, whereby energy features of the gamma band within VEP signals were of particular interest. A rigorous analysis is conducted which unifies and extends results
Ramaswamy Palaniappan; Danilo P. Mandic
Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. Therefore, an experimental approach that simultaneously assesses anatomical, physiological and behavioral endpoints is required when developing risk assessment models for EAC exposure.
Heather B. Patisaul; Eva K. Polston
|The purpose of this study is to determine, by functional magnetic resonance imaging, how the activated regions of the brain change as a Japanese sentence is presented in a grammatically correct order. In this study, we presented constituents of a sentence to Japanese participants one by one at regular intervals. The results showed that the left…
Ikuta, Naho; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jobu; Akitsuki, Yuko; Iwata, Kazuki; Miura, Naoki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Primates can give behavioral responses on the basis of arbitrary, context-dependent rules. When sensory instructions and behavioral responses are associated by arbitrary rules, these rules need to be learned. This study investigates the temporal dynamics of functional segregation at the basis of visuomotor associative learning in humans, isolating specific learning-related changes in neurovascular activity across the whole brain. We have
Ivan Toni; Narender Ramnani; Oliver Josephs; John Ashburner; Richard E. Passingham
The purpose of this study is to determine, by functional magnetic resonance imaging, how the activated regions of the brain change as a Japanese sentence is presented in a grammatically correct order. In this study, we presented constituents of a sentence to Japanese participants one by one at regular intervals. The results showed that the left…
Ikuta, Naho; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Watanabe, Jobu; Akitsuki, Yuko; Iwata, Kazuki; Miura, Naoki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Interdependent cultures (such as the Chinese) and independent cultures (such as the German) differ in their attitude towards harmony that is more valued in interdependent cultures. Interdependent and independent cultures also differ in their appreciation of anger — an emotion that implies the disruption of harmony.The present study investigated if interdependent and independent cultures foster distinct brain activity associated with
Moritz de Greck; Zhenhao Shi; Gang Wang; Xiangyu Zuo; Xuedong Yang; Xiaoying Wang; Georg Northoff; Shihui Han
The ability to monitor the simultaneous electrical activity of multiple neurons in the brain enables a wide range of scientific and clinical endeavors. Recent efforts to merge miniature multielectrode neural recording arrays with integrated electronics have revealed significant circuit design challenges. Weak neural signals must be amplified and filtered using low-noise circuits placed close to the electrodes themselves, but power
Reid R. Harrison
By performing cerebral blood flow studies with positron emission tomography (PET) and comparing blood flow images of different states of activation, functional mapping of the brain is possible. The ability of current commercial instruments to perform such studies is investigated, based on a comparison of noise equivalent count (NEC) rates. Differences in the NEC performance of different scanners, in conjunction
Magnus Dahlbom; Simon R. Cherry; L. Eriksson; Edward J. Hoffman; K. Wienhard
Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, were orally dosed with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to examine effects on brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity. wo-week-old quail were acutely exposed and euthanized at selected times following gavage-dosing, ranging from 1...
Even casual inspection of time series derived by sampling and recording from the fields of electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) potential generated by active brains reveals continuous widespread oscillations. These waves suggest the overlap of multiple rhythms embedded in broad spectrum noise. In dynamical terms they might be ascribed to limit cycle attractors, because spectral analysis of short segments reveals
Walter J. Freeman
The limit cycles of brain activity are studied using a compact continuum model that reproduces the main features of electroencephalographic signals, including bifurcations of fixed points and limit cycles in seizures. Frequencies and amplitudes are predicted analytically and related to physiology. Gaussian stimuli yield two distinct evoked responses in the linearly stable zone, consistent with experiment. Limit cycles can be
J. W. Kim; P. A. Robinson
|The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…
Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija
Recovery of motor function after stroke is associated with reorganization in central motor networks. Functional imaging has demonstrated recovery-dependent alterations in brain activation patterns when compared to healthy controls. These alterations are variable across stroke subjects. Factors identified as contributing to this variability are the degree of functional impairment, the time interval since stroke, and rehabilitative therapies. Here, the hypothesis
