Sample records for abnormal cardiac ultrasound

  1. Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

  2. A multimodal (MRI/ultrasound) cardiac phantom for imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Kendrick, Michael; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alshaher, Motaz; Stoddard, Marcus F.; Amini, Amir

    2013-03-01

    A dynamic cardiac phantom can play a significant role in the evaluation and development of ultrasound and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) motion tracking and registration methods. A four chamber multimodal cardiac phantom has been designed and built to simulate normal and pathologic hearts with different degrees of "infarction" and "scar tissues". In this set up, cardiac valves have been designed and modeled as well. The four-chamber structure can simulate the asymmetric ventricular, atrial and valve motions. Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) is used as the principal material since it can simulate the shape, elasticity, and MR and ultrasound properties of the heart. The cardiac shape is simulated using a four-chamber mold made of polymer clay. An additional pathologic heart phantom containing stiff inclusions has been manufactured in order to simulate an infracted heart. The stiff inclusions are of different shapes and different degrees of elasticity and are able to simulate abnormal cardiac segments. The cardiac elasticity is adjusted based on freeze-thaw cycles of the PVA cryogel for normal and scarred regions. Ultrasound and MRI markers were inserted in the cardiac phantom as landmarks for validations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multimodal phantom that models a dynamic four-chamber human heart including the cardiac valve.

  3. 3D Cardiac Deformation from Ultrasound Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xenophon Papademetris; Albert J. Sinusas; Donald P. Dione; James S. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    The quantitative estimation of regional cardiac deformation from 3D image sequences has important clinical implications for the assessment of viability in the heart wall. Such estimates have so far been obtained almost exclusively from Magnetic Resonance (MR) im- ages, speciflcally MR tagging. In this paper we describe a methodology for estimating cardiac deformations from 3D ultrasound images. The images are

  4. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2011-03-01

    Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

  5. Ulnar Neuropathy With Normal Electrodiagnosis and Abnormal Nerve Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joon Shik Yoon; Francis O. Walker; Michael S. Cartwright

    2010-01-01

    Yoon JS, Walker FO, Cartwright MS. Ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnosis and abnormal nerve ultrasound.Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy. It is diagnosed with electrodiagnostic studies, but they can yield false-negative results. Ultrasound was used to examine 4 patients with UNE and negative electrodiagnostic findings, and it showed ulnar nerve enlargement near the

  6. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (<20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.

  7. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for urinary tract abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hálek, Jan; Flögelová, Hana; Michálková, Kamila; Smakal, Oldrich; Dubrava, Lubomír; Zapletalová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2010-02-01

    The study was aimed at (1) the determination of the incidence of abnormalities of the urinary tract in newborn infants detected by postnatal ultrasound screening, and (2) the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for detecting surgical urinary tract abnormalities. The prospective study was of full-term neonates born in the University Hospital of Olomouc in 2005-2008 who underwent renal ultrasound screening after 72 h of life. Significant findings were recorded. Subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were recorded and evaluated in a group of children with detected renal pelvic dilatation (RPD). (1) A total of 6,088 newborn infants was examined. The absolute and relative RPD incidence rates (anteroposterior diameter, APD) were as follows: 5-7 mm, 146 (2.4%); 7-10 mm, 70 (1.15%); 10-15 mm, 13 (0.21%), and 15 mm or more, 5 (0.08%). Of those, 16 children were operated on for abnormalities of the urinary tract, of which nine (56%) had been detected by prenatal screening. Other findings: six cases of unilateral renal agenesis, four cases of multicystic renal dysplasia, four of renal dystopia, one of polycystic kidney disease and one of renal hypoplasia. (2) A group of 224 children with postnatally detected RPD was examined, of whom 40 (17.9%) underwent voiding cystourethrography and/or scintigraphy and 16 (7.1%) were treated surgically. The receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed, and the areas under the curves were calculated. Postnatal renal ultrasound screening is probably a suitable test for detecting significant urinary tract abnormalities. PMID:19856001

  9. ECG patch monitors for assessment of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lobodzinski, S Suave

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of long-term monitoring is the improvement of diagnostic yield. Despite the clear utility of Holter monitoring in clinical cardiology, issues of relatively low diagnostic yield, cost and inconvenience have motivated the development of ultra-portable devices referred to as ECG patch monitors. Although the "gold standard" for assessing cardiac rhythm abnormalities remains a 12-lead Holter, there is an increasing interest in portable monitoring devices that provide the opportunity for evaluating cardiac rhythm in real-world environments such as the workplace or home. To facilitate patient acceptance these monitors underwent a radical miniaturization and redesign to include wireless communication, water proofing and a patch carrier for attaching devices directly to the skin. We review recent developments in the field of "patch" devices primarily designed for very long-term monitoring of cardiac arrhythmic events. As the body of supporting clinical validation data grows, these devices hold promise for a variety of cardiac monitoring applications. From a clinical and research standpoint, the capacity to obtain longitudinal cardiac activity data by patch devices may have significant implications for device selection, monitoring duration, and care pathways for arrhythmia evaluation and atrial fibrillation surveillance. From a research standpoint, the new devices may allow for the development of novel diagnostic algorithms with the goal of finding patterns and correlations with exercise and drug regimens. PMID:24215754

  10. Simulated 3D Ultrasound LV Cardiac Images for Active Shape Model Training

    E-print Network

    Frangi, Alejandro

    Simulated 3D Ultrasound LV Cardiac Images for Active Shape Model Training Constantine Butakoff of 3D ultrasound cardiac segmentation using Active Shape Models (ASM) is presented. The proposed resolution MRI scans and the appearance model obtained from simulated 3D ultrasound images. Usually

  11. Proceedings of MICCAI 99, Pages 420-429, 1 3D Cardiac Deformation from Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    Proceedings of MICCAI 99, Pages 420-429, 1 3D Cardiac Deformation from Ultrasound Images Xenophon we describe a methodology for estimating cardiac deformations from 3D ultrasound images. The images regional 3D estimates of heart deformation from ultrasound images. 1 Introduction The fundamental goal

  12. Parental Decision-Making after Ultrasound Diagnosis of a Serious Foetal Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilmar H. Bijma; Hajo I. J. Wildschut; Agnes van der Heide; Jan Passchier; Juriy W. Wladimiroff; Paul J. van der Maas

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians who are involved in the field of foetal medicine with a comprehensive overview of theories that are relevant for the parental decision-making process after ultrasound diagnosis of a serious foetal abnormality. Methods: Since little data are available of parental decision-making after ultrasound diagnosis of foetal abnormality, we reviewed the literature

  13. Beyond ultrasound: advances in multimodality cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Carmela; Acampa, Wanda; Pellegrino, Teresa; Petretta, Mario; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    The rapid technological evolution accomplished in noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques over the past few decades has provided physicians with a large armamentarium for the evaluation of patients with known or suspected coronary heart disease. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery calcium or noninvasive coronary angiography may be performed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. These techniques evaluate the presence of atherosclerosis rather than ischemia. Conversely, nuclear cardiology is the most widely used noninvasive approach for the assessment of myocardial perfusion and function. These techniques coupled with the development of dedicated image fusion software packages to merge data sets from different modalities have paved the way for hybrid imaging. This article provides a description of the available noninvasive imaging techniques in the assessment of coronary anatomy, myocardial perfusion, and cardiac function in patients with known or suspected coronary heart disease. PMID:25037458

  14. Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Griksaitis (Durham University Pediatric Cardiology)

    2011-11-08

    This article describes a study investigating the efficacy of two cardiac teaching modalities (ultrasound imaging and cadaver prosections) on learning cardiac gross anatomy. The methods and outcomes are discussed. A pre-post test was used in this study.

  15. Mapping Cardiac Fiber Orientations from High-Resolution DTI to High-Frequency 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient’s cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging. PMID:25328641

  16. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice

    E-print Network

    Kobilka, Brian

    Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice PATRICIA Bernstein, and Brian Kobilka. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyper.1152/ ajpheart.01063.2001.-- 2A-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) in the midbrain regulate sympathetic nervous system

  17. Cardiac Motion Analysis Based on Optical Flow on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Data

    E-print Network

    Cardiac Motion Analysis Based on Optical Flow on Real-Time Three- Dimensional Ultrasound Data Qi rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four

  18. Obesity and the challenges of ultrasound fetal abnormality diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pai-Jong Stacy; Loichinger, Matthew; Zalud, Ivica

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has become an essential clinical tool for aneuploidy screening, detection of fetal congenital anomalies, and assessment of fetal growth and well-being. Maternal obesity, an increasing global problem, has been shown to decrease the accuracy of ultrasound examination in high-risk pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidenced-based perspective on the challenges of performing fetal ultrasound in obese women and to provide a practical guide on how to care for these patients in the ultrasound suite. PMID:25457860

  19. Parents' experiences of an abnormal ultrasound examination - vacillating between emotional confusion and sense of reality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An ultrasound examination is an important confirmation of the pregnancy and is accepted without reflection to any prenatal diagnostic aspects. An abnormal finding often comes unexpectedly and is a shock for the parents. The aim was to generate a theoretical understanding of parents' experiences of the situation when their fetus is found to have an abnormality at a routine ultrasound examination. Methods Sixteen parents, mothers and fathers, whose fetus had been diagnosed with an abnormality during an ultrasound scan in the second or third trimester, were interviewed. The study employed a grounded theory approach. Results The core category vacillating between the emotional confusion and sense of reality is related to the main concern assessment of the diagnosis impact on the well-being of the fetus. Two other categories Entering uncertainty and Involved in an ongoing change and adaptation have each five sub-categories. Conclusions Parents are aware of that ultrasound examination is a tool for identifying abnormalities prenatally. The information about the abnormality initially results in broken expectations and anxiety. Parents become involved in ongoing change and adaptation. They need information about the ultrasound findings and the treatment without prolonged delay and in a suitable environment. The examiner who performs the ultrasound examination must be aware of how anxiety can be intensified by environmental factors. All parents should to be offered a professional person to give them support as a part of the routine management of this situation. PMID:20546610

  20. Context indexing of digital cardiac ultrasound records in PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobodzinski, S. Suave; Meszaros, Georg N.

    1998-07-01

    Recent wide adoption of the DICOM 3.0 standard by ultrasound equipment vendors created a need for practical clinical implementations of cardiac imaging study visualization, management and archiving, DICOM 3.0 defines only a logical and physical format for exchanging image data (still images, video, patient and study demographics). All DICOM compliant imaging studies must presently be archived on a 650 Mb recordable compact disk. This is a severe limitation for ultrasound applications where studies of 3 to 10 minutes long are a common practice. In addition, DICOM digital echocardiography objects require physiological signal indexing, content segmentation and characterization. Since DICOM 3.0 is an interchange standard only, it does not define how to database composite video objects. The goal of this research was therefore to address the issues of efficient storage, retrieval and management of DICOM compliant cardiac video studies in a distributed PACS environment. Our Web based implementation has the advantage of accommodating both DICOM defined entity-relation modules (equipment data, patient data, video format, etc.) in standard relational database tables and digital indexed video with its attributes in an object relational database. Object relational data model facilitates content indexing of full motion cardiac imaging studies through bi-directional hyperlink generation that tie searchable video attributes and related objects to individual video frames in the temporal domain. Benefits realized from use of bi-directionally hyperlinked data models in an object relational database include: (1) real time video indexing during image acquisition, (2) random access and frame accurate instant playback of previously recorded full motion imaging data, and (3) time savings from faster and more accurate access to data through multiple navigation mechanisms such as multidimensional queries on an index, queries on a hyperlink attribute, free search and browsing.

  1. Ultrasound current source density imaging of the cardiac activation wave using a clinical cardiac catheter.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yexian; Li, Qian; Ingram, Pier; Barber, Christy; Liu, Zhonglin; Witte, Russell S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), based on the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, is a noninvasive method for mapping electrical current in 4-D (space + time). This technique potentially overcomes limitations with conventional electrical mapping procedures typically used during treatment of sustained arrhythmias. However, the weak AE signal associated with the electrocardiogram is a major challenge for advancing this technology. In this study, we examined the effects of the electrode configuration and ultrasound frequency on the magnitude of the AE signal and quality of UCSDI using a rabbit Langendorff heart preparation. The AE signal was much stronger at 0.5 MHz (2.99 ?V/MPa) than 1.0 MHz (0.42 ?V/MPa). Also, a clinical lasso catheter placed on the epicardium exhibited excellent sensitivity without penetrating the tissue. We also present, for the first time, 3-D cardiac activation maps of the live rabbit heart using only one pair of recording electrodes. Activation maps were used to calculate the cardiac conduction velocity for atrial (1.31 m/s) and apical (0.67 m/s) pacing. This study demonstrated that UCSDI is potentially capable of real-time 3-D cardiac activation wave mapping, which would greatly facilitate ablation procedures for treatment of arrhythmias. PMID:25122512

  2. Ulnar Neuropathy With Normal Electrodiagnosis and Abnormal Nerve Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Joon Shik; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy. It is diagnosed with electrodiagnostic studies, but they can yield false-negative results. Ultrasound was used to examine 4 patients with UNE and negative electrodiagnostic findings, and it showed ulnar nerve enlargement near the elbow in all cases, with a mean cross-sectional area of 20.1mm2. This indicates that ultrasound may be a useful tool for assessing those with UNE symptoms and normal electrodiagnostic findings. PMID:20159139

  3. Ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnosis and abnormal nerve ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Joon Shik; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE) is the second most common entrapment neuropathy. It is diagnosed with electrodiagnostic studies, but they can yield false-negative results. Ultrasound was used to examine 4 patients with UNE and negative electrodiagnostic findings, and it showed ulnar nerve enlargement near the elbow in all cases, with a mean cross-sectional area of 20.1 mm. This indicates that ultrasound may be a useful tool for assessing those with UNE symptoms and normal electrodiagnostic findings. PMID:20159139

  4. Echocardiography Objectives Every trainee should understand the basic aspects of cardiac ultrasound,

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    physiology, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. · The trainee will be exposed to and become familiar of cardiac ultrasound, including physical principles, instrumentation, cardiovascular anatomy, cardiovascular to perform a stress echocardiogram, including exercise stress as well as pharmacologic stress testing

  5. Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chen, Wei-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3?/? mice. Asic3?/? mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3?/? mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3?/? mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

  6. Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griksaitis, Michael J.; Sawdon, Marina A.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of two cardiac anatomy teaching modalities, ultrasound imaging and cadaveric prosections, for learning cardiac gross anatomy. One hundred and eight first-year medical students participated. Two weeks prior to the teaching intervention, students completed a pretest to assess their prior knowledge and to ensure that…

  7. Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks

    E-print Network

    Rosales, Rómer E.

    (CHD). CHD (along with Congestive Heart Failure) can be detected by measuring and scoring the regionalAutomated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks± . maleeha.qazi@siemens.com , glenn.fung@siemens.com Abstract Coronary Heart Disease can be diagnosed by mea

  8. Cardiac and neurological abnormalities in v-fps transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, S P; Mock, D; Maltby, V; Silver, M; Rossant, J; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1989-01-01

    Transgenic mice that widely express the v-fps protein-tyrosine kinase develop several independent pathological conditions, in addition to a high tumor incidence. v-fps expression and protein-tyrosine kinase activity in the heart were directly correlated with cardiac enlargement. This cardiomegaly was accompanied by severe myocardial and endocardial damage, which was concentrated in the left ventricular wall, and characterized by a progressive atrophy and necrosis of cardiac muscle fibers with concomitant fibrosis. This pathology was associated with congestive heart failure. Mice from five lines developed a marked trembling, correlated with expression of the v-fps transgene in the brain, and two lines showed a striking bilateral enlargement of the trigeminal nerves. Unlike tumor formation, these cardiac and neurological phenotypes were evident shortly after birth and showed 100% penetrance. The pleiotropic effects of the v-fps transgene suggest the involvement of protein-tyrosine kinases in mammalian neural development and cardiac function. Images PMID:2788278

  9. Mechanisms of Human Arrhythmia Syndromes: Abnormal Cardiac Macromolecular Interactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-10-01

    Many cardiac ion channels exist within macromolecular signaling complexes, comprised of pore-forming subunits that associate with auxiliary subunits, regulatory enzymes, and targeting proteins. This complex protein assembly ensures proper modulation of channel activity and ion homeostasis. The association of genetic defects in regulatory and targeting proteins to inherited arrhythmia syndromes has led to a better understanding of the critical role these proteins play in ion channel modulation.

  10. Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. de Simone; L. Scalfi; M. Galderisi; A. Celentano; G. Di Biase; P. Tammaro; M. Garofalo; G. F. Mureddu; O. de Divitiis; F. Contaldo

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and

  11. Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ?65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

  12. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmood R. Khazaei; Fiona Mackie; Andrew R. Rosenberg; Gad Kainer

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying\\u000a renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which\\u000a RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90

  13. Early carotid atherosclerosis and cardiac diastolic abnormalities in hypertensive subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Parrinello; D Colomba; P Bologna; A Licata; A Pinto; S Paterna; R Scaglione; G Licata

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that it is known that hypertension may be associated to early atherosclerosis manifestations, few data are to date available on the relationship between early carotid abnormalities and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. To address this issue, 142 hypertensive patients (64 females and 78 males) younger than 55 years, at the first diagnosis of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension (WHO\\/ISH criteria),

  14. Distal 10q trisomy syndrome with unusual cardiac and pulmonary abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J; Jaffé, A; Bush, A

    1998-01-01

    Since its description in 1965, distal 10q trisomy has become recognised as a well defined, although rare syndrome, almost always the result of an unbalanced translocation. Typical features consist of psychomotor delay, a distinctive dysmorphic appearance, growth retardation, and, in some cases, cardiac, renal, and ocular abnormalities. Images PMID:9475101

  15. Mitral Annulus Calcification is associated with valvular and cardiac structural abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad-Reza Movahed; Yuji Saito; Mastaneh Ahmadi-Kashani; Ramin Ebrahimi

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mitral annulus calcification (MAC) is a common finding on echocardiographic examination. The goal of this study was to evaluate associations between MAC and cardiac abnormalities using a large echocardiographic database. METHODS: For this study we retrospectively reviewed 24,380 echocardiograms performed for clinical reasons between the years 1984 and 1998. RESULTS: MAC was reported in 1,494 (6.1%) subjects. Using multivariate

  16. The role of surgeon-performed ultrasound in patients with possible cardiac wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, G S; Feliciano, D V; Schmidt, J A; Cushman, J G; Sisley, A C; Ingram, W; Ansley, J D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluate surgeon-performed ultrasound in determining the need for operation in patients with possible cardiac wounds. BACKGROUND DATA: Ultrasound quickly is becoming part of the surgeon's diagnostic armamentarium; however, its role for the patient with penetrating injury is less well-defined. Although accurate for the detection of hemopericardium, the lack of immediate availability of the cardiologist to perform the test may delay the diagnosis, adversely affecting patient outcome. To be an effective diagnostic test in trauma centers, ultrasound must be immediately available in the resuscitation area and performed and interpreted by surgeons. METHODS: Surgeons performed pericardial ultrasound examinations on patients with penetrating truncal wounds but no immediate indication for operation. The subcostal view detected hemopericardium, and patients with positive examinations underwent immediate operation by the same surgeon. Vital signs, base deficit, time from examination to operation, operative findings, treatment, and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: During 13 months, 247 patients had surgeon-performed ultrasound. There were 236 true-negative and 10 true-positive results, and no false-negative or false-positive results; however, the pericardial region could not be visualized in one patient. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%; mean examination time was 0.8 minute (246 patients). Of the ten true-positive examinations, three were hypotensive. The mean time (8 patients) from ultrasound to operation was 12.1 minutes; all survived. Operative findings (site of cardiac wounds) were: left ventricle (4), right ventricle (3), right atrium (2), right atrium/superior vena cava (1), and right atrium/inferior vena cava (1). CONCLUSIONS: Surgeon-performed ultrasound is a rapid and accurate technique for diagnosing hemopericardium. Delay times from admission to operating room are minimized when the surgeon performs the ultrasound examination. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8645047

  17. Non-thrombotic Abnormalities on Lower Extremity Venous Duplex Ultrasound Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Srikar; Zeger, Wes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emergency physician-performed compression ultrasonography focuses primarily on the evaluation of the proximal veins of the lower extremity in patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A detailed sonographic evaluation of lower extremity is not performed. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-thrombotic findings on comprehensive lower extremity venous duplex ultrasound (US) examinations performed on emergency department (ED) patients. Methods We performed a retrospective six-year review of an academic ED’s records of adult patients who underwent a comprehensive lower extremity duplex venous US examination for the evaluation of DVT. The entire US report was thoroughly reviewed for non-thrombotic findings. Results We detected non-thrombotic findings in 263 (11%, 95% CI [9.5–11.9%]) patients. Among the non-thrombotic findings, venous valvular incompetence (81, 30%) was the most frequent, followed by cyst/mass (41, 15%), lymphadenopathy (33, 12%), phlebitis (12, 4.5%), hematoma (8, 3%), cellulitis (1, 0.3%) and other (6, 2.2%). Conclusion In our study, we detected a variety of non-thrombotic abnormalities on comprehensive lower extremity venous duplex US examinations performed on ED patients. Some of these abnormalities could be clinically significant and potentially be detected with point-of-care lower extremity US examinations if the symptomatic region is evaluated. In addition to assessment of the proximal veins for DVT, we recommend sonographic evaluation of the symptomatic area in the lower extremity when performing point-of-care ultrasound examinations to identify non-thrombotic abnormalities that may require immediate intervention or close follow up.

  18. Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

  19. An interoperable system for automated diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities from electrocardiogram data.

    PubMed

    Tinnakornsrisuphap, Thidarat; Billo, Richard E

    2015-03-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) data are stored and analyzed in different formats, devices, and computer platforms. As a result, ECG data from different monitoring devices cannot be displayed unless the user has access to the proprietary software of each particular device. This research describes an ontology and encoding for representation of ECG data that allows open exchange and display of ECG data in a web browser. The ontology is based on the Health Level Seven (HL7) medical device communication standard. It integrates ECG waveform data, HL7 standard ECG data descriptions, and cardiac diagnosis rules, providing a capability to both represent ECG waveforms as well as perform automated diagnosis of 37 different cardiac abnormalities. The ECG ontology is encoded in XML, thus allowing ECG data from any digital ECG device that maps to it to be displayed in a general-purpose Internet browser. An experiment was conducted to test the interoperability of the system (ability to openly share ECG data without error in a web browser) and also to assess the accuracy of the diagnosis model. Results showed 100% interoperability using 276 ECG data files and 93% accuracy in diagnosis of abnormal cardiac conditions. PMID:24808416

  20. Analysis of 2-d ultrasound cardiac strain imaging using joint probability density functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound frame rates play a key role for accurate cardiac deformation tracking. Insufficient frame rates lead to an increase in signal de-correlation artifacts resulting in erroneous displacement and strain estimation. Joint probability density distributions generated from estimated axial strain and its associated signal-to-noise ratio provide a useful approach to assess the minimum frame rate requirements. Previous reports have demonstrated that bi-modal distributions in the joint probability density indicate inaccurate strain estimation over a cardiac cycle. In this study, we utilize similar analysis to evaluate a 2-D multi-level displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithm for cardiac strain imaging. The effect of different frame rates, final kernel dimensions and a comparison of radio frequency and envelope based processing are evaluated using echo signals derived from a 3-D finite element cardiac model and five healthy volunteers. Cardiac simulation model analysis demonstrates that the minimum frame rates required to obtain accurate joint probability distributions for the signal-to-noise ratio and strain, for a final kernel dimension of 1 ? by 3 A-lines, was around 42 Hz for radio frequency signals. On the other hand, even a frame rate of 250 Hz with envelope signals did not replicate the ideal joint probability distribution. For the volunteer study, clinical data was acquired only at a 34 Hz frame rate, which appears to be sufficient for radio frequency analysis. We also show that an increase in the final kernel dimensions significantly affect the strain probability distribution and joint probability density function generated, with a smaller effect on the variation in the accumulated mean strain estimated over a cardiac cycle. Our results demonstrate that radio frequency frame rates currently achievable on clinical cardiac ultrasound systems are sufficient for accurate analysis of the strain probability distribution, when a multi-level 2-D algorithm and kernel dimensions on the order of 1 ? by 3 A-lines or smaller are utilized. PMID:24613642

  1. Association of Comorbidity Burden With Abnormal Cardiac Mechanics: Findings From the HyperGEN Study

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Aguilar, Frank G.; Martinez, Eva E.; Beussink, Lauren; Kim, Kwang?Youn A.; Peng, Jie; Rasmussen?Torvik, Laura; Sha, Jin; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Gu, C. Charles; Lewis, Cora E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Arnett, Donna K.; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbidities are common in heart failure (HF), and the number of comorbidities has been associated with poor outcomes in HF patients. However, little is known about the effect of multiple comorbidities on cardiac mechanics, which could impact the pathogenesis of HF. We sought to determine the relationship between comorbidity burden and adverse cardiac mechanics. Methods and Results We performed speckle?tracking analysis on echocardiograms from the HyperGEN study (n=2150). Global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain, and early diastolic (e') tissue velocities were measured. We evaluated the association between comorbidity number and cardiac mechanics using linear mixed effects models to account for relatedness among subjects. The mean age was 51±14 years, 58% were female, and 47% were African American. Dyslipidemia and hypertension were the most common comorbidities (61% and 58%, respectively). After adjusting for left ventricular (LV) mass index, ejection fraction, and several potential confounders, the number of comorbidities remained associated with all indices of cardiac mechanics except global circumferential strain (eg, ?=?0.32 [95% CI ?0.44, ?0.20] per 1?unit increase in number of comorbidities for global longitudinal strain; ?=?0.16 [95% CI ?0.20, ?0.11] for e' velocity; P?0.0001 for both comparisons). Results were similar after excluding participants with abnormal LV geometry (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions Higher comorbidity burden is associated with worse cardiac mechanics, even in the presence of normal LV geometry. The deleterious effect of multiple comorbidities on cardiac mechanics may explain both the high comorbidity burden and adverse outcomes in patients who ultimately develop HF. PMID:24780206

  2. Cardiac Repolarization Abnormalities and Potential Evidence for Loss of Cardiac Sodium Currents on ECGs of Patients with Chagas' Heart Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Medina, R.; Jugo, D.; Nunez, T. J.; Borrego, A.; Arellano, E.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Greco, E. C.; Starc, V.

    2007-01-01

    Some individuals with Chagas disease develop right precordial lead ST segment elevation in response to an ajmaline challenge test, and the prevalence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) is also high in Chagas disease. Because these same electrocardiographic abnormalities occur in the Brugada syndrome, which involves genetically defective cardiac sodium channels, acquired damage to cardiac sodium channels may also occur in Chagas disease. We studied several conventional and advanced resting 12-lead/derived Frank-lead ECG parameters in 34 patients with Chagas -related heart disease (mean age 39 14 years) and in 34 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. All ECG recordings were of 5-10 min duration, obtained in the supine position using high fidelity hardware/software (CardioSoft, Houston, TX). Even after excluding those Chagas patients who had resting BBBs, tachycardia and/or pathologic arrhythmia (n=8), significant differences remained in multiple conventional and advanced ECG parameters between the Chagas and control groups (n=26/group), especially in their respective QT interval variability indices, maximal spatial QRS-T angles and low frequency HRV powers (p=0.0006, p=0.0015 and p=0.0314 respectively). In relation to the issue of potential damage to cardiac sodium channels, the Chagas patients had: 1) greater than or equal to twice the incidence of resting ST segment elevation in leads V1-V3 (n=10/26 vs. n=5/26) and of both leftward (n=5/26 versus n=0/26) and rightward (n=7/26 versus n=3/26) QRS axis deviation than controls; 2) significantly increased filtered (40-250 Hz) QRS interval durations (92.1 8.5 versus 85.3 plus or minus 9.0 ms, p=0.022) versus controls; and 3) significantly decreased QT and especially JT interval durations versus controls (QT interval: 387.5 plus or minus 26.4 versus 408.9 plus or minus 34.6 ms, p=0.013; JT interval: 290.5 plus or minus 26.3 versus 314.8 plus or minus 31.3 ms; p=0.0029). Heart rates and Bazett-corrected QTc/JTc intervals were not significantly different between groups. Patients with Chagas heart disease have increased cardiac repolarization abnormalities, especially by advanced ECG. Moreover, as a group, they have decreased uncorrected JT and QT interval durations and increased filtered QRS interval durations (versus age/gender-matched controls), all suggesting a potential loss of cardiac sodium channel function that might be mediated, in part, by cardiac autonomic damage. Overall findings support Brugada et al's recent hypothesis that the pathway leading to sudden death may often be similar in Chagas' disease and Brugada syndrome i.e., damage to the sodium channel (infectious/immunologic/autonomic in Chagas' genetic in Brugada) with consequent loss of sodium currents may facilitate a phase II-reentry based arrhythmic substrate for ventricular fibrillation in both conditions. In general, JT interval-related results have been underreported in the Chagas literature.

  3. Ultrasound diagnosis of coexisting molar pregnancy following referral for abnormal serum screen.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manju; Schumacher, Vicki; Wicklund, Catherine A; Brown, Richard; Le, Duc; Mastrobattista, Joan M

    2005-01-01

    Complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a patient referred for abnormal serum screen and vaginal bleeding in the second trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasound revealed a cystic and solid mass along the posterior uterine wall with multiple hypoechoic (honeycomb) areas noted, consistent with molar degeneration of the placenta. Separate from this mass was a coexisting viable fetus with normal fetal anatomy and distinct anterior placenta. At delivery, a large cystic mass of placental tissue appeared to be implanted separately from a normal-appearing fetus and placenta. The mass weighed 184 g and contained multiple 1- to 1.5-cm cysts throughout. Microscopic sections revealed hydropic chorionic villi with central cistern formation and nonpolar trophoblastic hyperplasia with atypia, compatible with complete hydatidiform mole. This case illustrates that the diagnosis of coexisting molar pregnancy after referral for abnormal serum screen should be considered, especially if maternal serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin is high and the patient has vaginal bleeding. PMID:15668845

  4. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-19

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury.

  5. Scn3b knockout mice exhibit abnormal sino-atrial and cardiac conduction properties

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, P; Brice, N; Thresher, R; Lawrence, J; Zhang, Y; Jackson, A P; Grace, A A; Huang, C L-H

    2010-01-01

    Aim In contrast to extensive reports on the roles of Nav1.5 ?-subunits, there have been few studies associating the ?-subunits with cardiac arrhythmogenesis. We investigated the sino-atrial and conduction properties in the hearts of Scn3b?/? mice. Methods The following properties were compared in the hearts of wild-type (WT) and Scn3b?/? mice: (1) mRNA expression levels of Scn3b, Scn1b and Scn5a in atrial tissue. (2) Expression of the ?3 protein in isolated cardiac myocytes. (3) Electrocardiographic recordings in intact anaesthetized preparations. (4) Bipolar electrogram recordings from the atria of spontaneously beating and electrically stimulated Langendorff-perfused hearts. Results Scn3b mRNA was expressed in the atria of WT but not Scn3b?/? hearts. This was in contrast to similar expression levels of Scn1b and Scn5a mRNA. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that the ?3 protein was expressed in WT and absent in Scn3b?/? cardiac myocytes. Lead I electrocardiograms from Scn3b?/? mice showed slower heart rates, longer P wave durations and prolonged PR intervals than WT hearts. Spontaneously beating Langendorff-perfused Scn3b?/? hearts demonstrated both abnormal atrial electrophysiological properties and evidence of partial or complete dissociation of atrial and ventricular activity. Atrial burst pacing protocols induced atrial tachycardia and fibrillation in all Scn3b?/? but hardly any WT hearts. Scn3b?/? hearts also demonstrated significantly longer sinus node recovery times than WT hearts. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that a deficiency in Scn3b results in significant atrial electrophysiological and intracardiac conduction abnormalities, complementing the changes in ventricular electrophysiology reported on an earlier occasion. PMID:19796257

  6. High Sugar Intake Does Not Exacerbate Metabolic Abnormalities or Cardiac Dysfunction in Genetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Peter A.; Galvao, Tatiana F.; O’Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A.; Stanley, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective High sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing NADPH for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging via the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that high sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial [NADPH] and ROS, and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Research Methods & Procedures Six-week old TO-2 hamsters, a nonhypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a ?-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of either high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose+fructose). Results After 24 weeks, ?-sarcoglycan deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control=68.7±4.5%; TO-2 starch=46.1±3.7, p<0.05 TO-2 starch vs control; TO-2 sugar=58.0±4.2%, N.S. vs TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch=278 days, TO-2 sugar=318 days, P=0.133). Although we expected high sugar intake to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared to starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (elevated serum lipids and glucose, and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) which were unaffected by diet. High sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but [NADPH] and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. Conclusions A sugar enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in NADPH and superoxide production. PMID:22304857

  7. Abnormal left ventricular torsion and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Piya, Milan K; Shivu, Ganesh Nallur; Tahrani, Abd; Dubb, Kiran; Abozguia, Khalid; Phan, T T; Narendran, Parth; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Frenneaux, Michael; Stevens, Martin J

    2011-08-01

    Left ventricular torsion is increased and cardiac energetics are reduced in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Our aim was to determine the relationships of these abnormalities to cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in subjects with T1DM. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 subjects with T1DM free of known coronary heart disease attending an outpatient clinic. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was assessed using heart rate variability studies and the continuous wavelet transform method. Left ventricular function was determined by speckle tracking echocardiography. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stress magnetic resonance imaging were used to measure cardiac energetics and myocardial perfusion reserve index, respectively. Twenty subjects (age, 35 ± 8 years; diabetes duration, 16 ± 9 years; hemoglobin A(1c), 8.0% ± 1.1%) were recruited. Forty percent of the subjects exhibited definite or borderline CAN. Log peak radial strain was significantly increased in subjects with CAN compared with those without (1.56 ± 0.06 vs 1.43 ± 0.14, respectively; P = .011). Data were adjusted for log duration of diabetes, and log left ventricular torsion correlated (r = 0.593, P = .01) with log low-frequency to high-frequency ratio during the Valsalva maneuver. Log isovolumic relaxation time correlated significantly with log Valsalva ratio and log proportion of differences in consecutive RR intervals of normal beats greater than 50 milliseconds during deep breathing. However, CAN did not correlate with cardiac energetics or myocardial perfusion reserve index. Spectral analysis of low-frequency to high-frequency ratio power during the Valsalva maneuver is associated with altered left ventricular torsion in subjects with T1DM. Parasympathetic dysfunction is closely associated with diastolic deficits. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is not however the principal cause of impaired cardiac energetics. The role of CAN in the development of cardiomyopathy warrants further evaluation. PMID:21306747

  8. In Vivo Evaluations of a Phased Ultrasound Array for Transesophageal Cardiac Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Devina; Werner, Jacob; Park, Eun-Joo; Francischelli, David; Smith, Nadine Barrie

    2010-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias that affects over 2.2 million Americans each year. Catheter ablation, one of the effective treatments, has shown high rate of success in treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Currently, radiofrequency which is being used for catheter ablation is an invasive procedure. Measurable morbidity and significant costs and time are associated with this modality of treatment of permanent or persistent atrial fibrillation. In order to address these issues, a transesophageal ultrasound applicator for noninvasive cardiac ablation was designed, developed and evaluated. The ultrasound energy delivered by the phased array was used to create a lesion in the myocardial tissue. Various factors, simulation results of transducer arrays, current transesophageal medical devices, and throat anatomy, were considered while designing a phased ultrasound transducer that can be inserted into the esophagus. For this research, a two-dimensional sparse phased array with flat tapered elements was fabricated and evaluated in in vivo experiments. Five pigs were anesthetized; the array was passed transesophagealy and positioned over the heart. An operating frequency of 1.6 MHz and 8˜15 minutes of array operation resulted in both single and multiple lesions on atrial and ventricular myocardium. The average size of lesions was 5.1±2.1 mm in diameter and 7.8±2.5 mm in length. Experimental results indicate that the array delivered sufficient power to produce ablation at the focal point while not grossly damaging the tissue surrounding the area of interest. These results demonstrate a potential application of the ultrasound applicator for noninvasive transesophageal cardiac surgery in atrial fibrillation treatment.

  9. An Experimental Model Using Cultured Cardiac Myocytes for a Study of the Generation of Premature Ventricular Contractions Under Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    It is known that use of a contrast agents in echocardiography increases the probability of generation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). As a basic study to elucidate the mechanisms and to reduce adverse effects, the generation of PVCs was investigated using cultured cardiac myocytes instead of the intact heart in vivo. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured on a cover slip. The myocyte sample was exposed to pulsed ultrasound with microbubbles adjacent to the myocytes, and generation of PVCs was examined with ultrasound exposure at various delay times after onset of myocyte contraction. The experimental results showed that generation of PVCs had a stable threshold delay time and that PVCs were generated only when myocytes were exposed to ultrasound with delay times longer than the threshold. The results indicate that the model used in this study is useful for revealing the mechanisms by which PVCs are induced by ultrasound exposure.

  10. Ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging quantifies coronary perfusion pressure effect on cardiac compliance.

    PubMed

    Vejdani-Jahromi, Maryam; Nagle, Matt; Trahey, Gregg E; Wolf, Patrick D

    2015-02-01

    Diastolic heart failure (DHF) is a major source of cardiac related morbidity and mortality in the world today. A major contributor to, or indicator of DHF is a change in cardiac compliance. Currently, there is no accepted clinical method to evaluate the compliance of cardiac tissue in diastolic dysfunction. Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is a novel ultrasound-based elastography technique that provides a measure of tissue stiffness. Coronary perfusion pressure affects cardiac stiffness during diastole; we sought to characterize the relationship between these two parameters using the SWEI technique. In this work, we demonstrate how changes in coronary perfusion pressure are reflected in a local SWEI measurement of stiffness during diastole. Eight Langendorff perfused isolated rabbit hearts were used in this study. Coronary perfusion pressure was changed in a randomized order (0-90 mmHg range) and SWEI measurements were recorded during diastole with each change. Coronary perfusion pressure and the SWEI measurement of stiffness had a positive linear correlation with the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the slope of 0.009-0.011 m/s/mmHg ( R(2) = 0.88 ). Furthermore, shear modulus was linearly correlated to the coronary perfusion pressure with the 95% CI of this slope of 0.035-0.042 kPa/mmHg ( R(2) = 0.83). In conclusion, diastolic SWEI measurements of stiffness can be used to characterize factors affecting cardiac compliance specifically the mechanical interaction (cross-talk) between perfusion pressure in the coronary vasculature and cardiac muscle. This relationship was found to be linear over the range of pressures tested. PMID:25291788

  11. Automated estimation of fetal cardiac timing events from Doppler ultrasound signal using hybrid models.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Funamoto, Kiyoe; Sugibayashi, Rika; Endo, Miyuki; Ito, Takuya; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a new noninvasive method is proposed for automated estimation of fetal cardiac intervals from Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signal. This method is based on a novel combination of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and hybrid support vector machines-hidden Markov models (SVM/HMM). EMD was used for feature extraction by decomposing the DUS signal into different components (IMFs), one of which is linked to the cardiac valve motions, i.e. opening (o) and closing (c) of the Aortic (A) and Mitral (M) valves. The noninvasive fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) was used as a reference for the segmentation of the IMF into cardiac cycles. The hybrid SVM/HMM was then applied to identify the cardiac events, based on the amplitude and timing of the IMF peaks as well as the sequence of the events. The estimated timings were verified using pulsed doppler images. Results show that this automated method can continuously evaluate beat-to-beat valve motion timings and identify more than 91% of total events which is higher than previous methods. Moreover, the changes of the cardiac intervals were analyzed for three fetal age groups: 16-29, 30-35, and 36-41 weeks. The time intervals from Q-wave of fECG to Ac (Systolic Time Interval, STI), Ac to Mo (Isovolumic Relaxation Time, IRT), Q-wave to Ao (Preejection Period, PEP) and Ao to Ac (Ventricular Ejection Time, VET) were found to change significantly ( ) across these age groups. In particular, STI, IRT, and PEP of the fetuses with 36-41 week were significantly ( ) different from other age groups. These findings can be used as sensitive markers for evaluating the fetal cardiac performance. PMID:24144677

  12. Prevalence of pre-transplant electrocardiographic abnormalities and post-transplant cardiac events in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cardiovascular disease is thouht to be common in cirrhosis, there are no systematic investigations on the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in these patients and data on the occurrence of post-transplant cardiac events in comparison with the general population are lacking. We aimed to study the prevalence and predictors of ECG abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation and to define the risk of cardiac events post-transplant compared to the general population. Methods Cirrhotic patients undergoing first-time liver transplantation between 1999–2007 were retrospectively enrolled. ECGs at pre-transplant evaluation were reviewed using the Minnesota classification and compared to healthy controls. Standardized incidence ratios for post-transplant cardiac events were calculated. Results 234 patients with cirrhosis were included, 186 with an available ECG (36% with alcoholic and 24% with viral cirrhosis; mean follow-up 4 years). Cirrhotics had a prolonged QTc interval, a Q wave, abnormal QRS axis deviation, ST segment depression and a pathologic T wave more frequently compared to controls (p?abnormalities. Compared to the general Swedish population, patients were 14 times more likely to suffer a cardiac event post-transplant (p?cardiac events (p?abnormalities are common in cirrhosis and are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cirrhosis severity and etiology. Post-transplant cardiac events are more common than in the general population. PMID:24708568

  13. Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.

