Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing ultrasound readings of simulated blood flow through a model left ventricle or larger portion of the human heart, held inside a fluid filled chamber with membrane-covered windows, and through mitral and aort...
S. W. Smith J. E. Rinaldi
Cardiac abnormalities were identified in patients with familial palmoplantar keratosis. All of them were descended from families on the Greek island of Naxos. Four families were studied and nine cases of palmoplantar keratosis were identified; seven of them showed symptoms and signs of heart disease. Cardiomegaly on chest x ray and electrocardiographic abnormalities were common findings. Three cases had episodes of ventricular tachycardia and a fourth patient died suddenly. All patients with cardiac signs and symptoms showed echocardiographic enlargement of the right ventricle and a right ventricular band; in three the left ventricle was also affected. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4
Protonotarios, N; Tsatsopoulou, A; Patsourakos, P; Alexopoulos, D; Gezerlis, P; Simitsis, S; Scampardonis, G
The object of the study was to determine whether cardiac sampling of the rabbit fetus could be successfully accomplished with minimal procedure-related loss. Pregnant rabbit dams were randomized to undergo ultrasound-guided fetal cardiac sampling in either the left or right uterine horn at 27 days of gestation; cesarean delivery was performed the following day. Liveborn pups from unsampled uterine horns
George Saade; Leah Knudsen; Antonio Valdez-Torres; Michael A. Belfort; Helen Hsu; Shelley C. Harvey; Kathryn M. Hudson; Scott Rodkey
The prevalence of antibodies to cardiac conducting tissue and cardiac conduction electrocardiographic abnormalities were studied in 60 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Complete or incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) was found in 21 patients (35%). Antibodies to cardiac conducting tissue were found in 16 (76%) of the 21 with RBBB and in eight (21%) of the 39 without RBBB. Cardiac conducting tissue antibodies (CCTA) were found only in one of 42 patients with RBBB unrelated to RA and in two out of 60 normal subjects. This newly documented immunological abnormality is thus correlated with disorder of conducting tissue.
Villecco, A S; de Liberali, E; Bianchi, F B; Pisi, E
Truncus arteriosus communis is a well-known, congenital, cardiac abnormality. In this report, we describe a very rare variant in which the truncus arose from the right ventricle, the atrial and ventricular septa were intact, the left ventricle was hypoplastic and the small right atrium was draining to the truncus arteriosus through a fibrose tunnel-like connection. PMID:8016920
Oren, H; Ozkan, H; Oren, B; Küpelio?lu, A; Cevik, N
Ultrasound is used widely in medicine for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Ultrasound contrast agents are suspensions of gas-filled microbubbles used to enhance diagnostic imaging. Microbubble contrast agents can increase the likelihood of bioeffects of ultrasound associated with acoustic cavitation. Under certain exposure conditions, the interaction of ultrasound with cardiac tissues can produce cardiac arrhythmias. The general objective of this thesis was to develop a greater understanding of ultrasound-induced premature cardiac beats. The hypothesis guiding this work was that acoustic cavitation is the physical mechanism for the production of arrhythmias with ultrasound. This hypothesis was tested through a series of experiments with mice in vivo and theoretical investigations. Results of this research supported the acoustic cavitation hypothesis. The acoustic pressure threshold for premature beats was significantly lower with microbubble contrast agents present in the blood than without. With microbubbles, the threshold for premature beats was below the current output limits of diagnostic devices. The threshold was not significantly dependent upon contrast agent type and was not influenced by contrast agent dose over three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the dependence of the threshold on acoustic frequency was consistent with the frequency dependence of acoustic cavitation. Experimentally determined thresholds for premature beats in vivo were in excellent agreement with theoretically estimated thresholds for inertial cavitation. A passive cavitation detector (PCD) was used to measure the acoustic emissions produced by cavitating microbubbles in vivo. A direct correlation between the amplitude of the PCD and the percentage of ultrasound pulses producing a premature beat was consistent with cavitation as a mechanism for this bioeffect. Although this thesis focused on the mechanistic understanding of ultrasound-induced arrhythmias, more persistent effects on the murine heart were also discovered. In the presence of microbubbles, ultrasound could produce morphological changes in the ECG and vascular damage in the myocardium. Taken together, these results indicate that ultrasound-induced arrhythmias were produced by intravascular microbubble activity. The findings of this thesis provide a greater understanding of acoustic cavitation in vivo, useful for the advancement of ultrasound contrast agents in imaging and therapy.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia, affecting over 2.2 million Americans. One effective treatment is cardiac ablation, which shows a high rate of success in treating paroxysmal AF. Focused ultrasound has gained interest for thermal ablation for decades due to its noninvasive characteristics. Based on the simulation results of transducer arrays, current transesophageal medical devices, and the throat anatomy, we have designed, fabricated, and tested a focused ultrasound applicator that can be inserted into the esophagus for incisionless cardiac ablation. The overall goal is to bring this applicator as closely as possible to the heart in order to effectively deliver ultrasound energy, and create electrically isolating lesions in myocardial tissue, which replicate the currently used Maze procedure. The transducer design is a two-dimensional sparse phased array with flat tapered elements operating at a frequency of 1.6 MHz. This array uses 64 active elements spatially sampled from 195 rectangular elements. Its probe head housing is 19 mm in diameter and incorporates an acoustic window. A prototype applicator has been successfully tested ex vivo using fresh porcine myocardial tissue. The results demonstrated a potential applicability of an ultrasound applicator to transesophageal cardiac surgery in AF treatment.