Andreas R Luft; Sandy Waller; Larry Forrester; Gerald V Smith; Jill Whitall; Richard F Macko; Jörg B Schulz; Daniel F Hanley
The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…
Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija
This study sought to increase current understanding of the neuro- psychological basis of poor reading ability by using fMRI to examine brain activation during a visual sentence comprehension task among good and poor readers in the third (n 5 32) and fifth (n 5 35) grades. Reading ability, age, and the combination of both factors made unique contributions to cortical
Ann Meyler; Timothy A. Keller; Vladimir L. Cherkassky; Donghoon Lee; Fumiko Hoeft; Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli; John D. E. Gabrieli; Marcel Adam Just
The purpose of this study is to determine, by functional magnetic resonance imaging, how the activated regions of the brain change as a Japanese sentence is presented in a grammatically correct order. In this study, we presented constituents of a sentence to Japanese participants one by one at regular intervals. The results showed that the left lingual gyrus was significantly
Naho Ikuta; Motoaki Sugiura; Yuko Sassa; Jobu Watanabe; Yuko Akitsuki; Kazuki Iwata; Naoki Miura; Hideyuki Okamoto; Yoshihiko Watanabe; Shigeru Sato; Kaoru Horie; Yoshihiko Matsue; Ryuta Kawashima
Some words immediately and automatically remind us of odours, smells and scents, whereas other language items do not evoke such associations. This study investigated, for the first time, the abstract linking of linguistic and odour information using modern neuroimaging techniques (functional MRI). Subjects passively read odour-related words (‘garlic’, ‘cinnamon’, ‘jasmine’) and neutral language items. The odour-related terms elicited activation in
Julio González; Alfonso Barros-Loscertales; Friedemann Pulvermüller; Vanessa Meseguer; Ana Sanjuán; Vicente Belloch; César Ávila
Light regulates multiple non-image-forming (or nonvisual) circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Exposure to light directly enhances alertness and performance, so light is an important regulator of wakefulness and cognition. The roles of rods, cones, and ipRGCs in the impact of light on cognitive brain functions remain unclear, however. A small percentage of blind individuals retain non-image-forming photoreception and offer a unique opportunity to investigate light impacts in the absence of conscious vision, presumably through ipRGCs. Here, we show that three such patients were able to choose nonrandomly about the presence of light despite their complete lack of sight. Furthermore, 2 sec of blue light modified EEG activity when administered simultaneously to auditory stimulations. fMRI further showed that, during an auditory working memory task, less than a minute of blue light triggered the recruitment of supplemental prefrontal and thalamic brain regions involved in alertness and cognition regulation as well as key areas of the default mode network. These results, which have to be considered as a proof of concept, show that non-image-forming photoreception triggers some awareness for light and can have a more rapid impact on human cognition than previously understood, if brain processing is actively engaged. Furthermore, light stimulates higher cognitive brain activity, independently of vision, and engages supplemental brain areas to perform an ongoing cognitive process. To our knowledge, our results constitute the first indication that ipRGC signaling may rapidly affect fundamental cerebral organization, so that it could potentially participate to the regulation of numerous aspects of human brain function. PMID:23859643
Vandewalle, Gilles; Collignon, Olivier; Hull, Joseph T; Daneault, Véronique; Albouy, Geneviève; Lepore, Franco; Phillips, Christophe; Doyon, Julien; Czeisler, Charles A; Dumont, Marie; Lockley, Steven W; Carrier, Julie
Patients and models of cystic fibrosis (CF) exhibit consistent abnormalities of polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, including decreased linoleate (LA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA) and variably increased arachidonate (AA), related in part to increased expression and activity of fatty acid desaturases. These abnormalities and the consequent CF-related pathologic manifestations can be reversed in CF mouse models by dietary supplementation with DHA. However, the mechanism is unknown. This study investigates this mechanism by measuring the effect of exogenous DHA and eicosapentaenoate (EPA) supplementation on fatty acid composition and metabolism, as well as on metabolic enzyme expression, in a cell culture model of CF. We found that both DHA and EPA suppress the expression and activity of ?5- and ?6-desaturases, leading to decreased flux through the n-3 and n-6 PUFA metabolic pathways and decreased production of AA. The findings also uncover other metabolic abnormalities, including increased fatty acid uptake and markedly increased retroconversion of DHA to EPA, in CF cells. These results indicate that the fatty acid abnormalities of CF are related to intrinsic alterations of PUFA metabolism and that they may be reversed by supplementation with DHA and EPA.
Njoroge, Sarah W.; Laposata, Michael; Katrangi, Waddah; Seegmiller, Adam C.