  14. Detection of abnormal cardiac activity using principal component analysis--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Greisas, Ariel; Zafrir, Zohar; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Electrogram-guided ablation has been recently developed for allowing better detection and localization of abnormal atrial activity that may be the source of arrhythmogeneity. Nevertheless, no clear indication for the benefit of using electrograms guided ablation over empirical ablation was established thus far, and there is a clear need of improving the localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic targets for ablation. In this paper, we propose a new approach for detection and localization of irregular cardiac activity during ablation procedures that is based on dimension reduction algorithms and principal component analysis (PCA). Using an 8×8 electrode array, our method produces manifolds that allow easy visualization and detection of possible arrhythmogenic ablation targets characterized by irregular conduction. We employ mathematical modeling and computer simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach for two well established arrhythmogenic sources for irregular conduction--spiral waves and patchy fibrosis. Our results show that the PCA method can differentiate between focal ectopic activity and spiral wave activity, as these two types of activity produce substantially different manifold shapes. Moreover, the technique allows the detection of spiral wave cores and their general meandering and drifting pattern. Fibrotic patches larger than 2 mm(2) could also be visualized using the PCA method, both for quiescent atrial tissue and for tissue exhibiting spiral wave activity. We envision that this method, contingent to further numerical and experimental validation studies in more complex, realistic geometrical configurations and with clinical data, can improve existing atrial ablation mapping capabilities, thus increasing success rates and optimizing arrhythmia management. PMID:25073163

  15. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  16. Breaking bad news to a pregnant woman with a fetal abnormality on ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Andrea L; Conklin, Jona

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is a common procedure performed in pregnancy. Most obstetric patients have an ultrasound between 18 and 20 weeks' gestation. While there is debate regarding the utility of this ultrasound, it has become a routine part of prenatal care. Discovery of a fetal anomaly on ultrasound is most commonly an unexpected, emotionally devastating event for pregnant women. Counseling these women about the ultrasound findings requires empathy and sensitivity. This task falls on the physicians caring for pregnant women: maternal-fetal medicine specialists, radiologists, generalist obstetricians, and family medicine physicians. Their training regarding breaking bad news is varied. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a framework to break bad news of an anomalous fetus for physicians caring for pregnant women using the SPIKES protocol. The SPIKES acronym stands for setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, empathize, summary, and strategy. PMID:25616346

  17. The Contribution and the Importance of Modern Ultrasound Techniques in the Diagnosis of Major Structural Abnormalities in the First Trimester – Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Dragusin, R.; Florea, M.; Iliescu, D.; Cotarcea, Smarandita; Tudorache, Stefania; Novac, Liliana; Cernea, N.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a series of cases where modern ultrasound (US) techniques diagnosed major structural abnormalities of the fetus in the first trimester (FT), unapparent when using the basic protocol of US investigation. In some cases, major structural abnormalities can be revealed in the FT scan solely to specialized personnel. Perhaps early screening should be confined in specialized centers, because congenital abnormalities detailed diagnostic has a huge impact in counseling the couple and also in prenatal advice of future pregnancies. PMID:24778838

  18. Spatiotemporal non-rigid image registration for 3D ultrasound cardiac motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeckx, D.; Ector, J.; Maes, F.; D'hooge, J.; Vandermeulen, D.; Voigt, J.-U.; Heidbüchel, H.; Suetens, P.

    2007-03-01

    We present a new method to evaluate 4D (3D + time) cardiac ultrasound data sets by nonrigid spatio-temporal image registration. First, a frame-to-frame registration is performed that yields a dense deformation field. The deformation field is used to calculate local spatiotemporal properties of the myocardium, such as the velocity, strain and strain rate. The field is also used to propagate particular points and surfaces, representing e.g. the endo-cardial surface over the different frames. As such, the 4D path of these point is obtained, which can be used to calculate the velocity by which the wall moves and the evolution of the local surface area over time. The wall velocity is not angle-dependent as in classical Doppler imaging, since the 4D data allows calculating the true 3D motion. Similarly, all 3D myocardium strain components can be estimated. Combined they result in local surface area or volume changes which van be color-coded as a measure of local contractability. A diagnostic method that strongly benefits from this technique is cardiac motion and deformation analysis, which is an important aid to quantify the mechanical properties of the myocardium.

  19. High-frequency ultrasound M-mode monitoring of HIFU ablation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, R. E.; Gudur, M. S. R.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, C. X.

    2012-10-01

    Effective real-time HIFU lesion detection is important for expanded use of HIFU in interventional electrophysiology (e.g., epicardial ablation of cardiac arrhythmia). The goal of this study was to investigate rapid, high-frequency M-mode ultrasound imaging for monitoring spatiotemporal changes in tissue during HIFU application. The HIFU application (4.33 MHz, 1000 Hz PRF, 50% duty cycle, 1 s exposure, 6100 W/cm2) was perpendicularly applied to porcine cardiac tissue with a high-frequency imaging system (Visualsonics Vevo 770, 55 MHz, 4.5 mm focal distance) confocally aligned. Radiofrequency (RF) M-mode data (1 kHz PRF, 4 s × 7 mm) was acquired before, during, and after HIFU treatment. Gross lesions were compared with M-mode data to correlate lesion and cavity formation. Integrated backscatter, echo-decorrelation parameters, and their cumulative extrema over time were analyzed for automatically identifying lesion width and bubble formation. Cumulative maximum integrated backscatter showed the best results for identifying the final lesion width, and a criterion based on line-to-line decorrelation was proposed for identification of transient bubble activity.

  20. Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) Imaging of Cardiac Ultrasound Data: Initial Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Goswami, Robi; Kisslo, Joseph A.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2013-01-01

    Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging is a novel beamforming technique that reduces acoustic clutter in ultrasound images. A clinical study was conducted to investigate clutter reduction and endocardial border detection in cardiac SLSC images. Individual channel echo data were acquired from the left ventricle of 14 volunteers, after informed consent and IRB approval. Paired B-mode and SLSC images were created from these data. Contrast, contrast-to-noise, and signal-to-noise ratios were measured in paired images, and these metrics were improved with SLSC imaging in most cases. Three cardiology fellows rated the visibility of endocardial segments in randomly ordered B-mode and SLSC cine loops. SLSC imaging offered 22–33% improvement (p < 0.05) in endocardial border visibility when B-mode image quality was poor (i.e. 80% or more of the endocardial segments could not be visualized by the three reviewers). The percentage of volunteers with poor-quality images was decreased from 21% to 7% with the SLSC beamformer. Results suggest that SLSC imaging has the potential to improve clinical cardiac assessments that are challenged by clutter. PMID:23932276

  1. Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Candace R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Das@xrt.upenn.edu; Litt, Harold I. [Department of Radiology-Cardiovascular Imaging Section, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ferrari, Victor [Department of Medicine-Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hwang, W.-T. [Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique.

  2. Adaptive volume rendering of cardiac 3D ultrasound images: utilizing blood pool statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åsen, Jon Petter; Steen, Erik; Kiss, Gabriel; Thorstensen, Anders; Rabben, Stein Inge

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we introduce and investigate an adaptive direct volume rendering (DVR) method for real-time visualization of cardiac 3D ultrasound. DVR is commonly used in cardiac ultrasound to visualize interfaces between tissue and blood. However, this is particularly challenging with ultrasound images due to variability of the signal within tissue as well as variability of noise signal within the blood pool. Standard DVR involves a global mapping of sample values to opacity by an opacity transfer function (OTF). While a global OTF may represent the interface correctly in one part of the image, it may result in tissue dropouts, or even artificial interfaces within the blood pool in other parts of the image. In order to increase correctness of the rendered image, the presented method utilizes blood pool statistics to do regional adjustments of the OTF. The regional adaptive OTF was compared with a global OTF in a dataset of apical recordings from 18 subjects. For each recording, three renderings from standard views (apical 4-chamber (A4C), inverted A4C (IA4C) and mitral valve (MV)) were generated for both methods, and each rendering was tuned to the best visual appearance by a physician echocardiographer. For each rendering we measured the mean absolute error (MAE) between the rendering depth buffer and a validated left ventricular segmentation. The difference d in MAE between the global and regional method was calculated and t-test results are reported with significant improvements for the regional adaptive method (dA4C = 1.5 +/- 0.3 mm, dIA4C = 2.5 +/- 0.4 mm, dMV = 1.7 +/- 0.2 mm, d.f. = 17, all p < 0.001). This improvement by the regional adaptive method was confirmed through qualitative visual assessment by an experienced physician echocardiographer who concluded that the regional adaptive method produced rendered images with fewer tissue dropouts and less spurious structures inside the blood pool in the vast majority of the renderings. The algorithm has been implemented on a GPU, running an average of 16 fps with a resolution of 512x512x100 samples (Nvidia GTX460).

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Moutinho, José Alberto; Barbosa, Lígia Silva; Torres, Daniel Gonçalves; Nunes, Sara Morgado

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology. Patients and methods The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis. Results Uterine leiomyoma (UL) was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8%) patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7%) patients. In 79 (49.1%) patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs. Conclusion UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound. PMID:24194648

  4. Intravascular Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or intravascular echocardiography is a combination of echocardiography and a procedure called cardiac catheterization . IVUS uses ... IVUS uses high-frequency sound waves (also called ultrasound) that can provide a moving picture of your ...

  5. The utility of ultrasound for the detection of fetal limb abnormalities – a 20-year single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Dicke, Jeffrey M; Piper, Samantha L; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Objective The standard obstetric ultrasound examination includes documentation of arms and legs. The purpose of this study is to review the efficacy of ultrasound for the detection of limb anomalies, the type and incidence of associated malformations and pregnancy outcomes. Method All cases of polydactyly (POD), abnormal hand position (AHP), limb reduction defects (LRD) and arthrogryposis (ART) scanned in our Unit between 1990 and 2010 were identified. Cases were categorized as isolated (ISO) or non-isolated (NISO). The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis, type and incidence of associated malformations and aneuploidy and pregnancy outcomes were determined. Results Most cases were NISO. The sensitivity of ultrasound was 19.1% for POD, 76.0% for AHP, 76.0% for LRD involving the long bones and 81.3% for ART. Cardiothoracic and facial defects were the most common accompanying malformations. The risk for aneuploidy ranged from 3.6% for POD to 47.2% for AHP. The live birth rate ranged from 85.5% for POD to 24.5% for AHP. Conclusion While imaging of the arms and legs allows detection of most cases of AHP, LRD involving the limbs and ART, a probable minimum of 20% to 25% of cases will escape prenatal diagnosis. Identification of these defects should prompt an extended anatomic survey and consideration of invasive testing for aneuploidy. © 2014 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25475832

  6. Possible structural abnormality of the brainstem in unipolar depressive illness: a transcranial ultrasound and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, J; Bastin, M; Wardlaw, J; Ebmeier, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Most empirically derived antidepressants increase monoamine levels. The nuclei of cells synthesising these monoamines are located in the brainstem, and projection tracts such as the medial forebrain bundle reach virtually all other brain areas. Two studies of unipolar depressive illness using transcranial ultrasound have reported reduced echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients. This may be consistent with disruption of white matter tracts, including the medial forebrain bundle, and it has been suggested that the effect of such disruption could be reversed by antidepressants. Objective: To replicate these findings in a group of unipolar depressed patients and controls. Methods: Fifteen unipolar depressed patients and 15 controls were studied using transcranial ultrasound imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). Results: No difference in echogenicity of the brainstem midline of unipolar depressed patients was found. A possible trend (Cohen's d = 0.39) in the direction of previous studies was found. Although the echogenicity of the brainstem midline of the control group was found to be similar to previous reports, there was no reduction in the patient group. Additionally, no structural abnormality of the brainstem was identified using DT-MRI. Conclusions: While these data do not replicate the findings of previous studies reporting a significant reduction in the echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients, the ultrasound investigation indicated that there may be a trend in this direction. Given the importance of identifying the causes of depressive illness, it is important that other groups attempt similar studies. PMID:16227541

  7. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of organs and structures inside the body. ... An ultrasound machine creates makes images so that organs in the body to be examined. The machine sends out ...

  8. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... needs to be biopsied. The doctor uses an ultrasound machine to guide the needle to the abnormal ...

  9. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby’s development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to produce a two- ... sound waves and appear dark or black. An ultrasound can supply vital information about a mother’s pregnancy ...

  10. Abnormal Cerebral Ventricular Change in Alzheimer's Disease Recorded with Cardiac Gated MRI: A Preliminary Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artiss L. Powell; Reuben S. Mezrich; Jin-zhao Wang

    1991-01-01

    We compare high-resolution cardiac gated brain magnetic resonance imaging of 19 young healthy subjects with a small group of demented subjects - mainly probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) - with varying degrees of ventricular enlargement. Computer-measured ventricular volume demonstrated cyclic ventricular size variations in all subjects. During cardiac systole, the lateral ventricles vary in size, an average

  11. Femoral arterial thrombosis after cardiac catheterization in infancy: impact of Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Knirsch, Walter; Kellenberger, Christian; Dittrich, Sven; Ewert, Peter; Lewin, Martin; Motz, Reinald; Nürnberg, Jan; Kretschmar, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    Femoral arterial thrombosis (FAT) is a nonnegligible complication after cardiac catheterization (CC) in infancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Doppler ultrasound (US) for diagnostic work-up after catheterization. We compared standard follow-up (FU) without Doppler US by relying on clinical signs of FAT with advanced FU using Doppler US of the femoral vessels. Between January and December 2009, we evaluated the rate of FAT in infants <12 months of age using a multicenter, prospective observational survey. We analysed 171 patients [mean age 4.1 ± 3.3 (SD) months; mean body weight 5.3 ± 1.8 kg] from 6 participating centres. The mean duration of catheter studies was 57.7 ± 38.0 min. The overall rate of FAT based on clinical diagnosis was 4.7% and was comparable in both groups [3.4% undergoing standard FU vs. 7.4% undergoing advanced FU (p = 0.15)]. However, the overall rate of thrombosis as screened by Doppler US was greater at 7.1 %, especially in patients after advanced FU [18.5% advanced vs. standard FU 1.7% (p < 0.01)]. In conclusion, FAT remains a relevant and underestimated complication after catheterization in young infants when relying only on clinical signs of FAT. Therefore, to start effective treatment as soon as possible, we recommend Doppler US to be performed the day after CC. PMID:22961345

  12. Ultrasound

    Cancer.gov

    Ultrasound uses sound waves with frequencies above those humans can hear. A transducer sends sound waves traveling into the body which are reflected back from organs and tissues, allowing a picture to be made of the internal organs. Ultrasound can show

  13. Electrophysiologic testing in patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death. I. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and abnormal ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Spielman, S R; Greenspan, A M; Kay, H R; Discigil, K F; Webb, C R; Sokoloff, N M; Rae, A P; Morganroth, J; Horowitz, L N

    1985-07-01

    Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, although usually asymptomatic, is associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with depressed left ventricular function. To test the vulnerability of such patients to symptomatic and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, complete electrophysiologic studies were performed in 58 patients with clinically documented nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (greater than or equal to three complexes but less than 15 seconds of self-terminating ventricular tachycardia by 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic [Holter] or telemetric monitoring) and abnormal left ventricular function (ejection fraction less than 50% by radionuclide angiography). All patients had nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in the absence of antiarrhythmic drugs, acute ischemia, long QT syndrome, recent infarction or electrolyte abnormalities. The stimulation protocol for each patient included the introduction of single, double and triple ventricular extrastimuli at three cycle lengths (sinus, 600 and 450 ms) and two right ventricular sites (apex and outflow tract). A sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia was induced in 23 patients (40%) and a nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 14 patients (24%). Induction of sustained tachycardia correlated with the presence of akinesia or aneurysm, or both, by radionuclide angiography, but not with ejection fraction or presence or absence of coronary artery disease. These results indicate that: 1) patients with clinical nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and chronic left ventricular dysfunction have a high incidence of inducible sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation; and 2) electrophysiologic testing may allow further substratification of risk of sudden cardiac death in high risk patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. PMID:4008786

  14. FREQUENCY OF SCROTAL ABNORMALITIES DETECTED BY ULTRASOUND IN INFERTILE MEN AT KING HUSSEIN MEDICAL CENTER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Y. Malkawi; Hussein S. Qublan; Michel E. Kakish; Sami A. Abu-Khait

    Objective: To determine the frequency of ultrasonographically detected intra-and extra-testicular abnormalities and the significance of oligospermia and azoospermia in men compared with that in normospermic controls. Methods: One hundred fifty six infertile men (117 oligospermia, sperm count <10x 10 6 \\/ml, and 39 azoospermia, study group) aged 23-52 years (mean + SD, 27+7.3), and 100 control group aged 24-56 years

  15. Reversibility of cardiac wall-motion abnormalities predicted by positron tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tillisch; R. Brunken; R. Marshall; M. Schwaiger; M. Mandelkern; M. Phelps; H. Schelbert

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used with nitrogen-13-ammonia (13NH3) to estimate regional myocardial blood flow, and with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (18FDG) to measure exogenous glucose uptake by the myocardium. We used PET to predict whether preoperative abnormalities in left ventricular wall motion in 17 patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass surgery were reversible. The abnormalities were quantified by radionuclide or contrast angiography

  16. Cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormality in taurine transporter-knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ito; Shohei Oishi; Mika Takai; Yasushi Kimura; Yoriko Uozumi; Yasushi Fujio; Stephen W Schaffer; Junichi Azuma

    2010-01-01

    Taurine, a sulfur-containing ?-amino acid, is highly contained in heart and skeletal muscle. Taurine has a variety of biological actions, such as ion movement, calcium handling and cytoprotection in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, taurine deficiency leads various pathologies, including dilated cardiomyopathy, in cat and fox. However, the essential role of taurine depletion on pathogenesis has not been fully

  17. Ultrasound diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal genito-urinary abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kurjak, A; Latin, V; Mandruzzato, G; D'Addario, V; Rajhvajn, B

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 50% of fetal abdominal masses originate in the urinary system and those recognizable ultrasonically include renal dysplasia, renal agenesis and obstruction of the lower excretory channels. Fetal renal anomalies may be discovered co-incidentally during the course of sonographic evaluation of uterine size-dates discrepancy, because they are commonly associated with fetal growth retardation and/or oligohydramnios, or during a planned sonographic follow-up of pregnancies in patients who are at risk of recurrence of such anomalies. The sonographic demonstration of renal anomalies under these circumstances may allow for elective termination of pregnancy, may modify the obstetric management and/or facilitate pediatric and surgical care of the newborn. In the collaboration study at three ultrasonic centers there were 81 cases of genito-urinary tract anomalies detected antenatally in a five years period. Among the detected anomalies there were 30 hydronephrotic fetuses, 12 with multicystic disease, 15 with Potter's syndrome, 10 with polycystic kidney, 9 with Prune Belly syndrome, 4 with isolated renal cysts and 1 with an ovarian cyst. Perinatal management of the fetus with urinary tract abnormalities greatly depends on the accuracy of the diagnosis. It would be justifiable to suggest that an inexperienced observer should not make the final diagnosis. He could be of great help, if one kept a high index of suspicion in patients with a significant family history of oligohydramnios and of unexplained abnormal cystic structures in the fetal abdomen and seek the help of a special referral center where experience in related cases is concentrated. Once an accurate diagnosis is made, various alternatives are open to the obstetrician. This is primarily dependent upon the type and degree of the abnormality. Unilateral multicystic kidney and hydronephrosis due to obstruction above the level of the urethra appear to be compatible with extrauterine life and should be approached accordingly. If there is massive enlargement of the fetal abdomen, elective cesarean delivery should be considered to prevent the dystocia which may occur with vaginal delivery and to prevent further damage of these vital organs. If bilateral renal agenesis, bilateral multicystic kidneys, or bilateral infantile polycystic kidneys are demonstrated early in gestation, the obstetrician and parents may choose to terminate the pregnancy because these conditions are not compatible with extrauterine life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6398358

  18. Abnormal Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve After Coronary Intervention Is Associated With Cardiac Marker Elevation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joerg Herrmann; Michael Haude; Amir Lerman; Rainer Schulz; Lothar Volbracht; Junbo Ge; Axel Schmermund; Heinrich Wieneke; Clemens von Birgelen; Holger Eggebrecht; Dietrich Baumgart; Gerd Heusch; Raimund Erbel

    Background—Residual reduction of relative coronary flow velocity reserve (rCVR) after successful coronary intervention has been related to microvascular impairment. However, the incidence of cardiac enzyme elevation as a surrogate marker of an underlying embolic myocardial injury in these cases has not been studied. Methods and Results—A series of 55 consecutive patients with successful coronary stenting, periprocedural intracoronary Doppler analysis, and

  19. The Role of RBM25/LUC7L3 in Abnormal Cardiac Sodium Channel Splicing Regulation in Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Xie, An; Huang, Shu-Ching; Zhou, Anyu; Zhang, Jianhua; Herman, Amanda M.; Ghassemzadeh, Sassan; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Kasturirangan, Srinivasan; Raicu, Mihai; Sobieski, Michael A.; Bhat, Geetha; Tatooles, Antone; Benz, Edward J.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channel current (encoded by SCN5A), and the changes have been implicated in the increased risk of sudden death in HF. Nevertheless, the mechanism of SCN5A downregulation is unclear. A number of human diseases are associated with alternative mRNA splicing, which has received comparatively little attention in the study of cardiac disease. Splicing factor expression profiles during human HF and a specific splicing pathway for SCN5A regulation were explored in this paper. Methods and Results Gene array comparisons between normal human and heart failure tissues demonstrated that 17 splicing factors, associated with all major spliceosome components, were upregulated. Two of these splicing factors, RBM25 and LUC7L3, were elevated in human heart failure tissue and mediated truncation of SCN5A mRNA in both Jurkat cells and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). RBM25/LUC7L3-mediated abnormal SCN5A mRNA splicing reduced Na+ channel current 91.1 ± 9.3% to a range known to cause sudden death. Overexpression of either splicing factor resulted in an increase in truncated mRNA and a concomitant decrease in the full-length SCN5A transcript. Conclusions Of the 17 mRNA splicing factors upregulated in HF, RBM25 and LUC7L3 were sufficient to explain the increase in truncated forms and the reduction in full length Na+ channel transcript. Since the reduction in channels was in the range known to be associated with sudden death, interruption of this abnormal mRNA processing may reduce arrhythmic risk in heart failure. PMID:21859973

  20. Heart rate, conduction and ultrasound abnormalities in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Colotto, Marco; Amato, Silvia; Colella, Alessandra; Curione, Mario; Danese, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associating with pain, fatigue and other secondary aspects. Though not considered a diagnostic criterion for most EDS subtypes, cardiovascular involvement is a well-known complication in EDS. A case-control study was carried out on 28 adults with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosed according to current criteria, compared to 29 healthy subjects evaluating resting electrocardiographic (ECG), 24-h ECG and resting heart ultrasound data. Results obtained in the ECG studies showed a moderate excess in duration of the PR interval and P wave, an excess of heart conduction and rate abnormalities and an increased rate of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency often complicating with "true" mitral valve prolapse in the ecocardiographic study. These variable ECG subclinical anomalies reported in our sample may represent the resting surrogate of such a subnormal cardiovascular response to postural changes that are known to be present in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings indicate the usefulness of a full cardiologic evaluation of adults with JHS/EDS-HT for the correct management. PMID:24752348

  1. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... couldn't see my baby at my 7 week ultrasound. Why? At the 7th week of pregnancy, your baby is about ½ an ... 1 in 120 pregnancies at 15 to 20 weeks gestation. Most disappear during pregnancy or within several ...

  2. Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

  3. Prenatal Cardiac Ultrasound Finding in Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type 1a

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Malhotra; A. Pateman; R. Chalmers; D. Coman; S. Menahem

    2009-01-01

    We present the antenatal cardiac findings in an infant in whom a postnatal diagnosis of congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) was confirmed. The antenatal findings at 34 weeks’ gestation included biventricular cardiac hypertrophy with pericardial effusion, multiple skeletal anomalies and cerebral ventricular dilatation. A severe CDG-Ia multisystem clinical phenotype evolved in the postnatal period, with the infant succumbing

  4. Differences in cardiac autonomic function contributes to heart rate abnormalities in POTS and IST.

    PubMed

    Corkal, James C; Palamarchuk, Iryna; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to examine the differences in cardiac autonomic function in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) versus inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST). Subjects (IST, n = 8; POTS, n = 12) were studied using standard measurements of the autonomic reflex screen, baroreflex function and spectral analysis. Data was compared to age/gender-matched controls (n = 20). The components of the autonomic reflex screen did not differ between groups. The exception was the significant but expected difference in postural heart rate increment on head-up tilt in POTS (47.9 ± 13.8; n = 12) compared to IST (30.9 ± 9.7; n = 8; p = 0.008). Accordingly the Orthostatic Intolerance Scale showed significantly greater orthostatic symptoms in POTS (2.6 ± 0.5; n = 12) versus IST patients (0.4 ± 0.5; n = 8; p < 0.001). Conversely, IST patients had a significantly higher resting heart rate (96 ± 12; n = 8) when compared to POTS patients (73 ± 12; n = 12; p = 0.001). There was a significant difference in vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRSv) in POTS (8.21 ± 2.3, n = 12) compared to IST patients (5.30 ± 2.94, n = 8, p = 0.036) during the Valsalva maneuver. Only POTS subjects showed a significant increase in sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) with tilt (FFT, 8.29 ± 6.38; AR, 7.84 ± 5.24) compared to the supine position (FFT, 2.25 ± 1.75; AR, 1.99 ± 1.38; p < 0.05) for both frequency domains. Differences in cardiac autonomic function contribute to changes in positional and non-positional heart rate in postural tachycardia syndrome versus inappropriate sinus tachycardia. These findings shed further light on the autonomic dysfunction underlying POTS and IST. PMID:25277318

  5. Ultrasound calibration using intensity-based image registration: for application in cardiac catheterization procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. L.; Rhode, K. S.; Gao, G.; King, A. P.; Chinchapatnam, P.; Schaeffter, T.; Hawkes, D. J.; Razavi, R.; Penney, G. P.

    2008-03-01

    We present a novel method to calibrate a 3D ultrasound probe which has a 2D transducer array. By optically tracking a calibrated 3D probe we are able to produce extended field of view 3D ultrasound images. Tracking also enables us to register our ultrasound images to other tracked and calibrated surgical instruments or to other tracked and calibrated imaging devices. Our method applies rigid intensity-based image registration to three or more ultrasound images. These images can either be of a simple phantom, or could potentially be images of the patient. In this latter case we would have an automated calibration system which required no phantom, no image segmentation and was optimized to the patient's ultrasound characteristics i.e. speed of sound. We have carried out experiments using a simple calibration phantom and with ultrasound images of a volunteer's liver. Results are compared to an independent gold-standard. These showed our method to be accurate to 1.43mm using the phantom images and 1.56mm using the liver data, which is slightly better than the traditional point-based calibration method (1.7mm in our experiments).

  6. Endurance exercise training normalizes repolarization and calcium-handling abnormalities, preventing ventricular fibrillation in a model of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Belevych, Andriy E.; Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; He, Quanhua; Kukielka, Monica; Terentyev, Dmitry; Terentyeva, Radmila; Liu, Bin; Long, Victor P.; Györke, Sandor; Billman, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sudden cardiac death is increased following myocardial infarction. Exercise training reduces arrhythmia susceptibility, but the mechanism is unknown. We used a canine model of sudden cardiac death (healed infarction, with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by an exercise plus ischemia test, VF+); we previously reported that endurance exercise training was antiarrhythmic in this model (Billman GE. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297: H1171–H1193, 2009). A total of 41 VF+ animals were studied, after random assignment to 10 wk of endurance exercise training (EET; n = 21) or a matched sedentary period (n = 20). Following (>1 wk) the final attempted arrhythmia induction, isolated myocytes were used to test the hypotheses that the endurance exercise-induced antiarrhythmic effects resulted from normalization of cellular electrophysiology and/or normalization of calcium handling. EET prevented VF and shortened in vivo repolarization (P < 0.05). EET normalized action potential duration and variability compared with the sedentary group. EET resulted in a further decrement in transient outward current compared with the sedentary VF+ group (P < 0.05). Sedentary VF+ dogs had a significant reduction in repolarizing K+ current, which was restored by exercise training (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, myocytes from the sedentary VF+ group displayed calcium alternans, increased calcium spark frequency, and increased phosphorylation of S2814 on ryanodine receptor 2. These abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling were attenuated by exercise training (P < 0.05). Exercise training prevented ischemically induced VF, in association with a combination of beneficial effects on cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling. PMID:23042911

  7. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  8. The role of the duty factor in ultrasound-mediated cardiac stimulation

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    be used for therapeutic procedures. The biological effect depends on the occurrence of acoustic parameter frequency. A change in the heart rate was not observed following the 0.25%-DF sequence. A decrease of $4 threshold for cardiac pacing. VC 2014 Acoustical Society of America PACS numbers: 43.35.Ã?c, 43.35.Wa, 43

  9. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; de Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy. PMID:25590933

  10. Ultrasound for the Anesthesiologists: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Elbarbary, Mahmoud; Blaivas, Michael; Durieux, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a safe, portable, relatively inexpensive, and easily accessible imaging modality, making it a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool in medicine. Anesthesiologists encounter a variety of emergent situations and may benefit from the application of such a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in their routine practice. This paper reviews current and potential applications of ultrasound in anesthesiology in order to encourage anesthesiologists to learn and use this useful tool as an adjunct to physical examination. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and vascular access represent the most popular ultrasound applications in anesthesiology. Ultrasound has recently started to substitute for CT scans and fluoroscopy in many pain treatment procedures. Although the application of airway ultrasound is still limited, it has a promising future. Lung ultrasound is a well-established field in point-of-care medicine, and it could have a great impact if utilized in our ORs, as it may help in rapid and accurate diagnosis in many emergent situations. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement and transcranial color coded duplex (TCCD) are relatively new neuroimaging modalities, which assess intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Gastric ultrasound can be used for assessment of gastric content and diagnosis of full stomach. Focused transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography facilitate the assessment of left and right ventricular function, cardiac valve abnormalities, and volume status as well as guiding cardiac resuscitation. Thus, there are multiple potential areas where ultrasound can play a significant role in guiding otherwise blind and invasive interventions, diagnosing critical conditions, and assessing for possible anatomic variations that may lead to plan modification. We suggest that ultrasound training should be part of any anesthesiology training program curriculum. PMID:24348179

  11. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia direcionada como complemento diagnóstico ao exame físico em um serviço terciário de emergências clínicas. Métodos: Foram incluídos cem pacientes adultos sem doenças cardíacas ou pulmonares conhecidas que procuraram atendimento de urgência com queixas cardiológicas. Foram excluídos pacientes com alterações isquêmicas no eletrocardiograma ou febre. A ecocardiografia direcionada foi realizada logo após a avaliação inicial do paciente na sala de emergência, com aparelho ultraportátil GE Vscan, avaliando subjetivamente: dimensões das cavidades, função sistólica ventricular, fluxos intracardíacos pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores, pericárdio e aorta. Resultados: A idade média dos pacientes foi 61 ± 17 anos. O quadro clínico inicial foi dor torácica (52 pacientes), dispneia (32 pacientes), arritmia/avaliação da função ventricular (dez pacientes), hipotensão/tontura (cinco pacientes) e edema periférico (um paciente). Em 28 pacientes a ecocardiografia direcionada confirmou a hipótese diagnóstica inicial: 19 pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca, cinco com síndrome coronariana aguda, dois com tromboembolismo pulmonar e dois com tamponamento cardíaco. Em 17 pacientes, a ecocardiografia direcionada alterou o diagnóstico, afastando a hipótese clínica inicial em dez casos com suspeita de insuficiência cardíaca, dois com suspeita de tromboembolismo pulmonar, dois com hipotensão a esclarecer, e em cada um dos três restantes com suspeitas de síndrome coronariana aguda, tamponamento cardíaco e dissecção de aorta. Conclusão: A ecocardiografia direcionada ultraportátil em serviço de emergências clínicas pode definir rapidamente o diagnóstico e, com isso, é possível iniciar mais precocemente o tratamento adequado. PMID:25352461

  12. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    PubMed

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P < 0.0001), pictorial question scores (+22.9 ±18.0%, 19.7 ±19.3%, P < 0.001) and non-pictorial question scores (+16.7 ±18.2%, +13 ±15.4%, P = 0.002). The ultrasound simulator appears equivalent to human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. PMID:24706544

  13. [Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis in congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and efferent urinary tract from the pediatric nephrology viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Lettgen, B; Meyer-Schwickerath, M; Bedow, W

    1994-04-01

    Antenatal foetal abnormalities are found in 0.5% of all pregnancies. 30-50% of these abnormalities are related to the urinary tract. Although congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract can be detected as early as in the 15th-18th weeks of gestation, most abnormalities are detected between the 28th-30th weeks of gestation. At this time irreversible damage of the kidneys has taken place and the foetus will not benefit from antenatal therapy. On the other hand, a foetus with late onset of obstruction will benefit from antenatal intervention. Repeated ultrasonography is crucial for initiating further invasive diagnostic procedures, antenatal therapy and for planning the time of labour. There is a great risk of overdiagnosis and inadequate therapy because 25% of all antenatally diagnosed dilatations of the urinary tract could not be confirmed postnatally. PMID:8023123

  14. Detection and display of acoustic window for guiding and training cardiac ultrasound users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Radulescu, Emil; Wang, Shougang; Thiele, Karl; Prater, David; Maxwell, Douglas; Rafter, Patrick; Dupuy, Clement; Drysdale, Jeremy; Erkamp, Ramon

    2014-03-01

    Successful ultrasound data collection strongly relies on the skills of the operator. Among different scans, echocardiography is especially challenging as the heart is surrounded by ribs and lung tissue. Less experienced users might acquire compromised images because of suboptimal hand-eye coordination and less awareness of artifacts. Clearly, there is a need for a tool that can guide and train less experienced users to position the probe optimally. We propose to help users with hand-eye coordination by displaying lines overlaid on B-mode images. The lines indicate the edges of blockages (e.g., ribs) and are updated in real time according to movement of the probe relative to the blockages. They provide information about how probe positioning can be improved. To distinguish between blockage and acoustic window, we use coherence, an indicator of channel data similarity after applying focusing delays. Specialized beamforming was developed to estimate coherence. Image processing is applied to coherence maps to detect unblocked beams and the angle of the lines for display. We built a demonstrator based on a Philips iE33 scanner, from which beamsummed RF data and video output are transferred to a workstation for processing. The detected lines are overlaid on B-mode images and fed back to the scanner display to provide users real-time guidance. Using such information in addition to B-mode images, users will be able to quickly find a suitable acoustic window for optimal image quality, and improve their skill.

  15. Registration of 2D cardiac images to real-time 3D ultrasound volumes for 3D stress echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. Y. Esther; van Stralen, Marijn; Voormolen, Marco M.; van Burken, Gerard; Nemes, Attila; ten Cate, Folkert J.; Geleijnse, Marcel L.; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Bosch, Johan G.

    2006-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stress echocardiography is a novel technique for diagnosing cardiac dysfunction, by comparing wall motion of the left ventricle under different stages of stress. For quantitative comparison of this motion, it is essential to register the ultrasound data. We propose an intensity based rigid registration method to retrieve two-dimensional (2D) four-chamber (4C), two-chamber, and short-axis planes from the 3D data set acquired in the stress stage, using manually selected 2D planes in the rest stage as reference. The algorithm uses the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization to find the optimal transformation of one uniform scaling, three rotation, and three translation parameters. We compared registration using the SAD, SSD, and NCC metrics, performed on four resolution levels of a Gaussian pyramid. The registration's effectiveness was assessed by comparing the 3D positions of the registered apex and mitral valve midpoints and 4C direction with the manually selected results. The registration was tested on data from 20 patients. Best results were found using the NCC metric on data downsampled with factor two: mean registration errors were 8.1mm, 5.4mm, and 8.0° in the apex position, mitral valve position, and 4C direction respectively. The errors were close to the interobserver (7.1mm, 3.8mm, 7.4°) and intraobserver variability (5.2mm, 3.3mm, 7.0°), and better than the error before registration (9.4mm, 9.0mm, 9.9°). We demonstrated that the registration algorithm visually and quantitatively improves the alignment of rest and stress data sets, performing similar to manual alignment. This will improve automated analysis in 3D stress echocardiography.

  16. Direct ultrasound application had no effect on cardiac hemodynamic performance in a baseline isolated rat heart model.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S; Finkelstein, A; Raisman, E; Shapira, I; Koronowski, R; Laniado, S; Keren, G

    2000-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) has been used for more than 3 decades to promote tissue healing in cases of tissue injury and muscle soreness. It was previously suggested that US may have vasorelaxatory and inotropic properties. However, the direct effect of therapeutic US in a whole heart model has not yet been investigated. Our hypothesis was that application of US might enhance cardiac function. The Langendorf model was modified in a special manner to allow application of US to the heart. Using this model, 20 male rats were equally divided into two groups. Group 1: the hearts were perfused for 15 min, to obtain baseline measurements, and then they were perfused for another 15 min in a special bath full of perfusate. Group 2: after 15 min of baseline measurements, continuous US of 1 MHz 2 W/cm(2) was applied for another 15 min. The parameters that were measured at 5-min intervals were: left ventricular pressure P(max), first derivative of the rise and fall in left ventricular pressure (dP/dt(max), dP/dt(min)), and pressure-time integral. There was no significant difference between the two groups in all parameters at baseline and during US application. P(max) and dP/dt(max) remained constant. After 15 min of US propagation, P(max) was 98% +/- 3 from baseline level vs. 98% +/- 7 in the control group, and dP/dt(max) was 98% +/- 3 vs. 99% +/- 9 in the control. In dP/dt(min), a gradual decline after 15 min of perfusion was measured. In the US- treated group, it declined to 80% +/- 10 vs. 83% +/- 5 in the controls. In conclusion, US radiation at the dose specified does not improve healthy isolated heart hemodynamic performance. We established a model that may be used for further investigation. PMID:10722921

  17. Anthropometry, physical performance, and ultrasound patellar tendon abnormality in elite junior basketball players: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J L Cook; Z S Kiss; K M Khan; C R Purdam; K E Webster

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Patellar tendinopathy has been reported to be associated with many intrinsic risk factors. Few have been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study examined the anthropometric and physical performance results of elite junior basketball players with normal or abnormal patellar tendons to see if any measures were associated with changes in tendon morphology.Methods: Agility, leg strength, endurance, and flexibility were measured

  18. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  19. Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Duncan, Michael; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Alferova, Irina V.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this joint U.S. - Russian project was the development and validation of an in-flight methodology to assess a number of cardiac and vascular parameters associated with circulating volume and its manipulation in long-duration space flight. Responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (US) before, during, and after temporary volume reduction by means of Braslet-M thigh occlusion cuffs (Russia). Materials and Methods: The study protocol was conducted in 14 sessions on 9 ISS crewmembers, with an average exposure to microgravity of 122 days. Baseline cardiovascular measurements were taken by echocardiography in multiple modes (including tissue Doppler of both ventricles) and femoral and jugular vein imaging on the International Space Station (ISS). The Braslet devices were then applied and measurements were repeated after >10 minutes. The cuffs were then released and the hemodynamic recovery process was monitored. Modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were used throughout the protocol. All US data were acquired by the HDI-5000 ultrasound system aboard the ISS (ATL/Philips, USA) during remotely guided sessions. The study protocol, including the use of Braslet-M for this purpose, was approved by the ISS Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB). Results: The effects of fluid sequestration on a number of echocardiographic and vascular parameters were readily detectable by in-flight US, as were responses to respiratory maneuvers. The overall volume status assessment methodology appears to be valid and practical, with a decrease in left heart lateral E (tissue Doppler) as one of the most reliable measures. Increase in the femoral vein cross-sectional areas was consistently observed with Braslet application. Other significant differences and trends within the extensive cardiovascular data were also observed. (Decreased - RV and LV preload indices, Cardiac Output, LV E all maneuvers, LV Stroke Volume). Conclusions: This Study: 1) Addressed specific aspects of operational space medicine and space physiology, including assessment of circulating volume disturbances 2) Expanded the applications of diagnostic ultrasound imaging and Doppler techniques in microgravity. 3) Used respiratory maneuvers against the background of acute circulating volume manipulations which appear to enhance our ability to noninvasively detect volume-dependency in a number of cardiac and vascular parameters. 4) Determined that Tei index is not clinically changed therefore contractility not altered in the face of reduced preload. 5) Determined that increased Femoral Vein Area indicating blood being sequestered in lower extremities correlates with reduced preload and cardiac output. 6) That Braslet may be the only feasible means of acutely treating high pressure pulmonary edema in reduced gravity environments.