Lee, Hotaik; Francischelli, David; Smith, Nadine Barrie
BACKGROUND The exact survival rates and markers of survival after postoperative cardiac arrest in children with congenital heart abnormalities are unknown. METHODS In this one-year study, we identified children younger than seven years of age with postoperative cardiac arrest in our pediatric cardiac intensive care unit database. Parameters from perioperative, pre-arrest, and resuscitation periods were analyzed for these patients. Comparisons were made between survivors and non-survivors after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Fisher's exact, Student's t, and chi-square tests were used to analyze data. RESULTS Of 529 evaluated children who underwent corrective heart surgery, 59 (11%) sustained a documented cardiac arrest. Of these, 22 (37%) survived and regained their vital signs. Perioperative parameters (age, weight, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass pumping), ventricular physiology, oxygen saturation, and bicarbonate concentration did not influence the outcome of CPR. Greater use of inotropic agents was not associated with higher mortality. A significant relationship was seen between having history of cardiac arrest and CPR success (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION CPR had undesirable outcomes in patients with hemodynamic dysfunction (i.e. low mean arterial blood pressure). Patients with univentricular physiology or history of cardiac arrest are not prone to a higher risk of mortality following arrest.
Ahmadi, Ali Reza; Aarabi, Mohammad Yusef
This article describes a study investigating the efficacy of two cardiac teaching modalities (ultrasound imaging and cadaver prosections) on learning cardiac gross anatomy. The methods and outcomes are discussed. A pre-post test was used in this study.
Michael Griksaitis (Durham University Pediatric Cardiology); Marina Sawdon (Durham University); Gabrielle Finn (Durham University)
OBJECTIVE Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), a regional fat depot adjacent to the myocardium, may mediate the complex relation between obesity and cardiac left ventricular (LV) abnormalities. We sought to evaluate the association of PAT with echocardiographic measures of LV abnormalities in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,414 African Americans (35% men; mean age 58 years) from the JHS underwent computed tomographic assessment of PAT and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from 2007 to 2009 and echocardiography examination between 2000 and 2004. Echocardiographic measures of left atrial (LA) internal diameter, LV mass, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and E-wave velocity-to-A-wave velocity ratio (E/A ratio) were examined in relation to PAT, VAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). RESULTS All adiposity measures were positively correlated with LA diameter and LV mass and negatively correlated with E/A ratio (P = 0.02 to 0.0001) and were not with LVEF (P = 0.36–0.61). In women, per 1-SD increment of PAT, we observed association with higher LV mass (9.0 ± 1.7 gm, P = 0.0001) and LA diameter (1.0 ± 0.1 mm, P = 0.0001). However, the magnitude of the association between PAT and cardiac measures was similar compared with VAT (P = 0.65 [LV mass]; P = 0.26 [LA diameter]) and was smallercompared with BMI (P = 0.002 [LV mass]; P = 0.01 [LA diameter]) and WC (P = 0.009 [LA diameter]). CONCLUSIONS PAT is correlated with echocardiographic measures of cardiac LV abnormalities, but the association is not stronger than other adiposity measures.
Liu, Jiankang; Fox, Caroline S.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; May, Warren L.; Ding, Jingzhong; Carr, J. Jeffery; Taylor, Herman A.
BACKGROUND Conotruncal heart defects comprise 25%-30% of non-syndromic congenital heart defects. This study describes the frequency of chromosome abnormalities and microdeletion 22q11 associated with conotruncal heart malformations. METHODS From a population base of 974,579 infants/fetuses delivered, 622 Californian infants/fetuses were ascertained with a defect of aortico-pulmonary septation. Infants whose primary cardiac defect was tetralogy of Fallot (n=296) or D-transposition of the great vessels (n=189) were screened for microdeletions of 22q11. RESULTS Fourteen (2.3%) of the 622 infants/fetuses had chromosomal abnormalities. Thirty infants, 10% of those whose primary defect was tetralogy of Fallot, had chromosome 22q11 microdeletions. Right aortic arch, abnormal branching patterns of the major arteries arising from the thoracic aorta, and pulmonary artery abnormalities were observed more frequently in these children. CONCLUSIONS We found an unusual number of infants with an extra sex chromosome and a conotruncal defect. Infants with tetralogy of Fallot due to 22q11 microdeletion showed more associated vascular anomalies than infants with tetralogy but no 22q11 microdeletion. Although these associated vascular anomalies provide clues as to which infants with tetralogy of Fallot are more likely to carry the microdeletion, the overall risk of 10% among all infants with tetralogy of Fallot warrants chromosome analysis and FISH testing routinely.
Lammer, Edward J.; Chak, Jacqueline S.; Iovannisci, David M.; Schultz, Kathleen; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Shaw, Gary M.
Prenatal diagnosis performed by fetal ultrasound scan is now a routine part of antenatal care in many countries. We have used our registry of congenital malformations to determine how many fetal anomalies and consequently how many chromosomal abnormalities are detected by this procedure. In our region, evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in women of 38 years and younger
Claude Stoll; Béatrice Dott; Yves Alembik; Marie-Paule Roth
Heart failure is a common consequence of CKD, and it portends high risk for mortality. However, among patients without known heart failure, the associations of different stages of estimated GFR (eGFR) with changes in cardiac structure and function are not well described. Here, we performed a cross-sectional analysis to study these associations among 3487 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. We estimated GFR using cystatin C. The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) assessed by echocardiography was 32%, 48%, 57%, and 75% for eGFR categories ?60, 45–59, 30–44, and <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. In fully adjusted multivariable analyses, subjects with eGFR levels of <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 had twofold higher odds of LVH (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.40–3.40; P<0.001) relative to subjects with eGFR?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. This reduction in kidney function also significantly associated with abnormal LV geometry but not diastolic or systolic dysfunction. An eGFR of 30–44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 also significantly associated with LVH and abnormal LV geometry compared with eGFR?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In summary, in this large CKD cohort, reduced kidney function associated with abnormal cardiac structure. We did not detect significant associations between kidney function and systolic or diastolic function after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
Hsu, Chi-yuan; Li, Yongmei; Mishra, Rakesh K.; Keane, Martin; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Dries, Daniel; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; He, Jiang; Anderson, Amanda; Go, Alan S.; Shlipak, Michael G.
Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22809542
Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios
Abstract, Compensatory fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) without normalization, which can be trained with a backpropa-gation learning algorithm, is proposed as a pattern recognition technique for intelligent detection of Doppler ultrasound wave-forms of abnormal neonatal cerebral hemodynamics. Doppler ultrasound signals were recorded from the anterior cerebral arteries of 40 normal full-term babies and 14 mature babies with intracranial pathology. The features
Huseyin Seker; David H. Evans; Nizamettin Aydin; Ertugrul Yazgan
OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused demonstrable abnormalities of mitral valve motion and reduced left ventricular mass and filling associated with systolic dysfunction.
de Simone, G.; Scalfi, L.; Galderisi, M.; Celentano, A.; Di Biase, G.; Tammaro, P.; Garofalo, M.; Mureddu, G. F.; de Divitiis, O.; Contaldo, F.
Background Emergency ultrasound is now used in both community and academic hospitals for rapid diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening conditions. Bedside emergency echocardiography can rapidly identify significant pathology such as pericardial effusions and tamponade, right ventricle dilatation due to pulmonary embolism, and cardiac hypokinesis, and aid in the diagnosis and management of patients in emergency department (ED). Case Report A 41-year-old man presented twice to the ED with history of abdominal pain and was diagnosed with primary cardiac angiosarcoma with point-of-care ultrasound. Conclusion This case is illustrative of how bedside cardiac ultrasound in the ED can dramatically change a patient's hospital course.
Pourmand, Ali; Boniface, Keith
We describe the first mapping of biological current in a live heart using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI). Ablation procedures that treat severe heart arrhythmias require detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave. The conventional procedure is time-consuming and limited by its poor spatial resolution (5-10 mm). UCSDI can potentially improve on existing mapping procedures. It is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acousto-electric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. Data from 2 experiments are presented. A 540 kHz ultrasonic transducer (f/# = 1, focal length = 90 mm, pulse repetition frequency = 1600 Hz) was scanned over an isolated rabbit heart perfused with an excitation-contraction decoupler to reduce motion significantly while retaining electric function. Tungsten electrodes inserted in the left ventricle recorded simultaneously the AE signal and the low-frequency electrocardiogram (ECG). UCSDI displayed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the spreading activation wave. The propagation velocity estimated from UCSDI was 0.25 +/- 0.05 mm/ms, comparable to the values obtained with the ECG signals. The maximum AE signal-to-noise ratio after filtering was 18 dB, with an equivalent detection threshold of 0.1 mA/ cm(2). This study demonstrates that UCSDI is a potentially powerful technique for mapping current flow and biopotentials in the heart. PMID:19411215
Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S; Jia, Congxian; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O'Donnell, Matthew
In myocardial hypertrophy secondary to renovascular hypertension, the rate of intracellular Ca2+ concentration decline during relaxation in paced left ventricular (LV) myocytes isolated from hypertensive (Hyp) rats is much slower compared with that from normotensive (Sham) rats. By use of a novel liquid-crystal television-based optical-digital processor capable of performing on-line real-time Fourier transformation and the striated pattern (similar to 1-dimensional diffraction grating) of cardiac muscle cells, sarcomere shortening and relaxation velocities were measured in single Hyp and Sham myocytes 18 h after isolation. There were no differences in resting sarcomere length, percent of maximal shortening, time to peak shortening, and average sarcomere shortening velocity between Sham and Hyp cardiac cells. In contrast, average sarcomere relaxation velocity and half-relaxation time were significantly prolonged in Hyp myocytes. Contractile differences between Sham and Hyp myocytes detected by the optical-digital processor are confirmed by an independent method of video tracking of whole cell length changes during excitation-contraction. Despite the fact that freshly isolated myocytes contract more rigorously than 18-h-old myocytes, the relaxation abnormality was still observed in freshly isolated Hyp myocytes, suggesting impaired relaxation is an intrinsic property of Hyp myocytes rather than changes brought about by short-term culture. We postulate that reduced sarcomere relaxation velocity is a direct consequence of impaired Ca2+ sequestration-extrusion during relaxation in Hyp myocytes and may be responsible for diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive hypertrophic myocardium at the cellular level. PMID:1533096
Yelamarty, R V; Moore, R L; Yu, F T; Elensky, M; Semanchick, A M; Cheung, J Y
An important goal in clinical cardiology is the non-invasive quantification of regional cardiac deformation. While many methods have been proposed for the estimation of 3D left ventricular deformation and strains derived from 4D ultrasound, currently there is a lack of in vivo clinical validation of these algorithms on humans. In this paper, we describe the experiments used in validating cardiac
Ming Jack Po; Auranuch Lorsakul; Qi Duan; Kevin J. Yeroushalmi; Eiichi Hyodo; Yukiko Oe; Shunichi Homma; Andrew F. Laine
In this paper, a new method for detecting cardiac abnormalities (bradycardia and tachycardia) is proposed. Based on the YNI (Yanagihara, Noma, and Irisawa) model to analyze the pole-zero characteristics of the phase error between abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) and entrained YNI-response, it develops a diagnostic pacemaker system that can replace multiple sensors. The work derives for the first time the thresholds
Wei Vivien Shi; Timothy N. Chang; MengChu Zhou
Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease most often associated with renal dysfunction and death due to renal failure in patients' fourth and fifth decades of life. However, cardiac manifestations including arrhythmias, angina and heart failure are common and probably underrecognized. Furthermore, Fabry's disease is now recognised as also affecting female carriers, who manifest signs later than males. A variant of Fabry's has been identified that only affects cardiac tissue, which presents as an unexplained hypertrophy of the left ventricle in middle-aged patients, possibly with women more affected than men. Given that epidemiological studies report a prevalence of Fabry's cardiomyopathy among middle-aged patients with cardiac hypertrophy to be anywhere from one to 12%, it is reasonable to screen these patients for alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. Although mortality data is lacking from randomised, controlled trials of galactosidase replacement therapy, there are some reports of improvement in cardiac endpoints. Therefore patients with known Fabry's disease should be screened early for cardiac involvement, as treatment benefit may not be seen once cardiac fibrosis has developed. PMID:21298206