The electrical activity of the heart (ECG), respiratory function and electric activity of the brain (EEG) were simultaneously recorded in conscious, healthy humans. Instantaneous frequencies of the heart beat, respiration and alpha-waves were then determined from 30-minutes recordings. The instantaneous cardiac frequency was defined as the inverse value of the time interval between two consecutive R-peaks. The instantaneous respiratory frequency
Bojan Musizza; Aneta Stefanovska
Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a
Elwood F. Hill
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental illness characterized by the loss of control. Because the cingulate cortex is believed to be important in executive functions, such as inhibition, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques to examine whether and how activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the cingulate cortex were altered in drug-naïve OCD patients. Methods Twenty-three medication-naïve OCD patients and 23 well-matched healthy controls received fMRI scans in a resting state. Functional connectivities of the anterior cingulate (ACC) and the posterior cingulate (PCC) to the whole brain were analyzed using correlation analyses based on regions of interest (ROI) identified by the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF). Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was used to identify the resting-state sub-networks. Results fALFF analysis found that regional activity was increased in the ACC and decreased in the PCC in OCD patients when compared to controls. FC of the ACC and the PCC also showed different patterns. The ACC and the PCC were found to belong to different resting-state sub-networks in ICA analysis and showed abnormal FC, as well as contrasting correlations with the severity of OCD symptoms. Conclusions Activity of the ACC and the PCC were increased and decreased, respectively, in the medication-naïve OCD patients compared to controls. Different patterns in FC were also found between the ACC and the PCC with respect to these two groups. These findings implied that the cardinal feature of OCD, the loss of control, may be attributed to abnormal activities and FC of the ACC and the PCC.
Nie, Binbin; Luo, Chunrong; Yang, Tao; Li, Haijun; Lu, Jin; Xu, Lin; Shan, Baoci; Xu, Xiufeng
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.
Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio
Even the simplest volitional movements must be precisely coordinated with anticipatory postural adjustments. Little is currently known about the neural networks that coordinate these adjustments in healthy adults. We measured brain activity prior to movement during a bimanual load-lifting task, designed to elicit anticipatory adjustments in a restricted and well-defined set of musculature in the arm. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography brain measurements were obtained from eleven participants while they performed a bimanual load-lifting task that required precise inter-limb coordination. Anticipatory biceps brachii inhibition in the loaded arm was associated with a robust desynchronization of the beta rhythm. Beamforming analyses localized beta band responses to the parietal lobules, pre- and post-central gyri, middle and medial frontal gyri, basal ganglia and thalamus. The current study shows that premovement brain activity in a bimanual load-lifting task can be imaged with magnetoencephalography. Future experiments will partition out brain activity associated with anticipatory postural adjustments and volitional movements. The experimental paradigm will also be useful in the study of motor function in patients with developmental or degenerative disorders. PMID:21076820
Ng, Tommy H B; Sowman, Paul F; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W
This paper introduces a novel technique to address the instability and time variability challenges associated with brain activity recorded on different days. A critical challenge when working with brain signal activity is the variability in their characteristics when the signals are collected in different sessions separated by a day or more. Such variability is due to the acute and chronic responses of the brain tissue after implantation, variations as the subject learns to optimize performance, physiological changes in a subject due to prior activity or rest periods and environmental conditions. We propose a novel approach to tackle signal variability by focusing on learning subspaces which are recurrent over time. Furthermore, we illustrate how we can use projections on those subspaces to improve classification for an application such as brain-machine interface (BMI). In this paper, we illustrate the merits of finding recurrent subspaces in the context of movement direction decoding using local field potential (LFP). We introduce two methods for using the learned subspaces in movement direction decoding and show a decoding power improvement from 76% to 88% for a particularly unstable subject and consistent decoding across subjects. PMID:21257387
Gowreesunker, B Vikrham; Tewfik, Ahmed H; Tadipatri, Vijay A; Ashe, James; Pellize, Giuseppe; Gupta, Rahul