  20. Abnormal splicing in the N?terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T impairs systolic function of the heart with preserved Frank?Starling compensation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Han?Zhong; Chen, Guozhen; Nan, Changlong; Huang, Xupei; Jin, Jian?Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Abnormal splice?out of the exon 7?encoded segment in the N?terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T (cTnT??E7) was found in turkeys and, together with the inclusion of embryonic exon (eTnT), in adult dogs with a correlation with dilated cardiomyopathy. Overexpression of these cTnT variants in transgenic mouse hearts significantly decreased cardiac function. To further investigate the functional effect of cTnT??E7 or ?E7+eTnT in vivo under systemic regulation, echocardiography was carried out in single and double?transgenic mice. No atrial enlargement, ventricular hypertrophy or dilation was detected in the hearts of 2?month?old cTnT??E7 and ?E7+eTnT mice in comparison to wild?type controls, indicating a compensated state. However, left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were decreased in ?E7 and ?E7+eTnT mice, and the response to isoproterenol was lower in ?E7+eTnT mice. Left ventricular outflow tract velocity and gradient were decreased in the transgenic mouse hearts, indicating decreased systolic function. Ex vivo working heart function showed that high afterload or low preload resulted in more severe decreases in the systolic function and energetic efficiency of cTnT??E7 and ?E7+eTnT hearts. On the other hand, increases in preload demonstrated preserved Frank?Starling responses and minimized the loss of cardiac function and efficiency. The data demonstrate that the N?terminal variable region of cardiac TnT regulates systolic function of the heart. PMID:25194024

  1. Design and evaluation of a transesophageal HIFU probe for ultrasound-guided cardiac ablation: simulation of a HIFU mini-maze procedure and preliminary ex vivo trials.

    PubMed

    Constanciel, Elodie; N'Djin, W Apoutou; Bessière, Francis; Chavrier, Françoise; Grinberg, Daniel; Vignot, Alexandre; Chevalier, Philippe; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2013-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. Left atrial catheter ablation is currently performed to treat this disease. Several energy sources are used, such as radio-frequency or cryotherapy. The main target of this procedure is to isolate the pulmonary veins. However, significant complications caused by the invasive procedure are described, such as stroke, tamponade, and atrioesophageal fistula, and a second intervention is often needed to avoid atrial fibrillation recurrence. For these reasons, a minimally-invasive device allowing performance of more complex treatments is still needed. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can cause deep tissue lesions without damaging intervening tissues. Left atrial ultrasound-guided transesophageal HIFU ablation could have the potential to become a new ablation technique. The goal of this study was to design and test a minimally-invasive ultrasound-guided transesophageal HIFU probe under realistic treatment conditions. First, numerical simulations were conducted to determine the probe geometry, and to validate the feasibility of performing an AF treatment using a HIFU mini-maze (HIFUMM) procedure. Then, a prototype was manufactured and characterized. The 18-mm-diameter probe head housing contained a 3-MHz spherical truncated HIFU transducer divided into 8 rings, with a 5-MHz commercial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) transducer integrated in the center. Finally, ex vivo experiments were performed to test the impact of the esophagus layer between the probe and the tissue to treat, and also the influence of the lungs and the vascularization on lesion formation. First results show that this prototype successfully created ex vivo transmural myocardial lesions under ultrasound guidance, while preserving intervening tissues (such as the esophagus). Ultrasound-guided transesophageal HIFU can be a good candidate for treatment of AF in the future. PMID:24658718

  2. Abnormal breathing of sudden cardiac arrest victims described by laypersons and its association with emergency medical service dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Hidetada; Imanishi, Masami; Iwami, Taku; Seki, Tadahiko; Kawai, Yasuyuki; Norimoto, Kazunobu; Urisono, Yasuyuki; Hata, Michiaki; Nishio, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Kurumatani, Norio; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasise that emergency medical service (EMS) dispatchers should identify sudden cardiac arrest (CA) with abnormal breathing and assist lay rescuers performing CPR. However, lay rescuers description of abnormal breathing may be inconsistent, and it is unclear how EMS dispatchers provide instruction for CPR based on the breathing status of the CA victims described by laypersons. Methods and results To investigate the incidence of abnormal breathing and the association between the EMS dispatcher-assisted CPR instruction and layperson CPR, we retrospectively analysed 283 witnessed CA cases whose information regarding breathing status of CA victims was available from population-based prospective cohort data. In 169 cases (59.7%), laypersons described that the CA victims were breathing in various ways, and that the victims were ‘not breathing’ in 114 cases (40.3%). Victims described as breathing in various ways were provided EMS dispatch-instruction for CPR less frequently than victims described as ‘not breathing’ (27.8% (47/169) vs 84.2% (96/114); p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that EMS dispatch-instruction for CPR was associated significantly with layperson CPR (adjusted OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 5.72 to 21.2). Conclusions This population-based study indicates that 60% of CA victims showed agonal respiration, which was described as breathing in various ways at the time of EMS call. Although EMS dispatch-instruction was associated significantly with an increase in layperson CPR, abnormal breathing was associated with a much lower rate of CPR instruction and, in turn, was related to a much lower rate of bystander CPR. PMID:24401986

  3. Noninvasive Assessment of Cardiac Abnormalities in Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Gangaplara, Arunakumar; Steffen, David; Othman, Shadi F.; Reddy, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only ~10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-? 334–352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-? 334–352 is shown. EAM and healthy mice were imaged using a 9.4 T (400 MHz) 89 mm vertical core bore scanner equipped with a 4 cm millipede radio-frequency imaging probe and 100 G/cm triple axis gradients. Cardiac images were acquired from anesthetized animals using a gradient-echo-based cine pulse sequence, and the animals were monitored by respiration and pulse oximetry. The analysis revealed an increase in the thickness of the ventricular wall in EAM mice, with a corresponding decrease in the interior diameter of ventricles, when compared with healthy mice. The data suggest that morphological and functional changes in the inflamed hearts can be non-invasively monitored by MRM in live animals. In conclusion, MRM offers an advantage of assessing the progression and regression of myocardial injuries in diseases caused by infectious agents, as well as response to therapies. PMID:24998332

  4. Echocardiography in cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Falk, Rodney H; Quarta, C Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Echocardiography is the most widely used noninvasive test in patients with heart failure or abnormal cardiac findings on examination. Patients with amyloidosis may have significant cardiac abnormalities, several of which are highly suggestive of the disease. This article reviews echocardiographic features found in cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:25597027

  5. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  6. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  7. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... A duplex ultrasound combines traditional ultrasound with Doppler ultrasound . Traditional ultrasound uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create ...

  8. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury. PMID:25451170

  9. Mesenteric lymph from rats with trauma-hemorrhagic shock causes abnormal cardiac myocyte function and induces myocardial contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sambol, Justin T; Lee, Marlon A; Jiang, Mingshan; Dosi, Garima; Dong, Wei; Deitch, Edwin A; Yatani, Atsuko

    2011-09-01

    Myocardial contractile dysfunction develops following trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS). We have previously shown that, in a rat fixed pressure model of T/HS (mean arterial pressure of 30-35 mmHg for 90 min), mesenteric lymph duct ligation before T/HS prevented T/HS-induced myocardial contractile depression. To determine whether T/HS lymph directly alters myocardial contractility, we examined the functional effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of mesenteric lymph collected from rats undergoing trauma-sham shock (T/SS) or T/HS on both isolated cardiac myocytes and Langendorff-perfused whole hearts. Acute application of T/HS lymph (0.1-2%), but not T/SS lymph, induced dual inotropic effects on myocytes with an immediate increase in the amplitude of cell shortening (1.4 ± 0.1-fold) followed by a complete block of contraction. Similarly, T/HS lymph caused dual, positive and negative effects on cellular Ca²? transients. These effects were associated with changes in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes; T/HS lymph initially prolonged the action potential duration (action potential duration at 90% repolarization, 3.3 ± 0.4-fold), and this was followed by a decrease in the plateau potential and membrane depolarization. Furthermore, intravenous infusion of T/HS lymph, but not T/SS lymph, caused myocardial contractile dysfunction at 24 h after injection, which mimicked actual T/HS-induced changes; left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP rise and fall (±dP/dt(max)) were decreased and inotropic response to Ca²? was blunted. However, the contractile responsiveness to ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the T/HS lymph-infused hearts remained unchanged. These results suggest that T/HS lymph directly causes negative inotropic effects on the myocardium and that T/HS lymph-induced changes in myocyte function are likely to contribute to the development of T/HS-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:21700891

  10. Abnormalities in Cardiac Structure and Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease are not Associated with Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Perry, Jessica E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Waggoner, Alan D.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Blinder, Morey A.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; Field, Joshua J.

    2011-01-01

    Background In sickle cell disease (SCD), pulmonary hypertension (assessed by tricuspid regurgitant jet [TRJ] velocity ? 2.5 m/s) is associated with increased mortality. The relationships between TRJ velocity, left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) have not been well characterized in SCD. Design and Methods Prospective study of 53 ambulatory SCD adults (age, mean: 34 years; range 21-65 years) and 33 African American controls to define the relationship between LV and RV function and TRJ velocity by use of echocardiography. Results SCD subjects had larger left and right atrial volumes and increased LV mass compared to controls. When SCD cases were compared to controls, LV and RV relaxation (i.e., E’) were similar. Among SCD subjects, pulmonary hypertension (TRJ ? 2.5 m/s) was present in 40% of cases. Higher TRJ velocity was correlated with larger LA volumes and areas in SCD cases. Additionally, some measures of LV (peak A, lateral and septal annulus E/E’) and RV compliance (TV E/E’) were correlated with TRJ velocity. No other measures of LV/RV systolic function or LV diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) were associated with TRJ velocity. Conclusions Ambulatory adults with SCD exhibited structural (i.e., LV and RV chamber enlargement) and functional (i.e., higher surrogate measures of LV and RV filling pressure) abnormalities compared to the control group. In SCD subjects, few abnormalities of LV and RV structure/function were associated with TRJ velocity. PMID:21873028

  11. Efficacy of flecainide, sotalol, and verapamil in the treatment of right ventricular tachycardia in patients without overt cardiac abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jaswinder S; Mehta, Davendra; Ward, David E; Camm, A John

    1992-01-01

    Objective—A comparison of the efficacy of verapamil, sotalol, and flecainide to suppress right ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with a clinically normal heart. Design—Patients underwent treatment serially with verapamil (360 mg daily), sotalol (240 or 320 mg daily), and flecainide (200 or 300 mg daily), (the larger dose was for patients heavier than 80 kg) to suppress tachycardia. Each drug was given orally for five half lives before testing. Patients—23 patients with right VT associated with a clinically normal heart were studied. Outcome measures—The effects of drug treatment were examined by the number of ventricular events on 24 hour Holter monitoring, and the ability of tachycardia to be induced by treadmill exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and programmed ventricular stimulation (Wellens protocol), compared with drug free baseline tests. Setting—Patients were studied in a tertiary referral centre. Results—All three drugs suppressed ventricular salvos (>3, <5 consecutive ventricular premature contractions) (p < 0·01) and VT (p < 0·05) on Holter monitoring and did not differ statistically in effect. Exercise induced VT was also suppressed by all three drugs (p < 0·01), and of these sotalol was the most effective although this was not statistically significant (14/23 inducible when drug free, 4/23 on flecainide, 2/23 on sotalol, 5/23 on verapamil). Sustained and nonsustained VT induced by programmed stimulation was also suppressed by the three drugs (p < 0·01) and again sotalol was the best of these though the differences did not achieve statistical significance (17/23 inducible when drug free, 4/17 on flecainide, 2/17 on sotalol, and 6/17 on verapamil). Proarrhythmic effects of drugs were found in a few patients. There was no difference in the efficacy of the drugs in patients with histological abnormalities of the myocardium when compared with those of normal histology. Conclusions—Ventricular tachycardia associated with a clinically normal heart can be suppressed by flecainide, sotalol, or verapamil. In individual patients sotalol was the most frequently effective drug (effective in >89% of patients) and is a suitable choice for first line treatment. PMID:1449923

  12. Real-time dynamic display of registered 4D cardiac MR and ultrasound images using a GPU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Zhang; X. Huang; R. Eagleson; G. Guiraudon; T. M. Peters

    2007-01-01

    In minimally invasive image-guided surgical interventions, different imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US), can provide complementary, multi-spectral image information. Multimodality dynamic image registration is a well-established approach that permits real-time diagnostic information to be enhanced by placing lower-quality real-time images within a high quality anatomical context. For the guidance

  13. The effects of norethisterone on endometrial abnormalities identified by transvaginal ultrasound screening of healthy post-menopausal women on tamoxifen or placebo.

    PubMed Central

    Powles, T. J.; Bourne, T.; Athanasiou, S.; Chang, J.; Gruböck, K.; Ashley, S.; Oakes, L.; Tidy, A.; Davey, J.; Viggers, J.; Humphries, S.; Collins, W.

    1998-01-01

    Tamoxifen (tam) is used extensively for treatment of patients with breast cancer and is being evaluated for chemoprevention in healthy women. It has, however, been reported to increase the risk of endometrial cancer in post-menopausal women, probably by an oestrogenic effect on the endometrium. It also causes endometrial cysts and polyps. The aims of this study were to identify the incidence of endometrial thickening, polyps and cysts by transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) screening of a population of post-menopausal healthy women in the Royal Marsden tamoxifen chemoprevention trial and to evaluate the possible benefit from the use of intermittent norethisterone (NE) in women with persistent changes. Since 1990, we have undertaken regular TVUS, using an endovaginal B mode probe, of the 463 post-menopausal women in the trial randomized to tam (20 mg day(-1)) or placebo (plac), without breaking the randomization code. Endometrial thickening (ET) was defined as > or = 8 mm at the widest point across the myometrial cavity in the longitudinal plane, including any stromal changes. Cystic changes were defined as more than one hypoechogenic area > 1 mm. Polyps were identified using saline hydrosonography. Oral NE (2.5 mg day(-1)) was used for 21 days out of 28 for three consecutive cycles by women with persistent endometrium > or = 8 mm, including cystic and polypoid changes. TVUS was repeated after the three courses to evaluate any change caused by NE and endometrial biopsies, including hysteroscopy, was performed on those women with persistent abnormalities. A persistent ET > or = 8 mm was identified in 56 (24%) of the 235 women on tamoxifen compared with only 5 (2%) of 228 women on placebo (P <0.0005). Stromal changes, including cysts, were detected in 36 (15%) and polyps in 26 (11%) of the women on tamoxifen compared with only two (< 1%) of the women on placebo (P << 0.0005). After 3 months of cyclical norethisterone, 39 of 47 women (83%) on tamoxifen had persistent ultrasound changes. However, 45 (96%) had a progesterone withdrawal bleed. Hysteroscopy was performed in 39 women on tamoxifen (28 endometrial biopsy, 15 polypectomy), five of whom had histological evidence of a proliferative endometrium and a further three had an atypical hyperplastic endometrium (one of whom had a focus of invasive carcinoma). The cysts and polyps which were detected in women on tam could not be reversed by NE and were presumably stromal and not of malignant risk. However, 96% of the women had withdrawal NE bleeding, indicating an oestrogenically primed endometrium which could be a mechanism for an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to ascertain whether a progestin would protect against this risk. As in other studies, these results indicate that any increased risk of endometrial cancer caused by tamoxifen is low, and that TVUS screening is probably not justified for asymptomatic women on tamoxifen. PMID:9683306

  14. Ultrasound in pregnancy (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...

  15. Improved cardiac motion detection from ultrasound images using TDIOF: a combined B-mode/ tissue Doppler approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Vahid; Stoddard, Marcus F.; Amini, Amir A.

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative motion analysis of echocardiographic images helps clinicians with the diagnosis and therapy of patients suffering from cardiac disease. Quantitative analysis is usually based on TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) or speckle tracking. These methods are based on two independent techniques - the Doppler Effect and image registration, respectively. In order to increase the accuracy of the speckle tracking technique and cope with the angle dependency of TDI, herein, a combined approach dubbed TDIOF (Tissue Doppler Imaging Optical Flow) is proposed. TDIOF is formulated based on the combination of B-mode and Doppler energy terms in an optical flow framework and minimized using algebraic equations. In this paper, we report on validations with simulated, physical cardiac phantom, and in-vivo patient data. It is shown that the additional Doppler term is able to increase the accuracy of speckle tracking, the basis for several commercially available echocardiography analysis techniques.

  16. Abnormal Calcium Cycling and Cardiac Arrhythmias Associated With the Human Ser96Ala Genetic Variant of Histidine?Rich Calcium?Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vivek P.; Rubinstein, Jack; Arvanitis, Demetrios A.; Ren, Xiaoping; Gao, Xiaoqian; Haghighi, Kobra; Gilbert, Mark; Iyer, Venkat R.; Kim, Do Han; Cho, Chunghee; Jones, Keith; Lorenz, John N.; Armstrong, Clara F.; Wang, Hong?Sheng; Gyorke, Sandor; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A human genetic variant (Ser96Ala) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) histidine?rich Ca2+?binding (HRC) protein has been linked to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the precise mechanisms affecting SR function and leading to arrhythmias remain elusive. Methods and Results We generated transgenic mice with cardiac?specific expression of human Ala96 HRC or Ser96 HRC in the null background to assess function in absence of endogenous protein. Ala96 HRC decreased (25% to 30%) cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca2+ kinetics compared with Ser96 HRC in the absence of any structural or histological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of Ca2+ waves was significantly higher (10?fold), although SR Ca2+ load was reduced (by 27%) in Ala96 HRC cells. The underlying mechanisms involved diminished interaction of Ala96 HRC with triadin, affecting ryanodine receptor (RyR) stability. Indeed, the open probability of RyR, assessed by use of ryanodine binding, was significantly increased. Accordingly, stress conditions (5 Hz plus isoproterenol) induced aftercontractions (65% in Ala96 versus 12% in Ser96) and delayed afterdepolarizations (70% in Ala96 versus 20% in Ser96). The increased SR Ca2+ leak was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation (1.6?fold) of RyR at Ser2814 by calmodulin?dependent protein kinase II. Accordingly, inclusion of the calmodulin?dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93 prevented Ser2814 phosphorylation and partially reversed the increases in Ca2+ spark frequency and wave production. Parallel in vivo studies revealed ventricular ectopy on short?term isoproterenol challenge and increased (4?fold) propensity to arrhythmias, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, after myocardial infarction in Ala96 HRC mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that aberrant SR Ca2+ release and increased susceptibility to delayed afterdepolarizations underlie triggered arrhythmic activity in human Ala96 HRC carriers. PMID:24125847

  17. Cardiac Image Analysis Corresponding To Physical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatsuka, Takao; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takeda, Tohoru; Kuwako, Kenji; Sugishita, Yasuro; Akisada, Masayoshi

    1984-08-01

    A practical analyzing procedure has been developed to evaluate dynamic images with reference to time series data from the same object. A special recording and analyzing system has been contructed, and its validity and an analyzing procedure are demonstrated using actual dynamical cardiac images. Echocardiogram and X-ray TV images were recorded on the video tape simultaneously with physical parameters. These data were fed into the computer and analyzed in reference to each other. Actual experiments were then executed to analyze myocardial ultrasound and X-ray images quantitatively, using subtraction and densitometry techniques. In both images, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion were clearly described by the subtraction image with reference to the ECG signal and the M-mode image, in the case of the echocardiogram. The temporal change of myocardial images was also represented by subtraction, and the details were described by densitometry. These image processing techniques can be a useful tool in evaluating cardiac dynamics in daily practice.

  18. Patients with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan Type Due to a LMNA R482W Mutation Show Muscular and Cardiac Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Vantyghem; P. PIGNY; C. A. MAURAGE; N. ROUAIX-EMERY; T. STOJKOVIC; J. M. CUISSET; A. MILLAIRE; O. LASCOLS; P. VERMERSCH; J. L. WEMEAU; J. CAPEAU; C. VIGOUROUX

    2004-01-01

    Diseases due to mutations in the lamin A\\/C gene (LMNA) are highly heterogeneous, including neuromuscular and cardiac dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and premature ageing syn- dromes. In this study we characterized the neuromuscular and cardiac phenotypes of patients bearing the heterozygous LMNA R482W mutation, which is the most frequent genotype associated with the familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dun- nigan type (FPLD).

  19. Progress in Ring Array Transducers for Real-Time 3D Ultrasound Guidance of Cardiac Interventional Devices

    PubMed Central

    Light, Edward D.; Lieu, Victor; Suhocki, Paul; Wolf, Patrick D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    As a treatment for aortic stenosis, several companies have recently introduced prosthetic heart valves designed to be deployed through a catheter using an intravenous or trans-apical approach. This procedure can either take the place of open heart surgery with some of the devices, or delay it with others. Real-time 3D ultrasound could enable continuous monitoring of these structures before, during and after deployment. We have developed a 2D ring array integrated with a 30 French catheter that is used for trans-apical prosthetic heart valve implantation. The transducer array was built using three 46 cm long flex circuits from MicroConnex (Snoqualmie, WA) which terminate in an interconnect that plugs directly into our system cable, thus no cable soldering is required. This transducer consists of 210 elements at .157 mm inter-element spacing and operates at 5 MHz. Average measured element bandwidth was 26% and average round-trip 50 Ohm insertion loss was -81.1 dB. The transducer were wrapped around the 1 cm diameter lumen of a heart valve deployment catheter. Prosthetic heart valve images were obtained in water tank studies. PMID:21842583

  20. Role of ultrasound in the understanding and management of vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vasculitis is characterized by a circumferential vessel-wall thickening (‘halo’), which can be visualized by modern imaging techniques. In particular, the resolution of ultrasound has increased to 0.1 mm. Ultrasound detects abnormalities that are pathognomonic even in arteries with a diameter below 1 mm. It is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitides, such as classic temporal arteritis, large-vessel giant-cell arteritis (GCA), Takayasu arteritis and idiopathic aortitis. Echocardiography is important for determining cardiac involvement in Takayasu arteritis and also for examining the coronary arteries of children with suspected Kawasaki disease, which is a medium-vessel vasculitis. In small vessel vasculitides ultrasound has only a role for determining the distribution or organ involvement. Fast-track clinics for the diagnosis of GCA help to initiate treatment before complications such as blindness occur; patients receive appointments within 24 h in these clinics. Clinical examination and ultrasound of temporal and axillary arteries are performed by an experienced rheumatologist. In most cases this is able to determine if GCA is present. Temporal artery biopsy can be still carried out in ambivalent cases. The wall swelling of temporal arteries disappears after 2–3 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment. After 3 days of treatment, diagnosis becomes more difficult with ultrasound in some cases. In larger arteries, such as the axillary arteries, wall thickening disappears within months. It tends to be darker (more hypoechoic) in acute disease because of oedema. PMID:24688604

  1. Role of ultrasound in the understanding and management of vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolfgang A

    2014-04-01

    Vasculitis is characterized by a circumferential vessel-wall thickening ('halo'), which can be visualized by modern imaging techniques. In particular, the resolution of ultrasound has increased to 0.1 mm. Ultrasound detects abnormalities that are pathognomonic even in arteries with a diameter below 1 mm. It is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitides, such as classic temporal arteritis, large-vessel giant-cell arteritis (GCA), Takayasu arteritis and idiopathic aortitis. Echocardiography is important for determining cardiac involvement in Takayasu arteritis and also for examining the coronary arteries of children with suspected Kawasaki disease, which is a medium-vessel vasculitis. In small vessel vasculitides ultrasound has only a role for determining the distribution or organ involvement. Fast-track clinics for the diagnosis of GCA help to initiate treatment before complications such as blindness occur; patients receive appointments within 24 h in these clinics. Clinical examination and ultrasound of temporal and axillary arteries are performed by an experienced rheumatologist. In most cases this is able to determine if GCA is present. Temporal artery biopsy can be still carried out in ambivalent cases. The wall swelling of temporal arteries disappears after 2-3 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment. After 3 days of treatment, diagnosis becomes more difficult with ultrasound in some cases. In larger arteries, such as the axillary arteries, wall thickening disappears within months. It tends to be darker (more hypoechoic) in acute disease because of oedema. PMID:24688604

  2. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2001-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  3. Intravascular ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    IVUS; Ultrasound - coronary artery; Endovascular ultrasound; Intravascular echocardiography ... A tiny ultrasound wand is attached to the top of a thin tube called a catheter. This ultrasound catheter is inserted ...

  4. Usefulness of Aspirin Therapy in High-risk Pregnant Women with Abnormal Uterine Artery Doppler Ultrasound at 14-16 Weeks Pregnancy: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa Ebrashy; Magdy Ibrahim; Ayman Marzook; Dalia Yousef

    To assess the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in high-risk pregnant women with abnormal findings at uterine artery Dopp- ler velocimetry performed at 14-16 weeks. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. Methods The trial enrolled 139 women at risk of

  5. Reversible regional wall motion abnormalities on exercise technetium-99m–gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography predict high-grade angiographic stenoses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Emmett; Robert M Iwanochko; Michael R Freeman; Alan Barolet; Douglas S Lee; Mansoor Husain

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesWe sought to determine the level of angiographic stenosis at which reversible regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) are present on exercise stress technetium-99m (Tc-99m)– gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and whether assessments of stress and rest RWMA add incremental diagnostic information.

  6. Cardiac stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Leri, Annarosa; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Goichberg, Polina; Anversa, Piero

    2014-11-01

    The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1? and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed. PMID:25267073

  7. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  8. A knock-in mouse model of N-terminal R420W mutation of cardiac ryanodine receptor exhibits arrhythmogenesis with abnormal calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, Noriyuki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Hirata, Yutaka; Oku, Yoshitaka; Nishio, Hajime

    2014-09-26

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RyR2) mutations cause fatal arrhythmogenic diseases such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. The N-terminal region of RyR2 is one of the hot spots for mutations. In this study, we investigated cardiac phenotypes of a knock-in mouse model carrying R420W mutation of RyR2. The N-terminal R420W mutation has already been found in juvenile sudden death cadavers of unrelated families. The depolarization-induced Ca(2+) transient amplitude was significantly lower in cardiomyocytes from RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice compared with wild-type mice. The time to peak of the Ca(2+) transient was significantly increased in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice. Furthermore, the prolonged decay time from the peak of the Ca(2+) transient was detected in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice. ECG telemetry revealed that various types of arrhythmias were induced in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice in response to administration of caffeine and adrenaline. The mutant mice showed high occurrences of arrhythmias in response to heart stimulants compared with wild-type mice. These findings suggest that R420W mutation impairs depolarization-induced Ca(2+) oscillation in cardiomyocytes, which possibly results in sudden death due to stress-induced arrhythmias. PMID:25193700

  9. Scrotal Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  11. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  12. Hip Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  13. Carotid Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Ultrasound? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) ultrasound is a painless and harmless test that uses ... to your face, scalp, and neck. Overview Carotid ultrasound shows whether a waxy substance called plaque (plak) ...

  14. Left ventricular abnormalities in children, adolescents and young adults with renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilian M Johnstone; Colin L Jones; Leeanne E Grigg; James L Wilkinson; Rowan G Walker; Harley R Powell

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular abnormalities in children, adolescents and young adults with renal disease. The cardiac abnormalities that complicate chronic renal failure and renal replacement therapy are not well characterized in young people. These abnormalities are becoming more important because successful renal transplantation has resulted in children with end-stage renal failure living longer. Echocardiographic abnormalities of cardiac function and structure were studied

  15. Realtime ultrasound screening by satellite telecommunication.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Toyohisa; Takizawa, Masaomi; Nakai, Keiji; Okura, Hirofumi; Kanda, Hirohito; Murase, Sumio; Ichijo, Tetsuya; Karaki, Yoshiaki; Oue, Toru; Yagi, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Realtime ultrasound screening was carried out using a medical examination vehicle equipped with a diagnostic ultrasound scanner and a satellite telecommunication system. Screening was performed on 205 residents in a rural community in Japan and consisted of 57 cardiac, 57 abdominal, 60 thyroid and 31 breast ultrasound scans. The resolution of the realtime ultrasound images sent via communications satellite at 1.5 Mbit/s was almost identical to that of the original images taken by the ultrasound scanner. A disorder was diagnosed in 11 (19%) of the cardiac examinations, 28 (49%) of the abdominal, 19 (32%) of the thyroid and 7 (23%) of the breast examinations. Although some technical problems occurred, ultrasound screening by telemedicine appears to be a promising technique for those who live in rural communities. PMID:12952726

  16. Reduced effects of BAY K 8644 on L-type Ca2+ current in failing human cardiac myocytes are related to abnormal adrenergic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiongwen; Zhang, Xiaoying; Harris, David M.; Piacentino, Valentino; Berretta, Remus M.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Houser, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC, also named Cav1.2) density and regulation are important contributors to depressed contractility in failing hearts. The LTCC agonist BAY K 8644 (BAY K) has reduced inotropic effects on failing myocardium. We hypothesized that BAY K effects on the LTCC current (ICaL) in failing myocytes would be reduced because of increased basal activity. Since support of the failing heart with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) improves contractility and adrenergic responses, we further hypothesized that BAY K effects on ICaL would be restored in LVAD-supported failing hearts. We tested our hypotheses in human ventricular myocytes (HVMs) isolated from nonfailing (NF), failing (F), and LVAD-supported failing hearts. We found that 1) BAY K had smaller effects on ICaL in F HVMs compared with NF HVMs; 2) BAY K had diminished effects on ICaL in NF HVM pretreated with isoproterenol (Iso) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP); 3) BAY K effects on ICaL in F HVMs pretreated with acetylcholine (ACh) were normalized; 4) Iso had no effect on NF HVMs pretreated with BAY K; 5) BAY K effects on ICaL in LVAD HVMs were similar to those in NF HVMs; 6) BAY K effects were reduced in LVAD HVMs pretreated with Iso or DBcAMP; 7) Iso had no effect on ICaL in LVAD HVMs pretreated with BAY K. Collectively, these results suggest that the decreased BAY K effects on LTCC in F HVMs are caused by increased basal channel activity, which should contribute to abnormal contractility reserve. PMID:18359894

  17. Ultrasound in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David S.; South, Donna A.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Arbeille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Physiology of the human body in space has been a major concern for space-faring nations since the beginning of the space era. Ultrasound (US) is one of the most cost effective and versatile forms of medical imaging. As such, its use in characterizing microgravity-induced changes in physiology is being realized. In addition to the use of US in related ground-based studies, equipment has also been modified to fly in space. This involves alteration to handle the stresses of launch and different power and cooling requirements. Study protocols also have been altered to accommodate the microgravity environment. Ultrasound studies to date have shown a pattern of adaptation to microgravity that includes changes in cardiac chamber sizes and vertebral spacing. Ultrasound has been and will continue to be an important component in the investigation of physiological and, possibly, pathologic changes occurring in space or as a result of spaceflight.

  18. Image guidance in cardiac electrophysiology

    E-print Network

    Malchano, Zachary John

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are characterized by a disruption or abnormal conduction of electrical signals within the heart. Treatment of arrhythmias has dramatically evolved over the past half-century, and today, minimally-invasive ...

  19. Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and "Braslet-M" Occlusion Cuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, V. V.; Duncan, J. M.; Alferova, I. V.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Ebert, D.; Hamilton, D. R.; Matveev, V. P.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in remotely guided imaging techniques on ISS allow the acquisition of high quality ultrasound data using crewmember operators with no medical background and minimal training. However, ongoing efforts are required to develop and validate methodology for complex imaging protocols to ensure their repeatability, efficiency, and suitability for use aboard the ISS. This Station Developmental Test Objective (SDTO) tests a cardiovascular evaluation methodology that takes advantage of the ISS Ultrasound capability, the Braslet-M device, and modified respiratory maneuvers (Valsalva and Mueller), to broaden the spectrum of anatomical and functional information on human cardiovascular system during long-duration space missions. The proposed methodology optimizes and combines new and previously demonstrated methods, and is expected to benefit medically indicated assessments, operational research protocols, and data collections for science. Braslet-M is a current Russian operational countermeasure that compresses the upper thigh to impede the venous return from lower extremities. The goal of the SDTO is to establish and validate a repeatable ultrasound-based methodology for the assessment of a number of cardiovascular criteria in microgravity. Braslet-M device is used as a means to acutely alter volume distribution while focused ultrasound measurements are performed. Modified respiratory maneuvers are done upon volume manipulations to record commensurate changes in anatomical and functional parameters. The overall cardiovascular effects of the Braslet-M device are not completely understood, and although not a primary objective of this SDTO, this effort will provide pilot data regarding the suitability of Braslet-M for its intended purpose, effects, and the indications for its use.

  20. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

  2. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

  3. Nuclear imaging for cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Longhi, Simone; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Histological analysis of endomyocardial tissue is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but has its limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for non-invasive modalities to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis. Echocardiography and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can show characteristics which may not be very specific for cardiac amyloid. Nuclear medicine has gained a precise role in this context: several imaging modalities have become available for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of cardiac amyloidosis during the last two decades. The different classes of radiopharmaceuticals have the potential to bind different constituents of the amyloidotic infiltrates, with some relevant differences among the various aetiologic types of amyloidosis and the different organs and tissues involved. This review focuses on the background of the commonly used modalities, their present clinical applications, and future clinical perspectives in imaging patients with (suspected) cardiac amyloidosis. The main focus is on conventional nuclear medicine (bone scintigraphy, cardiac sympathetic innervation) and positron emission tomography. PMID:25424887

  4. Ultrasound of the elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Martinoli; Stefano Bianchi; Maria Pia Zamorani; Joaquin Lemos Zunzunegui; Lorenzo E Derchi

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the use of ultrasound (US) in the evaluation of the elbow. US is able to visualize several abnormalities affecting tendons, muscles, ligaments and bursae around the elbow joint as well as to delineate the nature of soft-tissue swelling, such as a space-occupying lesion or synovial enlargment. Occult fractures, osteophytes and intra-articular loose bodies can be depicted with

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

  6. Ultrasound (Sonography)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) produce this website which provides information on 15 varieties of sonography including hysterosonography, obstetric ultrasound, and thyroid ultrasound. Sections on each variety of ultrasound provide information on common uses of the procedure, equipment, procedure results & interpretation, benefits and risks, and limitations. This is a great resource for instructors of courses related to diagnostic medical sonography and for the aspiring sonographer or ultrasound technician.

  7. Therapeutic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A Crum

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy,

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  9. Renal perfusion index reflects cardiac systolic function in chronic cardio-renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lubas, Arkadiusz; Ryczek, Robert; Kade, Grzegorz; Niemczyk, Stanis?aw

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac dysfunction can modify renal perfusion, which is crucial to maintain sufficient kidney tissue oxygenation. Renal cortex perfusion assessed by dynamic ultrasound method is related both to renal function and cardiac hemodynamics. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that Renal Perfusion Index (RPI) can more closely reflect cardiac hemodynamics and differentiate etiology of chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Material and Methods Twenty-four patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 2-4 stage (12 with hypertensive nephropathy and 12 with CKD prior to hypertension) were enrolled in the study. Blood tests, 24-h ABPM, echocardiography, and ultrasonography with estimation of Total renal Cortical Perfusion intensity and Renal Perfusion Index (RPI) were performed. Results In the group of all patients, RPI correlated with left ventricular stoke volume (LVSV), and cardiac index, but not with markers of renal function. In multiple stepwise regression analysis CKD-EPI(Cys-Cr) (b=-0.360), LVSV (b=0.924) and MAP (b=0.376) together independently influenced RPI (R2=0.74; p<0.0001). RPI<0.567 allowed for the identification of patients with chronic cardio-renal syndrome with sensitivity of 41.7% and specificity of 83.3%. Conclusions Renal perfusion index relates more strongly to cardiac output than to renal function, and could be helpful in recognizing chronic cardio-renal syndrome. Applicability of RPI in diagnosing early abnormalities in the cardio-renal axis requires further investigation. PMID:25881555

  10. Advances in Fetal Cardiac Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sklansky

    2004-01-01

    During the past 25 years, two-dimensional imaging of the fetal heart has evolved into a sophisticated and widely practiced clinical tool, but most heart disease still goes undetected until sometime after birth, despite routine fetal ultrasound evaluations. Over the next 25 years, tremendous advances in fetal cardiac imaging, including three-dimensional imaging, promise to revolutionize both the prenatal detection and diagnosis

  11. Cardiac Dysautonomia in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Abildtrup, Mads; Shattock, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal, hereditary, neurodegenerative disorder best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. Although a disease of the central nervous system, mortality surveys indicate that heart disease is a leading cause of death. The nature of such cardiac abnormalities remains unknown. Clinical findings indicate a high prevalence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction - dysautonomia - which may be a result of pathology of the central autonomic network. Dysautonomia can have profound effects on cardiac health, and pronounced autonomic dysfunction can be associated with neurogenic arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Significant advances in the knowledge of neural mechanisms in cardiac disease have recently been made which further aid our understanding of cardiac mortality in Huntington's disease. Even so, despite the evidence of aberrant autonomic activity the potential cardiac consequences of autonomic dysfunction have been somewhat ignored. In fact, underlying cardiac abnormalities such as arrhythmias have been part of the exclusion criteria in clinical autonomic Huntington's disease research. A comprehensive analysis of cardiac function in Huntington's disease patients is warranted. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to clarify how the autonomic nervous system is controlled and regulated in higher, central areas of the brain - and how these regions may be altered in neurological pathology, such as Huntington's disease. Ultimately, research will hopefully result in an improvement of management with the aim of preventing early death in Huntington's disease from cardiac causes. PMID:25062674

  12. Cardiac abnormalities in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M McComish; A Compston; D Jewitt

    1976-01-01

    This report describes heart disease in a 32-year-old man with the syndrome of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). The surface electrocardiogram showed first degree AV block and left bundle-branch block and there was HV prolongation on the His bundle electrogram. Endomyocardial biopsy showed the changes of hypertrophy on light microscopy, and on electron microscopy there were increased numbers of mitochondria

  13. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In this article we review the different steps of heart development, focusing on the processes of alignment and septation. We also show, as often as possible, the links between abnormalities of cardiac development and the main congenital heart defects. The development of animal models has permitted the unraveling of many mechanisms that potentially lead to cardiac malformations. A next step towards a better knowledge of cardiac development could be multiscale cardiac modelling. PMID:24138816

  14. Experience with an ultrasound stethoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleni C. Vourvouri; Don Poldermans; Johan De Sutter; Fabiola B. Sozzi; Paolo Izzo; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt

    2002-01-01

    Background: To test the diagnostic potential of the SonoHeart, a battery-powered hand-held ultrasound imaging device, in an outpatient clinic setting. Methods: A total of 114 patients with a variety of cardiac diseases were examined by 2 independent cardiologists with the hand-held device using the standard echocardiographic system (SE) as a reference. Global right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function

  15. Coronary Occlusion Detection with 4D Optical Flow Based Strain Estimation on 4D Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Coronary Occlusion Detection with 4D Optical Flow Based Strain Estimation on 4D Ultrasound Qi Duan1 dynamic cardiac metrics, including strains anddisplacements, from 4D ultrasound. In this study, in order at various locations were performed on five dogs. 4D ultrasound data acquired during these experiments were

  16. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

  17. First trimester screening using ultrasound and serum markers in Panamanians: Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Tania T.; Sinisterra, Scarlett; Solis, Alcibiades; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is no published data on the association between serum biochemical and ultrasonographic markers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies using ultrasound and maternal serum markers during the first trimester in Panamanians. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 468 first trimester singleton pregnancies conducted over a 7-year period. All women attending a prenatal screening clinic during the study period were informed of the study and the option to participate. Two maternal serum markers, free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and four fetal ultrasound markers, nuchal translucency thickness, nasal bone, flow across the tricuspid valve, and flow in the ductus venosus (DV), were measured by certified maternal fetal medicine specialists. Adverse outcomes included miscarriage, major structural defects, genetic disorders, and major fetal cardiac defects. Results: A total of 454 (97%) pregnancies were unaffected. Median maternal age was 31.5 years (range: 18-50). Maternal age was significantly greater in cases of adverse outcome (P = 0.007). The number of adverse outcomes associated with an absent or hypoplastic nasal bone, tricuspid valve regurgitation, and abnormal flow in the DV were significantly greater relative to unaffected pregnancies (Ps < 0.001). No differences were found in fetal crown-rump length or maternal serum levels of ?-hCG or PAPP-A. Conclusion: Abnormal ultrasound markers are associated with adverse outcomes. Women with normal ultrasound and serum markers should be reassured of low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25097629

  18. Vascular ultrasound for atherosclerosis imaging

    PubMed Central

    de Korte, Chris L.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world. Therefore, detection and quantification of atherosclerotic disease is of paramount importance to monitor treatment and possible prevention of acute events. Vascular ultrasound is an excellent technique to assess the geometry of vessel walls and plaques. The high temporal as well as spatial resolution allows quantification of luminal area and plaque size and volume. While carotid arteries can be imaged non-invasively, scanning of coronary arteries requires invasive intravascular catheters. Both techniques have already demonstrated their clinical applicability. Using linear array technology, detection of disease as well as monitoring of pharmaceutical treatment in carotid arteries are feasible. Data acquired with intravascular ultrasound catheters have proved to be especially beneficial in understanding the development of atherosclerotic disease in coronary arteries. With the introduction of vascular elastography not only the geometry of plaques but also the risk for rupture of plaques might be identified. These so-called vulnerable plaques are frequently not flow-limiting and rupture of these plaques is responsible for the majority of cerebral and cardiac ischaemic events. Intravascular ultrasound elastography studies have demonstrated a high correlation between high strain and vulnerable plaque features, both ex vivo and in vivo. Additionally, pharmaceutical intervention could be monitored using this technique. Non-invasive vascular elastography has recently been developed for carotid applications by using compound scanning. Validation and initial clinical evaluation is currently being performed. Since abundance of vasa vasorum (VV) is correlated with vulnerable plaque development, quantification of VV might be a unique tool to even prevent this from happening. Using ultrasound contrast agents, it has been demonstrated that VV can be identified and quantified. Although far from routine clinical application, non-invasive and intravascular ultrasound VV imaging might pave the road to prevent atherosclerotic disease in an early phase. This paper reviews the conventional vascular ultrasound techniques as well as vascular ultrasound strain and vascular ultrasound VV imaging. PMID:22866231

  19. Comparison of transcranial Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography angiography in symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, N C; Suwanwela, N; Phanthumchinda, K

    2000-05-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) of 10 patients with middle cerebral artery territory stroke were studied. To obtain data from patients with presumed in situ middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis, the study excluded patients with a known source of cardiac emboli, significant carotid stenosis and classical lacunar syndrome. As the gold standard for this study, CTA demonstrated MCA stenosis in all patients (100%), while abnormal TCDs suggesting MCA stenoses were found in only six patients (60%). The stenotic sites differed among patients with normal and abnormal TCDs. Patients with false negative TCDs were found to have more distal lesions (distal M1 or M2 segment) whereas patients with TCD abnormalities tend to have more proximal lesions as demonstrated by CTA. It is concluded that an abnormal TCD is highly suggestive of stenosis of MCA. A normal TCD, however, does not exclude such a lesion, especially in patients with distal M1 or M2 stenoses. Therefore, TCD may not be the best screening test for intracranial vascular stenotic lesion in MCA territory stroke. PMID:10849980

  20. [Atypical echocardiographic aspects of cardiac amylosis].