Morrissey, R P; Philip, K J; Schwarz, E R
One indication for rapid prenatal aneuploidy detection in uncultured amniocytes by FISH is the identification of fetal abnormalities by ultrasound. We analyzed 1,068 consecutive specimens from second trimester pregnancies with fetal ultrasound abnormalities referred for FISH plus cytogenetics. These specimens are a subset (14.7%) of the most recent 7,240 clinical referrals for these combined analyses. Hybridization with specific probes for
B. E. Ward; M. Wright; C. Lytle
The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of non-cardiac diseases of the small animal thorax. Ultrasound images from a total of 75 animals (26 cats and 49 dogs) were compared to cytologic, histopathologic, and necropsy findings. Clinical diagnoses included neoplasia of the mediastinum, pleura, or lungs (43); idiopathic mediastinal cyst (3); diaphragmatic or peritoneopericardial hernia (4); lung lobe torsion (1); pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrates (1); and idiopathic, chylous, congestive heart failure, or lymphangiectasia associated pleural effusion (14). In the remaining 9 patients, a definitive diagnosis was not obtained. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate was performed in 56 patients; 1 of these also had an ultrasound-guided tissue core biopsy. Of the fine needle aspirates, 51 (91%) were diagnostic. Ultrasound examination, particularly when accompanied by guided tissue sampling, can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of non-cardiac intrathoracic lesions. PMID:10779076
Reichle, J K; Wisner, E R
Comparing patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) to a normocalcemic control population, those with PHP have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and cardiac abnormalities. This study aimed at correlating cardiac findings (valvular and myocardial calcification, myocardial hypertrophy) with clinical data (age, sex, clinical manifestation, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, hypertension, skeletal abnormalities, hypercalcemic syndrome) and biochemical data (serum calcium, serum phosphate, serum iPTH level, serum creatinine). A group of 132 consecutive patients with surgically verified PHP (94 women, 38 men; ages 15-86, mean age 57 +/- 16 years) were included in this study. Blood chemistry, clinical presentation, radiography, and echocardiography were carried out in all patients for univariate and multivariate analyses of all parameters. There was no statistical correlation between clinical symptoms, biochemical data, and cardiac calcific alterations. Typical skeletal manifestations (osteolysis/subperiostal resorption) and valvular calcifications were significantly correlated to left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.005). Cardiac abnormalities such as calcific myocardial deposits or mitral and aortic valvular calcifications do not correlate with laboratory findings and clinical presentation at the time of diagnosis. There was no biochemical or clinical variable that could predict the frequency or severity of valvular sclerosis or calcific deposits in the myocardium. However, PHP-related skeletal abnormalities and valvular calcification were predicting factors for left ventricular hypertrophy, a reversible cardiac manifestation of PHP. Myocardial hypertrophy is more often found with classic symptomatic PHP with osseous abnormalities. PMID:7725754
Längle, F; Abela, C; Koller-Strametz, J; Mittelböck, M; Bergler-Klein, J; Stefenelli, T; Woloszczuk, W; Niederle, B
Two patients are presented who had suffered episodes of ischaemia of the brain-stem, mainly affecting one side of the pons. In addition to the more usual neurological signs, these two patients had cardiac arrhythmia: one had a sinus arrhythmia, the other a wandering pacemaker. In both patients the hemidiaphragm on the side ipsilateral to the lesion was transiently elevated. The
A D Korczyn
This simulation study proposes a noninvasive, transesophageal cardiac-thermal ablation using a planar ultrasound phased array (1 MHz, 60 × 10 mm2, 0.525 mm interelement spacing, 114 × 20 elements). Thirty-nine foci in cardiac muscle were defined at 20, 40, and 60-mm distances and at various angles from the transducer surface to simulate the accessible posterior left atrial wall through the
Xiangtao Yin; Laurence M. Epstein; Kullervo Hynynen
OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and
G. de Simone; L. Scalfi; M. Galderisi; A. Celentano; G. Di Biase; P. Tammaro; M. Garofalo; G. F. Mureddu; O. de Divitiis; F. Contaldo
\\u000a Myocardial deformation is a critical indicator of many cardiac diseases and dysfunctions. The goal of this paper is to use\\u000a myocardial deformation patterns to identify and localize regional abnormal cardiac function in human subjects. We have developed\\u000a a novel tensor-based classification framework that better conserves the spatio-temporal structure of the myocardial deformation\\u000a pattern than conventional vector-based algorithms. In addition, the
Zhen Qian; Qingshan Liu; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Leon Axel
Background: The clinical presentation of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-infected patients may be atypical or masked by concurrent illnesses that lead to misdiagnosis or they remain undiagnosed; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the frequency of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. Material and METHODS: Consecutive HIV-infected patients of age >13 years were studied for 3 months, after obtaining their consent. After clinical assessment, chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, 2-dimensional echocardiography and serum Troponin T levels were done. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were studied, cardiomegaly was observed in the x-ray of 15% of them, abnormal electrocardiogram was seen in 18%, 2-dimensional echocardiography was abnormal in 67%; and diastolic dysfunction (42.8%) was the commonest abnormality followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (17.6%). Serum troponin T was elevated in 8%. The variables, opportunistic infections (OIs), antiretroviral therapy (ART), stage of HIV disease, and CD4 counts, did not affect the frequency of diastolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The diastolic dysfunction is the most common cardiac abnormality observed in HIV-infected patients. PMID:22968352
Jain, Nirdesh; Reddy, Dandu H; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Khanna, Roopali; Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Usman, Kauser; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Gupta, Alok
Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ?65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk.
Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.