Whereas facial emotion recognition protocols have shown that each discrete emotion has a specific time course of brain activation, there is no electrophysiological evidence to support these findings for emotional induction by complex pictures. Our objective was to specify the differences between the time courses of brain activation elicited by feelings of happiness and, with unpleasant pictures, by feelings of disgust and sadness. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the watching of high-arousing pictures from the International Affective Picture System, selected to induce specific emotions. In addition to a classical arousal effect on late positive components, we found specific ERP patterns for each emotion in early temporal windows (<200 ms). Disgust was the first emotion to be associated with different brain processing after 140 ms, whereas happiness and sadness differed in ERPs elicited at the frontal and central sites after 160 ms. Our findings highlight the limits of the classical averaging of ERPs elicited by different emotions inside the same valence and suggest that each emotion could elicit a specific temporal pattern of brain activation, similar to those observed with emotional face recognition. PMID:24025800
Hot, Pascal; Sequeira, Henrique
Research suggests that abnormal performance-monitoring contributes to the etiology and maintenance of anxious pathology. Moreover, the anxiety-performance monitoring relationship appears to be specific to the worry dimension of anxiety. Given that anxiety (and worry in particular) is twice as prevalent in women as men, and most studies to date have employed small samples which are underpowered to detect sex-differences, it is possible that sex may be an important moderator of the worry-performance-monitoring relationship. No studies have directly compared the worry-performance-monitoring relationship between men and women, however. In the current study, we extended our recent work showing a unique relationship between worry and performance monitoring brain potentials in female undergraduates by comparing this relationship to that between worry and performance-monitoring brain potentials in male participants. Seventy-nine female and 70 male undergraduates from an ongoing study of anxiety and performance monitoring performed a letter-flanker task while their brain activity was recorded. Results revealed that worry was associated with exaggerated performance-monitoring, as indexed by increased error-related negativity/correct-response negativity, in female, but not male undergraduates. These findings suggest that the functional relationship between worry and performance-monitoring is sex-specific and have implications for understanding the role of performance-monitoring in the development and maintenance of anxiety. Specifically, linking the worry-performance-monitoring relationship to other female-specific biopsychosocial factors represents an important direction for future research. PMID:22659221
Moran, Tim P; Taylor, Danielle; Moser, Jason S
|If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…
James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman
Summary Functional imaging with MRI contrast agents is an emerging experimental approach that can combine the specificity of cellular neural recording techniques with noninvasive whole-brain coverage. A variety of contrast agents sensitive to aspects of brain activity have recently been introduced. These include new probes for calcium and other metal ions that offer high sensitivity and membrane permeability, as well as imaging agents for high resolution pH and metabolic mapping in living animals. Genetically-encoded MRI contrast agents have also been described. Several of the new probes have been validated in the brain; in vivo use of other agents remains a challenge. This review outlines advantages and disadvantages of specific molecular imaging approaches and discusses current or potential applications in neurobiology.
Background: Electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of hemispheric asymmetry in anterior brain activity have been related to a variety of indices of psychopathology and emotionality. How- ever, little is known about patterns of frontal asymmetry in alcohol-dependent (AD) samples. It is also unclear whether psychiatric comorbidity in AD subjects accounts for additional variance in frontal asymmetry, beyond a diagnosis of AD alone.
Elizabeth P. Hayden; Ryan E. Wiegand; Eric T. Meyer; Lance O. Bauer; Sean J. O'Connor; John I. Nurnberger Jr; David B. Chorlian; Bernice Porjesz; Henri Begleiter
Although previous resting-state studies have reported abnormal functional cerebral changes in patients with migraine without aura (MwoA), few have focused on alterations in both regional spontaneous neuronal activity and corresponding brain circuits in MwoA patients during rest. Eighteen MwoA patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in the current study. Baseline cerebral alterations were investigated using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses. Compared with HC, MwoA patients showed decreased ALFF values in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as increased ALFF values in the right thalamus. FC analysis also revealed abnormal FCs associated with these ROIs. In addition, ALFF values of the left rACC correlated with duration of disease in MwoA. Our findings could lead to a better understanding of intrinsic functional architecture of baseline brain activity in MwoA, providing both regional and brain circuit spontaneous neuronal activity properties. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23348909
Xue, Ting; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Dong, Tao; von Deneen, Karen M; Gong, Qiyong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
Background Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations between breastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method – exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternal brain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world.
Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundant circulating prohormone in humans, with a variety of reported actions on central and peripheral tissues. Despite its abundance, the functions of DHEA are relatively unknown because common animal models (laboratory rats and mice) have very low DHEA levels in the blood. Over the past decade, we have obtained considerable evidence from avian studies demonstrating that (1) DHEA is an important circulating prohormone in songbirds and (2) the enzyme 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3?-HSD), responsible for converting DHEA into a more active androgen, is expressed at high levels in the songbird brain. Here, we first review biochemical and molecular studies demonstrating the widespread activity and expression of 3?-HSD in the adult and developing songbird brain. Studies examining neural 3?-HSD activity show effects of sex, stress, and season that are region-specific. Second, we review studies showing seasonal and stress-related changes in circulating DHEA in captive and wild songbird species. Third, we describe evidence that DHEA treatment can stimulate song behavior and the growth of neural circuits controlling song behavior. Importantly, brain 3?-HSD and aromatase can work in concert to locally metabolize DHEA into active androgens and estrogens, which are critical for controlling behavior and robust adult neuroplasticity in songbirds. DHEA is likely secreted by the avian gonads and/or adrenals, as is the case in humans, but DHEA may also be synthesized de novo in the songbird brain from cholesterol or other precursors. Irrespective of its source, DHEA seems to be an important neurohormone in songbirds, and 3?-HSD is a key enzyme in the songbird brain.
Schlinger, Barney A.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Soma, Kiran K.
Pitch processing is a critical ability on which humans' tonal musical experience depends, and which is also of paramount importance for decoding prosody in speech. Congenital amusia refers to deficits in the ability to properly process musical pitch, and recent evidence has suggested that this musical pitch disorder may impact upon the processing of speech sounds. Here we present the first electrophysiological evidence demonstrating that individuals with amusia who speak Mandarin Chinese are impaired in classifying prosody as appropriate or inappropriate during a speech comprehension task. When presented with inappropriate prosody stimuli, control participants elicited a larger P600 and smaller N100 relative to the appropriate condition. In contrast, amusics did not show significant differences between the appropriate and inappropriate conditions in either the N100 or the P600 component. This provides further evidence that the pitch perception deficits associated with amusia may also affect intonation processing during speech comprehension in those who speak a tonal language such as Mandarin, and suggests music and language share some cognitive and neural resources. PMID:22859982
Jiang, Cunmei; Hamm, Jeff P; Lim, Vanessa K; Kirk, Ian J; Chen, Xuhai; Yang, Yufang
Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…
de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud
EEG-triggered fMRI provides a method for localizing the sources of brain electrical activity, such as epileptic discharges. Extending single-image acquisitions, following an event on the EEG, into triggered image series acquisitions may allow BOLD time courses to be obtained, such as those observed in event-related (ER) fMRI experiments. However, in contrast to the standard ER-fMRI, triggered image series are greatly affected by magnetization non-steady-state effects. The purpose of this paper is to show that the BOLD responses can be recovered using subtraction between two triggered image series having different functional contrasts. In order to evaluate this technique, a comparison with standard ER-fMRI using motor cortex activation task was made in 5 volunteers. We conclude that this can be a useful technique for studying brain activation associated with irregularly appearing stimuli. PMID:12595194
Zimine, Ivan; Seghier, Mohamed L; Seeck, Margitta; Lazeyras, François
Neuronal activity results in a local increase in blood flow. This concept serves as the basis for functional MRI. Still, this approach remains indirect and may fail in situations interfering with the neurovascular coupling mechanisms (drugs, anesthesia). Here we establish that water molecular diffusion is directly modulated by underlying neuronal activity using a rat forepaw stimulation model under different conditions of neuronal stimulation and neurovascular coupling. Under nitroprusside infusion, a neurovascular-coupling inhibitor, the diffusion response and local field potentials were maintained, whereas the hemodynamic response was abolished. As diffusion MRI reflects interactions of water molecules with obstacles (e.g., cell membranes), the observed changes point to a dynamic modulation of the neural tissue structure upon activation, which remains to be investigated. These findings represent a significant shift in concept from the current electrochemical and neurovascular coupling principles used for brain imaging, and open unique avenues to investigate mechanisms underlying brain function. PMID:23801756
Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Ciobanu, Luisa; Le Bihan, Denis
We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.
Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.