    PubMed

    Gallimard, J F; Poupet, J Y; Chaix, A F; Coisne, D C; Allal, J; Gouet, D; Barraine, R

    1986-01-01

    Echographic abnormalities of cardiac amylosis are now well known and quite useful to the diagnosis. Forms that are morphologically atypical are rare. From three observations (2 hypertrophic, asymmetrical and obstructive forms, and 1 hypertrophic and dilated form) and a review from the literature, we study the nosological, diagnostic and therapeutic problems presented by these atypical echographic of cardiac amylosis. PMID:3800280

  1. Fetal Cardiac Diagnosis and Its Influence on the Pregnancy and Newborn – A Tertiary Centre Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Yeu; R. Chalmers; P. Shekleton; J. Grimwade; S. Menahem

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of an abnormal fetal cardiac scan on the management of the pregnancy and the outcome of the newborn. Methods: We reviewed all pregnancies that were referred to the Fetal Cardiac Unit for assessment to determine if the finding of a cardiac abnormality influenced the pregnancy and fetus, timing and mode of delivery, the treatment and

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is a special ultrasound technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body's major ... physician to see and evaluate: blockages to blood flow (such as clots). narrowing of vessels. tumors and ...

  3. [Ultrasound of gallbladder and bile duct.

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Joleini, S; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-11-11

    The cystic nature of the gallbladder and bile duct when dilated, and the advantages of ultrasound as a quick, reproducible, convenient, cheap and low risk technique, with a high sensitivity and specificity, make it the most eligible technique in biliary pathology studies. Ultrasound has become a valuable tool for doctors studying biliary pathology and its complications, from abnormal liver function results, right upper quadrant pain, or jaundice, to cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, or suspicion of biliary tumors. PMID:25450432

  4. Single heartbeat cardiac tagging for the evaluation of transient phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Herzka; J. Andrew Derbyshire; Peter Kellman; Elliot R. McVeigh

    2005-01-01

    Many cardiac abnormalities are of a transient nature, creating a beat-to-beat variation in myocardial function. This work pre- sents the cardiac imaging technique for the measurement of regional function during transient cardiac phenomena. All infor- mation necessary for the reconstruction of a cine loop is ac- quired within a single heartbeat, avoiding the temporal blurring introduced by segmented imaging due

  5. Cardiac Amyloidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pdf/view ). Previous Section Next Section Sources of Funding Dr Quarta received funding from the “Istituto Nazionale per le Ricerche Cardiovascolari ( ... Women's Hospital Cardiac Amyloidosis Fund. Dr Falk received funding from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Amyloidosis ...

  6. Association between clinically abnormal observations and subsequent in-hospital mortality: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Buist; Stephen Bernard; Tuan V. Nguyen; Gaye Moore; Jeremy Anderson

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patients with unexpected in-hospital cardiac arrest often have an abnormal clinical observation prior to the arrest. Previous studies have suggested that a medical emergency team responding to such patients may decrease in-hospital mortality from cardiac arrest, but the association between any abnormal clinical observation and subsequent increased mortality has not been studied prospectively. The aim of this study was

  7. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peem Lorvidhaya; Shoei K. Stephen Huang

    2003-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death in athletes, although relatively uncommon, is a well-recognized condition generally associated with some congenital abnormalities. It, however, continues to be of vast interest to the public as athletes are seen as a distinct group of individuals who are especially able to tolerate more intense physical activities than the general population. Obviously, intense activities predispose susceptible athletes to

  8. Dipyridamole cardiac imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Askenase, A.; Segal, B.L.; Auerbach, N.

    1988-02-01

    Dipyridamole cardiac imaging is a useful alternative technique to exercise stress testing in the evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. Intravenous dipyridamole is still in the investigational phase, while oral dipyridamole is widely available. The hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole include an increase in coronary blood flow (due to coronary vasodilation) which is in excess of the increase in myocardial oxygen consumption and cardiac output. The disparity in the increase in coronary blood flow relative to the cardiac output results in an increase in myocardial thallium activity and an increase in the myocardial/background activity ratio. The quality of the thallium images is better or similar to that of exercise thallium images. The optimal dose of intravenous dipyridamole is 0.56 mg/kg, and of the oral dose it is 300 to 400 mg, although higher doses may be necessary in some patients. Analysis of the thallium images has been to a large extent based on visual inspection of the planar images. Delayed images are helpful to establish the nature of the perfusion abnormalities (transient or fixed). The process of redistribution is based on disparate rates of washout from the normal and abnormal zones. The sensitivity and specificity of dipyridamole thallium imaging, whether intravenous or oral, have been shown in a number of studies to be quite adequate and comparable to that achieved during exercise thallium imaging. Dipyridamole two-dimensional echocardiography has also been used in the detection of coronary artery disease; transient (new or worsening of preexisting) wall motion abnormalities have been found to be a specific marker of coronary artery disease. Transmural as well as regional coronary steal phenomena have been postulated as the mechanism for dipyridamole-induced regional wall motion abnormalities. 65 references.

  9. Examining the Cardiac NK-2 Genes in Early Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Heather; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiac NK-2 transcription factors are the vertebrate relatives of the Drosophila tinman gene. Without the Drosophila tinman gene, fruit flies fail to form their heart (“dorsal vessel”), and mutations or altered expression of cardiac NK-2 genes may lead to abnormal heart formation in vertebrates. Although the cardiac NK-2 gene NKX2–5 is recognized as an important factor in cases of human congenital heart disease and heart development in vertebrates, the roles of the other cardiac NK-2 genes are less clear. This report reviews what is known about the cardiac NK-2 genes in cardiac development, comparing studies in several different model systems. PMID:19967350

  10. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position ...

  11. [Cardiac sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Akihisa; Morimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2002-09-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis induces heart failure death or sudden death in many cases and is thus often associated with a poor prognosis. In Japan 47-78% of sarcoidosis patients die of cardiac lesions. Early diagnosis is important in such cases, and a comprehensive judgment based on the endomyocardial biopsy, echocardiography and nuclear medicine examination findings should be made according to the 'Handbook of the Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis'. Once a diagnosis is made the introduction of steroid therapy should be considered. Steroid administration should be conducted referring to the 'Guidelines to the Treatment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis'. PMID:12233077

  12. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Yasser Mahrous; Yehia, Reem

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases PMID:24653793

  13. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  14. Portable Bladder Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary retention, requiring intermittent catheterization, whereas a PVR urine volume of 100 mL to 150 mL or less is generally considered an acceptable result of bladder training. Urinary retention has been associated with poor outcomes including UTI, bladder overdistension, and higher hospital mortality rates. The standard method of determining PVR urine volumes is intermittent catheterization, which is associated with increased risk of UTI, urethral trauma and discomfort. The Technology Being Reviewed Portable bladder ultrasound products are transportable ultrasound devices that use automated technology to register bladder volume digitally, including PVR volume, and provide three-dimensional images of the bladder. The main clinical use of portable bladder ultrasound is as a diagnostic aid. Health care professionals (primarily nurses) administer the device to measure PVR volume and prevent unnecessary catheterization. An adjunctive use of the bladder ultrasound device is to visualize the placement and removal of catheters. Also, portable bladder ultrasound products may improve the diagnosis and differentiation of urological problems and their management and treatment, including the establishment of voiding schedules, study of bladder biofeedback, fewer UTIs, and monitoring of potential urinary incontinence after surgery or trauma. Review Strategy To determine the effectiveness and clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound as reported in the published literature, the Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. Nonsystematic reviews, nonhuman studies, case reports, letters, editorials, and comments were excluded. Summary of Findings Of the 4 included studies that examined the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound in the elderly population, all found the device to be acceptable. One study reported that the device underestimated catheterized bladder volume In patients with urology

  15. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  16. Ultrasound detection of beef cattle conformation alteration by injection

    E-print Network

    Shotwell, John David

    1997-01-01

    eflusions could not be detected. Braun and Gotz (1994) scanned the reticulum of 51 cows to look at the motility and determine whether or not ultrasound scanning was a good method of assessing reticular motility as a test for abnormalities. Ultrasound is a... good tool because it is noninvasive, unlike most other means of visualizing reticular motility. Other tissues scanned by ultrasound include the liver. In a study of 11 cows with hepatic abscesses, Braun et ak (1995b) found that ultrasound was a good...

  17. Temperature estimation with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined the ability of a novel dynamic frame selection based temperature algorithm to track temperatures during ablation of porcine kidney tissue. Here a novel multi-level 2-Dimensional cross-correlation algorithm was required to accurately track the temperature over an 8 minute ablation procedure.

  18. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers.

    PubMed

    Lisbona, R; Mishkin, S; Derbekyan, V; Novales-Diaz, J A; Roy, A; Sanders, L

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with 133Xe and 99mTc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, [99mTc]RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis. PMID:3286837

  19. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    PubMed

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Vaidiyanathan, Sabanayagam; Garstka, Maria; Szucs, Szilard; Iohom, Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance. PMID:23979618

  20. Cardiac Syndrome X: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shilpa; Mehta, Puja K; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX), characterized by angina-like chest discomfort, ST segment depression during exercise, and normal epicardial coronary arteries at angiography, is highly prevalent in women. CSX is not benign, and linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes and a poor quality of life. Coronary microvascular and endothelial dysfunction and abnormal cardiac nociception have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CSX. Treatment includes life-style modification, anti-anginal, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-ischemic medications. Non-pharmacological options include cognitive behavioral therapy, enhanced external counterpulsation, neurostimulation, and stellate ganglionectomy. Studies have shown the efficacy of individual treatments but guidelines outlining the best course of therapy are lacking. PMID:25091971

  1. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  2. Drosophila Models of Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a useful model for cardiac diseases, both developmental abnormalities and adult functional impairment. Using the tools of both classical and molecular genetics, the study of the developing fly heart has been instrumental in identifying the major signaling events of cardiac field formation, cardiomyocyte specification, and the formation of the functioning heart tube. The larval stage of fly cardiac development has become an important model system for testing isolated preparations of living hearts for the effects of biological and pharmacological compounds on cardiac activity. Meanwhile, the recent development of effective techniques to study adult cardiac performance in the fly has opened new uses for the Drosophila model system. The fly system is now being used to study long-term alterations in adult performance caused by factors such as diet, exercise, and normal aging. The fly is a unique and valuable system for the study of such complex, long-term interactions, as it is the only invertebrate genetic model system with a working heart developmentally homologous to the vertebrate heart. Thus, the fly model combines the advantages of invertebrate genetics (such as large populations, facile molecular genetic techniques, and short lifespan) with physiological measurement techniques that allow meaningful comparisons with data from vertebrate model systems. As such, the fly model is well situated to make important contributions to the understanding of complicated interactions between environmental factors and genetics in the long-term regulation of cardiac performance. PMID:21377627

  3. Cardiac histone acetylation – therapeutic opportunities abound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A McKinsey; Eric N Olson

    2004-01-01

    Diverse etiologic factors trigger a cardiac remodeling process in which the heart becomes abnormally enlarged with a consequent decline in cardiac function and eventual heart failure. Heart failure is traditionally treated with drugs that antagonize early signaling events at or near the cell membrane. Although such approaches have short-term efficacy, the five-year mortality rate for patients with late-stage heart failure

  4. Cardiac Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

  5. CARDIAC MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Paul H.; Sommer, J. R.; Johnson, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Cardiac muscle fibers of the hummingbird and finch have no transverse tubules and are smaller in diameter than those of mammalian hearts. The fibers are connected by intercalated discs which are composed of desmosomes and f. adherentes; small nexuses are often interspersed. As in cardiac muscle of several other animals, the junctional SR of the couplings is highly structured in these two birds but, in addition, and after having lost sarcolemmal contact, the junctional SR continues beyond the coupling to extend deep into the interior of the cells and to form belts around the Z-I regions of the sarcomeres. This portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which we have named "extended junctional SR," and which is so prominent and invariant a feature of cardiac cells of hummingbirds and finches, has not been observed in chicken cardiac cells. The morphological differences between these species of birds may be related to respective differences in heart rates characteristic for these birds. PMID:5555579

  6. Cardiac Aspergillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Lagacé-Wiens; Ethan Rubinstein

    \\u000a Cardiac aspergillosis has been increasingly recognized as a complication of immunocompromise in recent times. The use of progressively\\u000a more potent immunosuppressive agents and the longer survival times of transplant recipients is likely contributing to an increasing\\u000a prevalence of the disease. Although still uncommon, the disease has an extremely high mortality rate and management remains\\u000a difficult. Cardiac aspergillosis can present as

  7. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  8. Facts about Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young

    MedlinePLUS

    Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndrome (SADS) Foundation 508 East South Temple Suite 20 Salt Lake City, Utah 84102 800-STOP-SAD or ... to heart rhythm abnormalities. Facts About Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young • Each year in the United ...

  9. Real-Time Processing of Three Dimensional Ultrasound for Intracardiac Surgery

    E-print Network

    techniques in cardiac surgery. Ultrasound permits visualization through the opaque blood pool in the heart for guiding surgical procedures. This visualization technique enables a range of new minimally invasive, and the advent of real-time 3DUS overcomes difficulties with 3D spatial perception in conventional 2D ultrasound

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...

  11. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  12. [Ultrasound markers of the genetic pathology and early hemodynamic changes in human embryo].

    PubMed

    Tsyv'ian, P B; Kovalev, V V; Kosovtsova, N V

    2014-01-01

    First trimester nuchal translucency (NT) and ductus venosus reverse blood flow (DVRBF) are used as ultrasound markers (UM) to determine the risk of fetal aneuploidy, heart defects and subsequent maternal preeclampsia. One pathophysiological explanation for these UM, encompassing both normal and pathological outcomes, is the development of transient heart failure due to increased vascular resistance (afterload). Left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (LV IRT) was demonstrated as sensitive index of afterload increase in the second and third trimester fetus. The objective of study was to determine LV IRT in normally developing embryos and embryos with early UM of chromosomal and cardiac abnormalities and to test the hypothesis of embryonic hypertension as a cause of transient heart failure. An ultrasound study in 122 normally developing and 27 human embryos with increased NT (>3 mm) and DVRBF at gestational ages 11-14 weeks was perfomed. Mean LV IRT (41 +/- 3 ms) was 36.6 percent longer in embryos with UM as compared to the normal subset (30 +/- 2 ms) (p < 0.001). PMID:25702467

  13. Cardiac hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. PMID:24658682

  14. Cardiac cephalgia.

    PubMed

    Torres-Yaghi, Yasar; Salerian, Justin; Dougherty, Carrie

    2015-04-01

    "Cardiac cephalgia" is a type of secondary headache disorder, usually initiated by exertion that is related to myocardial ischemia. Primary exertional headaches such as sex-, cough-, or exercise-induced headaches are typically benign. Cardiac cephalgia, on the other hand, can have life-threatening complications. Due to overlapping features and similarities in presentation, cardiac cephalgia can be misdiagnosed as a primary headache disorder such as migraine. However, the management of these conditions is unique, and treatment of cardiac cephalgia with vasoconstrictors intended for migraine can potentially worsen myocardial ischemia. Thus, it is important to make the correct diagnosis by evaluating cardiac function with an electrocardiogram and/or stress testing. In this review, we examine reported cases of cardiac cephalgia from the past 5 years to highlight the importance of this condition in the differential diagnosis of a headache in a patient with a history of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to discuss the appropriate approach to diagnosis and the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of this condition. PMID:25819974

  15. Real time volumetric ultrasound imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf T. von Ramm; Stephen W. Smith

    1990-01-01

    A real time volumetric ultrasound imaging system has been developed for medical diagnosis. The scanner produces images analogous\\u000a to an optical camera and supplies more information than conventional sonograms. Potential medical applications include improved\\u000a anatomic visualization, tumor localization, and better assessment of cardiac function. The system uses pulse-echo phased array\\u000a principles to steer a two-dimensional array transducer of 289 elements

  16. Ultrasound annual, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an analyses of developments in the field of diagnostic ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided aspiration of ovarian follicles for in vitro fertilization are addressed. The use of Doppler ultrasound to measure blood flow in obstetrics is also examined.

  17. of Ultrasound to Materials

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    plications of Ultrasound to Materials Chemistry Kenneth S. Suslick This article willbegin of ultrasound. Some re- cent applications of sonochemistry to the synthesis of nanophase and amorphous metals of ultrasound on metal polvders in liquid-solid slurries. Cavitation The chemical effects of ultrasound do

  18. Spectrum of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among 168 Consecutive Referrals to an Urban Private Hospital in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Adebayo T.; Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Owojori, Olukolade O.; Peter, Johnson O.

    2014-01-01

    Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10–76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement. PMID:24701123

  19. Automated Identification of fetal cardiac valve timings.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Funamoto, Kiyoe; Sugibayashi, Rika; Endo, Miyuki; Velayo, Clarissa; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new noninvasive method is proposed for automated estimation of opening and closure timings of fetal cardiac valves. These timings are obtained from Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signal and fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) as a reference. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is first applied to the DUS signal to decompose it into different components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The envelope of the first IMF is then taken and its peaks are identified. The opening and closure of the valves are then automatically assigned to the IMF peaks by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). It is shown that this new method can continuously evaluate fetal cardiac valves' (aortic and mitral) motion timings for 82.5~99.7% of cardiac cycles. The estimated timings are verified using the Pulsed Doppler images. These findings can be used as sensitive markers for evaluating the fetal cardiac performance. PMID:24110582

  20. Ultrasound in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Sargsyan, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in microgravity environments. The goals of research in ultrasound usage in space environments are: (1) Determine accuracy of ultrasound in novel clinical conditions. (2) Determine optimal training methodologies, (3) Determine microgravity associated changes and (4) Develop intuitive ultrasound catalog to enhance autonomous medical care. Also uses of Ultrasound technology in terrestrial applications are reviewed.

  1. Relation between cyclic variation in echo amplitude and segmental contraction in normal and abnormal hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Lythall, D A; Logan-Sinclair, R B; Ilsley, C J; Kushwaha, S S; Yacoub, M H; Gibson, D G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the relation between cardiac systolic activity and cardiac cycle dependent variation in the ultrasound signal arising from within the myocardium. DESIGN--Regional echo amplitude was used as a measure of the myocardial ultrasound signal. Relative echo amplitude values were assigned by standardising echo gain using the posterior parietal pericardium as an in-vivo calibration. M mode measurements of the left ventricle were used to assess cardiac systolic activity. Subjects were studied prospectively. Analysis of echo amplitude was performed by investigators who were blinded to the results of the M mode analysis. The influence of impaired left ventricular performance and abnormal wall motion were assessed. PATIENTS--11 cardiomyopathy patients with impaired ventricular function, eight patients with severe pulmonary hypertension and reversed septal motion, and 19 healthy controls. SETTING--All subject studies were performed at Harefield Hospital. Echo amplitude analysis was performed at the Royal Brompton Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cyclic variation in echo amplitude was determined as the change in echo amplitude from end diastole to end systole. Additionally, an index of cyclic variation defined as the ratio of the cyclic change in echo amplitude to end diastolic echo amplitude was measured. Both cyclic variation and the cyclic variation index were analysed to see whether they correlated with left ventricular dimensions, fractional shortening, and systolic wall thickening. RESULTS--Stepwise regression analysis showed systolic wall thickening to be the most significant independent variable that correlated with the cyclic variation index for both the septum and posterior wall (r = 0.68, p = 0.0001, septum; r = 0.69, p = 0.0001, posterior wall). The slopes and intercepts for both regression equations were similar (y = 0.005x + 0.006, septum; y = 0.006x + 0, posterior wall). Subgroup analysis showed that the healthy controls, patients with cardiomyopathy, and patients with pulmonary hypertension had similar slopes and intercepts for their individual regression equations. CONCLUSIONS--These data support the hypothesis of a quantitative relation between the extent of cyclic variation of echo amplitude and the degree of segmental myocardial shortening, as measured by systolic wall thickening, which is not significantly influenced by location within the myocardium, left ventricular performance, or wall motion. They provide further evidence of the usefulness of quantitative analysis of myocardial echo amplitude in the study of regional myocardial function in both normal and injured myocardium. Images PMID:1747276

  2. Description of the cardiac movement using hexagonal image structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangjian He; Wenjing Jia; Qiang Wu; Tom Hintz

    2006-01-01

    The most notable characteristic of the heart is its movement. Detection of dynamic information describing cardiac movement such as amplitude, speed and acceleration facilitates interpretation of normal and abnormal function. In recent years, the Omni-directional M-mode Echocardiography System (OMES) has been developed as a process that builds moving information from a sequence of echocardiography image frames. OMES detects cardiac movement

  3. Segmentation of the Left Heart Ventricle in Ultrasound Images Using a Region Based Snake

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet

    Segmentation of the Left Heart Ventricle in Ultrasound Images Using a Region Based Snake Matilda that uses a region based snake. To avoid any unwanted concavities in the segmentations due to the cardiac valve we use two anchor points in the snake that are located to the left and to the right of the cardiac

  4. Cardiac conditions.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michel D; Ai, Amy L

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US. The growth of the older population in coming decades will inevitably increase the incidence of age-related cardiac disease. Increasing evidence has shown the prevalence of co-morbid mental health conditions in CVD patients. Specifically, depression and anxiety have been linked with CVD mortality. Due to the risk of psychosocial conditions with cardiac patients, mental health practitioners in health and gerontology need to be well-informed about CVD-related mental health comorbidity and current research developments. Accordingly, this article provides a systematic review of the clinical evidence about the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and any potential risk of psychosocial intervention with cardiac patients. PMID:18924386

  5. Cardiac amyloidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder caused by deposits of an abnormal protein (amyloid) in the heart tissue. These deposits make it ... of diseases in which clumps of proteins called amyloids build up in body tissues. Over time, these ...

  6. Echocardiographic versus cardiac catheterization diagnosis of infants with congenital heart disease requiring cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Krabill, K A; Ring, W S; Foker, J E; Braunlin, E A; Einzig, S; Berry, J M; Bass, J L

    1987-08-01

    The success of noninvasive preoperative evaluation of infants with congenital heart disease using cardiac ultrasound depends not only on diagnostic accuracy, but also on risk of morbidity and mortality as compared with infants who undergo cardiac catheterization. Fifty-six infants (age 10 weeks or younger) with coarctation of the aorta (n = 16), coarctation with ventricular septal defect (n = 12), valvar aortic stenosis (n = 10) or total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (n = 18) were examined. Thirty-one underwent noninvasive preoperative assessment and 25 underwent evaluation including cardiac catheterization. Age, level and duration of support, pH, renal function, mortality, complications of cardiac catheterization and errors of diagnosis were compared. Significant differences between the 2 groups were more frequent preoperative use of prostaglandin E1 and shorter hospital stay in the noninvasively evaluated coarctation group. Of the infants with coarctation and ventricular septal defect, 1 who had cardiac catheterization required renal transplantation and 1 evaluated noninvasively required surgery at age 3 months for mitral stenosis not discovered on preoperative evaluation. One noninvasively evaluated infant with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection had a stenotic communication between the pulmonary venous confluence and the left atrium not detected by ultrasound. Surgery was successful in the latter 2 infants. Noninvasive preoperative diagnosis of some infants with congenital heart disease can be performed without increasing the risk of operative morbidity and mortality. Eliminating cardiac catheterization reduces hospital costs, decreases total numbers of catheterizations performed and influences the structure of training programs. PMID:3618495

  7. Cardiac angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ohtahara, A; Hattori, K; Fukuki, M; Hirata, S; Ahmmed, G U; Kato, M; Fujimoto, Y; Shigemasa, C; Mashiba, H

    1996-10-01

    Angiosarcoma is one of the most common cardiac tumors, but early detection of this tumor is often difficult, as exemplified by our patient, a 55-year-old woman whose cardiac tumor was first detected by echocardiography. Surgical removal of the tumor was impossible due to its extensive pericardial invasion. Pathological diagnosis was not complete before autopsy because of the wide occupied necrotized area of the tumor. There is no diagnostic imaging technique available to detect such a necrotized area. An imaging technique more powerful than echocardiography and able to diagnose angiosarcoma earlier is needed. PMID:8933189

  8. Pediatric imaging/doppler ultrasound of the chest: Extracardiac diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Huhta, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author spells out new diagnostic applications in pediatrics for high resolution cross-sectional ultrasonography, and demonstrates the ways in which Doppler techniques complement the cross-sectional method. This reference presents practical, step-by-step methods for non-invasive ultrasound examination of extra-cardiac anatomy and assessment of vascular blood flow.

  9. Automated Analysis of Doppler Ultrasound Velocity Flow Diagrams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juerg Tschirren; Ronald M. Lauer; Milan Sonka

    2001-01-01

    A highly automated method for the identification and quantization of maximum blood velocity curves from Doppler ultrasound flow diagrams is presented. The method uses an image processing scheme to analyze video-recorded image sequences of flow diagrams. The sequences are acquired, a sequence of images relating to chronological cardiac cycles is extracted, and a maximum blood velocity envelope is determined and

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Play Video Clip (00:06:12) Your Radiologist Explains Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy ... limitations of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? View larger with caption Lumps ...

  11. New concepts in cardiac imaging 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Pohost, G.M.; Higgins, C.B.; Morganroth, J.; Ritchie, J.L.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents 5 specialists work on reviewing and editing the area of applications for cardiac imaging: Contents: Ultrasound Methods; 1. Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease, 2. Echocardiography in Ischemic Heart Disease, 3. Current Status of Doppler Ultrasound for Assessing Regurgitant Valvular Lesions, Radionuclide Methods; 4. Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, 5. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Validation and Application for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, 6. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Perfusion with Positron Emission Tomography, 7. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Substrate Metabolism with Positron Emission Tomography, X-Ray Imaging Techniques; 8. The Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Ischemic Heart Disease by Digital Subtraction Angigraphy, 9. Digital Angiography in the Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease, 10. Cardiac Computed Tomography: Its Potential Use in Evaluation of Ischemic Heart Disease, Magnetic Methods; 11. NMR Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System, 12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart.

  12. Prolapse of all cardiac valves in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Otikunta, Adikesava Naidu; Subbareddy, Y V; Polamuri, Praneeth; Thakkar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with genetically heterogeneous inheritance. The incidence of cardiac abnormalities is higher in patients with Noonan syndrome and approximately 80% patients with Noonan syndrome are reported to have cardiac abnormalities during their lifetimes. However, polyvalvular disease in Noonan syndrome is rare. In this case-report, we describe a case of a young man whose features were strongly suggestive of Noonan syndrome and who was diagnosed with prolapse of all four cardiac valves after 22?years of uneventful survival. PMID:25716036

  13. Ultrasound Annual, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

  14. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Khalighi, Koroush; Kodali, Archana; Thapamagar, Suman B.; Walker, Stanley R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an inherited progressive muscle disorder caused by defects in muscle proteins. As the incidence of this condition is low, not many are familiar with the multisystem involvement. At times, cardiac disease may even be the predominant manifestation in the form of arrhythmias, conduction defects, and cardiomyopathies. The progression of the disease can lead to sudden, unpredictable death. Thus, it is important to identify this subgroup and treat accordingly. Objective To identify patients with DM and assess their risk for sudden cardiac death. Methods Nine patients previously diagnosed with muscular dystrophy were evaluated by cardiologists for various reasons, from a general follow-up to cardiac arrest. All of them had electrocardiograms (EKG) and 2-D echocardiograms, and seven of them had further electrophysiological (EP) studies. Results Of the nine patients with DM, eight had EKG evidence of conduction abnormalities ranging from first-degree heart block to complete heart block. Of the seven who had EP studies, five had inducible ventricular tachycardia requiring immediate cardioversion and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implant. Two of them underwent permanent pacemaker placement due to complete heart block and infra-Hissian block. The remaining two patients opted for a conservative approach with yearly EKG monitoring. Conclusion Because one-third of the cardiac deaths in patients with DM are sudden, there is a strong need to identify these patients and intervene in those at high risk. Prophylactic pacemaker placement is recommended even in those with minimal conduction system abnormality. However, the common practice is to identify patients at high risk of conduction abnormalities by EP studies and then provide them with prophylactic invasive strategies. PMID:25656662

  15. Molecular genetics of sudden cardiac death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Sol Rodríguez-Calvo; María Brion; Catarina Allegue; Luis Concheiro; Angel Carracedo

    2008-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most common causes of death. An important number of sudden deaths, especially in the young, are due to genetic heart disorders, both with structural and arrhythmogenic abnormalities. In recent years, significant advances have been made in understanding the genetic basis of SCD. Identification of the genetic causes of sudden death is important

  16. Cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilia associated with toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Joon; You, Ga-In; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Yang, Joung-Wook; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Su; Cha, Tae-Joon

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilia is rare; when present, it manifests as ventricular thickening, usually with fibrous tissue and mural thrombosis. We present a case of a 57-year-old man with an abnormal right ventricular apex with eosinophilia, which was caused by Toxocara canis infection. PMID:25580199

  17. Strain rate imaging of sinoatrial node by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deyu; Zhao, Shukui; Yin, Lixue; Wang, Tianfu; Zheng, Changqiong; Zheng, Yi

    2001-09-01

    Sinoatrial node plays an important role in cardiac conduction system because it initiates the cardiac electrical activation, and sets the rate and rhythm of the heart. A method based on ultrasound strain rate imaging is proposed in this paper to reflect the local compression and expansion rates not affected by overall heart translation, or regional deformation during the cardiac cycle under real physiological conditions. In this method, tissue Doppler motion information was first derived from Doppler tissue velocity images, and then the quantitative velocity values was mapped according to the color bar in the images. Strain rate was estimated from the velocity value according to the relation between velocity gradient and strain rate. Preliminary result of color-coded strain rate images of the sinoatrial node of a dog is given. Result shows a variable pattern in different cardiac phase within a cardiac cycle. Further study of the method may provide a new non-invasive way to observe and characterize sinoatrial node.

  18. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  19. Abnormal muscle mechanosignaling triggers cardiomyopathy in mice with Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason R.; Carta, Luca; Bénard, Ludovic; Chemaly, Elie R.; Chiu, Emily; Rao, Satish K.; Hampton, Thomas G.; Yurchenco, Peter; Costa, Kevin D.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Ramirez, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin 1, are unusually vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. The prevailing view is that MFS-associated cardiac dysfunction is the result of aortic and/or valvular disease. Here, we determined that dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in fibrillin 1–deficient mice is a primary manifestation resulting from ECM-induced abnormal mechanosignaling by cardiomyocytes. MFS mice displayed spontaneous emergence of an enlarged and dysfunctional heart, altered physical properties of myocardial tissue, and biochemical evidence of chronic mechanical stress, including increased angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) signaling and abated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity. Partial fibrillin 1 gene inactivation in cardiomyocytes was sufficient to precipitate DCM in otherwise phenotypically normal mice. Consistent with abnormal mechanosignaling, normal cardiac size and function were restored in MFS mice treated with an AT1R antagonist and in MFS mice lacking AT1R or ?-arrestin 2, but not in MFS mice treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or lacking angiotensinogen. Conversely, DCM associated with abnormal AT1R and FAK signaling was the sole abnormality in mice that were haploinsufficient for both fibrillin 1 and ?1 integrin. Collectively, these findings implicate fibrillin 1 in the physiological adaptation of cardiac muscle to elevated workload. PMID:24531548

  20. Abnormal muscle mechanosignaling triggers cardiomyopathy in mice with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason R; Carta, Luca; Bénard, Ludovic; Chemaly, Elie R; Chiu, Emily; Rao, Satish K; Hampton, Thomas G; Yurchenco, Peter; Costa, Kevin D; Hajjar, Roger J; Ramirez, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin 1, are unusually vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. The prevailing view is that MFS-associated cardiac dysfunction is the result of aortic and/or valvular disease. Here, we determined that dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in fibrillin 1-deficient mice is a primary manifestation resulting from ECM-induced abnormal mechanosignaling by cardiomyocytes. MFS mice displayed spontaneous emergence of an enlarged and dysfunctional heart, altered physical properties of myocardial tissue, and biochemical evidence of chronic mechanical stress, including increased angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) signaling and abated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity. Partial fibrillin 1 gene inactivation in cardiomyocytes was sufficient to precipitate DCM in otherwise phenotypically normal mice. Consistent with abnormal mechanosignaling, normal cardiac size and function were restored in MFS mice treated with an AT1R antagonist and in MFS mice lacking AT1R or ?-arrestin 2, but not in MFS mice treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or lacking angiotensinogen. Conversely, DCM associated with abnormal AT1R and FAK signaling was the sole abnormality in mice that were haploinsufficient for both fibrillin 1 and ?1 integrin. Collectively, these findings implicate fibrillin 1 in the physiological adaptation of cardiac muscle to elevated workload. PMID:24531548

  1. Abnormal Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paitoon Nitipitichai; Nakarin Sansanayudh; Preecha Urrojanaungul; Chumpol Piamsomboon; Sopon Sanguanwong; Channarong Nakasawad; Prasart Laothavorn; Waraporn Tiyanont; Pachum Tasukon

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and to ascertain if this has any correlation with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACE) in these (ACS) patients. Materials: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 83 consecutive ACS patients without previously known

  2. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic paralysis after operation for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, S; Kunovsky, P; Sullivan, I

    1990-01-01

    Phrenic nerve palsy is a recognised complication of operation for congenital heart disease in children. The accuracy of ultrasound in assessing diaphragmatic motion was prospectively compared with fluoroscopy in 16 patients in whom phrenic nerve palsy was suspected. Ultrasound successfully identified the five patients with phrenic nerve palsy; there were no false positive or false negative diagnoses. Ultrasound was as effective as fluoroscopy in the diagnosis of abnormalities of diaphragmatic motion. Images PMID:2202361

  3. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  4. Value of diagnostic ultrasound in patients with chronic scrotal pain and normal findings on clinical examination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P van Haarst; G van Andel; T. H Pels Rijcken; T. J. M Schlatmann; W. K Taconis

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. Chronic scrotal pain is a frequent complaint. In many patients with scrotal pain, scrotal ultrasound is performed when the physical examination reveals no abnormalities. We evaluated the yield of scrotal ultrasound in patients with chronic scrotal pain and a normal physical examination.Methods. The study involved the findings in 111 patients with scrotal pain lasting longer than 2 weeks, in

  5. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-10-01

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32? × ?32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

  6. Ultrasound Research Interface

    Cancer.gov

    The ultrasound research interface permits extensive instrument parameter control of a commercially available scanner that allows access to, and export of, the beam-formed signal data while simultaneously displaying the ultrasound system-processed data as a clinical image.

  7. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  8. Transvaginal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Transvaginal ultrasound is a method of imaging the genital tract in females. A hand held probe is inserted directly ... vaginal cavity to scan the pelvic structures, while ultrasound pictures are viewed on a monitor. The test ...

  9. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  10. [Ultrasound of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active versus inactive nodes, and in particular benign versus malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up.?According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also show promising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity. PMID:25775171

  11. Electrocardiographic consequences of cardiac iron overload in thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Detterich, Jon; Noetzli, Leila; Dorey, Fred; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Harmatz, Paul; Coates, Thomas; Wood, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Iron cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of death in transfusion dependent thalassemia major (TM) patients and MRI (T2*) can recognize preclinical cardiac iron overload, but, is unavailable to many centers. Design and Methods We evaluated the ability of 12-lead electrocardiography to predict cardiac iron loading in TM. 12-lead electrocardiogram and cardiac T2* measurements were performed prospectively, with a detectable cardiac iron cutoff of T2*less than 20 ms. Patients with and without cardiac iron were compared using two-sample statistics and against population norms using age and gender-matched Z-scores. Results 45/78 patients had detectable cardiac iron. Patients having cardiac iron were older and more likely female but had comparable liver iron burdens and serum ferritin. Increased heart rate (HR) and prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) were present, regardless of cardiac iron status. Repolarization abnormalities were the strongest predictors of cardiac iron, including QT/QTc prolongation, left shift of T-wave axis, and interpretation of ST/T-wave morphology. Recursive partitioning of the data for females using T-axis and HR and for males using QT, HR and T-axis produced algorithms with AUROC’s of 88.3 and 87.1 respectively. Conclusions Bradycardia and repolarization abnormalities on 12-lead electrocardiography were the most specific markers for cardiac iron in thalassemia major. Changes in these variables may be helpful to stratify cardiac risk when cardiac MRI is unavailable. However, diagnostic algorithms need to be vetted on larger and more diverse patient populations and longitudinal studies are necessary to determine reversibility of the observed abnormalities. PMID:22052662

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  13. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  14. Imaging techniques in the management of abnormal vaginal bleeding in non-pregnant women before and after menopause.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Lil

    2014-07-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the management of non-pregnant women with abnormal vaginal bleeding. No other imaging technique has a role in the triage of these women. In women with postmenopausal bleeding, ultrasound is used to categorise women as at low or high risk of endometrial cancer, and the result of the ultrasound examination is the basis for further management. In women with abnormal vaginal bleeding before the menopause, the role of ultrasound is less clear. This is because some common causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding before the menopause cannot be diagnosed with ultrasound, such as infection, dysfunctional bleeding, or problems with intrauterine contraceptive devices or contraceptive pills. Nonetheless, transvaginal ultrasound may also sometimes be helpful in women with abnormal vaginal bleeding before the menopause. In this chapter, I present ultrasound findings in women with endometrial cancer, endometrial polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis, uterine myomas, including submucous myomas and leiomyosarcoma, and describe ultrasound-based triage of women with postmenopausal bleeding. PMID:24834911

  15. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Crum

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy,

  16. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

  17. Guide to the ultrasound examination of the abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnick, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written to assist the operator when performing an organized and directed ultrasound examination. It provides, in outline form, a sequential approach to the scanning of abdominal organs and regions by; indicating the structures within the organ or region that should be scanned; suggesting other regions for examination if abnormalities within the initially imaged structures are detected and; suggesting differential diagnostic possibilities when abnormalities are seen.

  18. Cardiac optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Entcheva, Emilia

    2013-05-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

  19. Cardiac optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

  20. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  1. Three Dimension Filamentous Human Cardiac Tissue Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhen; Koo, Sangmo; Finnegan, Micaela A.; Loskill, Peter; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Marks, Natalie C.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    A human in vitro cardiac tissue model would be a significant advancement for understanding, studying, and developing new strategies for treating cardiac arrhythmias and related cardiovascular diseases. We developed an in vitro model of three-dimensional (3D) human cardiac tissue by populating synthetic filamentous matrices with cardiomyocytes derived from healthy wild-type volunteer (WT) and patient-specific long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-CMs) to mimic the condensed and aligned human ventricular myocardium. Using such a highly controllable cardiac model, we studied the contractility malfunctions associated with the electrophysiological consequences of LQT3 and their response to a panel of drugs. By varying the stiffness of filamentous matrices, LQT3 iPS-CMs exhibited different level of contractility abnormality and susceptibility to drug-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24268663

  2. Gene Therapy Strategies for Cardiac Electrical Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Greener, Ian; Donahue, J. Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac disease is frequently associated with abnormalities in electrical function that can severely impair cardiac performance with potentially fatal consequences. The available therapeutic options have some efficacy but are far from perfect. The curative potential of gene therapy makes it an attractive approach for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. To date, gene therapy research strategies have targeted three major classes of cardiac arrhythmias: 1) ventricular arrhythmias, 2) atrial fibrillation, and 3) bradyarrhythmias. Various vehicles for gene transfer have been employed with adeno-associated viral gene delivery being the preferred choice for long-term gene expression, and adenoviral gene delivery for short-term proof of concept work. In combination with the development of novel delivery methods, gene therapy may prove to be an effective strategy to eliminate the most debilitating of arrhythmias. PMID:20696170

  3. A review of cardiac image registration methods.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Timo; Clarysse, Patrick; Sipilä, Outi; Pauna, Nicoleta; Pham, Quoc Cuong; Katila, Toivo; Magnin, Isabelle E

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, the current status of cardiac image registration methods is reviewed. The combination of information from multiple cardiac image modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and ultrasound, is of increasing interest in the medical community for physiologic understanding and diagnostic purposes. Registration of cardiac images is a more complex problem than brain image registration because the heart is a nonrigid moving organ inside a moving body. Moreover, as compared to the registration of brain images, the heart exhibits much fewer accurate anatomical landmarks. In a clinical context, physicians often mentally integrate image information from different modalities. Automatic registration, based on computer programs, might, however, offer better accuracy and repeatability and save time. PMID:12564869

  4. Cardiovascular therapeutic uses of targeted ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Susan T.; McPherson, David D.