Abnormalities in autonomic control in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have been reported by multiple researchers. However their potential causal association with sickle cell crisis remains unknown. We employed hypoxia, a known trigger to sickle cell crisis, to perturb the autonomic systems of the subjects. Cardiac autonomic control was non-invasively assessed by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV)
Suvimol Sangkatumvong; Michael C. K. Khoo; Thomas D. Coates
Fish embryos exposed to complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic sources show a characteristic suite of abnormalities, including cardiac dysfunction, edema, spinal curvature, and reduction in the size of the jaw and other craniofacial structures. To elucidate the toxic mechanisms underlying these different defects, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to seven non-alkylated PAHs, including five two-
John P. Incardona; Tracy K. Collier; Nathaniel L. Scholz
To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had
William P. Follansbee; Edward I. Curtiss; Thomas A. Medsger; Virginia D. Steen; Barry F. Uretsky; Gregory R. Owens; Gerald P. Rodnan
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac abnormalities can be seen with subarachnoid hemorrhage. To date, there have been isolated case reports of transient left ventricular apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult female was brought to the emergency department with somnolence. A 3 × 3 mm ruptured basilar aneurysm was found and successfully
C Franco; B Khaled; L Afonso; M Raufi
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is a radiation-free diagnostic tool that uses biocompatible ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) to improve image clarity. UCAs, which do not contain dye, often salvage "technically difficult" ultrasound scans, increasing the accuracy and reliability of a front-line ultrasound diagnosis, reducing unnecessary downstream testing, lowering overall health care costs, changing therapy, and improving patient care. Two UCAs currently are approved and regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. They have favorable safety profiles and risk/benefit ratios in adult and pediatric populations, including compromised patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, these UCAs are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected right-to-left, bidirectional, or transient right-to-left cardiac shunts. These patients, who constitute 10% to 35% of the general population, typically receive no UCAs when they undergo echocardiography. If their echocardiographic images are suboptimal, they may receive inappropriate diagnosis and treatment, or they may be referred for additional diagnostic testing, including radiation-based procedures that increase their lifetime risk for cancer or procedures that use contrast agents containing dye, which may increase the risk for kidney damage. An exhaustive review of current peer-reviewed research demonstrated no scientific basis for the UCA contraindication in patients with known or suspected cardiac shunts. Initial safety concerns were based on limited rodent data and speculation related to macroaggregated albumin microspheres, a radioactive nuclear imaging agent with different physical and chemical properties and no relation to UCAs. Radioactive macroaggregated albumin is not contraindicated in adult or pediatric patients with cardiac shunts and is routinely used in these populations. In conclusion, the International Contrast Ultrasound Society Board recommends removal of the contraindication to further the public interest in safe, reliable, radiation-free diagnostic imaging options for patients with known or suspected cardiac shunts and to reduce their need for unnecessary downstream testing. PMID:23816393
Parker, Jeremy M; Weller, Mark W; Feinstein, Linda Maiman; Adams, Robin J; Main, Michael L; Grayburn, Paul A; Cosgrove, David O; Goldberg, Barry A; Darge, Kassa; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Wilson, Stephanie; Monaghan, Mark; Piscaglia, Fabio; Fowlkes, Brian; Mathias, Wilson; Moriyasu, Fuminari; Chammas, Maria Christina; Greenbaum, Lennard; Feinstein, Steven B
Zebrafish can fully regenerate their myocardium after ventricular resection without evidence of scars. This extraordinary regenerative ability provides an excellent model system to study the activation of the regenerative potential for human heart tissue. In addition to the morphology, it is vital to understand the cardiac function of zebrafish. To characterize adult zebrafish cardiac function, an ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was customized for real-time imaging of the zebrafish heart (about 1 mm in diameter) at a resolution of around 37 µm. Moreover, we developed an image segmentation algorithm to track the cardiac boundary and measure the dynamic size of the zebrafish heart for further quantification of zebrafish cardiac function. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithm were verified on a tissue-mimicking phantom and in vivo zebrafish echocardiography. The quantitative evaluation demonstrated that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is comparable to the manual delineation by experts.
Zhou, Xiaowei; Sun, Lei; Yu, Yanyan; Qiu, Weibao; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk; Yu, Weichuan
Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the most frequent indications for a 2D and Doppler fetal echocardiographic assessment (DE). If accompanied by a non-immune fetal hydrops, arrhythmias (A) involve an increased risk of intrauterine death. Some A and mainly the bradyarrhythmias (BA) can be the first sign of major cardiac malformation (CM). In a series of 404 pregnancies between week 17 and 40 of gestation (mean 27.6 weeks), a Doppler echocardiography was carried out; in 137 (35%) fetuses (F) this examination was based on the indication of arrhythmia. 33 (24.2%) of these fetuses showed a cardiac malformation. Bradyarrhythmias were found in 20 F; 5 had a complete AV-block including, 4 with an important cardiac abnormality (TU, complete AV-canal, corr. TGV). SVT's and auricular flutters (AF) made transplacental treatment necessary in 4 fetuses (1 AF, 3 SVT); they had no major cardiac malformation. PAC's were present in 59 pregnancies of which several had minor or major anomalies. Doppler echocardiography served to define the arrhythmia and the structural cardiac malformation, but also to follow transplacental treatment. These investigations have allowed us to schedule delivery under neonatal surveillance. After birth, 5 neonates had to be treated for persistent dysrhythmia (5 SVT, 2 complete AB-blocks), and 10 for a major cardiac malformation. PMID:8475361
Oberhänsli, I; Extermann, P; Extermann, D
Objective To determine if pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (histotripsy) can accurately and safely generate ventricular septal defects (VSDs) through the intact chest of a neonatal animal, with the eventual goal of developing a non-invasive technique of creating intra-cardiac communications in patients with congenital heart disease. Background Histotripsy is an innovative ultrasonic technique that generates demarcated, mechanical tissue fractionation utilizing high intensity ultrasound pulses. Previous work has shown that histotripsy can create atrial septal defects in a beating heart in an open-chest canine model. Methods Nine neonatal pigs were treated with transcutaneous histotripsy targeting the ventricular septum. Ultrasound pulses of 5?s duration at a peak negative pressure of 13 MPa and a pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz were generated by a 1 MHz focused transducer. The procedure was guided by real-time ultrasound imaging. Results VSDs were created in all pigs with diameters ranging from 2–6.5mm. Six pigs were euthanized within 2 hrs of treatment, while 3 were recovered and maintained for 2–3 days to evaluate lesion maturation and clinical side effects. There were only transient clinical effects and pathology revealed mild collateral damage around the VSD with no significant damage to other cardiac or extra-cardiac structures. Conclusions Histotripsy can accurately and safely generate VSDs through the intact chest in a neonatal animal model. These results suggest that with further advances, histotripsy can be a useful, non-invasive technique to create intra-cardiac communications, which currently require invasive catheter-based or surgical procedures, to clinically stabilize newborn infants with complex congenital heart disease.