Methylphenidate, a psychostimulant that affects both dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, is one of the most frequently prescribed treatments for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The present study investigated the effects of chronic administration of methylphenidate to juvenile rats on spatial memory, brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunocontent and acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of methylphenidate (2.0mg\\/kg) once a
Emilene B. S. Scherer; Maira J. da Cunha; Cristiane Matté; Felipe Schmitz; Carlos A. Netto; Angela T. S. Wyse
Many studies have shown that open- and closed-class words elicit different patterns of brain activity, as manifested in the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP). One hypothesis is that these ERP differences reflect the different linguistic functions of the two vocabularies. We tested this hypothesis against the possibility that the word-class effects are attributable to quantitative differences in word length. We recorded
Lee Osterhout; Mark Allen; Judith McLaughlin
Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Alcohol and marijuana use are common. Recent research has indicated that adolescent substance users show abnormalities on measures of brain functioning, which is linked to changes in neurocognition over time. Abnormalities have been seen in brain structure volume, white matter quality, and activation to cognitive tasks, even in youth with as little as
L. M. Squeglia; J. Jacobus; S. F. Tapert
Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing diabetes as well as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. This research studied the effects of tesaglitazar, a dual-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?\\/? agonist, on metabolic abnormalities and kidney injury in obese Zucker rats (OZR). Lean Zucker rats (LZR) and OZR were used as control groups. Tesaglitazar (1 ?mol\\/kg\\/day) was given for 8 weeks in
Jie Liao; Zohreh Soltani; Philip Ebenezer; Angel A. Isidro-Carrión; Rubin Zhang; Arshad Asghar; Erwin Aguilar; Joseph Francis; Xuejiao Hu; León Ferder; Efrain Reisin
A patient with erythrocytosis secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was admitted to hospital because of dyspnea. The coagulation tests revealed abnormal prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplstin time (APTT), however, it could not be explained by the patient's medical history or physical signs of coagulation disorder. High hematocrit (Hct), which leads to reduced plasma-to-anticoagulant rate and increased final plasma anticoagulant concentration, was identified as the reason for false prolongation of PT and APTT.
Hu, Zhi-de; Gu, Bing
Previous functional imaging studies on heroin addicts have focused on abnormal brain functions based on specific tasks, while few fMRI studies concentrated on the resting-state abnormalities of heroin-dependent individuals. In the current study, we applied the pattern classification technique, which employs the feature extraction method of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Its main purpose was to characterize the discrepancy in activation patterns between heroin-dependent individuals and healthy subjects during the resting state. The results displayed a high accuracy in the activation pattern differences of the two groups, which included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), cingulate gyrus, frontal and para-limbic regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hippocampal/parahippocampal region, amygdala, caudate, putamen, as well as the posterior insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that significant biomarkers exist among the network of circuits that are involved in drug abuse. The implications from our study may help explain the behavioral and neuropsychological deficits in heroin-dependent individuals and shed light on the mechanisms underlying heroin addiction. PMID:21669407
Zhang, Yi; Tian, Jie; Yuan, Kai; Liu, Peng; Zhuo, Lu; Qin, Wei; Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Jixin; von Deneen, Karen M; Klahr, Nelson J; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun
Sharing others' emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas "tick together" in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants' brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness-unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal-calmness. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel-based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals' brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another's actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals' attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko
Short Communication Application of an immunocapillary electrophoresis assay to the detection of abnormal prion protein in brain, spleen and blood specimens from patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Sensitive and specific detection of abnormal prion protein in blood could provide a diagnostic test or screening assay for animal and human prion diseases. Here, the application of an immunocapillary electrophoresis (ICE) method developed for sheep scrapie to brain, spleen and blood from patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is described. The assay involves organic-solvent extraction, a competitive immunoassay using fluorescently
Paula C. Lourenco; Mary Jo Schmerr; Ian MacGregor; Robert G. Will; James W. Ironside; Mark W. Head
Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that in the children's group, short-range coherence within frontal areas was stronger, and long-range coherence between frontal and parietal areas was weaker, compared to adults. Our findings show that in children aged from 4 to 6years fronto-parietal brain maturation plays a crucial part in the cognitive development of response inhibition. PMID:23265620
Mehnert, Jan; Akhrif, Atae; Telkemeyer, Silke; Rossi, Sonja; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth; Neufang, Susanne
The involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities in the development of abnormal water diffusion in the brain after cardiac arrest is not fully understood. We used magnetic resonance imaging to determine the correlation between MMP-9 activity and the mechanism of abnormal water diffusion after global cerebral ischemia (GCI)-induced brain damage in C57black6 mice. We induced GCI in mice by occluding both carotid arteries for 60 min, then allowing reperfusion. We labeled a short DNA that targets mmp-9 mRNA activity [phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotide (sODN)-mmp9] or a control probe without intracellular target (sODN-Ran) with iron-based MR contrast agent [superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-mmp9 or SPION-Ran] or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-sODN-mmp9 or FITC-sODN-Ran; we then delivered these probes by intracerebroventricular infusion or intraperitoneal injection with in 3 h of reperfusion. At low dose (120 pmol/kg) the SPION-mmp9 probe was retained at significant levels in the striatum and cortex of living brains 10 h after GCI. Probe retention was validated by similar elevation of mmp-9 mRNA and antigens in postmortem samples taken from regions that exhibited GCI-induced hyperintensity in diffusion-weighted imaging, and a significant reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC, p = 0.0006, n = 12). At a higher dose (120 nmol/kg), the FITC-sODN-mmp9 probe revealed significant knockdown of MMP-9 activity, per zymography, and a reversal of striatal rADC (p = 0.004, n = 6). These observations were not duplicated in the control group. We conclude that expression of mmp-9 mRNA is associated with abnormal ADC after GCI.