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic use of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) is an emerging methodology with high potential for enhanced directed therapeutic gene, bioactive gas, drug, and stem cell delivery. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction has already demonstrated feasibility for plasmid DNA delivery. Similarly, therapeutic ultrasound for thrombolysis treatment has been taken into the clinical setting, and the addition of UCAs for therapeutic delivery or enhanced effect through cavitation is a natural progression to this investigation. However, as with any new technique, safety needs to be first demonstrated before translation into clinical practice. This review article will focus on the development of UCAs for cardiac and vascular therapeutics as well as the limitations/concerns for the use of therapeutic ultrasound in clinical medicine in order to lay a foundation for investigators planning to enter this exciting field or for those who want to broaden their understanding. PMID:19581314

  5. Localization of dermal edema in lipodermatosclerosis, lymphedema, and cardiac insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Gniadecka

    1996-01-01

    Background: Chronic edema in venous insufficiency is associated with leg ulceration, whereas in lymphedema skin ulceration is less frequent and edema from cardiac failure does not cause major skin changes. The reason for these differences is unclear.Objective: Our purpose was to investigate, by means of ultrasound, the distribution of intradermal fluid in patients with edema associated with lipodermatosclerosis, lymphedema, or

  6. Ultrasound in medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Shia

    Diagnostic ultrasonography uses high frequency sound waves of frequencies from 2-15 mHz. These are propagated in pulses into the tissues by a transducer in contact with the body surface. The pattern of their reflection is detected by the same transducer and can be used to construct a sectional image of the tissues and organs under the body surface. Distortions of anatomical contours and altered patterns of tissue reflectivity make it possible for a physician, using ultrasonography, to make inferences about the location of disease and sometimes to identify a particular disease process. Indeed the quantitation of tissue impedance is being examined as a potential method of characterizing tissues and making subtle distinctions between normal and diseased organs. Equally the use of ultrasonographically guided biopsy needles makes it possible to avoid exploratory surgery in some patients. Real-time ultrasonography also allows for the visualization of moving structures such as cardiac valves while the Doppler principle can be applied to the ultrasonographic study of blood flow in vessels. Because diagnostic ultrasonography does not use ionizing radiation, the lack of hazard involved means that the technique lends itself particularly well to monitoring the development of human fetuses and the detection of anatomical abnormalities complicating pregnancy.

  7. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest? Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a condition in which the heart ... This Content: Next >> April 1, 2011 Sudden Cardiac Arrest Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  8. Cardiac pacemakers: an update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Charles D; Arzola-Castañer, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In this update of cardiac pacing we review the new revised ACC/AHA/NASPE Guidelines for implantation of cardiac pacemakers, including selection of pacing mode, possible new indications, and other more recent advances in cardiac pacing. PMID:15008358

  9. Cardiac Syndrome X

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What causes cardiac syndrome X? There are many theories about what causes cardiac syndrome X. Some doctors ... disease. How is cardiac syndrome X treated? A number of medicines can help relieve the angina pain ...

  10. Postnatal evaluation of infants with an abnormal antenatal renal sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities. Recent findings There is a low rate of detectable renal abnormalities in infants with a normal postnatal sonogram at 4–6 weeks of age. Routine prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in infants with isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Infants with a multicystic dysplastic kidney and a normal contralateral kidney on renal ultrasound do not require further evaluation. Parents of these children should be counseled on symptoms of urinary tract infections to allow prompt diagnosis. Summary All infants with abnormalities on antenatal sonogram should undergo postnatal evaluation with a sonogram after birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. Further evaluation can be safely limited when the postnatal sonogram is normal at 6 weeks of age. PMID:19663038

  11. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of teeth. ... any medical conditions that may cause abnormal tooth shape? At what age ... spacing)? What other symptoms are also present? Fillings, ...

  12. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  13. Transthoracic Cardiac Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradway, David Pierson

    This dissertation investigates the feasibility of a real-time transthoracic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging system to measure myocardial function non-invasively in clinical setting. Heart failure is an important cardiovascular disease and contributes to the leading cause of death for developed countries. Patients exhibiting heart failure with a low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can often be identified by clinicians, but patients with preserved LVEF might be undetected if they do not exhibit other signs and symptoms of heart failure. These cases motivate development of transthoracic ARFI imaging to aid the early diagnosis of the structural and functional heart abnormalities leading to heart failure. M-Mode ARFI imaging utilizes ultrasonic radiation force to displace tissue several micrometers in the direction of wave propagation. Conventional ultrasound tracks the response of the tissue to the force. This measurement is repeated rapidly at a location through the cardiac cycle, measuring timing and relative changes in myocardial stiffness. ARFI imaging was previously shown capable of measuring myocardial properties and function via invasive open-chest and intracardiac approaches. The prototype imaging system described in this dissertation is capable of rapid acquisition, processing, and display of ARFI images and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) movies. Also presented is a rigorous safety analysis, including finite element method (FEM) simulations of tissue heating, hydrophone intensity and mechanical index (MI) measurements, and thermocouple transducer face heating measurements. For the pulse sequences used in later animal and clinical studies, results from the safety analysis indicates that transthoracic ARFI imaging can be safely applied at rates and levels realizable on the prototype ARFI imaging system. Preliminary data are presented from in vivo trials studying changes in myocardial stiffness occurring under normal and abnormal heart function. Presented is the first use of transthoracic ARFI imaging in a serial study of heart failure in a porcine model. Results demonstrate the ability of transthoracic ARFI to image cyclically-varying stiffness changes in healthy and infarcted myocardium under good B-mode imaging conditions at depths in the range of 3-5 cm. Challenging imaging scenarios such as deep regions of interest, vigorous lateral motion and stable, reverberant clutter are analyzed and discussed. Results are then presented from the first study of clinical feasibility of transthoracic cardiac ARFI imaging. At the Duke University Medical Center, healthy volunteers and patients having magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed apical infarcts were enrolled for the study. The number of patients who met the inclusion criteria in this preliminary clinical trial was low, but results showed that the limitations seen in animal studies were not overcome by allowing transmit power levels to exceed the FDA mechanical index (MI) limit. The results suggested the primary source of image degradation was clutter rather than lack of radiation force. Additionally, the transthoracic method applied in its present form was not shown capable of tracking propagating ARFI-induced shear waves in the myocardium. Under current instrumentation and processing methods, results of these studies support feasibility for transthoracic ARFI in high-quality B-Mode imaging conditions. Transthoracic ARFI was not shown sensitive to infarct or to tracking heart failure in the presence of clutter and signal decorrelation. This work does provide evidence that transthoracic ARFI imaging is a safe non-invasive tool, but clinical efficacy as a diagnostic tool will need to be addressed by further development to overcome current challenges and increase robustness to sources of image degradation.

  14. Transthoracic Cardiac Ultrasonic Stimulation Induces a Negative Chronotropic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Buiochi, Elaine Belassiano; Miller, Rita J.; Hartman, Emily; Buiochi, Flavio; Bassani, Rosana A.; Costa, Eduardo T.; O’Brien, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cardiac bioeffects resulting from ultrasonic stimulation using a specific set of acoustical parameters. Ten Sprague–Dawley rats were anesthetized and exposed to 1-MHz ultrasound pulses of 3-MPa peak rarefactional pressure and approximately 1% duty factor. The pulse repetition frequency started slightly above the heart rate and was decreased by 1 Hz every 10 s, for a total exposure duration of 30 s. The control group was composed of five rats. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to compare heart rate and ejection fraction, which was used as an index of myocardial contractility. It was demonstrated for the first time that transthoracic ultrasound has the potential to decrease the heart rate by ~20%. The negative chronotropic effect lasted for at least 15 min after ultrasound exposure and there was no apparent gross damage to the cardiac tissue. PMID:23221214

  15. Rate-dependent propagation of cardiac action potentials in a one-dimensional fiber John W. Cain,1,

    E-print Network

    Gauthier, Daniel

    tissue. Memory appears to be a generic feature of cardiac muscle since it has been reported in humans [8Rate-dependent propagation of cardiac action potentials in a one-dimensional fiber John W. Cain,1 the onset of abnormal cardiac rhythms. However, it is known that different pacing protocols lead

  16. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The physical principles and current applications of echocardiography in assessment of heart diseases are reviewed. Technical considerations and unresolved points relative to the use of echocardiography in various disease states are stressed. The discussion covers normal mitral valve motion, mitral stenosis, aortic regurgitation, atrial masses, mitral valve prolapse, and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Other topics concern tricuspic valve abnormalities, aortic valve disease, pulmonic valve, pericardial effusion, intraventricular septal motion, and left ventricular function. The application of echocardiography to congenital heart disease diagnosis is discussed along with promising ultrasonic imaging systems. The utility of echocardiography in quantitative evaluation of cardiac disease is demonstrated.

  17. Correlation between MRI and biopsies under second look ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Neuville, M; de Rocquancourt, A; Cohen-Zarade, S; Chapellier-Canaud, M; Albiter, M; Hamy, A-S; Giachetti, S; Cuvier, C; Espié, M; de Kerviler, É; de Bazelaire, C

    2014-02-01

    The term "second look" lesions in MRI refers to lesions detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. The objectives of our study were to analyse the displacement of targets between MRI and ultrasound; to define discriminating BIRADS morphological criteria to predict benign or malignant character and better establish the indications of second look ultrasound and biopsy; and to analyse the agreement between ultrasound and MRI in terms of morphological criteria. A retrospective and monocentric review was performed of the records of consecutive patients with breast abnormalities (mass or non-mass) initially detected by MRI that were not initially seen on mammography or ultrasound. All patients with abnormalities found during the performance of second look ultrasound and biopsied were included in the study. All lesions were documented using the BIRADS lexicon for MRI and ultrasound. Of 100 included patients, 108 lesions were detected by MRI, found via second look ultrasound and biopsied between January 2008 and 2010. All of the included patients were followed-up for a variable period, from 2 to 5 years. Eighty-two upon 108 biopsied lesions (76%) were benign and 26/108 lesions (24%) were malignant. This study confirmed the switch from procubitus to decubitus essentially displaces the tumour in the antero-posterior direction. It showed that the risk factors were not reliable criteria for establishing an indication for second look ultrasound. This study also showed that circumscribed contours and a progressive enhancement curve (type I) for masses on MRI had the strongest negative predictive value of greater than 0.85. In ultrasound, the round or oval shape, circumscribed contours and the parallel orientation to the skin favoured benignity with a NPV of greater than 0.85. For masses, the study showed that the agreement in interpretation of the benign versus suspicious morphological criteria between the MRI and the ultrasound was very weak for the shape (Kappa=0.09) and weak for the contours (Kappa=0.23). Finally, the MRI overestimated the size of the targets compared to ultrasound (Student t-test, p=0.0001). The performance of second look ultrasound has to be performed after the detection of an abdnormality on MRI even for lesion classified BIRADS 3. The biopsy indications must be wide with insertion of a clip and a control MRI. Only this control allows to stop the investigation if the biopsied lesion is benign. PMID:24525086

  18. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Cardiac Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip A. Ades

    Cardiac rehabilitation services are comprehensive, long-term programs involving medical evaluation, prescribed exercise,\\u000a cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. These programs are designed to limit the physiologic and psychologic\\u000a effects of cardiac illness, reduce the risk for sudden death or reinfarction, control cardiac symptoms, stabilize or reverse\\u000a the atherosclerotic process, and enhance the psychosocial and vocational status of patients with

  19. Diagnosis of cardiovascular lesions by percutaneous angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Junichi; Sasaki, Michihiko; Oshima, Tomomitsu; Morizuki, Osamu; Takahashi, Minoru; Kawamura, K.; Uchida, Yasumi

    1995-05-01

    We performed simultaneous angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) to evaluate the luminal changes of cardiac chambers, valves and vessels in patients with various categories of cardiovascular disease. We observed cardiac chambers in 7, coronary arteries in 3, aortic valve in 6, aorta in 10, vena cava in 2, pulmonary arteries in 3 and femoral arteries in 5 pts. The angioscopy was suitable for detection of the changes in color and for 3D evaluation of small changes. The IVUS was suitable for detection of calcified tissues and for evaluation of cardiac and vessel wall structures. Furthermore, we could observe dynamic motion of the cardiac valves by the IVUS. The results indicate that simultaneous observation by IVUS and angioscopy gives us much more information on the cardiovascular changes.

  20. High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

  1. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    MedlinePLUS

    ... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

  2. Ultrasound Microscope: Quantative Backscatter Imaging

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    Ultrasound Microscope: Quantative Backscatter Imaging Srikanta Sharma Academic supervisor: Sandy Cochran Industrial supervisor: Jim McAneny #12;Hypothesis of Intra-membrane Cavitation: Ultrasound Induced and cellular membranes that could explain cavitational and non- cavitational ultrasound induced bio

  3. Evaluation and management of the cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Selvanayagam, Joseph B; Hawkins, Philip N; Paul, Biju; Myerson, Saul G; Neubauer, Stefan

    2007-11-27

    Cardiac amyloidosis describes clinically significant involvement of the heart by amyloid deposition, which may or may not be associated with involvement of other organs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence for the effective evaluation and management of cardiac amyloidosis. Acquired systemic amyloidosis occurs in more than 10 per million person-years in the U.S. population. Although no single noninvasive test or abnormality is pathognomonic of cardiac amyloid, case-control studies indicate that echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular wall thickening, biatrial enlargement, and increased echogenicity in conjunction with reduced electrocardiographic voltages is strongly suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. Furthermore, newer echocardiographic techniques such as strain and strain rate imaging can demonstrate impairment in longitudinal function before ejection fraction becomes abnormal. Recent observational studies also suggest that cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging yields characteristic findings in amyloidosis, offering promise for the early detection of cardiac involvement, and the presence of detectable cardiac troponin and elevated B-type natriuretic peptide in serum of affected patients portends an adverse prognosis. Management strategies for cardiac amyloid are largely based on nonrandomized single-center studies. One of the few published randomized studies shows the superiority of oral prednisolone and melphalan compared with colchicine in systemic AL amyloidosis. Intermediate-dose infusional chemotherapy regimes (such as vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone) and high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral stem cell rescue have been used widely, but treatment-related mortality remains substantial with chemotherapy. Recent studies also indicate promising strategies to stabilize the native structures of amyloidogenic proteins; inhibit fibril formation; and disrupt established deposits using antibodies, synthetic peptides, and small-molecule drugs. PMID:18036445

  4. Ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans C. Fledelius

    1997-01-01

    The first ocular echogram was published in 1956. Since then, ophthalmic ultrasound has developed into a multifaceted diagnostic discipline, the basic methods being A-scan and B-scan, Doppler techniques and recently also three-dimensional approaches. Unique for ophthalmology is the newly invented, highly resolving equipment utilising ultrasound frequencies of 50 MHz and higher, so-called ultrasound biomicroscopy. During this development, the special ophthalmic

  5. 216 ieee transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 51, no. 2, february 2004 Real-Time Rectilinear 3-D Ultrasound Using

    E-print Network

    Smith, Stephen

    volume as well as real-time 3-D volume rendering, 3-D pulse wave Doppler, and 3-D color flow Doppler. This real-time 3-D ultrasound system has shown promise in cardiac applications. Clinical and animal evalu

  6. The heart and cardiac pacing in Steinert disease.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Gerardo; Papa, Andrea Antonio; Politano, Luisa

    2012-10-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (Dystrophia Myotonica, DM) is the most frequently inherited neuromuscular disease of adult life. It is a multisystemic disease with major cardiac involvement. Core features of myotonic dystrophy are myotonia, muscle weakness, cataract, respiratory failure and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Classical DM, first described by Steinert and called Steinert's disease or DM1 (Dystrophia Myotonica type 1) has been identified as an autosomal dominant disorder associated with the presence of an abnormal expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK gene on chromosome 19. This review will mainly focus on the various aspects of cardiac involvement in DM1 patients and the current role of cardiac pacing in their treatment. PMID:23097601

  7. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  8. Abnormal Cats' Paws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hagen

    1887-01-01

    ABNORMITIES in cats' paws occur rather frequently in Massachusetts. They are called mitten cats, and are much in demand because they are considered to be good mousers. The first I ever saw was a male yellow tiger, whose four paws had two extra toes strongly developed. A little stray female kitten which was brought up at my house had two

  9. Abnormal Morphology Within Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARILYN L. POLAND; KAMRAN S. MOGHISSI; PAUL T. GIBLIN; JOEL W. AGER; JANE M. OLSON

    Semen from 15 healthy volunteers was assessed for basic semen measures every 2 weeks over a 6-month period to determine the relative stability of these factors. The parameters were: sperm count, semen volume, sperm motility, and normal morphology, along with the type of abnormal morphologic forms. Basic semen measures were generally more stable than the morphologic forms. Using three samples,

  10. Investigation and Assessment of Disorder of Ultrasound B-mode Images

    E-print Network

    Rawat, Vidhi; shrimali, Vibhakar

    2010-01-01

    Digital image plays a vital role in the early detection of cancers, such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, lungs cancer, cervical cancer. Ultrasound imaging method is also suitable for early detection of the abnormality of fetus. The accurate detection of region of interest in ultrasound image is crucial. Since the result of reflection, refraction and deflection of ultrasound waves from different types of tissues with different acoustic impedance. Usually, the contrast in ultrasound image is very low and weak edges make the image difficult to identify the fetus region in the ultrasound image. So the analysis of ultrasound image is more challenging one. We try to develop a new algorithmic approach to solve the problem of non clarity and find disorder of it. Generally there is no common enhancement approach for noise reduction. This paper proposes different filtering techniques based on statistical methods for the removal of various noise. The quality of the enhanced images is measured by the statistical quant...

  11. Neurosonoembryology by three-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K

    2012-10-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound has enabled the visualization of small embryos and fetuses, and embryology in vivo - '3D sonoembryology' - has been established based on conventional embryology. Recently developed imaging techniques allow the definition of in-vivo anatomy including visualization of the embryonic circulation and dynamic features that could not be characterized in fixed specimens. Three-dimensional ultrasound has facilitated increasingly accurate and objective prenatal diagnoses of cranium bifidum/spina bifida, holoprosencephaly and associated anomalies in the first trimester and may allow detection of pathologic central nervous system (CNS) development at an earlier gestational age. It may be no exaggeration to suggest that prenatal diagnoses of fetal abnormalities have shifted from second to first trimester. However, fetal brain develops rapidly in the second trimester, therefore early scanning covers only selected CNS anomalies described in this article and serial continuous observation in the second trimester will be required. PMID:22800609

  12. An open access thyroid ultrasound image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, Lina; Vargas, Carlos; Narváez, Fabián.; Durán, Oscar; Muñoz, Emma; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) have been developed to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities and a large number of pattern recognition techniques have been proposed to obtain a second opinion. Most of these strategies have been evaluated using different datasets making their performance incomparable. In this work, an open access database of thyroid ultrasound images is presented. The dataset consists of a set of B-mode Ultrasound images, including a complete annotation and diagnostic description of suspicious thyroid lesions by expert radiologists. Several types of lesions as thyroiditis, cystic nodules, adenomas and thyroid cancers were included while an accurate lesion delineation is provided in XML format. The diagnostic description of malignant lesions was confirmed by biopsy. The proposed new database is expected to be a resource for the community to assess different CAD systems.

  13. MitoQ administration prevents endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Supinski, G S; Murphy, M P; Callahan, L A

    2009-10-01

    Sepsis elicits severe alterations in cardiac function, impairing cardiac mitochondrial and pressure-generating capacity. Currently, there are no therapies to prevent sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that administration of a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant, 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl)-decyltriphenylphosphonium (MitoQ), would prevent endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac mitochondrial and contractile function. Studies were performed on adult rodents (n = 52) given either saline, endotoxin (8 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), saline + MitoQ (500 microM), or both endotoxin and MitoQ. At 48 h animals were killed and hearts were removed for determination of either cardiac mitochondrial function (using polarography) or cardiac pressure generation (using the Langendorf technique). We found that endotoxin induced reductions in mitochondrial state 3 respiration rates, the respiratory control ratio, and ATP generation. Moreover, MitoQ administration prevented each of these endotoxin-induced abnormalities, P < 0.001. We also found that endotoxin produced reductions in cardiac pressure-generating capacity, reducing the systolic pressure-diastolic relationship. MitoQ also prevented endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac pressure generation, P < 0.01. One potential link between mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction is caspase activation; we found that endotoxin increased cardiac levels of active caspases 9 and 3 (P < 0.001), while MitoQ prevented this increase (P < 0.01). These data demonstrate that MitoQ is a potent inhibitor of endotoxin-induced mitochondrial and cardiac abnormalities. We speculate that this agent may prove a novel therapy for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:19657095

  14. MitoQ administration prevents endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M. P.; Callahan, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    Sepsis elicits severe alterations in cardiac function, impairing cardiac mitochondrial and pressure-generating capacity. Currently, there are no therapies to prevent sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that administration of a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant, 10-(6?-ubiquinonyl)-decyltriphenylphosphonium (MitoQ), would prevent endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac mitochondrial and contractile function. Studies were performed on adult rodents (n = 52) given either saline, endotoxin (8 mg·kg?1·day?1), saline + MitoQ (500 ?M), or both endotoxin and MitoQ. At 48 h animals were killed and hearts were removed for determination of either cardiac mitochondrial function (using polarography) or cardiac pressure generation (using the Langendorf technique). We found that endotoxin induced reductions in mitochondrial state 3 respiration rates, the respiratory control ratio, and ATP generation. Moreover, MitoQ administration prevented each of these endotoxin-induced abnormalities, P < 0.001. We also found that endotoxin produced reductions in cardiac pressure-generating capacity, reducing the systolic pressure-diastolic relationship. MitoQ also prevented endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac pressure generation, P < 0.01. One potential link between mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction is caspase activation; we found that endotoxin increased cardiac levels of active caspases 9 and 3 (P < 0.001), while MitoQ prevented this increase (P < 0.01). These data demonstrate that MitoQ is a potent inhibitor of endotoxin-induced mitochondrial and cardiac abnormalities. We speculate that this agent may prove a novel therapy for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:19657095

  15. Doppler echocardiography: Quantitative methods of pulsed and continuous wave cardiac doppler

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written in workbook format and presents basic physical principles involved in the Doppler flow velocity recording in both normal and abnormal states. Formulas necessary in the computation of valve gradients, valve areas, and cardiac outputs are included.

  16. Real-time cardiac monitors.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, H

    1989-01-01

    Real-time cardiac monitors (RTCMs) are portable computerized devices that use programmed algorithms to perform rapid, readily available online analysis and processing of electrocardiographic (ECG) data. RTCMs are primarily applied for long-term monitoring of ambulatory cardiac outpatients for the purpose of detecting transient abnormal ECG events. A wide variety of RTCM devices is available ranging from limited capacity intermittent recorders that store only selected ECG data, to 24-hour full-disclosure systems that provide ECG complex and to replay this data for subsequent review. Critics of RTCMs suggest that the best algorithms are imperfect and may lead to errors involving potentially lethal arrhythmias, while proponents argue that real-time cardiac monitoring is sufficiently reliable for clinical use. Available data suggest that the devices are safe and particularly with regard to detecting ventricular arrhythmias, clinically reliable. Currently available algorithms cannot analyze atrial fibrillation, pacemaker rhythms, isolated P-waves, junctional rhythms, and atrial ventricular blocks. The advantages and limitations of RTCMs are well described. Their use can be applied to provide satisfactory results in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic amangement of selected patients. PMID:2699435

  17. Review What is ultrasound?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Leighton

    This paper is based on material presented at the start of a Health Protection Agency meeting on ultrasound and infrasound. In answering the question 'what is ultrasound?', it shows that the simple description of a wave which transports mechanical energy through the local vibration of particles at frequencies of 20 kHz or more, with no net transport of the particles

  18. What is ultrasound?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Leighton

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on material presented at the start of a Health Protection Agency meeting on ultrasound and infrasound. In answering the question ‘what is ultrasound?’, it shows that the simple description of a wave which transports mechanical energy through the local vibration of particles at frequencies of 20kHz or more, with no net transport of the particles themselves,

  19. Doppler ultrasound in vitro modeling of turbulence in carotid vascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Meghan L.; Poepping, Tamie L.; Rankin, Richard N.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2004-04-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous to many systems in nature, except the human vasculature. Development of turbulence in the human vasculature is an indication of abnormalities and disease. A severely stenosed vessel is one such example. In vitro modeling of common vascular diseases, such as a stenosis, is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fluid dynamics for a characteristic geometry. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is the only available non-invasive technique for in vivo applications. Using Doppler velocity-derived data, turbulence intensity (TI) can be calculated. We investigate a realistic 70% stenosed bifurcation model in pulsatile flow and the performance of this model for turbulent flow. Blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) was pumped through the model using a flow simulator, which generated pulsatile flow with a mean flow rate of 6 ml/s. Twenty-five cycles of gated DUS data were acquired within regions of laminar and turbulent flow. The data was digitized at 44.1 kHz and analyzed at 79 time-points/cardiac cycle with a 1024-point FFT, producing a 1.33 cm/s velocity resolution. We found BMF to exhibit DUS characteristics similar to blood. We demonstrated the capabilities to generate velocities comparable to that found in the human carotid artery and calculated TI in the case of repetitive pulsatile flow.

  20. Cardiac pearls.

    PubMed

    Harvey, W P

    1994-02-01

    Most diagnoses of cardiovascular disease are made in the office or at the bedside. For example, in pulsus alternans of the radial pulse, observed when first greeting a patient, alteration of intensity of the second sound and systolic murmur and a ventricular (S3) gallop are clinical pearls--often subtle--that diagnose cardiac decompensation. A faint gallop, ventricular (S3) or atrial (S4), might be overlooked in a patient who has an emphysematous chest and an increase in anteroposterior diameter if one listens over the usual areas of the precordium. However, the gallop might be detected easily by listening over the xiphoid or epigastric area. How do you tell the difference between an S4, a split first sound, and an ejection sound? The S4 is eliminated with pressure on the stethoscope, but pressure does not eliminate the ejection sound or the splitting of S1. The atrial sound (S4) is most frequently found in patients who have coronary heart disease, and it is a constant finding in patients who have hypertension. It does not denote heart failure, as does the S3 (ventricular) gallop. In some patients, both atrial (S4) and ventricular (S3) diastolic gallops may be present. This occurrence is common in patients with cardiac decompensation associated with coronary heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. When these diastolic filling sounds occur in close proximity, a short rumbling murmur may be heard, which causes confusion of this sound with that of a valvular or congenital lesion. When both sounds occur exactly simultaneously, a single sound results. Often, this sound is louder than either the first or second sound and can be misinterpreted as either a valvular or congenital lesion. This, however, is a summation gallop, which is rare. For the most accurate timing of heart sounds and murmurs, the simple technique called "inching" is the best. Keeping the second sound in mind as a reference, the physician moves (inches) the stethoscope from the aortic area to the apex. An extra sound may be noted to occur in systole before the second sound, thereby diagnosing a systolic click. If the sound occurs after the second sound, however, it is an S3 or ventricular diastolic gallop. If a murmur appears before S2, it is a systolic murmur; if it appears after S2, it is a diastolic murmur. When the Austin-Flint murmur is heard, significant aortic regurgitation exists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8306847

  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI: which do I choose?

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jon A

    2005-06-01

    In the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders, there are several applications where both ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be considered viable alternatives. Because there are advantages and disadvantages to each imaging method, often it is unclear which should be considered for a specific indication. This article reviews this topic in the following manner. First, musculoskeletal applications where there are significant advantages for the use of ultrasound are discussed, which includes evaluation of soft tissue foreign bodies, peripheral nerves, pathologies that require dynamic imaging for diagnosis, and soft tissues adjacent to metal hardware. This is followed by a discussion of indications where both ultrasound and MRI may be considered, such as evaluation of a focal tendon abnormality, focal ligament abnormality, soft tissue fluid collection, and confirmation of a probable benign cyst, such as Baker's cyst and wrist ganglion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound should be viewed as an imaging method that complements MRI rather than one that competes with MRI in the evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities, as it can offer important information. PMID:16044382

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Skeletal Muscle Ultrasound in Late-Onset Acid Maltase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Malkus, Elizabeth C.; Siener, Catherine; Florence, Julaine; Pestronk, Alan; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acid maltase deficiency (AMD) (Pompe disease) is an inherited myopathic disorder of glycogen degradation. Diagnosis is often delayed. Muscle ultrasound could improve diagnosis. Methods We compared skeletal muscle ultrasound images from adults with AMD (n=10) to other myopathies (n=81) and, in AMD, compared qualitative (Heckmatt) and quantitative (backscatter) ultrasound measurements with strength and function. Results Qualitative ultrasound was abnormal in at least one muscle in all AMD subjects. Ultrasound patterns specific for AMD compared to other myopathies were: normal triceps brachii despite abnormalities in elbow flexors (89 vs. 17%, p<0.0001), focal abnormalities affecting deep more than superficial biceps brachii (40 vs. 4%, p=0.002), and more severe involvement of vastus intermedius than rectus femoris (40 vs. 11%, p=0.03). In AMD, both qualitative (Heckmatt) and quantitative (backscatter) ultrasound measures increased with decreasing strength and function. Discussion Muscle ultrasound identifies the presence and specific patterns of AMD pathology, measures disease severity, and could help diagnose AMD. PMID:21755514

  3. Safety of Microbubbles and Transcranial Ultrasound in Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, William C.; Brown, Aliza T.; Hennings, Leah; Lowery, John; Culp, Benjamin C.; Erdem, Eren; Roberson, Paula; Matsunaga, Terry O.

    2007-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the safety of large doses of microbubbles and ultrasound administered to the head of rabbits as if they were receiving acute stroke therapy of a similar nature. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand White rabbits were used, N=24, in three groups 1] n=4 control (no treatment), 2] n=10 bubble control (ultrasound plus aspirin), and 3] n=10 target group (ultrasound plus aspirin plus MRX-815 microbubbles). Group 3 was infused with IV bubbles over 1 hour at 0.16cc/kg. Ultrasound was delivered to the dehaired side of the head during bubble infusion and for 1 additional hour at 0.8 W/cm2 20% pulsed wave. Rabbits survived for 22 to 24 hours, were imaged with computerized tomography and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including contrast studies, and sacrificed. Tetrazolium (TTC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) sections were made for pathological examination. Results: All 24 animals showed absence of bleeding, endothelial damage, EKG abnormalities, stroke, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, or other acute abnormalities. CT and MRI showed no bleeding or signs of stroke, but two animals had mild hydrocephalus. The EKGs showed normal variation in QTc. Rabbit behavior was normal in all. Minimal chronic inflammation unrelated to the study was seen in 5. Two animals were excluded because of protocol violations and replaced during the study. Conclusion: The administered dose of microbubbles and ultrasound demonstrated no detrimental effects on the healthy rabbit animal model.

  4. Sudden cardiac death: a modern pathology approach to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kocovski, Linda; Fernandes, John

    2015-03-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death among young adults and adolescents. Unfortunately, the first manifestation of the condition may be sudden death during exertion, such as sporting activities. Other clinical symptoms include exertional dyspnea, angina, and syncope. Postmortem examination often reveals asymmetrical septal thickening and mural plaque formation in the left ventricular outflow tract. Histologic analysis shows cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, myofiber disarray, and interstitial and replacement fibrosis. Molecular analysis for known genetic abnormalities is essential to genetic counseling of living relatives of decedents to assess and reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25724039

  5. Classification of rotator cuff tendinopathy using high definition ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Hinsley, Hannah; Nicholls, Alex; Daines, Michael; Wallace, Gemma; Arden, Nigel; Carr, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: ultrasound is a valid cost effective tool in screening for rotator cuff pathology with high levels of accuracy in detecting full-thickness tears. To date there is no rotator cuff tendinopathy classification using ultrasound. The aims of this study are to define a valid high-definition ultrasound rotator cuff tendinopathy classification, which has discriminate validity between groups based upon anatomical principles. Methods: 464 women, aged 65–87, from an established general population cohort underwent bilateral shoulder ultrasound and musculoskeletal assessment. Sonographer accuracy was established in a separate study by comparing ultrasound findings to the gold standard intra-operative findings. Results: there were 510 normal tendons, 217 abnormal tendons, 77 partial tears, and 124 full-thickness tears. There was no statistical difference in age or the proportion with pain between the abnormal enthesis and partial tear groups, however both groups were statistically older (p<0.001) and had a greater proportion with pain (p<0.001 & p=0.050) than normal tendons. The full-thickness tears were statistically older than normal tendons (p<0.001), but not abnormal/partially torn tendons. The proportion with pain was significantly greater than both groups (p<0.001 & p=0.006). Symptomatic shoulders had a larger median tear size than asymptomatic shoulders (p=0.006). Using tear size as a predictor of pain likelihood, optimum sensitivity and specificity occurred when dividing tears into groups up to 2.5cm and >2.5cm, which corresponds with anatomical descriptions of the width of the supraspinatus tendon. Conclusion: the classification system is as follows: Normal Tendons; Abnormal enthesis/Partial-thickness tear; Single tendon full-thickness tears (0–2.5cm); Multi-tendon full-thickness tears (>2.5cm). PMID:25489559

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. Knowledge on heart patients through stethoscopic cardiac murmur identification for E-healthcare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanka Udawatta; A. H. S. Abeykoon; D. K. Prasanga; S. Prasad; W. Perera; K. Perera

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac murmurs are the sounds produced by the abnormal passage of the blood flow inside the heart due to the diseased valves or tissues. Identifying the type of the murmur can diagnose the cardiac pathology related to that particular murmur. This paper describes a researched digital stethoscope that can be used as a stethoscope as well as a murmur identification

  8. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  9. Cardiac Muscarinic Receptor Overexpression in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Livolsi, Angelo; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Rambaud, Caroline; Olexa, Catherine; Mokni, Walid; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Bousquet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled Bmax value in SIDS (n?=?9 SIDS versus 8 controls). On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n?=?9 SIDS versus 11 controls). Conclusions In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism. PMID:20209124

  10. Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Thigh Cuffs and Respiratory Maneuvers on Crewmembers of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen; Ebert, Douglas; Whitson, Peggy A.; Feiveson, Alan; Alferova, Irina V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, and a decrease in leg diameter. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (ECHO) in a baseline steady state and during preload reduction introduced with thigh occlusion cuffs used as a counter-measure device (Braslet cuffs) measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations. Methods: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (Expeditions 16 - 20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 +/- 46.days after launch (mean +/- SD; 33 - 185). Twenty Seven cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained with/without respiratory maneuvers before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs. Results: Non-physicians performed diagnostic-quality cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations using remote guidance. Three of 27 combinations of maneuvers and Braslet or Braslet alone were identified as being significant changed when compared to baseline. Eleven of 81 differences between combinations of Mueller, Valsalva or baseline were significant and related to cardiac preload reduction or increase in lower extremity venous volume. Conclusions: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts commensurate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques to measure the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an invaluable tool in determining the volume status of the cardiac patient at the 'microgravity bedside'.

  11. Ultrasound of the fetal veins part 1: the intrahepatic venous system.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, R; Heling, K S; Karl, K

    2014-06-01

    Advances in high-resolution ultrasound combined with color Doppler and three-dimensional (3 D) rendering have contributed to an increasing understanding of the fetal venous circulation in recent years. Still the sonographic evaluation of the venous system in the fetus remains difficult. This article reviews the normal and abnormal intrahepatic venous system. Normal anatomy and abnormal findings of the umbilical vein (UV), the ductus venosus (DV), portal veins, hepatic veins and the inferior vena cava are demonstrated by grayscale, color Doppler and 3D ultrasound and explained by numerous schemes. Typical variants and abnormalities such as agenesis of the DV and portal venous system, persistence of the right UV, UV varix are explained and the clinical value of normal and abnormal Doppler findings in the DV is discussed. Many of these abnormal findings can be detected by a targeted examination of the intrahepatic vasculature with means of color Doppler. PMID:24871613

  12. Combined cardiological and neurological abnormalities due to filamin A gene mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Claire Y. de Wit; Irenaeus F. M. de Coo; Maarten H. Lequin; Dicky J. J. Halley; Jolien W. Roos-Hesselink; Grazia M. S. Mancini

    2011-01-01

    Background  Cardiac defects can be the presenting symptom in patients with mutations in the X-linked gene FLNA. Dysfunction of this gene is associated with cardiac abnormalities, especially in the left ventricular outflow tract, but\\u000a can also cause a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex. We noticed that some patients diagnosed at the neurogenetics\\u000a clinic had first presented to a cardiologist, suggesting

  13. Ultrasound—biophysics mechanisms†

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic biophysics is the study of mechanisms responsible for how ultrasound and biological materials interact. Ultrasound-induced bioeffect or risk studies focus on issues related to the effects of ultrasound on biological materials. On the other hand, when biological materials affect the ultrasonic wave, this can be viewed as the basis for diagnostic ultrasound. Thus, an understanding of the interaction of ultrasound with tissue provides the scientific basis for image production and risk assessment. Relative to the bioeffect or risk studies, that is, the biophysical mechanisms by which ultrasound affects biological materials, ultrasound-induced bioeffects are generally separated into thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. Ultrasonic dosimetry is concerned with the quantitative determination of ultrasonic energy interaction with biological materials. Whenever ultrasonic energy is propagated into an attenuating material such as tissue, the amplitude of the wave decreases with distance. This attenuation is due to either absorption or scattering. Absorption is a mechanism that represents that portion of ultrasonic wave that is converted into heat, and scattering can be thought of as that portion of the wave, which changes direction. Because the medium can absorb energy to produce heat, a temperature rise may occur as long as the rate of heat production is greater than the rate of heat removal. Current interest with thermally mediated ultrasound-induced bioeffects has focused on the thermal isoeffect concept. The non-thermal mechanism that has received the most attention is acoustically generated cavitation wherein ultrasonic energy by cavitation bubbles is concentrated. Acoustic cavitation, in a broad sense, refers to ultrasonically induced bubble activity occurring in a biological material that contains pre-existing gaseous inclusions. Cavitation-related mechanisms include radiation force, microstreaming, shock waves, free radicals, microjets and strain. It is more challenging to deduce the causes of mechanical effects in tissues that do not contain gas bodies. These ultrasonic biophysics mechanisms will be discussed in the context of diagnostic ultrasound exposure risk concerns. PMID:16934858

  14. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  15. [Ultrasound for abdominal lymphadenopathy].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Hocke, M; Jenssen, C

    2013-05-01

    This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280

  16. Cardiac conduction system

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components ... the cardiac conduction system’s electrical activity in the heart.

  17. Chronic Liver Abnormalities in Sickle Cell Disease: A Clinicopathological Study in 70 Living Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiola Traina; Stefano Gonçalves Jorge; Ademar Yamanaka; Luciana R. de Meirelles; Fernando Ferreira Costa; Sara T. O. Saad

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and etiology of chronic liver abnormalities in 70 living patients with sickle cell disease from the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of the State University of Campinas. Methods: Clinical and laboratory investigations, including liver function tests, serological tests for viral hepatitis and abdominal ultrasound, were performed in all patients. Additionally,

  18. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad S. Amin; Alaleh Asghari-Roodsari; Hanno L. Tan

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward\\u000a depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies,\\u000a i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A,

  19. The neural crest in cardiac congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Keyte, Anna; Hutson, Mary Redmond

    2012-07-01

    This review discusses the function of neural crest as they relate to cardiovascular defects. The cardiac neural crest cells are a subpopulation of cranial neural crest discovered nearly 30 years ago by ablation of premigratory neural crest. The cardiac neural crest cells are necessary for normal cardiovascular development. We begin with a description of the crest cells in normal development, including their function in remodeling the pharyngeal arch arteries, outflow tract septation, valvulogenesis, and development of the cardiac conduction system. The cells are also responsible for modulating signaling in the caudal pharynx, including the second heart field. Many of the molecular pathways that are known to influence specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are reviewed. The cardiac neural crest cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various human cardiocraniofacial syndromes such as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial, CHARGE, Fetal Alcohol, Alagille, LEOPARD, and Noonan syndromes, as well as Retinoic Acid Embryopathy. The loss of neural crest cells or their dysfunction may not always directly cause abnormal cardiovascular development, but are involved secondarily because crest cells represent a major component in the complex tissue interactions in the head, pharynx and outflow tract. Thus many of the human syndromes linking defects in the heart, face and brain can be better understood when considered within the context of a single cardiocraniofacial developmental module with the neural crest being a key cell type that interconnects the regions. PMID:22595346

  20. The Neural Crest in Cardiac Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Keyte, Anna; Hutson, Mary Redmond

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the function of neural crest as they relate to cardiovascular defects. The cardiac neural crest cells are a subpopulation of cranial neural crest discovered nearly 30 years ago by ablation of premigratory neural crest. The cardiac neural crest cells are necessary for normal cardiovascular development. We begin with a description of the crest cells in normal development, including their function in remodeling the pharyngeal arch arteries, outflow tract septation, valvulogenesis, and development of the cardiac conduction system. The cells are also responsible for modulating signaling in the caudal pharynx, including the second heart field. Many of the molecular pathways that are known to influence specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are reviewed. The cardiac neural crest cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various human cardiocraniofacial syndromes such as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial, CHARGE, Fetal Alcohol, Alagille, LEOPARD, and Noonan syndromes, as well as Retinoic Acid Embryopathy. The loss of neural crest cells or their dysfunction may not always directly cause abnormal cardiovascular development, but are involved secondarily because crest cells represent a major component in the complex tissue interactions in the head, pharynx and outflow tract. Thus many of the human syndromes linking defects in the heart, face and brain can be better understood when considered within the context of a single cardiocraniofacial developmental module with the neural crest being a key cell type that interconnects the regions. PMID:22595346

  1. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. Results A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). Conclusion General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE. PMID:24252303

  2. Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD. PMID:21541845

  3. Survey of cardiac pathologies in captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Benato, Livia; Wack, Allison; Cerveny, Shannon N S; Rosenthal, Steven L; Bronson, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac disease is a common finding in small mammals but it is rarely reported in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in striped skunks and to characterize the types of cardiac disease that might be present. In April 2010, a questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in zoologic collections with membership in the International Species Inventory System. Surveys were distributed to 55 institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Twenty collections with a total of 95 skunks replied to the questionnaire. Of these, five collections reported at least one skunk with cardiac conditions for a total of 11 cases. In these 11 animals, the following conditions were diagnosed: myocardial fibrosis (n = 4), myxomatous valve degeneration (n = 4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and valvular endocarditis (n = 1). Based on these findings, cardiac diseases should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in captive striped skunks presenting with weakness, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac ultrasound also should be considered at the time of annual health examinations to evaluate for possible cardiac conditions at an early stage. PMID:25000693

  4. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  5. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abdominal area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  6. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pelvic area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  7. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  8. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hip area, and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  9. Measurements in ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.B.; Kurtz, A.B.; Goldberg, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book gathers all published and original data pertaining to anatomical measurements as projected on ultrasound scans. It covers all major anatomic regions and organ systems, including abdomen, pelvic, obstetrical, head and neck, and heart.