Owens, Gabe E.; Miller, Ryan M.; Ensing, Greg; Ives, Kimberly; Gordon, David; Ludomirsky, Achi; Xu, Zhen
Objectives: All patients should undergo formal assessment of ventricular function following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is not widely used as a test before discharge in AMI patients. This study sought to determine the impact of contrast-enhanced CMR (ceCMR) scanning before discharge in addition to standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) on patient care following AMI. Methods: 100 patients
Robin A. P. Weir; Thomas N. Martin; Colin J. Petrie; Aengus Murphy; Suzanne Clements; Tracey Steedman; Galen S. Wagner; John J. V. McMurray; Henry J. Dargie
The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is the evaluation of the feasibility of transesophageal cardiac surgery in arrhythmia treatment, using therapeutic ultrasound energy without the requirement for surgical incisions or blood contact. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting over 2.2 million Americans. One effective treatment is cardiac ablation, which shows a high rate of success in treating paroxysmal AF. As a prevailing modality for this treatment, catheter ablation using radiofrequency has been effective, but there is measurable morbidity and significant costs and time associated with this invasive procedure for permanent or persistent AF. To address these issues, a transesophageal ultrasound applicator for noninvasive cardiac ablations has been designed, developed and evaluated in this dissertation. Focused ultrasound for thermal ablation has gained interest for decades due to its noninvasive characteristics. Since the esophagus is close to the posterior of the left atrium, its position makes it attractive for the incision-less surgery of the selected area of the heart using ultrasound. The overall goal of this study is to bring an applicator as closely as possible to the heart in order to effectively deliver ultrasound energy, and create electrically isolating lesions in myocardial tissue, replicating the currently used Maze procedure. The Maze procedure is a surgical operation that treats AF by creating a grid of incisions resulting in non-conductive scar tissue in the atria. The initial design of an ultrasound applicator capable of creating atrial lesions from the esophagus, involved evaluating sound pressure fields within layers of the esophagus and myocardium. Based on the multiple factors of the simulation results of transducer arrays, current transesophageal medical devices, and the throat anatomy, a focused ultrasound transducer that can be inserted into the esophagus has been designed and tested. In this study, a two-dimensional sparse phased array with flat tapered elements was found to be adequate as a transesophageal ultrasound applicator. The spatially sparse array uses 64 active elements operating at a frequency of 1.6 MHz sampled from 195 (15 by 13) rectangular elements. With this applicator, the size and position of the ablation targets can be controlled by changing the electrical power and phase to the individual elements for ultrasound beam focusing and steering. The magnetic resonance-compatible probe head housing is 19 mm in diameter and incorporates an acoustic window. For the verification of the suggested design, a prototype array with an acoustic impedance matching layer was constructed, and tested using exposimetry andex vivo experiments. Experimental results indicated that the array could focus and steer the beam with an angle within +/-10° inside the tissue. Also, the array can deliver sufficient power to the focal point to produce ablation while not damaging nearby tissue outside the target area. The results demonstrated a potential application of the ultrasound applicator to transesophageal cardiac surgery in atrial fibrillation treatment.
Cardiac arrest is a condition frequently encountered by physicians in the hospital setting including the Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit and medical/surgical wards. This paper reviews the current literature involving the use of ultrasound in resuscitation and proposes an algorithmic approach for the use of ultrasound during cardiac arrest. At present there is the need for a means of differentiating between various causes of cardiac arrest, which are not a direct result of a primary ventricular arrhythmia. Identifying the cause of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is important as the underlying cause is what guides management in such cases. This approach, incorporating ultrasound to manage cardiac arrest aids in the diagnosis of the most common and easily reversible causes of cardiac arrest not caused by primary ventricular arrhythmia, namely; severe hypovolemia, tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and massive pulmonary embolus. These four conditions are addressed in this paper using four accepted emergency ultrasound applications to be performed during resuscitation of a cardiac arrest patient with the aim of determining the underlying cause of a cardiac arrest. Identifying the underlying cause of cardiac arrest represents the one of the greatest challenges of managing patients with asystole or PEA and accurate determination has the potential to improve management by guiding therapeutic decisions. We include several clinical images demonstrating examples of cardiac tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus, and severe hypovolemia secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysm. In conclusion, this protocol has the potential to reduce the time required to determine the etiology of a cardiac arrest and thus decrease the time between arrest and appropriate therapy. PMID:17822831
Hernandez, Caleb; Shuler, Klaus; Hannan, Hashibul; Sonyika, Chionesu; Likourezos, Antonios; Marshall, John
Background Cardiac conduction disturbances are common in spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Whether their occurrence can be linked to signs and symptoms of rheumatic disease activity is an unsettled issue addressed in this study. Methods In this cross-sectional study patients with AS according to modified New York criteria but without psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, dementia, pregnancy, other severe diseases such as malignancy and difficulties in answering questionnaires were invited; and 210 participated (120 men), mean age 49 years (SD 13; range: 16–77). Questionnaires, physical examination, ECG, and laboratory tests were performed at the same visit. Results Cardiac conduction disturbances were common and diagnosed in 10-33%, depending on if conservative or less conservative predefined criteria were applied. They consisted mostly of 1st degree atrio-ventricular block and prolonged QRS duration, but one patient had a pacemaker and 7 more had complete bundle branch blocks. Conduction abnormalities were associated mainly with age, male gender and body weight, and not with laboratory measures of inflammation or with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. Neither were they associated with the presence of HLA B27, which was found in 87% of all patients; the subtype B270502 dominated in all patients. Conclusions Cardiac conduction abnormalities are common in AS, but not associated with markers of disease activity or specific B27 subtypes. Even relatively mild conduction system abnormalities might, however, indirectly affect morbidity and mortality.