Liu, Christina H.; You, Zerong; Liu, Charng-Ming; Kim, Young R.; Whalen, Michael J.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Liu, Philip K.
Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are potent anticholinesterase substances that have killed large numbers of wild birds of various species. Cause of death is diagnosed by demonstration of depressed brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity in combination with chemical detection of anticholinesterase residue in the affected specimen. ChE depression is determined by comparison of the affected specimen to normal ChE activity for a sample of control specimens of the same species, but timely procurement of controls is not always possible. Therefore, a reference file of normal whole brain ChE activity is provided for 48 species of wild birds from North America representing 11 orders and 23 families for use as emergency substitutes in diagnosis of anticholinesterase poisoning. The ChE values, based on 83 sets of wild control specimens from across the United States, are reproducible provided the described procedures are duplicated. Overall, whole brain ChE activity varied nearly three-fold among the 48 species represented, but it was usually similar for closely related species. However, some species were statistically separable in most families and some species of the same genus differed as much as 50%.
The ability to make accurate judgments about the mental states of others, sometimes referred to as theory of mind (ToM), is often impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and this deficit may contribute to problems with interpersonal relationships. The present study used an animated social attribution task (SAT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine structures mediating ToM in adolescents with moderate to severe TBI. The study design also included a comparison group of matched, typically developing (TD) adolescents. The TD group exhibited activation within a number of areas that are thought to be relevant to ToM, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal and parietal areas. The TBI subjects had significant activation within many of these same areas, but their activation was generally more intense and excluded the medial prefrontal cortex. Exploratory regression analyses indicated a negative relation between ToM-related activation and measures of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging, while there was also a positive relation between activation and lesion volume. These findings are consistent with alterations in the level and pattern of brain activation that may be due to the combined influence of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions. PMID:21777109
Scheibel, Randall S; Newsome, Mary R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; McClelland, Michelle M; Hanten, Gerri; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Cook, Lori G; Chu, Zili D; Vásquez, Ana C; Yallampalli, Ragini; Lin, Xiaodi; Hunter, Jill V; Levin, Harvey S
It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the
Mercè Correa; Carles Sanchis-Segura; Carlos M. G. Aragon
Introduction: The incidence of emergency department (ED) visits for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in the United States exceeds 1,000,000 cases/year with the vast majority classified as mild (mTBI). Using existing computed tomography (CT) decision rules for selecting patients to be referred for CT, such as the New Orleans Criteria (NOC), approximately 70% of those scanned are found to have a negative CT. This study investigates the use of quantified brain electrical activity to assess its possible role in the initial screening of ED mTBI patients as compared to NOC. Methods: We studied 119 patients who reported to the ED with mTBI and received a CT. Using a hand-held electroencephalogram (EEG) acquisition device, we collected data from frontal leads to determine the likelihood of a positive CT. The brain electrical activity was processed off-line to generate an index (TBI-Index, biomarker). This index was previously derived using an independent population, and the value found to be sensitive for significant brain dysfunction in TBI patients. We compared this performance of the TBI-Index to the NOC for accuracy in prediction of positive CT findings. Results: Both the brain electrical activity TBI-Index and the NOC had sensitivities, at 94.7% and 92.1% respectively. The specificity of the TBI-Index was more than twice that of NOC, 49.4% and 23.5% respectively. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the positive likelihood ratio were better with the TBI-Index. When either the TBI-Index or the NOC are positive (combining both indices) the sensitivity to detect a positive CT increases to 97%. Conclusion: The hand-held EEG device with a limited frontal montage is applicable to the ED environment and its performance was superior to that obtained using the New Orleans criteria. This study suggests a possible role for an index of brain function based on EEG to aid in the acute assessment of mTBI patients.