  10. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    E-print Network

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  11. Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Sachdev, Vandana

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction which has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212

  12. Biofouling control with ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Bott

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on a small-scale simulated cooling water system using a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens to represent the slime-forming microbial community, to examine the opportunities for control using ultrasound. Glass tubes (18 mm I.D. x 1 m long) through which contaminated water flowed at 1 m\\/s were dosed with ultrasound along the tube axis. Glass tubes were

  13. Shoulder ultrasound: Diagnostic accuracy for impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tear, and biceps tendon pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W Read; Mark Perko

    1998-01-01

    We sought to determine the accuracy of ultrasound for the preoperative evaluation of shoulder impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tear, and abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon. The findings in 42 consecutive surgical cases were compared with the preoperative sonographic readings. Ultrasound detected all of the 10 full-thickness cuff tears identified at surgery (sensitivity 1.0, specificity 0.97) but

  14. Trichloroethylene Exposure during Cardiac Valvuloseptal Morphogenesis Alters Cushion Formation and Cardiac Hemodynamics in the Avian Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Victoria J.; Koprowski, Stacy L.; Lough, John; Hu, Norman; Smith, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    It is controversial whether trichloroethylene (TCE) is a cardiac teratogen. We exposed chick embryos to 0, 0.4, 8, or 400 ppb TCE/egg during the period of cardiac valvuloseptal morphogenesis (2–3.3 days’ incubation). Embryo survival, valvuloseptal cellularity, and cardiac hemodynamics were evaluated at times thereafter. TCE at 8 and 400 ppb/egg reduced embryo survival to day 6.25 incubation by 40–50%. At day 4.25, increased proliferation and hypercellularity were observed within the atrioventricular and outflow tract primordia after 8 and 400 ppb TCE. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the dorsal aortic and atrioventricular blood flows were reduced by 23% and 30%, respectively, after exposure to 8 ppb TCE. Equimolar trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was more potent than TCE with respect to increasing mortality and causing valvuloseptal hypercellularity. These results independently confirm that TCE disrupts cardiac development of the chick embryo and identifies valvuloseptal development as a period of sensitivity. The hypercellular valvuloseptal profile is consistent with valvuloseptal heart defects associated with TCE exposure. This is the first report that TCA is a cardioteratogen for the chick and the first report that TCE exposure depresses cardiac function. Valvuloseptal hypercellularity may narrow the cardiac orifices, which reduces blood flow through the heart, thereby compromising cardiac output and contributing to increased mortality. The altered valvuloseptal formation and reduced hemodynamics seen here are consistent with such an outcome. Notably, these effects were observed at a TCE exposure (8 ppb) that is only slightly higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum containment level for drinking water (5 ppb). PMID:16759982

  15. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  16. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  17. Lung ultrasound in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is a basic application of critical ultrasound, defined as a loop associating urgent diagnoses with immediate therapeutic decisions. It requires the mastery of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding (yielding seashore sign), the A-line (horizontal artifact), the quad sign, and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion, the fractal, and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line, and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndrome, abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. All of these disorders were assessed using CT as the “gold standard” with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90% to 100%, allowing ultrasound to be considered as a reasonable bedside “gold standard” in the critically ill. The BLUE-protocol is a fast protocol (<3 minutes), which allows diagnosis of acute respiratory failure. It includes a venous analysis done in appropriate cases. Pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax yield specific profiles. Pulmonary edema, e.g., yields anterior lung rockets associated with lung sliding, making the “B-profile.” The FALLS-protocol adapts the BLUE-protocol to acute circulatory failure. It makes sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography (right ventricle dilatation, pericardial effusion), then lung ultrasound for assessing a direct parameter of clinical volemia: the apparition of B-lines, schematically, is considered as the endpoint for fluid therapy. Other aims of lung ultrasound are decreasing medical irradiation: the LUCIFLR program (most CTs in ARDS or trauma can be postponed), a use in traumatology, intensive care unit, neonates (the signs are the same than in adults), many disciplines (pulmonology, cardiology…), austere countries, and a help in any procedure (thoracentesis). A 1992, cost-effective gray-scale unit, without Doppler, and a microconvex probe are efficient. Lung ultrasound is a holistic discipline for many reasons (e.g., one probe, perfect for the lung, is able to scan the whole-body). Its integration can provide a new definition of priorities. The BLUE-protocol and FALLS-protocol allow simplification of expert echocardiography, a clear advantage when correct cardiac windows are missing. PMID:24401163

  18. Multichannel ultrasound current source density imaging of a 3-D dipole field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaohui Wang; Ragnar Olafsson; Pier Ingram; Qian Li; Russell S. Witte

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) potentially improves 3-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment for cardiac and neurologic disorders, including arrhythmia and epilepsy. In this study, we report 4-D imaging of a time varying electric dipole in saline. A 3-D dipole field was produced in

  19. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

    1995-12-31

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  20. Gene therapy in cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Praveen, S V; Francis, Johnson; Venugopal, K

    2006-01-01

    Gene therapy has progressed from a dream to a bedside reality in quite a few human diseases. From its first application in adenosine deaminase deficiency, through the years, its application has evolved to vascular angiogenesis and cardiac arrhythmias. Gene based biological pacemakers using viral vectors or mesenchymal cells tested in animal models hold much promise. Induction of pacemaker activity within the left bundle branch can provide stable heart rates. Genetic modification of the AV node mimicking beta blockade can be therapeutic in the management of atrial fibrillation. G protein overexpression to modify the AV node also is experimental. Modification and expression of potassium channel genes altering the delayed rectifier potassium currents may permit better management of congenital long QT syndromes. Arrhythmias in a failing heart are due to abnormal calcium cycling. Potential targets for genetic modulation include the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, calsequestrin and sodium calcium exchanger. Lastly the ethical concerns need to be addressed. PMID:16943902

  1. Sudden cardiac death in women.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Ashley; Pimentel, Rhea; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2012-01-01

    Women are at lower risk for development of sudden cardiac death (SCD) as compared with men. Women with SCD tend to have less structural heart disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common predictor of SCD in women, as it is in men. However, women with SCD are less likely to have underlying CAD than men, suggesting the need to identify risk factors other than CAD or systolic dysfunction for its prediction in women. SCD risk factors in women include heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function, abnormal sympathetic uptake as assessed by meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake, depression, and/or use of antidepressants. This article reviews SCD in women and discusses areas for future research. PMID:22565537

  2. A rare stapes abnormality.

    PubMed

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  3. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  4. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  5. Ultrasound quiz: an elderly lady with flank pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JSY Lam; JWY Hui; DYW Siu; EHY Hung

    Case A 73-year-old lady presented with 3-day history of fever and right upper quadrant pain. Physical examination revealed both right flank and suprapubic tenderness. Urinalysis at the bedside showed pyuria. The KUB did not reveal any abnormal calcifications. Laboratory studies showed leucocytosis and mildly elevated creatinine level (130 µmol\\/L). A preliminary diagnosis of urinary tract infection was made. Ultrasound of

  6. Ultrasound scanning in the detection of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis.

    PubMed

    Saverymuttu, S H; Joseph, A E; Maxwell, J D

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis produce abnormal echo patterns on ultrasound scanning, but the potential of ultrasound scanning for diagnosing these conditions in routine clinical practice is uncertain. A prospective comparative study of 85 patients with histologically assessed liver conditions was performed, and specificity was assessed in 76 patients with functional bowel disease who were presumed to have normal livers. Histological examination showed steatosis ranging from mild to severe in 48 patients and fibrosis ranging from increased fibrous tissue to established cirrhosis in 35 patients. Ultrasound scanning accurately identified steatosis, recognising 45 cases (sensitivity 94%) with a specificity of 84%. Fibrosis was less reliably detected (sensitivity 57% and specificity 88%). Of the 50 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 47 (94%) yielded abnormal results on scanning. In the 76 patients with functional bowel disease there was only one false positive result, giving a specificity of 99% in this group. As hepatic steatosis is the earliest change in alcoholic liver disease and seems to be of prognostic importance for the development of cirrhosis, ultrasound scanning provides an effective screening procedure, particularly in the occult alcoholic, who often presents with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. PMID:3080046

  7. Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

  8. Circadian rhythms govern cardiac repolarization and arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraj, Darwin; Haldar, Saptarsi M; Wan, Xiaoping; McCauley, Mark D; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Hu, Kun; Lu, Yuan; Eapen, Betty L; Sharma, Nikunj; Ficker, Eckhard; Cutler, Michael J; Gulick, James; Sanbe, Atsushi; Robbins, Jeffrey; Demolombe, Sophie; Kondratov, Roman V; Shea, Steven A; Albrecht, Urs; Wehrens, Xander H T; Rosenbaum, David S; Jain, Mukesh K

    2012-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death exhibits diurnal variation in both acquired and hereditary forms of heart disease, but the molecular basis of this variation is unknown. A common mechanism that underlies susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias is abnormalities in the duration (for example, short or long QT syndromes and heart failure) or pattern (for example, Brugada's syndrome) of myocardial repolarization. Here we provide molecular evidence that links circadian rhythms to vulnerability in ventricular arrhythmias in mice. Specifically, we show that cardiac ion-channel expression and QT-interval duration (an index of myocardial repolarization) exhibit endogenous circadian rhythmicity under the control of a clock-dependent oscillator, krüppel-like factor 15 (Klf15). Klf15 transcriptionally controls rhythmic expression of Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2), a critical subunit required for generating the transient outward potassium current. Deficiency or excess of Klf15 causes loss of rhythmic QT variation, abnormal repolarization and enhanced susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. These findings identify circadian transcription of ion channels as a mechanism for cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:22367544

  9. Circadian rhythms govern cardiac repolarization and arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaraj, Darwin; Haldar, Saptarsi M.; Wan, Xiaoping; McCauley, Mark D.; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Hu, Kun; Lu, Yuan; Eapen, Betty L.; Sharma, Nikunj; Ficker, Eckhard; Cutler, Michael J.; Gulick, James; Sanbe, Atsushi; Robbins, Jeffrey; Demolombe, Sophie; Kondratov, Roman V.; Shea, Steven A.; Albrecht, Urs; Wehrens, Xander H.T.; Rosenbaum, David S.; Jain, Mukesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death exhibits diurnal variation in both acquired and hereditary forms of heart disease 1, 2, but the molecular basis is unknown. A common mechanism that underlies susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias is abnormalities in the duration (e.g. short or long QT syndromes, heart failure) 3-5 or pattern (e.g. Brugada syndrome) 6 of myocardial repolarization. Here we provide the first molecular evidence that links circadian rhythms to vulnerability in ventricular arrhythmias in mice. Specifically, we show that cardiac ion channel expression and QT interval duration (an index of myocardial repolarization) exhibit endogenous circadian rhythmicity under the control of a novel clock-dependent oscillator, Krüppel-like factor 15 (Klf15). Klf15 transcriptionally controls rhythmic expression of KChIP2, a critical subunit required for generating the transient outward potassium current (Ito). 7 Deficiency or excess of Klf15 causes loss of rhythmic QT variation, abnormal repolarization and enhanced susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. In sum, these findings identify circadian transcription of ion channels as a novel mechanism for cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:22367544

  10. USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam

    PubMed Central

    Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster than students who had not. Students were able to significantly improve upon the time it took them to complete the USEFUL with successive attempts. Future endpoints are aimed at assessing the feasibility and outcomes of an ultrasound-assisted physical exam in a primary care setting and the exam's effect on doctor-patient satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):260–266.] PMID:24868302

  11. AMUM LECTURE: Therapeutic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques.

  12. Internet-based transfer of cardiac ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Garcia, M J; Morehead, A J; Cardon, L A; Klein, A L; Thomas, J D

    2000-01-01

    A drawback to large-scale multicentre studies is the time required for the centralized evaluation of diagnostic images. We evaluated the feasibility of digital transfer of echocardiographic images to a central laboratory for rapid and accurate interpretation. Ten patients undergoing trans-oesophageal echocardiographic scanning at three sites had representative single images and multiframe loops stored digitally. The images were analysed in the ordinary way. All images were then transferred via the Internet to a central laboratory and reanalysed by a different observer. The file sizes were 1.5-72 MByte and the transfer rates achieved were 0.6-4.8 Mbit/min. Quantitative measurements were similar between most on-site and central laboratory measurements (all P > 0.25), although measurements differed for left atrial width and pulmonary venous systolic velocities (both P < 0.05). Digital transfer of echocardiographic images and data to a central laboratory may be useful for multicentre trials. PMID:10912336

  13. Evaluation Of Cardiac Ultrasound Data by Bayesian Probability Maps

    E-print Network

    Brandt, Sami

    ,2 , Petri Gudmundsson3 , and Finn Lindgren4 1 School of Technology, Malm¨o University, Sweden, mattias.hansson@mah.se. 2 Information Processing Laboratory, Oulu University, Finland. 3 Faculty of Health and Society, Malm

  14. Bayesian Probability Maps For Evaluation Of Cardiac Ultrasound Data

    E-print Network

    Brandt, Sami

    ,2 , and Petri Gudmundsson3 1 Center for Technological Studies, Malm¨o University, Sweden, mattias.hansson@mah.se. 2 Information Processing Laboratory, Oulu University, Finland. 3 Faculty of Health and Society, Malm

  15. Ultrasound harmonic imaging using nonlinear chirp for cardiac imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-jae Song; Jaehee Song; Jin Ho Chang; Tai-kyong Song

    2010-01-01

    Coded excitation techniques have been used to improve a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in tissue harmonic imaging. However, a poor separation between fundamental and target harmonic components causes the second harmonic signals to have a high level of range sidelobes after compression. In terms of the separation performance, pulse inversion (PI) is the best method and thus provides the lowest level

  16. Internet-based transfer of cardiac ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Garcia, M. J.; Morehead, A. J.; Cardon, L. A.; Klein, A. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    A drawback to large-scale multicentre studies is the time required for the centralized evaluation of diagnostic images. We evaluated the feasibility of digital transfer of echocardiographic images to a central laboratory for rapid and accurate interpretation. Ten patients undergoing trans-oesophageal echocardiographic scanning at three sites had representative single images and multiframe loops stored digitally. The images were analysed in the ordinary way. All images were then transferred via the Internet to a central laboratory and reanalysed by a different observer. The file sizes were 1.5-72 MByte and the transfer rates achieved were 0.6-4.8 Mbit/min. Quantitative measurements were similar between most on-site and central laboratory measurements (all P > 0.25), although measurements differed for left atrial width and pulmonary venous systolic velocities (both P < 0.05). Digital transfer of echocardiographic images and data to a central laboratory may be useful for multicentre trials.

  17. Plane reconstruction ultrasound tomography device

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, D.

    1984-10-23

    An ultrasound tomography device for scanning an object under examination from a plurality of directions. Coronal slice images of the plane areas near or at the female breast wall are obtained. Ultrasound lobes from ultrasound transducers are electronically directed or mechanically positioned to obliquely strike the coronal slice located at or near the breast wall. A full image of the coronal slice plane is reconstructed through section by section combination of the images obtained from the several ultrasound lobes.

  18. Ultrasound of the elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Martinoli; Stefano Bianchi; Francesco Giovagnorio; Francesca Pugliese

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an efficient alternative to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for evaluation of soft tissues of the elbow. US is able to diagnose several abnormalities affecting tendons, muscles, ligaments and bursae around the elbow joint. In cubital tunnel syndrome, US identifies ulnar nerve abnormalities and extrinsic lesions that may cause nerve entrapment. Occult fractures, osteophytes and intra-articular loose bodies

  19. Addressing phonological questions with ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Davidson

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of consonant cluster phonotactics is presented as an example of how ultrasound

  20. The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound Intense ultrasonic waves traveling through liquids generate generators of high-intensity ultrasound (sound pitched above human hearing at fre quencies greater than 16 kilohertz, or 16,000 cycles per second). Today ultrasound is applied in hos pitals for medical imaging

  1. Ultrasound biomicroscopy permits in vivo

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Ultrasound biomicroscopy permits in vivo characterization of zebrafish liver tumors Wolfram that tumors could be readily detected in vivo using high-resolution microscopic ultrasound in zebrafish. We and response to treatment. Ultrasound biomicroscopy allows longitudinal studies of tumor development and real

  2. Ultrasound internal tattooing Olivier Couturea

    E-print Network

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    Ultrasound internal tattooing Olivier Couturea and Magalie Faivre ESPCI, Paris 75005, France ultrasound-inducible droplets carrying large payloads of fluorescent markers and the in vivo proof of concept of their remote and controlled deposition via focused ultrasound. The droplets are monodispersed multiple

  3. Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Paolo; Vidovich, Mladen I.; Lawless, Christine E.; Elayda, MacArthur A.; Lopez, J. Alberto; Wolf, Dwayne; Willerson, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death in athletes is a recurrent phenomenon at sporting events and during training. Recent studies have associated sudden cardiac death with such cardiovascular conditions as coronary artery anomalies, cardiomyopathies, and electrocardiographic abnormalities, most of which are screenable with modern imaging techniques. We recently inaugurated the Center for Coronary Artery Anomalies at the Texas Heart Institute, which is dedicated to preventing sudden cardiac death in the young and investigating coronary artery anomalies. There, we are conducting 2 cross-sectional studies intended to firmly establish and quantify, in a large group of individuals from a general population, risk factors for sudden cardiac death that arise from specific cardiovascular conditions. In a pilot screening study, we are using a brief, focused clinical questionnaire, electrocardiography, and a simplified novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance screening protocol in approximately 10,000 unselected 11- to 15-year-old children. Concurrently, we are prospectively studying the prevalence of these same conditions, their severity, and their relation to exercise and mode of death in approximately 6,500 consecutive necropsy cases referred to a large forensic center. Eventually, we hope to use our findings to develop a more efficient method of preventing sudden cardiac death in athletes. We believe that these studies will help quantify sudden cardiac death risk factors and the relevance of associated physical activities—crucial information in evaluating the feasibility and affordability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance-based screening. We discuss the rationale for and methods of this long-term endeavor, in advance of reporting the results. PMID:23678212

  4. Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

  5. Basic Principles of Ultrasound

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

  6. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jerosch-Herold; Ravi Teja Seethamraju; Carsten Rickers

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be extremely versatile and useful for studying cardiac anatomy and function,\\u000a both for providing a deeper understanding of cardiac physiology and as a means to diagnose cardiac diseases. The capabilities\\u000a of MRI as a tomographic imaging modality to capture, with high spatial resolution, the anatomy of 3D structures was already\\u000a well appreciated before

  7. Accuracy of surgeon-performed ultrasound in parathyroid localization.

    PubMed

    Van Husen, Russell; Kim, Lawrence T

    2004-11-01

    Ultrasound is one of the preferred modalities for localization of abnormal parathyroids. Accuracy of ultrasound is technician-dependent. This study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of surgeon-performed ultrasound (SPU) for the localization of parathyroid tumors in comparison to radiology-performed ultrasound (RPU) and nuclear scintigraphy (NS). In this series 74 consecutive patients with untreated primary hyperparathyroidism underwent SPU at the initial clinic visit; 21 of these patients did not undergo surgery and are excluded from the analysis. Of the 53 patients remaining, RPU was obtained in 26, and 52 patients underwent NS. Directed parathyroidectomy was performed with use of the intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay (IOPTH). In all, 46 patients had a single adenoma as indicated by IOPTH and final pathology. Two patients had double gland disease, and 5 patients had multi-gland hyperplasia. The sensitivity of SPU was 82% and the specificity was 90% in detecting the diseased glands on the correct side (right versus left). The sensitivity for RPU was 42% and the specificity was 92% (n = 26). The sensitivity of NS was 44% and the specificity was 98% (n = 52). In only one case did RPU or NS detect a gland not found by SPU. SPU can be done with accuracy comparable to other ultrasound series in the literature, and it may be superior to RPU or NS in some institutions. It is important for surgeons to be aware of local institutional expertise when relying on RPU and NS during preoperative evaluation prior to directed parathyroidectomy. PMID:15490067

  8. Environmental impact of cardiac imaging tests for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H Marwick; Jonathan Buonocore

    2011-01-01

    The use of cardiovascular imaging is growing inexorably and concerns have been expressed about its cost and radiation safety. In this study, the relative environmental impact of MRI, single photon emission tomography and cardiac ultrasound (echo) for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease were examined. The results emphasise that echo causes the least environmental impact at each stage of its

  9. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Strain using Cardiac Elastography: Distinguishing Infarcted from Non-Infarcted Myocardium

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Assessment of Regional Myocardial Strain using Cardiac Elastography: Distinguishing Infarcted from Non-Infarcted Myocardium Elisa E. Konofagou', Timothy Harrigan2 and Scott Solomon3 'Focused Ultrasound in a patient with a known myocardial infarction. Envelope- detected sonographic data was used to estimate

  10. Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

  11. Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidoses in Older North Americans

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2011-01-01

    The amyloidoses are a group of hereditary or acquired disorders caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils that impair tissue structure and function. All amyloidoses result from protein misfolding, a common mechanism for disorders in older persons including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Cardiac amyloidoses in the elderly are most often caused by abnormalities in the protein transthyretin (TTR), a serum transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Mutations in TTR can result in familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, and wild-type TTR can result in senile cardiac amyloidosis. These underdiagnosed disorders are much more common than previously thought. The resulting restrictive cardiomyopathy can cause congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and advanced conduction system disease. Although historically difficult to make, the diagnosis of TTR cardiac amyloidosis has become easier in recent years with advances in cardiac imaging and more widespread use of genetic analysis. While therapy to this point has largely involved supportive medical care, avoidance of potentially toxic agents, and rarely organ transplantation, the near future brings the possibility of targeted pharmacotherapies designed to prevent TTR misfolding and amyloid deposition. As these disease modifying agents are designed to prevent disease progression, it has become increasingly important that older persons with TTR amyloidosis be expeditiously identified and considered for enrollment in clinical registries and trials. PMID:22329529

  12. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Skori?, Boško; ?ikeš, Maja; Ma?ek, Jana Ljubas; Bari?evi?, Željko; Škorak, Ivan; Gašparovi?, Hrvoje; Bio?ina, Bojan; Mili?i?, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy represents the major determinant of long-term survival in patients after heart transplantation. Due to graft denervation, these patients seldom present with classic symptoms of angina pectoris, and the first clinical presentations are progressive heart failure or sudden cardiac death. Although coronary angiography remains the routine technique for coronary artery disease detection, it is not sensitive enough for screening purposes. This is especially the case in the first year after transplantation when diffuse and concentric vascular changes can be easily detected only by intravascular ultrasound. The treatment of the established vasculopathy is disappointing, so the primary effort should be directed toward early prevention and diagnosis. Due to diffuse vascular changes, revascularization procedures are restricted only to a relatively small proportion of patients with favorable coronary anatomy. Percutaneous coronary intervention is preferred over surgical revascularization since it leads to better acute results and patient survival. Although there is no proven long-term advantage of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of in-stent restenosis, they are preferred over bare-metal stents. Severe vasculopathy has a poor prognosis and the only definitive treatment is retransplantation. This article reviews the present knowledge on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25559827

  13. Are Electronic Cardiac Devices Still Evolving?

    PubMed Central

    Mabo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The goal of this paper is to review some important issues occurring during the past year in Implantable devices. Methods First cardiac implantable device was proposed to maintain an adequate heart rate, either because the heart’s natural pacemaker is not fast enough, or there is a block in the heart’s electrical conduction system. During the last forty years, pacemakers have evolved considerably and become programmable and allow to configure specific patient optimum pacing modes. Various technological aspects (electrodes, connectors, algorithms diagnosis, therapies, …) have been progressed and cardiac implants address several clinical applications: management of arrhythmias, cardioversion / defibrillation and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Results Observed progress was the miniaturization of device, increased longevity, coupled with efficient pacing functions, multisite pacing modes, leadless pacing and also a better recognition of supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia’s in order to deliver appropriate therapy. Subcutaneous implant, new modes of stimulation (leadless implant or ultrasound lead), quadripolar lead and new sensor or new algorithm for the hemodynamic management are introduced and briefly described. Each times, the main result occurring during the two past years are underlined and repositioned from the history, remaining limitations are also addressed. Conclusion Some important technological improvements were described. Nevertheless, news trends for the future are also considered in a specific session such as the remote follow-up of the patient or the treatment of heart failure by neuromodulation. PMID:25123732

  14. abnormalities in infants and toddlers

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    Cerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome children with Williams syndrome. Clinical brain MRI was examined in nine young children with Williams

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

    2003-01-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

  16. Students' reactions to abnormal psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Taylor

    1932-01-01

    As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

  17. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  18. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  19. System for the diagnosis and monitoring of coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, cardiomyopathy and other cardiac conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); Arenare, Brian (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed and stored in a useful form using a computer. The computer monitor displays various useful information, and in particular graphically displays various permutations of reduced amplitude zones and kurtosis that increase the rapidity and accuracy of cardiac diagnoses. New criteria for reduced amplitude zones are defined that enhance the sensitivity and specificity for detecting cardiac abnormalities.

  20. Computational approaches to understand cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Byron N.; Yang, Pei-Chi; Behrens, Steven B.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac rhythms arise from electrical activity generated by precisely timed opening and closing of ion channels in individual cardiac myocytes. These impulses spread throughout the cardiac muscle to manifest as electrical waves in the whole heart. Regularity of electrical waves is critically important since they signal the heart muscle to contract, driving the primary function of the heart to act as a pump and deliver blood to the brain and vital organs. When electrical activity goes awry during a cardiac arrhythmia, the pump does not function, the brain does not receive oxygenated blood, and death ensues. For more than 50 years, mathematically based models of cardiac electrical activity have been used to improve understanding of basic mechanisms of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical function. Computer-based modeling approaches to understand cardiac activity are uniquely helpful because they allow for distillation of complex emergent behaviors into the key contributing components underlying them. Here we review the latest advances and novel concepts in the field as they relate to understanding the complex interplay between electrical, mechanical, structural, and genetic mechanisms during arrhythmia development at the level of ion channels, cells, and tissues. We also discuss the latest computational approaches to guiding arrhythmia therapy. PMID:22886409

  1. Quantification and MRI Validation of Regional Contractile Dysfunction in Mice Post Myocardial Infarction Using High Resolution Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinbo; Garson, Christopher D.; Xu, Yaqin; Beyers, Ronald J.; Epstein, Frederick H.; French, Brent A.; Hossack, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A versatile, computationally-efficient two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking method based on high resolution ultrasound imaging is proposed to quantify regional myocardial dysfunction in mice. Ultrasound scans were performed on the hearts of normal and post myocardial infarction (MI) mice with a Vevo770 scanner (VisualSonics, Toronto, Canada) operating at 30 MHz frequency. Regional myocardial motion was tracked using a 2D Minimum Sum of Absolute Differences (MSAD) block-matching algorithm. Motion analyses calculated from ultrasound images were compared to "gold-standard" analyses performed using small animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The radial and circumferential components of strain were compared between ultrasound and MRI short axis views and promising correlations were obtained (R = 0.90 and R = 0.85 for radial and circumferential strain, respectively). Therefore, ultrasound imaging, followed by 2D image tracking, provides an effective, low cost, mobile method to quantify murine cardiac function accurately and reliably. PMID:17434660

  2. The use of gated radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of cardiac contusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fenner, J.E.; Knopp, R.; Lee, B.; dos Santos, P.A.; Wessel, R.J.; Dang, C.V.; Parks, S.N.

    1984-09-01

    No currently used diagnostic test is an accurate predictor of patients who will develop morbidity or mortality from cardiac contusion. In a prospective study we used gated cardiac radionuclide angiography to assess cardiac function in 30 patients with blunt chest trauma, and we compared the results of this test with those of other diagnostic studies for cardiac contusion to determine whether gated angiography is a more accurate predictor of serious cardiac injury. Diagnostic tests included the following: serial electrocardiograms (ECG), serial creatine phosphokinase muscle-brain isoenzyme (CPK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes, gated cardiac radionuclide angiography, and technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pyrophosphate scintigraphy. Abnormal studies were present in 26 patients; 22 showed abnormalities in CPK-MB, 19 on ECG, and five on gated scan. No patient demonstrated an abnormal Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan or abnormal elevation of LDH isoenzyme. Although no diagnostic test was predictive of morbidity and mortality, CPK-MB isoenzyme was the only test to correlate with morbidity and mortality. Morbidity and mortality correlated most closely with the number of associated major injuries and the presence of hypotension or hypoxia.

  3. Ultrasound simulation in bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Kaufman; Gangming Luo; Robert S. Siffert

    2008-01-01

    The manner in which ultrasound interacts with bone is of key interest in therapy and diagnosis alike. These may include applications directly to bone, as, for example, in treatment to accelerate the healing of bone fractures and in assessment of bone density in osteoporosis, or indirectly in diagnostic imaging of soft tissue with interest in assessing exposure levels to nearby

  4. Ultrasound and the IRB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist researchers in writing their research protocols and subject consent forms so that both the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and subjects are assured of the minimal risk associated with diagnostic B-scan ultrasound as it is used in speech research. There have been numerous epidemiological studies on fetal…

  5. Tracked ultrasound elastography (TRUE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Pezhman

    Medical ultrasound research has experienced a renaissance in the past decade leading to innovations in flow mapping, elasticity and thermal imaging, measurement of optical properties, beamforming, and image enhancement. In this thesis, we focus on ultrasound elastography, an emerging imaging modality with great potential to become a part of several ultrasound diagnostic applications. Elastography images the stiffness of soft tissue by applying a mechanical stimulus and estimating the disturbance created by this stimulus. In freehand elastography, soft tissue is palpated by hand using the ultrasound transducer. The elastography image is generated by comparing the pre- and post-compression images to form a displacement map which is then differentiated to produce the final strain map. To achieve the best result in freehand elastography, the sonographer must compress and decompress the tissue uniformly in a specific direction with adequate compression. This can be a difficult task even for trained users. A small rotational or out-of-plane motion in the collected ultrasound frames can render them unusable for elastography. This has made freehand elastography highly qualitative and user-dependent. We tackle this issue by incorporating the extra information from a position sensor attached to the ultrasound transducer. Our aim is to show that the localization information of ultrasound images may be utilized to improve the quality and reliability of freehand elastography. For this purpose, we have developed a frame selection scheme that finds pairs of images with optimal compression and minimal lateral and out-of-plane displacement. Relying on the localization information, our algorithm merges multiple strain images computed from the selected frame pairs. This method is applicable to both 2D and 3D elastography. Our 3D elastography does not require for the transducer to be held still during the acquisition of each volume. Instead, the sonographer freely palpates the tissue similar to the 2D case while a series of volumes are being collected. For applications such as needle ablation therapy, it is also possible to palpate the tissue internally using the ablation needle. In this case, we have assessed the feasibility of incorporating the localization information about the tip of the needle in elastography. We have evaluated these methods using tissue mimicking phantom, animal, and patient experiments. Our results suggest that in challenging clinical conditions, the proposed methods are capable of producing high-quality strain images.

  6. HIC #1303011662 Free Free Ultrasound Ultrasound Visual FVisual Feedback eedback Lessons Lessons

    E-print Network

    HIC #1303011662 Free Free Ultrasound Ultrasound Visual FVisual Feedback in which ultrasound is used to provide a visual display of the tongue. Finally. Speech lessons involve using ultrasound to provide a video image

  7. Postgraduate in Cardiac Electrophysiology

    E-print Network

    Einmahl, Uwe

    and myocardial infarction), · Diseases affecting the mechanical function of the heart (heart failure), · Diseases by an acute obstruction of a coronary artery can cause acute heart failure and acute arrhythmias that may lead to cardiogenic shock or sudden cardiac death. Cardiac arrhythmias can also cause heart failure and heart failure

  8. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if your doctor says you can. • Have your heart rate, blood pressure and EKG monitored. A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or in the community. Cardiac rehab is for patients who are getting better after heart problems or surgery. One of the best things ...

  9. Prospectively gated cardiac CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic Heuscher; S. Zabic

    2007-01-01

    Future cardiac CT protocols will utilize large area detectors with whole heart scans performed within one heartbeat. For such scans, accurate prospective ECG gating is essential to capture the heart at the correct phase. This report addresses one of the main factors affecting the prospective gating accuracy: the ability to predict the cardiac phase from the ECG signal. Two different

  10. Cardiac risk telemonitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hutten; M. Hribernigg; G. Rauchegger

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of advanced information, telecommunication and implant technology for cardiac risk stratification and management is one of the greatest challenges for modern health care provision. Sudden cardiac death is the major contributor to overall cardiovascular mortality with approximately 60% of all coronary heart disease fatalities occurring annually. Although some high-risk patient groups have been identified with reasonable sensitivity and specificity

  11. Garfinkel Cardiac Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan Garfinkel (University of California Los Angeles; Physiological Sci/Med-Cardio)

    2009-01-10

    Cardiac data on multiple variables for a selected population of 220 men and 338 women participating in a drug treatment study of dobutamine for heart attack prevention. Garfinkel, Alan, et. al. "Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Predicting Cardiac Events in Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33.3 (1999) 708-16.

  12. Cardiac disease after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease: analysis of 48 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Applefeld, M.M.; Wiernik, P.H.

    1983-06-01

    Occult or overt but delayed cardiac disease after thoracic radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease may be common. Detailed cardiac evaluations were performed in 48 patients with Hodgkin's disease at risk a mean of 97 months after radiotherapy. The study protocol included echocardiography, gated radionuclide ventriculography, and cardiac catheterization. Cardiac disease was found in 46 patients (96%) and included constrictive or occult constrictive pericarditis (24 patients), an abnormal hemodynamic response to a fluid challenge (14 patients), coronary artery disease (6 patients), and left ventricular dysfunction (2 patients). Most patients (53%) had normal echocardiograms. Gated blood pool radionuclide angiocardiography was performed in 42 patients. Excluding patients with occlusive coronary artery disease, the left ventricular ejection fraction at rest (mean 59%) and during exercise (mean 69%) was within normal limits. Thus (1) delayed cardiac disease after radiotherapy is common, (2) chronic pericardial disorders are the most frequent manifestations of this disease, and (3) the prognosis for patients who have radiation-induced cardiac disease is generally favorable.