Background: Italy is characterized by high prevalence of goiter. To date, only limited data about the prevalence of goiter in the Italian adult population are available. Aim. To investigate the prevalence of thyroid ultrasound abnormalities in adults unaware of any thyroid disease and evaluate the rate of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) obtained by this intervention. Methods. US thyroid scan was performed in adult volunteers recruited by advertisement in Modena, Italy. 135 women and 66 men (n= 201), unaware of any thyroid disease (mean age of 46 ± 10.7 years) underwent their first thyroid US scan. Results. US thyroid abnormalities were found in 101 subjects (50.3%): 91 nodular goiters (45.2%) and 13 US-thyroiditis (6.5%) associated with positive auto-antibodies in 11 of them. 17 subjects (18%) with nodules underwent US-FNAB with the following cytological class (C) outcome: 14 patients C2 (82 %), 1 patient C3 (6 %), 2 patients had C4 (12%), the latter received histological confirmation. Conclusions. The prevalence of thyroid abnormalities, is very high in subjects unaware of any thyroid disease. DTC was found in 1% of subjects and in 2% of those affected by nodular goiter. Compared to the detection rate of the well-established screening programs for breast (0.45%) and colorectal (0.27%) cancer, the prevalence of DTC seems to be much higher. Thyroid US screening could allow the detection of DTC in asymptomatic subjects and this diagnosis often includes DTC at an advanced stage. Thus, US screening not necessarily results in the over-diagnosis of clinically not relevant thyroid diseases. PMID:23579962
Gnarini, Valentina L; Brigante, Giulia; Della Valle, Elisa; Diazzi, Chiara; Madeo, Bruno; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo; Simoni, Manuela
Quantitative description of cardiac motion is desirable to assist in detecting myocardial abnormalities from gated myocardial perfusion (GMP) emission computed tomography (ECT) images. While "optical flow" type of cardiac motion estimation (ME) techniques have been developed in the past, there has been no quantitative evaluation of their performance. Moreover, no investigation has been performed in terms of applying an ME technique to quantify cardiac motion abnormalities. Using the four-dimensional NCAT beating heart phantom with known built-in motion, the current work aimed at addressing the aforementioned two issues. A three-dimensional cardiac ME technique was developed to search for a motion vector field (MVF) that establishes voxel-by-voxel correspondence between two GMP ECT images. The weighted myocardial strain energy served as the constraint in the process to minimize the difference between one intensity image and the MVF warped other. We studied the convergence of the ME technique using different initial estimates and cost functions. The dependence of estimated MVF on the initialization was attributed to the tangential motion that is undetectable while not suppressed by the strain energy constraint. We optimized the strain energy constraint weighting using noise-free phantom images and noisy reconstructed images, the former against the known MVF and the later in the task of regional motion classification. While the results from the above two studies well coincide with each other, we also demonstrated that upon appropriate optimization the ME method has the capability of serving as a computer motion observer in separating simulated noisy reconstructed GMP SPECT images corresponding to hearts with and without regional motion abnormalities. PMID:21269868
Tang, Jing; Segars, W Paul; Lee, Taek-Soo; He, Xin; Rahmim, Arman; Tsui, Benjamin M W
Quantitative description of cardiac motion is desirable to assist in detecting myocardial abnormalities from gated myocardial perfusion (GMP) emission computed tomography (ECT) images. While “optical flow” type of cardiac motion estimation (ME) techniques have been developed in the past, there has been no quantitative evaluation of their performance. Moreover, no investigation has been performed in terms of applying an ME technique to quantify cardiac motion abnormalities. Using the four-dimensional NCAT beating heart phantom with known built-in motion, the current work aimed at addressing the aforementioned two issues. A three-dimensional cardiac ME technique was developed to search for a motion vector field (MVF) that establishes voxel-by-voxel correspondence between two GMP ECT images. The weighted myocardial strain energy served as the constraint in the process to minimize the difference between one intensity image and the MVF warped other. We studied the convergence of the ME technique using different initial estimates and cost functions. The dependence of estimated MVF on the initialization was attributed to the tangential motion that is undetectable while not suppressed by the strain energy constraint. We optimized the strain energy constraint weighting using noise-free phantom images and noisy reconstructed images, the former against the known MVF and the later in the task of regional motion classification. While the results from the above two studies well coincide with each other, we also demonstrated that upon appropriate optimization the ME method has the capability of serving as a computer motion observer in separating simulated noisy reconstructed GMP SPECT images corresponding to hearts with and without regional motion abnormalities.
Tang, Jing; Segars, W. Paul; Lee, Taek-Soo; He, Xin; Rahmim, Arman; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.
Summary Background and objectives Clinical heart failure (HF) is associated with CKD and faster rates of kidney function decline. Whether subclinical abnormalities of cardiac structure are associated with faster kidney function decline is not known. The association between cardiac concentricity and kidney function decline was evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This is a longitudinal study of 3866 individuals from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000–2007) who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease, with an estimated GFR (eGFR) ?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline and 5 years of follow-up. Concentricity, a measurement of abnormal cardiac size, was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and evaluated as a continuous measurement and in quartiles. GFR was estimated by creatinine (eGFRcr) and cystatin C (eGFRcys). The association of concentricity with annual eGFR decline, incident CKD, and rapid kidney function decline (>5% per year) was investigated using linear mixed models as well as Poisson and logistic regression, respectively. Analyses adjusted for demographics, BP, diabetes, and inflammatory markers. Results Median decline was ?0.8 (interquartile range, ?3.1, ?0.5) by eGFRcr. Compared with the lowest quartile of concentricity, persons in the highest quartile had an additional 21% (9%–32%) decline in mean eGFRcr in fully adjusted models. Concentricity was also associated with incident CKD and with rapid kidney function decline after adjustment. Conclusions Subclinical abnormalities in cardiac structure are associated with longitudinal kidney function decline independent of diabetes and hypertension. Future studies should examine mechanisms to explain these associations.