O'Neil, Brian; Prichep, Leslie S.; Naunheim, Roseanne; Chabot, Robert
Brain areas activated by three different-genre video games, Othello, Tetris and Space Invader, were compared in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The responses of blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts while playing games or viewing pseudo-visual stimuli similar to the video games were measured with a 1.5 Tesla scanner in 10 right-handed healthy participants performing experiments and analysed using
K. Saito; N. Mukawa; M. Saito
Error-related negativity (ERN\\/Ne) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with monitoring action and detecting errors. It is a sharp negative deflection that generally occurs from 50 to 150 ms following response execution and has been associated with activity involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An enhanced ERN has recently been observed in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder
Greg Hajcak; Robert F. Simons
The limit cycles of brain activity are studied using a compact continuum model that reproduces the main features of electroencephalographic signals, including bifurcations of fixed points and limit cycles in seizures. Frequencies and amplitudes are predicted analytically and related to physiology. Gaussian stimuli yield two distinct evoked responses in the linearly stable zone, consistent with experiment. Limit cycles can be initiated or suppressed by control signals or stimuli.
Kim, J. W.; Robinson, P. A.
|There is increasing focus on the neurophysiological underpinnings of brain activations, giving birth to an emerging branch of neuroscience--neuroenergetics. However, no common definition of "brain activation" exists thus far. In this article, we define brain activation as the information-driven reorganization of energy flows in a population of…
In this study we identified sex-dependent dimorphism of brain aromatase in the teleost medaka and examined its regulation by sex steriods. We first investigated differential distribution of brain aromatase activity in sexually mature male and female medaka in serial coronal sections of the brain and identified the hypothalamic nuclei contained in each section using the brain atlas of medaka. In
Ana Clara Melo; John S. Ramsdell
Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5?0.01–0.027 Hz; slow-4?0.027–0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent.
Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac
Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5:0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4:0.027-0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01-0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent. PMID:23483911
Yu, Rongjun; Hsieh, Ming H; Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac
Motivation to change is believed to be a key factor in therapeutic success in substance use disorders; however, the neurobiological mechanisms through which motivation to change impacts decreased substance use remain unclear. Existing research is conflicting, with some investigations supporting decreased and others reporting increased frontal activation to drug cues in individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. The present study investigated the relationship between motivation to change cocaine use and cue-elicited brain activity in cocaine-dependent individuals using two conceptualizations of “motivation to change:” 1) current treatment status (i.e., currently receiving vs. not receiving outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence) and 2) self-reported motivation to change substance use, using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES; Miller and Tonigan, 1996). Thirty-eight cocaine-dependent individuals (14 currently in treatment) completed a diagnostic assessment and an fMRI cocaine cue-reactivity task. Whole-brain analyses demonstrated that both treatment-seeking and motivated participants had lower activation to cocaine cues in a wide variety of brain regions in the frontal, occipital, temporal, and cingulate cortices relative to non-treatment-seeking and less motivated participants. Future research is needed to explain the mechanism by which treatment and/or motivation impacts neural cue-reactivity, as such work could potentially aid in the development of more effective therapeutic techniques for substance-dependent patients.
Prisciandaro, James J.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.
Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. Therefore, an experimental approach that simultaneously assesses anatomical, physiological and behavioral endpoints is required when developing risk assessment models for EAC exposure. Using this more comprehensive approach we have demonstrated that the disruption of nuclear volume does not necessarily coincide with disruption of cellular phenotype or neuroendocrine function in two sexually dimorphic brain nuclei: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (AVPV) and the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN). These results demonstrate that nuclear volume is likely not an appropriate biomarker for EAC exposure. We further demonstrated that neonatal exposure to the EACs genistein (GEN) and Bisphenol-A (BPA) can affect sexually dimorphic brain morphology and neuronal phenotypes in adulthood with regional and cellular specificity suggesting that effects observed in one brain region may not be predictive of effects within neighboring regions. Finally, developmental EAC exposure has been shown to affect a variety of sexually dimorphic behaviors including reproductive behavior. These effects are likely to have a broad impact as maladaptive behavior could translate to decreased fitness of entire populations. Collectively, these findings