  13. Association between electrocardiographic findings and cardiac dysfunction in adult isolated traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Prathep, Sumidtra; Sharma, Deepak; Gibbons, Edward; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings can be seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. ECG may be an inexpensive tool to identify patients at high risk for developing cardiac dysfunction after TBI. The aim of this study was to examine abnormal ECG findings after isolated TBI and their association with true cardiac dysfunction, based on echocardiogram. Methods: Data from adult patients with isolated TBI between 2003 and 2010 was retrospectively examined. Inclusion criteria included the presence of a 12-lead ECG within 24 h of admission and a formal echocardiographic examination within 72 h of admission after TBI. Patients with preexisting cardiac disease were excluded. Baseline clinical characteristics, 12-lead ECG, and echocardiogram report were abstracted. Logistic regression was used to identify the relationship of specific ECG abnormalities with cardiac dysfunction. Results: We examined data from 59 patients with isolated TBI who underwent 12-lead ECG and echocardiographic evaluation. In this cohort, 13 (22%) patients had tachycardia (heart rate >100 bpm), 25 (42.4%) patients had a prolonged QTc, and 6 (10.2%) patients had morphologic end-repolarization abnormalities (MERA), with each having an association with abnormal echocardiographic findings: Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) were 4.14 (1.02-17.05), 9.0 (1.74-46.65), and 5.63 (1.96-32.94), respectively. Ischemic-like ECG changes were not associated with echocardiographic abnormalities. Conclusions: Repolarization abnormalities (prolonged QTc and MERA), but not ischemic-like ECG changes, are associated with cardiac dysfunction after isolated TBI. 12-lead ECG may be an inexpensive screening tool to evaluate isolated TBI patients for cardiac dysfunction prior to more expensive or invasive studies. PMID:25249741

  14. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Upregulates Cardiac Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    CHA, YONG-MEI; OH, JAE; MIYAZAKI, CHINAMI; HAYES, DAVID L.; REA, ROBERT F.; SHEN, WIN-KUANG; ASIRVATHAM, SAMUEL J.; KEMP, BRAD J.; HODGE, DAVID O.; CHEN, PENG-SHENG; CHAREONTHAITAWEE, PANITHAYA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on sympathetic nervous function in heart failure (HF). Background: Neurohormonal dysregulation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction are associated with HF and contribute to HF progression and its poor prognosis. We hypothesized that mechanical resynchronization improves cardiac sympathetic function in HF. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients receiving CRT for advanced cardiomyopathy and 10 controls were included in this prospective study. NYHA class, 6-minute walk distance, echocardiographic parameters, plasma norepinephrine (NE) were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Cardiac sympathetic function was determined by 123iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. Results: Along with improvement in NYHA class (3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and LVEF (23 ± 6% to 33 ± 12%, P < 0.001 delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) 123 I-MIBG ratio increased significantly (1.8 ± 0.7 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.04) while the H/M 123I-MIBG washout rate decreased significantly (54 ± 25% to 34± 24%, P = 0.01) from baseline to 6-month follow-up. The heart rate variability (HRV) measured in SD of normal-to-normal intervals also increased significantly from baseline (82 ± 30 ms) to follow-up (111 ± 32 ms, P = 0.04). The improvement in NYHA after CRT was significantly associated with baseline 123I-MIBG H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). The improvement in LVESV index was associated with baseline 123I-MIBG delayed H/M ratio (r = ?0.67, P = 0.02) and H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). Conclusion: After CRT, improvements in cardiac symptoms and LV function were accompanied by rebalanced cardiac autonomic control as measured by 123I-MIBG and HRV. PMID:18479331

  15. Cardiac Hegemony of Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Sailay; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac senescence and age-related disease development have gained general attention and recognition in the past decades due to increased accessibility and quality of health care. The advancement in global civilization is complementary to concerns regarding population aging and development of chronic degenerative diseases. Cardiac degeneration has been rigorously studied. The molecular mechanisms of cardiac senescence are on multiple cellular levels and hold a multilayer complexity level, thereby hampering development of unambiguous treatment protocols. In particular, the synergistic exchange of the senescence phenotype through a senescence secretome between myocytes and stem cells appears complicated and is of great future therapeutic value. The current review article will highlight hallmarks of senescence, cardiac myocyte and stem cell senescence, and the mutual exchange of senescent secretome. Future cardiac cell therapy approaches require a comprehensive understanding of myocardial senescence to improve therapeutic efficiency as well as efficacy. PMID:24349878

  16. Metabolic abnormalities in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Ong, Albert C M

    2015-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder and is known to affect all ethnic groups with a prevalence of 1:400-1:1000 live births. The kidney in ADKPD is characterized by the formation of numerous cysts which progressively expand and eventually destroy normal kidney structure and function. Cysts occur in other organs outside the kidney, most commonly in the liver, pancreas and spleen. Important non-cystic features include intracranial aneurysms and cardiac valve defects. Less well recognized are a range of metabolic abnormalities, which could be involved in cystic disease progression or be associated with other disease complications. In this review, we summarize the literature suggesting that metabolic abnormalities could be important under-recognised and under-treated features in ADPKD. PMID:24589722

  17. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis of Sex Differentiation Disorders: The Role of Fetal Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ORIT PINHAS-HAMIEL; YARON ZALEL; ERIC SMITH; RAM MAZKERETH; AYALA AVIRAM; SHLOMO LIPITZ; REUVEN ACHIRON

    We describe our experience with prenatal diagnosis of sex dif- ferentiation disorders, with focus on the role of ultrasound scans for coherent assessment of prenatal diagnosis. Over a 5-yr pe- riod all cases suspected of sexual ambiguity based on abnormal ultrasonographic scans (US) or US\\/genotype US discrepancy were evaluated prenatally by three modalities: 1) repeated fetal US; 2) genetic studies,

  19. Doppler-derived cardiac output in healthy newborn infants in relation to physiological patency of the ductus arteriosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannu Hirsimäki; Pentti Kero; Olli Wanne; Risto Erkkola; Zita Makoi

    1988-01-01

    Summary Noninvasive Doppler-derived cardiac output was measured with the pulsed Doppler method in 22 healthy newborns during their first four days of life. Maximal blood flow velocity in the aorta was measured with the Doppler ultrasound method. The mean Doppler-derived cardiac output was 273±59 ml\\/min\\/kg. Ductal left-to-right shunting was also determined and then graded according to the flow in the

  20. Fetal Abnormalities Detected by Sonography in Low-Risk Pregnancies: Discrepancies between Pre and Post-Termination Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Julian-Reynier; G. Macquart-Moulin; N. Philip; C. Scheiner; A. Potier; D. Gambarelli; S. Aymé

    1994-01-01

    In this geographically based study the findings on 158 abnormal fetuses, primarily diagnosed by routine antenatal ultrasound, are correlated with the results of the examinations subsequently carried out by a fetopathologist and a clinical geneticist. Ninety fetuses (57%) had a single malformation, 66 were polymalformed (42%) and 2 had no malformations. In 90% of all these cases, the prenatally and

  1. Congenital anomalies of the uterus, and ultrasound diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miseljic, Nenad; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Mehmedbasic, Senad; Miseljic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Sonographic detection and evaluation of congenital anomalies of the uterus represent an important segment in the additional therapeutic procedure, that is, treatment of patients with congenital anomalies of the uterus. Besides the primary reason that is manifested in the total cure of the patients, the secondary reason represents the decrease of costs of treatment of congenital anomalies of the uterus. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used in this paper. In 1997 Kurjak and Kupesic compared the sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultra sound, color Doppler, hysterosonography and three-dimensional ultrasound during diagnosis of the uterus septum. Representation of pathological findings in our paper in comparison to the examined group is: uterus subseptus = 15.38%, double horned uterus = 10.25%. The examined group includes intrauterine abnormalities of the uterus, analyzing, in that process, individual, pathological entities of intrauterine abnormalities. The research is a prospective, target, clinical study. In the examined group, due to the clinical suspicion of intrauterine abnormalities, 78 patients were examined in the following manner: two-dimensional transabdominal and transvaginal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations were made and then three-dimensional transabdominal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations. This means that in the detection of congenital anomalies of the uterus, the same sonographic techniques were first applied on the conventional and then also on the multidimensional base. Our research showed that three-dimensional technique is a more reliable diagnostic tool than two-dimensional technique. Sensitivity and specificity rate as well as positive predictive value show that this technique is an extraordinary one for assessing the volume, and position of congenital abnormalities. PMID:20514782

  2. Liver biopsy complications monitored by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hederström, E; Forsberg, L; Florén, C H; Prytz, H

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) was performed in 96 patients (on 108 occasions) 2-4 h after diagnostic liver puncture with a modified Menghini needle. Serious complications (major haemorrhages: one intraparenchymal and one into the abdominal cavity) were seen in two patients, while seven presented with minor bleedings though without any registered clinical abnormality (slight pain in one). On 11 occasions (10 patients) slight to moderate pain was observed though in combination with a normal US. Findings on US and clinical observations showed poor correlation and the number of bleeding complications discovered by US examination seems to depend upon when the study is performed. US does not replace the clinical follow-up but may be helpful in the presence of adverse clinical reactions in order to establish the type of lesion: profuse parenchymal haemorrhage versus bleeding into the abdominal cavity. This information may be helpful in the choice between conservative and surgical therapy. PMID:2646368

  3. Cardiac Risks Associated With Marathon Running

    PubMed Central

    Day, Sharlene M.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: A recent cluster of sudden cardiac deaths in marathon runners has attracted considerable media attention and evoked concern over the safety of long-distance running and competition. This review discusses the acute and potential long-term risks associated with marathon running and puts these into perspective with the many health benefits afforded by habitual vigorous exercise. Evidence Acquisition: Data sources included peer-reviewed publications from 1979 to January 2010 as identified via PubMed and popular media. Results: Marathon running is associated with a transient and low risk of sudden cardiac death. This risk appears to be even lower in women and is independent of marathon experience or the presence of previously reported symptoms. Most deaths are due to underlying coronary artery disease. The value of preparticipation screening is limited by its insensitivity and impracticality of widespread implementation. Appropriate preparation and deployment of trained medical personnel and availability of automatic external defibrillators are expected to have a major impact on survival from cardiac arrests during marathons. Cardiac biochemical and functional abnormalities are commonly observed transiently following completion of a marathon, although their clinical significance is unknown. Conclusions: Sudden cardiac deaths associated with marathon running are exceedingly rare events. Prevention should focus on recognition and investigation of prodromal symptoms, if present, and access to rapid defibrillation and trained medical personnel. The robust association of endurance running with improved quality of life and longevity underscores the importance of putting risks into perspective with other well-established health benefits of regular vigorous exercise. PMID:23015951

  4. Agnathia-otocephaly: prenatal diagnosis by two- and three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    PubMed

    Hisaba, Wagner Jou; Milani, Hérbene José Figuinha; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Passos, Jurandir Piassi; Barreto, Enoch Quinderé Sá; Carvalho, Natália Silva; Helfer, Talita Micheletti; Pares, David Batista Silva; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    A case of prenatally diagnosed otocephaly is reported. Otocephaly is an extremely rare malformation characterized by absence or hypoplasia of the mandible and abnormal horizontal position of the ears. 2D ultrasound performed at 25 weeks of gestation revealed agnathia, proboscis and hypotelorism. 3D ultrasound (rendering mode) and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate the facial features, and were essential for characterization of facial malformations in otocephaly and for the demonstration and correct prenatal counseling of the couple. PMID:25463893

  5. Identification of Optic Disc Elevation and the Crescent Sign Using Point-of-Care Ocular Ultrasound in Children.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Ronald F; Mistry, Rakesh D; Scarfone, Richard J; Chen, Aaron E

    2015-04-01

    Point-of-care ocular ultrasound has been used to detect papilledema. In previous studies, investigators have evaluated only optic nerve sheath diameter as a screen for increased intracranial pressure. In this series of 4 children, we demonstrate 2 additional optic nerve abnormalities using point-of-care ocular ultrasound: optic disc elevation and the crescent sign. Assessing the optic nerve for each of these 3 findings may assist the examiner in detecting papilledema. PMID:25831036

  6. Cardiac screening in infants with infantile hemangiomas before propranolol treatment.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine; McElhinney, Doff B; Guarini, Ascanio; Presti, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    There is no uniform pretreatment cardiac evaluation for infants treated with oral propranolol, which is now the drug of choice for hemangiomas of infancy requiring systemic medical intervention. The aim of this study was to report and evaluate the findings of pretreatment cardiac evaluation. Data were reviewed for patients evaluated by a single hemangioma specialist and a single pediatric cardiologist prior to initiation of propranolol for infantile hemangioma. Cardiac evaluation included a complete echocardiogram. From July 2009 through January 2013, 239 consecutive patients 12 months of age or younger (median 2.7 months) were screened. No patients had cardiac contraindications to propranolol. However, 50 patients (21%) had an abnormal echocardiogram: 39 atrial septal defects (5 associated with right heart enlargement), 6 ventricular septal defects, 2 patent ductus arteriosus, 1 aortic coarctation, 1 pulmonary valve stenosis, and 1 aberrant subclavian artery. Overall, 69 patients had an audible heart murmur, 44 of which were not associated with pathologic findings on echocardiogram. All patients with a ventricular septal defect and 16 of 39 with an atrial septal defect had a murmur. Two of seven patients with PHACE syndrome had cardiac anomalies. None of the findings precluded the use of propranolol. Assisted reproductive technologies were used in 18% of pregnancies, including in vitro fertilization in 12%. Cardiac contraindications to propranolol treatment are uncommon in patients with infantile hemangioma. However, anatomic abnormalities were more common than reported in the general population. Further study is necessary to determine whether there is a pathogenic relationship between cardiac defects and nonsyndromic infantile hemangioma. PMID:24889812

  7. Pathology of intrinsic cardiac neurons from ischemic human hearts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D A; Macdonald, S E; Murphy, D A; Armour, J A

    2000-08-01

    Various populations of intrinsic cardiac neurons influence regional cardiac function tonically. It is not known whether such neurons are affected by disease states and, if so, in what manner. Therefore, the morphology of intrinsic cardiac ganglia obtained from patients with angiographic evidence of compromised regional coronary blood supply was studied. Posterior atrial ganglia and surrounding fat, removed at the time of cardiac surgery, were placed immediately in saline and within 15-120 min (average of about 40 min) in 0.5% paraformaldehyde/2.5% glutaraldehyde. In 32 studied ganglia, 35% of 473 intrinsic cardiac neurons displayed striking pathological changes at the light and ultrastructural level. The other cells displayed normal morphology. The cytoplasm of 74% of the abnormal cells had one or more of three types of inclusions: (1) darkly stained lamellated inclusions (Type I), (2) membrane-bound whorls and parallel arrays of lightly stained membranes, as well as fine granular material (Type II), or (3) concentric layers of lightly stained membranes with a darker, granular core (Type III). Neurons with inclusions were markedly enlarged (66 x 54 microm vs. 40 x 34 microm for normal neurons) and displayed fewer dendrites. Some neurons contained electron lucent vacuoles indicative of degeneration while others showed frank degeneration, being fragmented, shrunken, and misshapen. Phagocytic cells containing lamellated inclusions and cellular debris were found in ganglia with abnormal neurons. Some axon terminals also displayed degenerative changes. The identification of pathological changes in the human intrinsic cardiac nervous system has implications with respect to the functional integrity of this final common regulator of cardiac function in disease states. PMID:10903534

  8. Driving delivery vehicles with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Katherine W

    2008-06-30

    Therapeutic applications of ultrasound have been considered for over 40 years, with the mild hyperthermia and associated increases in perfusion produced by ultrasound harnessed in many of the earliest treatments. More recently, new mechanisms for ultrasound-based or ultrasound-enhanced therapies have been described, and there is now great momentum and enthusiasm for the clinical translation of these techniques. This dedicated issue of Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, entitled "Ultrasound for Drug and Gene Delivery," addresses the mechanisms by which ultrasound can enhance local drug and gene delivery and the applications that have been demonstrated at this time. In this commentary, the identified mechanisms, delivery vehicles, applications and current bottlenecks for translation of these techniques are summarized. PMID:18479775

  9. Driving delivery vehicles with ultrasound ?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic applications of ultrasound have been considered for over 40 years, with the mild hyperthermia and associated increases in perfusion produced by ultrasound harnessed in many of the earliest treatments. More recently, new mechanisms for ultrasound-based or ultrasound-enhanced therapies have been described, and there is now great momentum and enthusiasm for the clinical translation of these techniques. This dedicated issue of Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, entitled “Ultrasound for Drug and Gene Delivery,” addresses the mechanisms by which ultrasound can enhance local drug and gene delivery and the applications that have been demonstrated at this time. In this commentary, the identified mechanisms, delivery vehicles, applications and current bottlenecks for translation of these techniques are summarized. PMID:18479775

  10. Biofouling control with ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.R.

    2000-06-01

    Experiments have been carried out on a small-scale simulated cooling water system using a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens to represent the slime-forming microbial community, to examine the opportunities for control using ultrasound. Glass tubes (18 mm I.D. x 1 m long) through which contaminated water flowed at 1 m/s were dosed with ultrasound along the tube axis. Glass tubes were employed to facilitate the use of infrared absorbance for biofilm accumulation assessment. The preliminary results demonstrate that control of biofilm formation and the removal of established biofilms on the inside of tubes may be achieved by the technology, but there may be some limitations with respect to removal.

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum on Bedside Ultrasound: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Sybil; Gharahbaghian, Laleh; Perera, Phillips; Joshi, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare disease process with no clear etiology, although it is thought to be related to changes in intrathoracic pressure causing chest pain and dyspnea. We present a case of a 17-year-old male with acute chest pain evaluated initially by bedside ultrasound, which showed normal lung sliding but poor visualization of the parasternal and apical cardiac views due to significant air artifact, representing air in the thoracic cavity. The diagnosis was later verified by chest radiograph. We present a case report on ultrasound-diagnosed pneumomediastinum, and we review the diagnostic modalities to date.

  12. [Myocardial metabolism abnormalities during ischemia and reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Argaud, L; Ovize, M

    2000-01-01

    Normal cardiac function requires adequate oxygen and substrate (fatty acids, glucose lactate) supply for the energetic requirements of the myocardium. Ischaemia induces abnormalities in the production and excretion of products of myocardial metabolism. During ischaemia, the equilibrium which exists during aerobic respiration between the beta-oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates and which generates ATP is disturbed. Pyruvate oxidation and beta-oxidation of fatty acids decrease, and ATP is mainly produced by anaerobic glycolysis. Under these conditions, intracellular glycogen is mobilised, the lactate and protons accumulate in the cardiomyocyte. If reperfusion occurs before irreversible lesions are produced, then functional recovery is possible and is mostly dependant on the type of energetic substrate available. Circulating fatty acids are produced in large quantities after ischaemia: their beta-oxidation, which is then the principal source of ATP, may contribute to the aggravation of contractile dysfunction during reperfusion and accentuate or generate arrhythmias. The decoupling between acceleration of anaerobic glycolysis and the defect of pyruvirate oxidation (inhibition of pyruvirate dehydrogenase) participate in a significant fashion to the accumulation of protons. Rapid correction of intracellular acidosis during reperfusion by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger, coupled with the accumulation of intracellular Na+ induces a deleterious calcium overload via the Na+/Ca++ exchanger. These different aspects of intracellular metabolism constitute pharmacological targets for the development of future cardio-protective agents. PMID:11227723

  13. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  14. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  15. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Louis Sarrao

    1993-01-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) measurements of the structural phase transition in La_ {rm 2-x}Sr_{ rm x}CuO_4 are presented. After a review of the RUS technique and the description of structural phase transitions within a Ginzburg -Landau formalism, we discuss measurements of the complete elastic moduli of La_2CuO _4 and La_{1.86} Sr_{0.14}CUO _4. Large modulus-specific softening is observed in the vicinity

  16. Therapeutic Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Abu Dayyeh, Barham K.

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a viable and often preferred alternative to interventional and radiologic procedures, and the therapeutic applications of EUS continue to evolve. This evolution was catalyzed by the introduction of linear echoendoscopes that provide continuous imaging and observation of needles and by therapeutic devices that pass through large-caliber working channels. In this paper, we will discuss the spectrum of EUS-guided interventions that are currently available and in development. PMID:23293554

  17. Clinical ophthalmic ultrasound improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. B.; Piro, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution ultrasound images of eye and orbit was proposed. The parameters of the switched array configuration to reduce data collection time to a few milliseconds to avoid eye motion problems in the eye itself were established. An assessment of the effects of eye motion on the performance of the system was obtained. The principles of synthetic techniques are discussed. Likely applications are considered.

  18. Ultrasound of the pectoralis major muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mascarinas, Angelie L; Newman, Joel S; Warner, Jon J P; Jain, Nitin B

    2014-12-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. Presented is a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple previous surgeries and contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging because of a shoulder implant. This patient's physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient because surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program. PMID:25251253

  19. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

  20. [Diagnostics of pneumothorax with ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Shchegolev, A V; Khrapov, K N; Lakhin, R E; Gerasimov, G L; Emel'ianov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with a method of pneumothorax diagnostics based on verification of four ultrasound sings--lung sliding absence, B-lines absence, lung pulse absence and lung point presence. Use of ultrasound allows to quickly diagnose a pneumothorax and to monitor the condition of pleural space. Introduction of the ultrasound methods into routine work ICU specialists can increase safety of patients. PMID:25549490

  1. Potential effects of intrinsic heart pacemaker cell mechanisms on dysrhythmic cardiac action potential firing

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Yael; Tsutsui, Kenta; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    The heart's regular electrical activity is initiated by specialized cardiac pacemaker cells residing in the sinoatrial node. The rate and rhythm of spontaneous action potential firing of sinoatrial node cells are regulated by stochastic mechanisms that determine the level of coupling of chemical to electrical clocks within cardiac pacemaker cells. This coupled-clock system is modulated by autonomic signaling from the brain via neurotransmitter release from the vagus and sympathetic nerves. Abnormalities in brain-heart clock connections or in any molecular clock activity within pacemaker cells lead to abnormalities in the beating rate and rhythm of the pacemaker tissue that initiates the cardiac impulse. Dysfunction of pacemaker tissue can lead to tachy-brady heart rate alternation or exit block that leads to long atrial pauses and increases susceptibility to other cardiac arrhythmia. Here we review evidence for the idea that disturbances in the intrinsic components of pacemaker cells may be implemented in arrhythmia induction in the heart. PMID:25755643

  2. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  3. Late cardiac, thyroid, and pulmonary sequelae of mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G.W.; Freeman, A.P.; McLean, R.G.; Jarvie, B.H.; Giles, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    Cardiac, thyroid and pulmonary function were evaluated in 25 patients aged 35 years or under, treated for Hodgkin's disease by mantle radiotherapy 5-16 years previously. No patient had symptoms of heart disease. Although thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was normal in all patients, abnormalities of myocardial function were detected in 6 (24%) patients using gated equilibrium rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was abnormal in 1 patient, and in 3 patients there was an abnormal LVEF response to exercise. All 6 patients had right ventricular dilatation. Apical hypokinesia was present in 4 of these patients. A small asymptomatic pericardial effusion was detected by M-Mode echocardiography in only 2 (8%) patients. Twenty-three (92%) patients had evidence of abnormal thyroid function. Two (8%) patients had become clinically hypothyroid. Serum TSH was elevated in 13 (52%) patients and TRH stimulation test was abnormal in a further 10 (40%) patients in whom TSH was normal. Pulmonary function studies showed a moderate decrease in diffusing capacity (72% of predicted) and a minor reduction in lung volume. Although a high incidence of cardiac, thyroid and pulmonary abnormalities was detected, only the 2 patients who had become hypothyroid were symptomatic. Modification of the irradiation technique may reduce the incidence of cardiac abnormalities, but is unlikely to alter significantly the thyroid or pulmonary sequelae.

  4. Effects of Lifestyle Modification Programs on Cardiac Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S.; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K.; Stason, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p?=?0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  5. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Stason, William B

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  6. Mutations in Calmodulin Cause Ventricular Tachycardia and Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael T.; Søndergaard, Mads T.; Vranas, Marta; Behr, Elijah R.; Hildebrandt, Lasse L.; Lund, Jacob; Hedley, Paula L.; Camm, A. John; Wettrell, Göran; Fosdal, Inger; Christiansen, Michael; Børglum, Anders D.

    2012-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe dominantly inherited form of CPVT-like arrhythmias, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 14q31-32. Sequencing CALM1 encoding calmodulin revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.161A>T [p.Asn53Ile]) segregating with the disease. A second, de novo, missense mutation (c.293A>G [p.Asn97Ser]) was subsequently identified in an individual of Iraqi origin; this individual was diagnosed with CPVT from a screening of 61 arrhythmia samples with no identified RYR2 mutations. Both CALM1 substitutions demonstrated compromised calcium binding, and p.Asn97Ser displayed an aberrant interaction with the RYR2 calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac death. PMID:23040497

  7. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael T; Søndergaard, Mads T; Vranas, Marta; Behr, Elijah R; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Lund, Jacob; Hedley, Paula L; Camm, A John; Wettrell, Göran; Fosdal, Inger; Christiansen, Michael; Børglum, Anders D

    2012-10-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe dominantly inherited form of CPVT-like arrhythmias, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 14q31-32. Sequencing CALM1 encoding calmodulin revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.161A>T [p.Asn53Ile]) segregating with the disease. A second, de novo, missense mutation (c.293A>G [p.Asn97Ser]) was subsequently identified in an individual of Iraqi origin; this individual was diagnosed with CPVT from a screening of 61 arrhythmia samples with no identified RYR2 mutations. Both CALM1 substitutions demonstrated compromised calcium binding, and p.Asn97Ser displayed an aberrant interaction with the RYR2 calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac death. PMID:23040497

  8. End-tidal CO 2 pressure decreases during exercise in cardiac patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Matsumoto; Haruki Itoh; Yoko Eto; Toshio Kobayashi; Makoto Kato; Masao Omata; Hiroshi Watanabe; Kazuzo Kato; Shin-ichi Momomura

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe measured end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) during exercise and investigated the relationship between PETCO2 and exercise capacity, ventilatory parameters and cardiac output to determine the mechanism(s) of changes in this parameter.BACKGROUNDIt is unclear whether PETCO2 is abnormal at rest and during exercise in cardiac patients.METHODSCardiac patients (n = 112) and normal individuals (n = 29) performed exercise tests with breath-by-breath

  9. Impairment of coronary flow reserve in orthotopic cardiac transplant recipients with minor coronary occlusive disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Mullins; A Chauhan; L Sharples; N R Cary; S R Large; J Wallwork; P M Schofield

    1992-01-01

    Objective—Coronary occlusive disease is the major long-term complication after cardiac transplantation. The relation between minor angiographic abnormalities and myocardial perfusion has not been previously assessed in a large number of cardiac transplant patients.Design—Prospective study. Coronary flow reserve was measured with an intracoronary Doppler flow probe in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery in each patient. A dose of intracoronary

  10. Cardiac muscle cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nathanael Reveal (None; )

    2007-07-02

    Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They work together to bring deoxygenated blood in and push oxygenated blood out into the body. Essentially, they keep your heart pumping and your body alive.

  11. [Drugs for cardiac arrest].

    PubMed

    Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; David, Jean-Stéphane; Dubien, Pierre-Yves

    2008-06-01

    After publication of the 2005 international recommendations on resuscitation, a French panel of experts on cardiac arrest published guidelines adapted to French practice. Despite the absence of placebo-controlled trials, adrenaline remains the standard vasopressor for cardiac arrest, at a dose of 1 mg about every 4 minutes. Amiodarone has replaced lidocaine in treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation.No other drug is indicated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation,except for particular causes of cardiac arrest. Fibrinolysis should be considered only for cardiac arrest due to pulmonary embolism. Isotonic saline solution is recommended for infusions, and routine administration of sodium bicarbonate is not recommended. Intravenous access is necessary, but when unavailable rapidly,intraosseous is preferred to endotracheal delivery in adults and children PMID:18434074

  12. Primary Cardiac Angiofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Se Hoon; Youn, Young-Nam

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac Angiofibroma is an uncommon intracardiac tumor. Thus far, only 4 cases of the rare intracardiac tumor have been reported. The present case-report describes an intracardiac angiofibroma in a 57-year-old healthy female. The patient was incidentally diagnosed with a left ventricle mass during echocardiography. We performed cardiac imaging, surgical excision and histological evaluation of the mass. The angiofibroma demonstrated features different from the relatively common cardiac tumors such as fibroma, myxoma and angiosarcoma. The cardiac MRI showed slightly high signal intensity on both T1 and T2, with the central core of lower signal intensity. The resected tumor was a whitish and rubbery mass. Histologically, the tumor showed the benign vascular proliferations associated with the surrounding collagen deposition. PMID:24174966

  13. A case of ultrasound-guided prenatal diagnosis of prune belly syndrome in Papua New Guinea – implications for management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology and is characterised by abnormalities of the urinary tract, a deficiency of abdominal musculature and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. We report a case of prune belly syndrome from Papua New Guinea, which was suspected on pregnancy ultrasound scan and confirmed upon delivery. Case presentation A 26-year-old married woman, Gravida 3 Para 2, presented to antenatal clinic in Madang, Papua New Guinea, at 21+5 weeks’ gestation by dates. She was well with no past medical or family history of note. She gave consent to participate in a clinical trial on prevention of malaria in pregnancy and underwent repeated ultrasound examinations which revealed a live fetus with persistent megacystis and anhydramnios. Both mother and clinicians agreed on conservative management of the congenital abnormality. The mother spontaneously delivered a male fetus weighing 2010 grams at 34 weeks’ gestation with grossly abnormal genitalia including cryptorchidism, penile aplasia and an absent urethral meatus, absent abdominal muscles and hypoplastic lungs. The infant passed away two hours after delivery. This report discusses the implications of prenatal detection of severe congenital abnormalities in PNG. Conclusion This first, formally reported, case of prune belly syndrome from a resource-limited setting in the Oceania region highlights the importance of identifying and documenting congenital abnormalities. Women undergoing antenatal ultrasound examinations must be carefully counseled on the purpose and the limitations of the scan. The increasing use of obstetric ultrasound in PNG will inevitably result in a rise in prenatal detection of congenital abnormalities. This will need to be met with adequate training, referral mechanisms and better knowledge of women’s attitudes and beliefs on birth defects and ultrasound. National medicolegal guidance regarding induced abortion and resuscitation of a fetus with severe congenital abnormalities may be required. PMID:23651554

  14. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure. PMID:23872607

  15. High output cardiac failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inder S. Anand; Viorel G. Florea

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  Congestive heart failure describes a syndrome with complex and variable symptoms and signs, including dyspnea, increased fatigability,\\u000a tachypnea, tachycardia, pulmonary rales, and peripheral edema. Although this syndrome usually is associated with low cardiac\\u000a output, it may occur in a number of so-called high output states, when the cardiac output is normal or greater than normal.\\u000a A high output state

  16. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Structured Curriculum in Teaching Procedural and Basic Diagnostic Ultrasound Skills to Internal Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schnobrich, Daniel J.; Olson, Andrew P. J.; Broccard, Alain; Duran-Nelson, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Point-of-care ultrasound has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool and is also being increasingly used by clinicians to guide procedures. Many current and future internists desire training, yet no formal, multiple-application, program-wide teaching interventions have been described. Intervention We describe a structured 30-hour ultrasound training course in diagnostic and procedural ultrasound implemented during intern orientation. Internal medicine interns learned basic ultrasound physics and machine skills; focused cardiac, great vessel, pulmonary, and abdominal ultrasound diagnostic examinations; and procedural applications. Results In postcourse testing, learners demonstrated the ability to acquire images, had significantly increased knowledge scores (P?ultrasound skills would be valuable during residency and in their careers. Conclusions A structured ultrasound course can increase knowledge and can result in learners who have skills in image acquisition, interpretation, and integration in management. Future work will focus on refining and improving these skills to allow these learners to be entrusted with the use of ultrasound independently for patient care decisions. PMID:24404316

  17. Ultrasound of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Martinoli, C; Bianchi, S; Giovagnorio, F; Pugliese, F

    2001-11-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an efficient alternative to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for evaluation of soft tissues of the elbow. US is able to diagnose several abnormalities affecting tendons, muscles, ligaments and bursae around the elbow joint. In cubital tunnel syndrome, US identifies ulnar nerve abnormalities and extrinsic lesions that may cause nerve entrapment. Occult fractures, osteophytes and intra-articular loose bodies can also be imaged. In para-articular swelling, US is able to assess the presence of capsular and synovial processes and to differentiate them from soft tissue tumors. Key advantages of this technique include cost-effectiveness, availability and ability to perform a dynamic examination. PMID:11810151

  18. A successful treatment of cardiac tamponade due to an aortic dissection using open-chest massage.

    PubMed

    Keiko, Terasumi; Yanagawa, Youichi; Isoda, Susumu

    2012-05-01

    An 81-year-old woman became unconsciousness after complaining of a backache, and then, an ambulance was called. She was suspected to have an aortic dissection by the emergency medical technicians and was transferred to our department. On arrival, she was in shock. Emergency cardiac ultrasound disclosed good wall motion with cardiac tamponade but no complication of aortic regurgitation. Computed tomography of the trunk revealed a type A aortic dissection with cardiac tamponade. During performance of pericardial drainage, she lapsed into cardiopulmonary arrest. Immediately after sterilization of the patient's upper body with compression of the chest wall, we performed a thoracotomy and dissolved the cardiac tamponade by pericardiotomy and obtained her spontaneous circulation. Fortunately, blood discharge was ceased immediately after controlling her blood pressure aggressively. As she complicated pneumonitis, conservative therapy was performed. Her physical condition gradually improved, and she finally could feed herself and communicate. In cases of acute cardiac tamponade, simple pericardiocentesis often is not effective due to the presence of the clot, and a cardiac tamponade by a Stanford type A aortic dissection is highly possible to complicate cardiac arrest, so emergency physicians should be ready to provide immediate open cardiac massage to treat such patients. PMID:21406318

  19. Pathology of the heart and the cardiac conduction system in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D C; Doherty, C C; O'Reilly, D P

    1984-01-01

    Two cases of Wegener's granulomatosis occurred in two women aged 53 and 67 years. The clinical course in both was of rapid deterioration resulting from renal failure and leading to death. At necropsy both cases showed severe and disseminated necrotising granulomatosis in the lungs, kidneys, and spleen but with variable degrees of cardiac and systemic vasculitis. One patient, with appreciable cardiac damage, developed a P wave abnormality due to atrial disease. In patients with Wegener's granulomatosis damage to the heart should be suspected and signs of conduction system abnormalities looked for on the electrocardiogram. Images PMID:6508968

  20. Preliminary Report on Cardiac Dysfunction after Isolated Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prathep, Sumidtra; Sharma, Deepak; Hallman, Matthew; Joffe, Aaron; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Mackensen, G. Burkhard; Vavilala, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine cardiac dysfunction during the first two weeks after isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with in-hospital mortality. Methods After Institutional Review Board approval, data from adult patients, with isolated TBI who underwent echocardiography during the first 2 weeks after TBI between 2003-2010 were examined. Patients with preexisting cardiac disease were excluded. Clinical characteristics and echocardiogram reports were abstracted. Cardiac dysfunction was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50% or presence of regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA). Interventions None Measurement and Main Results We examined data from 139 patients with isolated TBI who underwent echocardiographic evaluation. Patients were aged 58 ± 20 years, 66% were males and 62.6% had subdural hematoma; admission Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS) was 3 ± 1 (3-15) and head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) was 4 ± 1 (2-5). Of this cohort, 22.3% had abnormal echocardiogram: reduced LVEF was documented in 12% (LVEF 43 ± 8%), and 17.5% of patients had a RWMA. Hospital day 1 was the most common day of echocardiographic exam. Abnormal echocardiogram was independently associated with all cause in-hospital mortality (9.6 [2.3-40.2]; p= 0.002). Conclusions Cardiac dysfunction in the setting of isolated TBI occurs and is associated with increased in hospital mortality. This finding raises the question as to whether there are uncharted opportunities for a more timely recognition of cardiac dysfunction and subsequent optimization of the hemodynamic management of these patients. PMID:23963125

  1. Pomegranate flower improves cardiac lipid metabolism in a diabetic rat model: role of lowering circulating lipids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Peng, Gang; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Li, George Qian; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2005-07-01

    Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the diabetic heart contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Punica granatum flower (PGF) is a traditional antidiabetic medicine. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of PGF extract on abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. Long-term oral administration of PGF extract (500 mg kg(-1)) reduced cardiac TG content, accompanied by a decrease in plasma levels of TG and total cholesterol in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, indicating improvement by PGF extract of abnormal cardiac TG accumulation and hyperlipidemia in this diabetic model. Treatment of ZDF rats with PGF extract lowered plasma FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of mRNAs encoding for FA transport protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2, and restored downregulated cardiac acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA expression in ZDF rats, whereas it showed little effect in Zucker lean rats. The results suggest that PGF extract inhibits increased cardiac FA uptake and oxidation in the diabetic condition. PGF extract and its component oleanolic acid enhanced PPAR-alpha luciferase reporter gene activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and this effect was completely suppressed by a selective PPAR-alpha antagonist MK-886, consistent with the presence of PPAR-alpha activator activity in the extract and this component. Our findings suggest that PGF extract improves abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism in ZDF rats by activating PPAR-alpha and thereby lowering circulating lipid and inhibiting its cardiac uptake. PMID:15880139

  2. Loss of the PTCH1 Gene Locus in Cardiac Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, D.; Radio, S.J.; Nelson, M.; Zhou, M.; Streblow, R.; Prasad, V.; Reyes, C.; Perry, D.; Fletcher, S.; Bridge, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Cardiac fibroma is more commonly encountered in patients with Gorlin syndrome than the general population. Mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 localized to 9q22.3 are the underlying cause of Gorlin syndrome. In this study, homozygous or heterozygous loss of the PTCH1 locus was identified in three nonsyndromic cardiac fibromas. These data support a somatic role of the PTCH1 tumor suppressor gene in sporadic cardiac fibroma. Background Cardiac fibroma is a rare benign tumor that is poorly characterized genetically. Cardiac fibroma is more commonly encountered in patients with Gorlin syndrome (3%) than the general population. Mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTCH1 are the underlying cause of Gorlin syndrome. Methods Conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed on a peripheral blood and a cardiac fibroma sample from a 2-week-old male. In addition, FISH studies were performed to assess the copy number of the PTCH1 gene locus (9q22.3) on metaphase and interphase cells from these same specimens using YAC probe 891G1 and on representative paraffin-embedded tissue sections of two additional cardiac fibromas (one arising in a 2-month-old female and the other in a 13-week-old male). None of the patients had Gorlin syndrome. Results Karyotypically, the following abnormal chromosomal complement was detected in the 2-week-old male’s cardiac fibroma: 46,XY,del(9)(q22q34)[15]. FISH studies revealed homozygous loss of the PTCH1 locus in the cytogenetically analyzed cardiac fibroma and in the cardiac fibroma arising in the 13-week-old male. Heterozygous loss of this locus was identified in the remaining cardiac fibroma from the 2-month-old female. A mutational mechanism other than deletion may be responsible for PTCH1 inactivation on the other locus in this latter patient. Conventional cytogenetic and FISH studies of the peripheral blood sample from the 2-week-old male were normal. Conclusion These data support a tumor suppressor gene role for PTCH1 in nonsyndromic or sporadic cardiac fibromas. PMID:18329553

  3. Ultrasound diagnosis of ectopic ureterocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith S. Rose; Joseph McCarthy; Hsu-Chong Yeh

    1979-01-01

    Three children with ectopic ureteroceles were examined with ultrasound, intravenous urography and cystography. In all cases the ultrasound studies outlined the ectopic ureterocele within the fluid-filled bladder and in one case added additional information regarding the non-functional portion of the duplication and its ureter.

  4. Evaluation of osteoporosis using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Joaquim M.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.; Dantas, Ricardo G.

    2000-04-01

    We have developed an equipment using ultrasound transducers to help in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The equipment consists of an X-Y axes displacement system controlled by a microcomputer and uses two ultrasound transducers in opposite sides to inspect the calcaneus region of the patient. We have used two pairs of transducers with 500 kHz and 1 MHz central frequencies. Each pair of transducers was fixed in the X-Y displacement system submerged in a small water tank with a support for the foot of the patient. The transmitter was excited with pulses of 400 - 600 kHz or 800 - 1200 kHz and the ultrasound waves propagating through the bone in the calcaneus region are received by the opposite transducer, amplified and acquired in a digital oscilloscope. The data are transferred to the microcomputer and the ultrasound attenuation and the ultrasound transmission velocity are determined. The system was tested in patients, selected from a group that had already been diagnosed using a DEXA equipment. The results showed that there is a decrease in the ultrasound transmission velocity and the ultrasound attenuation in osteoporotic patients when compared to healthy patients of the same sex and age group. The conclusion is that ultrasound attenuation and the transmission velocity in the calcaneus region may be used as parameters in the evaluation of osteoporosis using our new system.

  5. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  6. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Moya, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    NASA seeks to transfer the NASA developed microwave ablation technology, designed for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (irregular heart beat), to industry. After a heart attack, many cells surrounding the resulting scar continue to live but are abnormal electrically; they may conduct impulses unusually slowly or fire when they would typically be silent. These diseased areas might disturb smooth signaling by forming a reentrant circuit in the muscle. The objective of microwave ablation is to heat and kill these diseased cells to restore appropriate electrical activity in the heart. This technology is a method and apparatus that provides for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In comparison with other methods that involve direct-current pulses or radio frequencies below 1 GHz, this method may prove more effective in treating ventricular tachycardia. This is because the present method provides for greater control of the location, cross-sectional area, and depth of a lesion via selection of the location and design of the antenna and the choice of microwave power and frequency.

  7. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Emergency and Abnormal Situations

    E-print Network

    the landing gear came down... #12;10 Emergency and Abnormal Situations Issues · Checklist and Procedure-board fire and when the aircraft ditches, conducts a forced landing, or crashes is 17 minutes. The Swissair 426768 During approach...the gear failed to come down...after notifying the tower we had a `Gear

  8. A multi-dimensional Hidden Markov Model approach to automated identification of fetal cardiac valve motion.

    PubMed

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Endo, Miyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2014-08-01

    Fetal cardiac assessment techniques are aimed to identify fetuses at risk of intrauterine compromise or death. Evaluation of the electromechanical coupling as a fundamental part of the fetal heart physiology, provides valuable information about the fetal wellbeing during pregnancy. It is based on the opening and closing time of the cardiac valves and the onset of the QRS complex of the fetal electrocardiogram (fECG). The focus of this paper is on the automated identification of the fetal cardiac valve opening and closing from Doppler Ultrasound signal and fECG as a reference. To this aim a novel combination of Emprical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and multi-dimensional Hidden Markov Models (MD-HMM) was employed which provided beat-to-beat estimation of cardiac valve event timings with improved precision (82.9%) compared to the one dimensional HMM (77.4%) and hybrid HMM-Support Vector Machine (SVM) (79.8%) approaches. PMID:25570346

  9. Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

  10. Ultrasound tomography device

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, D.; Trautenberg, E.

    1984-10-23

    An ultrasound tomography device for scanning an object under examination from a plurality of directions. Coronal slice images of the plane or planes near or at the female breast wall are obtained. A sagittal scanner is used to obtain numerous small sectional oblique views of the slice to be viewed. A full image of the coronal slice plane is reconstructed through section by section combination of the images obtained from the several small sagittal sections. By providing the sagittal scanner with a scanning motion as well as with translational mobility a full composite view is provided.

  11. Multimodality cardiac imaging of a double chambered right ventricle with intrapulmonary shunting: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Double chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a relatively rare congenital heart disease, characterized by the abnormal division of the right ventricle into a high-pressure inlet and low-pressure outlet by anomalous muscle bundles. Extra-cardiac right-to-left shunts may present with clinical symptoms in adulthood and should be sought in patients with previous cavo-pulmonary shunt procedures. Case presentation We report a case of DCRV in a 29 year old Caucasian male presenting in adulthood with a right-to-left shunt secondary to venous collaterals, following cavopulmonary anastomosis for congenital pulmonary atresia and hypoplastic right ventricle. Conclusion Multimodality cardiac imaging using echocardiography, cardiac CT, cardiac MRI and cardiac catheterization is often required for complete characterization of complex congenital heart anomalies in adulthood. PMID:22999111

  12. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces cardiac fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liou, Cher-Ming; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Williams, Timothy; Ting, Hua; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-06-01

    Very limited information regarding the influence of chronic methamphetamine exposure on cardiac apoptosis is available. In this study, we evaluate whether chronic methamphetamine exposure will increase cardiac Fas-dependent (type I) and mitochondria-dependent (type II) apoptotic pathways. Thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 0.5 ml SQ per day] and a methamphetamine-treated group (MA 10 mg/kg SQ per day) for 3 months. We report that after 3 months of exposure, abnormal myocardial architecture, more minor cardiac fibrosis and cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed at greater frequency in the MA group than in the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-?, Fas ligand, Fas receptor, Fas-associated death domain, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts were significantly increased in the MA group, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bak, t-Bid, Bak to Bcl-xL ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the MA group, compared with the PBS group. The results from this study reveal that chronic methamphetamine exposure will activate cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, which may indicate a possible mechanism for developing cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic methamphetamine abuse. PMID:24307234

  13. New onset of electrocardiographic abnormalities heralding hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an adult athlete.

    PubMed

    Mondillo, S; Olivotto, I; Palmerini, E; Nistri, S

    2011-05-01

    A 41-year-old male asymptomatic athlete with unremarkable personal and family history of heart disease underwent annual preparticipation screening. No abnormalities were noted on prior testing. On this occasion, a 12-lead electrocardiogram showed diffused and marked repolarization abnormalities. He was therefore referred for echocardiography, which showed moderate asymmetric hypertrophy localized at the mid-apical portions of the left ventricular anterolateral wall. Cardiac magnetic resonance confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Re-evaluation of the electrocardiogram performed the previous year revealed a completely normal tracing. PMID:21605294

  14. Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

  15. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day. PMID:25340434

  16. Cardiac metabolism and arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Andreas S; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death remains a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, accounting for up to 20% of all deaths in the U.S.1, 2 The major causes of sudden cardiac death in adults age 35 and older are coronary artery disease (70–80%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (10–15%).3 At the molecular level, a wide variety of mechanisms contribute to arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death, ranging from genetic predisposition (rare mutations and common polymorphisms in ion channels and structural proteins) to acquired electrophysiological and structural remodeling in left ventricular hypertrophy and failure.4, 5 A growing body of evidence suggests that altered ion channel function is closely linked to changes in metabolic activity in a wide variety of pathological conditions. In this review we focus on the mechanisms by which altered metabolic function impacts cardiac electrophysiology. We will review the specific molecular targets that allow cardiomyocytes to recognize alterations in their metabolic state and translate this information into changes in membrane excitability in various pathophysiological conditions including ischemia-reperfusion, heart failure (HF), left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation. A comprehensive understanding of the interrelated processes of metabolic and electrical remodeling promises to identify new molecular targets for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:19808483

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling. PMID:17389182

  18. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  19. Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein

    2003-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

  20. Abnormalities of the optic disc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo A. Sadun; Michelle Y. Wang

    2011-01-01

    The optic disc represents the anterior end of the optic nerve, the most forward extension of the central nervous system (CNS). The optic disc gives a rare glimpse into the CNS. Hence, diseases of the CNS are often manifested on fundus examination. Abnormalities of the optic disc may reflect eye disease (such as glaucoma), problems in development (as in various

  1. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  2. Controlled Ultrasound Tissue Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Eun, Lucy Y.; Hall, Timothy L.; Tran, Binh C.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of ultrasound to produce highly controlled tissue erosion was investigated. This study is motivated by the need to develop a noninvasive procedure to perforate the neonatal atrial septum as the first step in treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A total of 232 holes were generated in 40 pieces of excised porcine atrial wall by a 788 kHz single-element transducer. The effects of various parameters [e.g., pulse repetition frequency (PRF), pulse duration (PD), and gas content of liquid] on the erosion rate and energy efficiency were explored. An Isppa of 9000 W/cm2, PDs of 3, 6, 12, and 24 cycles; PRFs between 1.34 kHz and 66.7 kHz; and gas saturation of 40–55% and 79–85% were used. The results show that very short pulses delivered at certain PRFs could maximize the erosion rate and energy efficiency. We show that well-defined perforations can be precisely located in the atrial wall through the controlled ultrasound tissue erosion (CUTE) process. A preliminary in vivo experiment was conducted on a canine subject, and the atrial septum was perforated using CUTE. PMID:15244286

  3. Implantable ultrasound devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkomerson, David; Chilipka, Thomas; Bogan, John; Blebea, John; Choudry, Rashad; Wang, John; Salvatore, Michael; Rotella, Vittorio; Soundararajan, Krishnan

    2008-03-01

    Using medical implants to wirelessly report physiological data is a technique that is rapidly growing. Ultrasound is well-suited for implants -- it requires little power and this form of radiated energy has no ill effects on the body. We report here on techniques we have developed in our experience gained in implanting over a dozen Doppler ultrasound flow-measuring implants in dogs. The goal of our implantable device is to measure flow in an arterial graft. To accomplish this, we place a Doppler transducer in the wall of a graft and an implant unit under the skin that energizes the 20 MHz Doppler transducer system, either when started by external command or by internal timetable. The implant records the digitized Doppler real and imaginary channels and transmits the data to a nearby portable computer for storage and evaluation. After outlining the overall operation of the system, we will concentrate on three areas of implant design where special techniques are required: ensuring safety, including biocompatibility to prevent the body from reacting to its invasion; powering the device, including minimizing energy used so that a small battery can provide long-life; and transmitting the data obtained.

  4. Determining Directions of Ultrasound in Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasound shadows cast by grooves. Improved method for determining direction of ultrasound in materials is shadow method using Scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Direction of ultrasound calculated from dimensions of groove and portion of surface groove shields from ultrasound. Method has variety of applications in nontraditional quality-control applications.

  5. Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Gluer; C. Y. Wu; M. Jergas; S. A. Goldstein; H. K. Genant

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are associated with bone structure. In an in vitro study on 20 cubes of trabecular bone, we measured broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and two newly defined parameters—ultrasound velocity through bone (UVB) and ultrasound attenuation in bone (UAB). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone structure was assessed

  6. Ultrasound Imaging Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201

    E-print Network

    Suel, Torsten

    Ultrasound Imaging Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L. Prince and J the textbook except otherwise noted. #12;EL5823 Ultrasound Imaging Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture Outline · Ultrasound imaging overview · Ultrasound imaging system schematic · Derivation of the pulse

  7. A Case of Pulmonary Artery Hydatid Cyst Observed on Endobronchial Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Senturk, Aysegul; Er, Mukremin; Karalezli, Aysegul; Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Soyturk, Ayse Nur; Cetin, Huseyin; Canan Hasanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (HC) is a parasitic disease that may involve many organs, especially the lung and the liver. Pulmonary artery location of the hydatid cyst is extremely rare, but it may cause life-threatening complications. We report a case of a hydatid cyst that completely filled the left main pulmonary artery and its distal part without cardiac involvement. Thoracic computed tomography showed filling defects in the pulmonary arteries. Endobronchial ultrasound was performed for differential diagnosis and it showed a cystic lesion. Hydatid cyst-specific IgE and hem agglutination test results were positive. In the literature, cases like this in which the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid cyst is made by endobronchial ultrasound are not usually seen. Although many imaging modalities such as plain chest radiography, cross-sectional imaging (MDCT and MRI), echocardiography and conventional pulmonary angiography have been used in the diagnostic approach, we recommend endobronchial ultrasound for the differential diagnosis of cases with cystic formation.

  8. An optical approach to validate ultrasound surface segmentation of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Schlaefer, Alexander; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2014-09-01

    The patient specific geometry of the heart is of interest for a number of diagnostic methods, e.g., when modeling the inverse electrocardiography (ECG) problem. One approach to get images of the heart is three-dimensional ultrasound. However, segmentation of the surface is complicated and segmentation methods are typically validated against manually drawn contours. This requires considerable expert knowledge. Hence, we have developed a setup that allows studying the accuracy of image segmentation from cardiac ultrasound. Using an optical tracking system, we have measured the three-dimensional surface of an isolated porcine heart. We studied whether the actual geometry can be reconstructed from both optical and ultrasound images. We illustrate the use of our approach in quantifying the segmentation result for a three-dimensional region-based active contour algorithm.

  9. Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation) on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo), including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers. PMID:25202710

  10. Advanced imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Chadi; Pena, Elena; Ohira, Hiroshi; Dick, Alexander; Leung, Eugene; Nery, Pablo B; Birnie, David; Beanlands, Rob S B

    2015-04-01

    Sarcoidosis with cardiac involvement is underdiagnosed and can put patients at risk of morbidity including conduction defects, arrhythmias and heart failure, as well as sudden cardiac death. In addition, cardiac sarcoidosis may have no clinical manifestations or non-specific presentation and diagnosis may be difficult on clinical criteria. Investigation for cardiac sarcoidosis should be considered in those with extra-cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac findings as well as those under the age of 60 years presenting with atrioventricular block without a clear cause. Advanced imaging modalities including cardiac magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography may help in both the diagnosis and assessment of response to treatment for cardiac sarcoidosis. This ultimately may help to minimize associated adverse outcomes from this enigmatic disease. PMID:25702313

  11. Cardiac contusion: a capricious syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J W; Hewitt, R L; Drapanas, T

    1975-01-01

    Cardiac contusions are being recognized with frequency. Among 507 patients with non-penetrating chest injuries, 210 had serial electrocardiograms sufficient to evaluate the heart. Forty-five of these 210 patients (21%) had cardiac contusions. These 45 patients and 3 others who were confirmed to have cardiac contusions at necropsy, comprise the 48 patients in this series. Life-indangering cardiac complications occurred in 14 (29%) of the 48 patients, and 4 patients died. The development of cardiac complications following cardiac contusions appears to have a significant relationship to the presence of shock, hypoxia and to factors related to the severity of multiple injuries. These observations have therapeutic implications in management of patients with cardiac contusions through prevention of hypovolemia and hypoxia and avoidance of fluid overload as well as treatment of specific cardiac complications. Images Fig. 4B. Fig. 4C. Fig. 4D. PMID:1130875

  12. Cardiac pacing leads.

    PubMed

    Crossley, G H

    2000-02-01

    Many of the advances that have been seen in the last decade concerning the functionality, size, and longevity of cardiac pacemakers have been dependent upon concomitant advances in cardiac pacing leads. The most difficult component of a pacing lead to develop has been the insulator. There are many choices for physicians implanting pacing leads: active versus passive fixation, standard impedance versus high impedance and polyurethane versus silicone. The current state of affairs of cardiac pacing leads is quite good in that we have leads that have excellent electrical properties and appear to be more resistant to the hostile environment into which the lead is placed. In spite of this, the goal of a perfect lead remains elusive and there continues to be many challenges in lead design. PMID:10709688

  13. Cardiac regeneration in children.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Stefan; Schranz, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    Very young mammals have an impressive cardiac regeneration capacity. In contrast, cardiac regeneration is very limited in adult humans. The hearts of young children have a higher regenerative capacity compared with adults, as, for example, seen after surgical correction of an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery or in children with univentricular hearts, who present enormous morphological changes after volume unloading. In addition, the enormous regenerative potential of growing children's hearts is reflected in the spontaneous courses of children with severely deteriorated cardiac function (e.g., patients with dilated cardiomyopathy). The extent of this regenerative capacity and its time dependency remain to be elucidated in the future and should be exploited to improve the treatment of children with severe heart insufficiency. PMID:25633820

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for assessment of hemophilic arthropathy: MRI correlation.

    PubMed

    Doria, Andrea S; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Mohanta, Arun; Jarrin, Jose; Blanchette, Victor; Srivastava, Alok; Moineddin, Rahim; Kavitha, M L; Hilliard, Pamela; Poonnoose, Pradeep; Gibikote, Sridhar

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability of interpretation of ultrasound findings according to data blinding in maturing hemophilic joints and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound compared with MRI for assessing joint components. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Ankles (n = 34) or knees (n = 25) of boys with hemophilia or von Willebrand disease (median age, 13 years; range, 5-17 years) were imaged by ultrasound, MRI, and radiography in two centers (Toronto, Canada, and Vellore, India). Ultrasound scans were performed by two operators (one blinded and one unblinded to MRI data) and were reviewed by four reviewers who were unblinded to corresponding MRI findings according to a proposed 0- to 14-item scale that matches 14 of 17 items of the corresponding MRI scale. MRI examinations were independently reviewed by two readers. RESULTS. When data were acquired by radiologists, ultrasound was highly reliable for assessing soft-tissue changes (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.98 for ankles and 0.97 for knees) and substantially to highly reliable for assessing osteochondral changes (ICC, 0.61 for ankles and 0.89 for knees). Ultrasound was highly sensitive (> 92%) for assessing synovial hypertrophy and hemosiderin in both ankles and knees but had borderline sensitivity for detecting small amounts of fluid in ankles (70%) in contrast to knees (93%) and variable sensitivity for evaluating osteochondral abnormalities (sensitivity range, 86-100% for ankles and 12-100% for knees). CONCLUSION. If it is performed by experienced radiologists using a standardized protocol, ultrasound is highly reliable for assessing soft-tissue abnormalities of ankles and knees and substantially to highly reliable for assessing osteochondral changes in these joints. PMID:25714320

  15. Overcoming Biological Barriers with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2011-01-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D,L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study. PMID:24839333

  16. Overcoming biological barriers with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

    2012-10-01

    Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study.

  17. Cardiac Tumors: A Brief Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Roever, Leonardo; Casella-Filho, Antonio; Dourado, Paulo Magno Martins; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Chagas, Antônio Carlos Palandri

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiac tumors may present with cardiovascular related or constitutional symptoms, but more often than not a cardiac mass is discovered incidentally during an imaging examination performed for an unrelated indication. Cardiac myxoma is generally considered to be a surgical emergency. Echocardiography, including the transesophageal approach, is the most important means of diagnosis; computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical presentation has changed, and the management of cardiac myxoma now needs to be reviewed. PMID:25538934

  18. Antenatally detected urinary tract abnormalities: more detection but less action.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Meeta; Watson, Alan R

    2008-06-01

    We present the findings of a prospective cohort study of babies born with antenatally detected urinary tract abnormalities (AUTAs) between 1999-2003 and compare the outcomes with those of an earlier cohort born between 1989 and 1993. All infants with a fetal anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) > or =7 mm in the third trimester or other urinary tract abnormality underwent a detailed postnatal ultrasound scan and other investigations as indicated. The incidence of AUTAs was significantly greater in the more recent cohort (7.6/1000 vs. 3/1000 live births; p<0.05). Of the 350 infants on which we had data, 48.6% (170/350) were in the non-specific dilatation (NSD) category, and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) was detected in 12%. Restricting investigations to those who had an APRPD > or =10 mm at >30 weeks of gestation could have reduced the number with NSD in the more recent cohort (26/115; 25%), but 25% of those with pelviureteric junction hold-up and 50% with VUR would have been missed. Significantly fewer patients in the more recent cohort underwent surgery (7 vs. 21%; p<0.001). There is a trend towards larger APRPDs on third trimester scans being associated with more significant pathology, but there is a lot of clinical overlap. The study highlights the need for cautious antenatal counselling combined with an assurance to prospective parents that postnatal investigations will be performed in a stepwise manner based on the initial postnatal ultrasound scan and clinical findings. PMID:18278521

  19. Detection rates of clinically significant genomic alterations by microarray analysis for specific anomalies detected by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Lisa G; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Dabell, Mindy P; Coppinger, Justine; Bandholz, Anne M; Ellison, Jay W; Ravnan, J Britt; Torchia, Beth S; Ballif, Blake C; Fisher, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to understand the diagnostic utility of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based microarrays for pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 2858 pregnancies with abnormal ultrasounds and normal karyotypes (when performed) tested in our laboratory using CGH microarrays targeted to known chromosomal syndromes with later versions providing backbone coverage of the entire genome. Abnormalities were stratified according to organ system involvement. Detection rates for clinically significant findings among these categories were calculated. Results Clinically significant genomic alterations were identified in cases with a single ultrasound anomaly (n = 99/1773, 5.6%), anomalies in two or more organ systems (n = 77/808, 9.5%), isolated growth abnormalities (n = 2/76, 2.6%), and soft markers (n = 2/77, 2.6%). The following anomalies in isolation or with additional anomalies had particularly high detection rates: holoprosencephaly (n = 9/85, 10.6%), posterior fossa defects (n = 21/144, 14.6%), skeletal anomalies (n = 15/140, 10.7%), ventricular septal defect (n = 14/132, 10.6%), hypoplastic left heart (n = 11/68, 16.2%), and cleft lip/palate (n = 14/136, 10.3%). Conclusions Microarray analysis identified clinically significant genomic alterations in 6.5% of cases with one or more abnormal ultrasound findings; the majority were below the resolution of karyotyping. Larger data sets such as this allow for sub-stratification by specific anomalies to determine risks for genomic alterations detectable by microarray analysis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22847778

  20. Increase in the embedding dimension in the heart rate variability associated with left ventricular abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, D. S.; Irurzun, I. M.; Mitelman, J.; Mola, E. E.

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, the authors report evidence that the existence of premature ventricular contractions increases the embedding dimension of the cardiac dynamics. They also analyze patients with congestive heart failure, a severe clinical condition associated with abnormal left ventricular function. Results also show an increase in the embedding dimension of the heart rate variability. They used electrocardiograms collected by themselves with quality standards that make them comparable with other databases.

  1. Value of Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taeyoung; Horton, Laura; Emery, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology clinical practice has rapidly increased over the past decade. Ultrasound has enabled rheumatologists to diagnose, prognosticate and monitor disease outcome. Although international standardization remains a concern still, the use of ultrasound in rheumatology is expected to grow further as costs fall and the opportunity to train in the technique improves. We present a review of value of ultrasound, focusing on major applications of ultrasound in rheumatologic diseases. PMID:23580002

  2. Cardiac Bioelectricity and Arrhythmias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flavio Fenton (Cornell University; )

    2006-09-22

    Deep inside a human heart, its pacemaker sends out bursts of electrical signals that keep the heart pumping rhythmically, supplying life-giving oxygen to the body. When these electrical waves become disorganized, the heart starts beating irregularly or arrhythmically. Flavio Fenton and Elizabeth Cherry of Cornell University made this interactive program to provide education on arrhythmias. It presents detailed information on cardiac anatomy, normal cardiac electrophysiology, and different kinds of arrhythmias using a combination of words, pictures, and interactive, computer simulations and animations.

  3. The cardiac lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Abel, Nicole; Tubbs, R Shane; Grabska, Joanna; Birungi, Judith; Anderson, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    The lymphatic system, a network of vessels carrying clear interstitial fluid called lymph, is found throughout the human body. The system maintains homeostasis, receiving proteins and excess fluid from the interstitial tissues, and returning them to the venous system. Understanding of lymphatic drainage remains important in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases, including the metastasis of malignant diseases. Information specific to the cardiac lymphatics is scarce. Indeed, quite often the topic is not even mentioned in many medical textbooks. The goal of our review is to compile and analyze the information currently available concerning the cardiac lymphatics, hoping further to demonstrate the clinical importance of this neglected system. PMID:21387415

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Abnormal Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise Testing Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey M.; Horton, Edward S.; Bahnson, Judy; Gregg, Edward W.; Jakicic, John M.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results in 5,783 overweight/obese men and women, aged 45–76 years, with type 2 diabetes, who were entering the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study, to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise-induced cardiac abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants underwent symptom-limited maximal GXTs. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to determine demographic, anthropometric, metabolic, and health status predictors of abnormal GXT results, which were defined as an ST segment depression ?1.0 mm, ventricular arrhythmia, angina pectoris, poor postexercise heart rate recovery (<22 bpm reduction 2 min after exercise), or maximal exercise capacity less than 5.0 METs. Systolic blood pressure response to exercise was examined as a continuous variable, without a threshold to define abnormality. RESULTS Exercise-induced abnormalities were present in 1,303 (22.5%) participants, of which 693 (12.0%) consisted of impaired exercise capacity. ST segment depression occurred in 440 (7.6%), abnormal heart rate recovery in 206 (5.0%), angina in 63 (1.1%), and arrhythmia in 41 (0.7%). Of potential predictors, only greater age was associated with increased prevalence of all abnormalities. Other predictors were associated with some, but not all, abnormalities. Systolic blood pressure response decreased with greater age, duration of diabetes, and history of cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS We found a high rate of abnormal GXT results despite careful screening for cardiovascular disease symptoms. In this cohort of overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, greater age most consistently predicted abnormal GXT. Long-term follow-up of these participants will show whether these abnormalities are clinically significant. PMID:20056948

  5. Patient Guide to Cardiac Surgery

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Patient Guide to Cardiac Surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital #12;Contents Welcome 1 Your cover #12;Welcome to the MGH Cardiac Surgical Service The cardiac surgical team at the Massachusetts General Hospital is committed to giving you the best medical care. As a patient, you are a part of our

  6. Ultra-high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy and high throughput cardiovascular phenotyping in a large scale mouse mutagenesis screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Francis, Richard; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kim, Andy; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is ideally suited for phenotyping fetal mice for congenital heart disease (CHD), as imaging can be carried out noninvasively to provide both hemodynamic and structural information essential for CHD diagnosis. Using the UBM (Vevo 2100; 40Hz) in conjunction with the clinical ultrasound system (Acuson Sequioa C512; 15Hz), we developed a two-step screening protocol to scan thousands fetuses derived from ENU mutagenized pedigrees. A wide spectrum of CHD was detected by the UBM, which were subsequently confirmed with follow-up necropsy and histopathology examination with episcopic fluorescence image capture. CHD observed included outflow anomalies, left/right heart obstructive lesions, septal/valvular defects and cardiac situs anomalies. Meanwhile, various extracardiac defects were found, such as polydactyly, craniofacial defects, exencephaly, omphalocele-cleft palate, most of which were associated with cardiac defects. Our analyses showed the UBM was better at assessing cardiac structure and blood flow profiles, while conventional ultrasound allowed higher throughput low-resolution screening. Our study showed the integration of conventional clinical ultrasound imaging with the UBM for fetal mouse cardiovascular phenotyping can maximize the detection and recovery of CHD mutants.

  7. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; de Paola, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  8. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

    2014-11-01

    Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  9. TWO CONSECUTIVE SETS OF TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND GUIDED SEXTANT BIOPSIES OF THE PROSTATE FOR THE DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Levine; Michael Ittman; Jonathan Melamed; Herbert Lepor

    1998-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the role of performing 2 consecutive sets of transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsies of the prostate in a single office visit as the protocol for detecting prostate cancer in men presenting for the first time with an abnormal digital rectal examination and\\/or elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  10. Ultrasound guided fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoqiang; Lesage, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a hybrid-model imaging system combining fluorescence and ultrasound (US) was investigated with the motivation of providing structural priors towards improvement of fluorescence reconstruction. A single element transducer was scanned over the sample for anatomy. In the fluorescence part, a laser source was scanned over the sample with the emission received by an EMCCD camera. Synchronization was achieved by a pair of motorized linear stages. Structural information was derived from the US images and a profilometry and used to constrain reconstruction. In the reconstruction, we employed a GPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for forward modeling and a pattern-based method to take advantage of the huge dataset for the inverse problem. Performance of this system was validated with two phantoms with fluorophore inclusions. The results indicated that the fluorophore distribution could be accurately reconstructed. And the system has a potential for the future in-vivo study.

  11. Digital beamforming in ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B D

    1992-01-01

    The effects on array gain and sidelobe level of a practical digital beamforming (DBF) processor under the wideband conditions typical of ultrasound is discussed. It is concluded that a relatively simple design that replaces each analog delay line with a tapped, digital shift register (DSR) and a digital phase shift operation adjusted for midband will provide the desired performance, provided that the sampling rate of the signal at the input to the DSR is 4 to 10 times the bandwidth. More realistically, when nonidealized passbands are taken into account and the typical condition whereby the transducer frequency is about twice the bandwidth is considered, the rule of thumb for the sampling rate is that it must be 4 to 10 times the transducer frequency. PMID:18267687

  12. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, A.

    1991-11-05

    This patent describes a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method which provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped through the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  13. Ultrasound elastography: liver.

    PubMed

    Dhyani, Manish; Anvari, Arash; Samir, Anthony E

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound elastography, also termed sonoelastography, is being used increasingly in clinical practice to aid the diagnosis and management of diffuse liver disease. Elastography has been shown to be capable of differentiating advanced and early-stage liver fibrosis, and consequently a major application in clinical liver care includes progression to cirrhosis risk stratification through (1) assessment of liver fibrosis stage in HCV and HBV patients, (2) distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis from simple steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, and (3) prognostic evaluation of liver disease is autoimmune liver disease. In addition, elastographic characterization of focal liver lesions and evaluation of clinically significant portal hypertension have the potential to be clinically useful and are areas of active clinical research. PMID:25690689

  14. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  15. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  16. Ultrasound Doppler tissue image analysis based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shukui; Li, Deyu; Yin, Lixue; Wang, Tianfu; Zheng, Changqiong; Zheng, Yi

    2001-09-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of ultrasound Doppler tissue images (DTI) has been developed based on a neural network. The method aims to extract numerical data of velocity or acceleration from DTI images and analyze them quantitatively. A three-layered back propagation (BP) neural network is used to accomplish this task. The input of the network is the differences between the red, green and blue components of pixels and the output is the acceleration or velocity values. The network is trained with the color bars in the DTI images. The result of analyzing the movement of the left ventricle anterior free wall (LVAW) from DTA (DTI acceleration mode) image sequences is presented. The result of time-acceleration curve is highly correlated with the electrocardiogram (ECG) curve and gives us a quantitative and graphic description of the ventricle movement in cardiac cycles. It shows the movement characteristics of the left ventricle in cardiac cycles and also shows the excitation differences among the three layers of the myocardium. It is demonstrated that the method has great potential to characterize myocardial movement, which may provide a new way to characterize cardiac activities.

  17. Nonexercise cardiac stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    1989-09-15

    Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references.

  18. Comparative cardiac imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book is designed to compare all major cardiac imaging techniques. All major imaging techniques - including conventional angiography, digital angiography, echocardiography and Doppler imaging, conventional radioisotope techniques, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging - are covered in this text as they apply to the major cardiovascular disorders. There is brief coverage of positron emission tomography and an extensive presentation of ultrafast computed tomography.

  19. Digital cardiac imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Buda, A.J.; Delp, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: The analysis of left ventricular function with digital subtraction angiography; Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve; Clinical application of cardiac CT; Digital two-dimensional echocardiography; and Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart.

  20. Cardiac mitochondria and arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David A.; O'Rourke, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of sudden cardiac death throughout the world, the mechanisms that lead to ventricular arrhythmias are not fully understood. Over the last 20 years, a growing body of evidence indicates that cardiac mitochondria are involved in the genesis of arrhythmia. In this review, we have attempted to describe the role that mitochondria play in altering the heart's electrical function by introducing heterogeneity into the cardiac action potential. Specifically, we have focused on how the energetic status of the mitochondrial network can alter sarcolemmal potassium fluxes through ATP-sensitive potassium channels, creating a ‘metabolic sink’ for depolarizing wave-fronts and introducing conditions that favour catastrophic arrhythmia. Mechanisms by which mitochondria depolarize under conditions of oxidative stress are characterized, and the contributions of several mitochondrial ion channels to mitochondrial depolarization are presented. The inner membrane anion channel in particular opens upstream of other inner membrane channels during metabolic stress, and may be an effective target to prevent the metabolic oscillations that create action potential lability. Finally, we discuss therapeutic strategies that prevent arrhythmias by preserving mitochondrial membrane potential in the face of oxidative stress, supporting the notion that treatments aimed at cardiac mitochondria have significant potential in attenuating electrical dysfunction in the heart. PMID:20621924

  1. Accuracy of spectral Doppler flow and tissue velocity measurements in ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew; Olsson, Eva; Wranne, Bengt; Ringqvist, Ivar; Ask, Per

    2004-01-01

    Blood and tissue velocity are measured and analysed in cardiac, vascular and other applications of diagnostic ultrasound (US). An error in system calibration is a potential risk for misinterpretation of the measurements. To determine the accuracy in velocity calibration, we tested three common commercial US systems using a Doppler string phantom. We tested pulsed and continuous-wave Doppler modes for velocities relevant to both cardiac blood flow and tissue-velocity estimation. The US systems were tested with settings and transducers commonly used in cardiac applications. One system consistently overestimated velocity by about 5%, whereas the other two systems were quite accurate in velocity estimation. These findings emphasize the importance of continuous quality control of US equipment. PMID:14962617

  2. Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much uncertainty about what the future holds for cardiac surgical practice, research, and culture, and we discuss the background of ethical issues to serve as a platform for envisioning what is to come. PMID:22642634

  3. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  4. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  5. Long-term cardiac sequelae after treatment of malignant tumors with radiotherapy or cytostatics in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Maekinen, L.M.; Maekipernaa, A.R.; Rautonen, J.; Heino, M.; Pyrhoenen, S.L.; Laitinen, L.A.; Siimes, M.A. (Univ. of Helsinki Medical School (Finland))

    1990-05-01

    A series of 41 individuals were restudied after childhood cancer with a median follow-up time of 17 years after chest irradiation or treatment with cyclophosphamide or Adriamycin (doxorubicin). Radiotherapy of the chest had been used in 21 patients, and in 13 of these irradiation was also directed at the heart. Thirty-five patients received cyclophosphamide and five received Adriamycin therapy. All patients were investigated by a pediatric cardiologist. Investigations included an electrocardiogram (ECG), a chest radiographic film, an echocardiogram, an exercise test, and a 24-hour ECG. Altogether 20 patients (49%) showed some abnormality in cardiac tests. Each additional year of follow-up was associated with a 1.3-fold (95% confidence limits, 1.04-1.66; P less than 0.05) increase in the risk for pathologic cardiac findings. The risk for an abnormal cardiac test result in the 13 patients who had received cardiac irradiation was 12.8-fold (95% confidence limits, 1.8-90.8; P less than 0.02) that of the other patients. However, abnormalities in cardiac function were mild.

  6. Monitoring of renal allografts by Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Ubhi, C. S.; Irving, H. C.; Norwood, H. M.; Guillou, P. J.; Giles, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    Cyclosporin (CyA) associated renal dysfunction may be due to an arteriolopathy which reduces graft perfusion. We have prospectively monitored 27 renal allograft recipients, within 30 days of transplantation, by continuous wave Doppler ultrasound. Changes in the frequency shift waveform should indicate alterations in renal blood flow. Objective analysis was made in 112 waveforms by determining the ratio of the area under the frequency shift/time curve of the first half and the second half of the cardiac cycle (AUC 1/2 ratio). The AUC of the first half of the cycle indicates systolic blood flow plus the first part of diastolic flow, whereas the AUC of the second half indicates the remainder of diastolic flow. The AUC 1/2 ratio during ATN was not significantly different from that during stable renal function. However the ratio was significantly higher during acute rejection episodes and CyA nephrotoxicity. Although a statistical difference was demonstrated between acute rejection and CyA nephrotoxicity, the AUC 1/2 ratio alone does not differentiate these 2 conditions. These preliminary findings suggest CyA nephrotoxicity does reduce renal allograft blood flow and that this non-invasive technique may have a useful role to play in monitoring of patients immunosuppressed with CyA. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3314635

  7. Ultrasound-modulated bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Schotland, John C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly scattering medium from ultrasound-modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  8. Contribution of Ductus Venosus Doppler in First-Trimester Screening for Major Cardiac Defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teodora Chelemen; Argyro Syngelaki; Nerea Maiz; Lindsey Allan; Kypros H. Nicolaides

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether assessment of ductus venosus flow at 11–13 weeks’ gestation improves the detection rate of cardiac defects achieved by screening with nuchal translucency (NT) thickness. Methods: Prospective first-trimester screening for aneuploidies, including measurement of fetal NT and assessment of ductus venosus flow. The performance of different combinations of increased fetal NT and abnormal blood flow in the

  9. Cardiac neurotransmission imaging with 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine in postural tachycardia syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Albrecht Haensch; Hartmut Lerch; Hans Schlemmer; Anna Jigalin; Stefan Isenmann

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPostural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disorder of orthostatic intolerance characterised by excessive tachycardia of unknown aetiology. Whether this condition involves abnormal cardiac sympathetic innervation or function remains elusive. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) resembles guanethidine and is a pharmacologically inactive analogue of norepinephrine, which is similarly metabolised in noradrenergic neurons. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy is used clinically to estimate local myocardial sympathetic

  10. Extended fetal echocardiographic examination for detecting cardiac malformations in low risk pregnancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Achiron; J. Glaser; I. Gelernter; J. Hegesh; S. Yagel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To improve the rate of prenatal detection of cardiac malformations in a low risk population. DESIGN--Comparison of extended fetal echocardiography with the standard four chamber view in detecting abnormalities. Extended echocardiography comprised the four chamber view and visualisation of the left ventricular outflow tract, the right ventricular outflow tract, and the main pulmonary artery and its branches. In cases with

  11. Deferoxamine Improves Early Postresuscitation Reperfusion After Prolonged Cardiac Arrest in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serguei Liachenko; Pei Tang; Yan Xu

    Summary: The no-reflow phenomenon and delayed hypoper- fusion after transient cardiac arrest (CA) impede postischemic recovery. Activation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) after ischemia and reperfusion is considered one of the mechanisms respon- sible for such abnormalities. The present study investigates the influence of iron-dependent LPO inhibitor deferoxamine (DFO) on the cerebral perfusion after prolonged CA and re- suscitation. Fourteen male

  12. Evaluation of cardiac function by tissue Doppler echocardiography: Hemodynamic determinants and clinical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chung Yu; Wen-Shin Lee; Wen-Pin Huang; Chih-Cheng Wu; Yao-Ping Lin; Chen-Huan Chen

    2005-01-01

    A total of 32 patients without regional wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle underwent sequential tissue Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Peak velocities of systolic (Sa), early diastolic (Ea), and late diastolic (Aa) motion of the mitral annulus were measured. Normal references for Sa, Ea and Aa were obtained from 138 volunteers. Indices of left ventricular (LV) systolic and

  13. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Fenster; Donal B. Downey

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Ultrasound is an inexpensive and widely,used imaging,modality,for the diagnosis and staging of a number of diseases. In the past two decades, it has benefited from major advances in technology and has become,an indispensable imaging modality, due to its flexibility and non-invasive character. In the last decade, research investigators and commercial companies have further advanced,ultrasound imaging with the development,of 3D

  14. Cardiac and non-cardiac malformations produced by Mercury in hamsters. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, T.F.

    1980-11-01

    The susceptibility of the developing mammalian embryo to the adverse effects of mercury is well documented. A variety of organic mercury compounds have been demonstrated to produce embryotoxic effects in experimental animals. HARADA recently summarized the reports of human intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, i.e., congenital Minamata disease, resulting from the ingestion of contaminated food. Ongoing studies in this laboratory have involved several different aspects of the embryotoxicity produced by inorganic mercury in hamsters including a dose response study, the interaction of mercuric acetate with cadmium and zinc, the effect of different routes of administration, the placental permeability of /sup 203/Hg and the embryotoxic response in several different hamster strains. Little is known regarding a human syndrome of congenital malformations characterized by ectopia cordis, internal cardiac defects and abnormalities of the diaphragm and ventral body wall. Most papers regarding this human syndrome are clinical reports describing the characteristics and management of specific cases; only speculative information is provided regarding etiology and possible embryopathic mechanisms. The observation that a similar syndrome, which will be designated CNC for cardiac and non-cardiac malformations, can be produced by mercury in hamsters prompted the present study. The specific goals of this study were 1) to study the effect of treating pregnant hamsters at different times during embryonic organogenesis to determine the time which produces the highest incidence of the CNC syndrome and whether different treatment times modify the morphological characteristics of the inclusive malformations and 2) to study the structural features of all mercury-induced external and internal abnormalities of the CNC syndrome in late gestation fetuses.

  15. The Welsh study of mothers and babies: protocol for a population-based cohort study to investigate the clinical significance of defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improvement in ultrasound imaging has led to the identification of subtle non-structural markers during the 18 – 20 week fetal anomaly scan, such as echogenic bowel, mild cerebral ventriculomegaly, renal pelvicalyceal dilatation, and nuchal thickening. These markers are estimated to occur in between 0.6% and 4.3% of pregnancies. Their clinical significance, for pregnancy outcomes or childhood morbidity, is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of seven markers in the general obstetric population and establish a cohort of children for longer terms follow-up to assess the clinical significance of these markers. Methods/Design All women receiving antenatal care within six of seven Welsh Health Boards who had an 18 to 20 week ultrasound scan in Welsh NHS Trusts between July 2008 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. Data were collected on seven markers (echogenic bowel, cerebral ventriculomegaly, renal pelvicalyceal dilatation, nuchal thickening, cardiac echogenic foci, choroid plexus cysts, and short femur) at the time of 18 – 20 week fetal anomaly scan. Ultrasound records were linked to routinely collected data on pregnancy outcomes (work completed during 2012 and 2013). Images were stored and reviewed by an expert panel. The prevalence of each marker (reported and validated) will be estimated. A projected sample size of 23,000 will allow the prevalence of each marker to be estimated with the following precision: a marker with 0.50% prevalence to within 0.10%; a marker with 1.00% prevalence to within 0.13%; and a marker with 4.50% prevalence to within 0.27%. The relative risk of major congenital abnormalities, stillbirths, pre-term birth and small for gestational age, given the presence of a validated marker, will be reported. Discussion This is a large, prospective study designed to estimate the prevalence of markers in a population-based cohort of pregnant women and to investigate associations with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study will also establish a cohort of children that can be followed-up to explore associations between specific markers and longer-term health and social outcomes. PMID:24884594

  16. Abnormalities of nerve conduction studies in myotonic dystrophy type 1: primary involvement of nerves or incidental coexistence?

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong Seok; Kim, Oeung-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kim, Byoung Joon

    2008-10-01

    The involvement of peripheral nerves in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is controversial and the features of peripheral neuropathy (PN) are not well known. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of abnormal nerve conduction findings and the electrophysiological characteristics of PN in DM1. We analyzed medical records, data from nerve conduction studies (NCS), and the results of genetic analysis of 18 patients with DM1 and 30 healthy individuals. The early changes identified in NCS were determined using the sural/ulnar sensory nerve action potential amplitude ratio (SUAR). To correlate the neuropathic changes with cardiac abnormality, we compared the corrected Q-wave/T-wave interval (QTc) with the NCS parameters. Eight of 18 patients had abnormal NCS findings. Of these, abnormal peroneal motor nerve conduction and H-reflex abnormalities were most common. Only one patient complained of sensory symptoms and had abnormal sensory and motor nerve conduction compatible with sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. There were no significant correlations between SUAR and disease duration, age, gene CTG repeats, or the QTc. The presence of diabetes was not related to abnormal nerve conduction or SUAR. The frequency of PN or abnormal NCS results was lower in our patients with DM1 than in previous studies. Our findings suggest that most abnormal NCS results in DM1 patients are more likely to result from myopathic changes, coincidental neuropathies, or radiculopathies than from primary involvement of the nerve. PMID:18657426

  17. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the effectiveness the screening program? How often should population-based screening occur? What are appropriate treatment options after screening based on the size of aneurysms? Are there differences between universal and targeted screening strategies? What are the harms of screening? Summary of Findings Population-based ultrasound screening is effective in men aged 65 to 74 years, particularly in those with a history of smoking. Screening reduces the incidence of AAA ruptures, and decreases rates of emergency surgical repair for AAA and AAA-attributable mortality. Acceptance rates decline with increasing age and are lower for women. Low acceptance rates may affect the effectiveness of a screening program. A one-time screen is sufficient for a population-based screening program with regard to initial negative scans and development of large AAAs. There is no difference between early elective surgical repair and surveillance for small aneurysms (4.0–5.4 cm). Repeated surveillance of small aneurysms is recommended. Targeted screening based on history of smoking has been found to detect 89% of prevalent AAAs and increase the efficiency of screening programs from statistical modeling data. Women have not been studied for AAA screening programs. There is evidence suggesting that screening women for AAA should be considered with respect to mortality and case fatality rates in Ontario. It is important that further evaluation of AAAs in women occur. There is a small risk of physical harm from screening. Less than 1% of aneurysms will not be visualized on initial screen and a re-screen may be necessary; elective surgical repair is associated with a 6% operative morality rate and about 3% of small aneurysms may rupture during surveillance. These risks should be communicated through informed consent prior to screening. There is little evidence of severe psychological harms associated with screening. Conclusions Based on this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there is sufficient evidence to determine that AAA screening using ultrasound is effective

  18. Clinically Significant Abnormal Findings on the ''Nondiagnostic'' CT Portion of Low-Amperage-CT Attenuation-Corrected Myocardial Perfusion SPECT\\/CT Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibyll Goetze; Harpreet K. Pannu; Richard L. Wahl

    Attenuation correction is recommended to optimize the perfor- mance of cardiac SPECT. The 2.5-mA CT commonly used for this purpose in myocardial perfusion SPECT is generally consid- ered ''nondiagnostic'' in quality. In other areas of cardiac and hybrid imaging, diagnostically relevant abnormal findings on higher-quality CT studies have been described. The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency

  19. Ultrasound Fracture Diagnosis in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Amponsah, David; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; vanHolsbeeck, Marnix

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This ground-based investigation accumulated high-level clinical evidence on the sensitivity and specificity of point of care ultrasound performed by expert and novice users for the rapid diagnosis of musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries. We developed preliminary educational methodologies to provide just-in-time training of novice users by creating multi-media training tools and imaging procedures for non expert operators and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of non-expert performed musculoskeletal ultrasound to diagnose acute injuries in a Level 1 Trauma Center. Methods: Patients with potential MSK injuries were identified in the emergency room. A focused MSK ultrasound was performed by expert operators and compared to standard radiographs. A repeat examination was performed by non-expert operators who received a short, just-in-time multimedia education aid. The sensitivity and specificity of the expert and novice ultrasound examinations were compared to gold standard radiography. Results: Over 800 patients were enrolled in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of expert performed ultrasound exceeded 98% for MSK injuries. Novice operators achieved 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity for targeted examinations with the greatest error in fractures involving the hand and foot. Conclusion: Point of care ultrasound is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for MSK injury when performed by experts and just-in-time trained novice operators.

  20. Evaluation of apical subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kebed, Kalie Y; Al Adham, Raed I; Bishu, Kalkidan; Askew, J Wells; Klarich, Kyle W; Araoz, Philip A; Foley, Thomas A; Glockner, James F; Nishimura, Rick A; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2014-09-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is an uncommon variant of HC. We sought to characterize cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among apical HC patients. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of apical HC who underwent cardiac MRI examinations at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from August 1999 to October 2011. Clinical and demographic data at the time of cardiac MRI study were abstracted. Cardiac MRI study and 2-dimensional echocardiograms performed within 6 months of the cardiac MRI were reviewed; 96 patients with apical HC underwent cardiac MRI examinations. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 130.7 ± 39.1 ml and 44.2 ± 20.9 ml, respectively. Maximum LV thickness was 19 ± 5 mm. Hypertrophy extended beyond the apex into other segments in 57 (59.4%) patients. Obstructive physiology was seen in 12 (12.5%) and was more common in the mixed apical phenotype than the pure apical (19.3 vs 2.6%, p = 0.02). Apical pouches were noted in 39 (40.6%) patients. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 70 (74.5%) patients. LGE was associated with severe symptoms and increased maximal LV wall thickness. In conclusion, cardiac MRI is well suited for studying the apical form of HC because of difficulty imaging the cardiac apex with standard echocardiography. Cardiac MRI is uniquely suited to delineate the presence or absence of an apical pouch and abnormal myocardial LGE that may have implications in the natural history of apical HM. In particular, the presence of abnormal LGE is associated with clinical symptoms and increased wall thickness. PMID:25037678