Shlipak, Michael G.; Katz, Ronit; Agarwal, Subhashish; Ix, Joachim H.; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Peralta, Carmen A.
In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.
Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.
It is known that use of a contrast agents in echocardiography increases the probability of generation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). As a basic study to elucidate the mechanisms and to reduce adverse effects, the generation of PVCs was investigated using cultured cardiac myocytes instead of the intact heart in vivo. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured on a cover slip. The myocyte sample was exposed to pulsed ultrasound with microbubbles adjacent to the myocytes, and generation of PVCs was examined with ultrasound exposure at various delay times after onset of myocyte contraction. The experimental results showed that generation of PVCs had a stable threshold delay time and that PVCs were generated only when myocytes were exposed to ultrasound with delay times longer than the threshold. The results indicate that the model used in this study is useful for revealing the mechanisms by which PVCs are induced by ultrasound exposure.
Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Masaya
Background Tissues that depend on aerobic energy metabolism suffer most in diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).\\u000a Cardiac abnormalities have been described in many cases, but their frequency and clinical spectrum among patients with mtDNA\\u000a mutations is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty-nine patients with the 3243A>G mtDNA mutation were examined, methods used included clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram,\\u000a Holter recording and echocardiography. Autopsy reports
Kirsi Majamaa-Voltti; Keijo Peuhkurinen; Marja-Leena Kortelainen; Ilmo E Hassinen; Kari Majamaa
Background Cardiac output (CO) is a useful measure of myocardial performance. CO monitoring is frequently performed in critically ill adults in order to guide physicians’ treatment strategies. However, standard methods of determining CO in children are not without risk and can be problematic secondary to their invasive nature and other technical problems. COstatus® system (Transonic Systems Inc, NY, USA), which is based on ultrasound dilution technology, works off in situ catheters and uses an innocuous indicator to allow for routine measurements of cardiac output and blood volumes in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to validate CO measured by COstatus® with those obtained by the clinical standard technique of pulmonary artery (PAC) thermodilution. Methods This was a prospective evaluation performed at a single institution. Any child with a structurally normal heart undergoing hemodynamic evaluation in the cardiac catheterization laboratory was included. A prograde right heart catheterization was performed, and CO was first determined by using the PAC thermodilution technique. Thermodilution results were then compared with CO measurements obtained using the COstatus system. The results were analyzed by standard correlation, Bland-Altman, and Crichtley and Critchley analyses. Results Twenty-eight patients were evaluated with a median age of 8 yrs and a median weight of 31 kg. The mean thermodilution cardiac index = 3.18 L/min (+/? 1.35 L/min), and the mean COstatus® cardiac index = 3.17 L/min (+/? 1.31 L/min). Standard Pearson correlation tests revealed an excellent correlation coefficient of 0.95 (p<0.0001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed good clinical agreement with a mean difference of ?0.004 L/min with a precision of 0.8 L/min/ at 2 SD. A percentage error of 25.4% was noticed in this study which is less than the clinically acceptable limit. Conclusion The ultrasound dilution technique of determining CO using the COstatus® system provides a less invasive method than the traditional pulmonary artery thermodilution for accurately determining cardiac output in children. This is the first validation of the COstatus® system in pediatric patients. Further studies are required to establish its accuracy in pediatric patients with cardiac shunts and other hemodynamically unstable conditions.
Crittendon, Ivory; Dreyer, William J.; Decker, Jamie A; Kim, Jeffrey J.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical utility and cost effectiveness of a\\u000a personal ultrasound imager (PUI) during consultation rounds for cardiac\\u000a evaluation of patients with suspected cardiac disease. METHODS: 107\\u000a unselected patients from non-cardiac departments (55% men) were enrolled\\u000a in the study. After the physical examination the consultant cardiologist\\u000a performed an echocardiographic study with a PUI. The final report was\\u000a given
E. C. Vourvouri; L. Y. Koroleva; Cate ten F. J; D. Poldermans; A. F. Schinkel; W. B. Vletter; J. R. T. C. Roelandt; Domburg van R. T
This paper describes a fast convolution-based methodology for simulating ultrasound images in a 2-D/3-D sector format as typically used in cardiac ultrasound. The conventional convolution model is based on the assumption of a space-invariant point spread function (PSF) and typically results in linear images. These characteristics are not representative for cardiac data sets. The spatial impulse response method (IRM) has excellent accuracy in the linear domain; however, calculation time can become an issue when scatterer numbers become significant and when 3-D volumetric data sets need to be computed. As a solution to these problems, the current manuscript proposes a new convolution-based methodology in which the data sets are produced by reducing the conventional 2-D/3-D convolution model to multiple 1-D convolutions (one for each image line). As an example, simulated 2-D/3-D phantom images are presented along with their gray scale histogram statistics. In addition, the computation time is recorded and contrasted to a commonly used implementation of IRM (Field II). It is shown that COLE can produce anatomically plausible images with local Rayleigh statistics but at improved calculation time (1200 times faster than the reference method). PMID:19251529
Gao, Hang; Choi, Hon Fai; Claus, Piet; Boonen, Steven; Jaecques, Siegfried; Van Lenthe, G Harry; Van der Perre, Georges; Lauriks, Walter; D'hooge, Jan
In minimally invasive image-guided interventions, different imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and 3-D ultrasound (US), can provide complementary, multispectral image information. Dynamic image registration is a well-established approach that permits real-time diagnostic information to be enhanced by placing lower-quality real-time images within a high quality anatomical context. For the guidance of cardiac interventions, it would be valuable to register dynamic MRI or CT with intra-operative US. However, in practice, either the high computational cost prohibits such real-time visualization, or else the resulting image quality is not satisfactory for accurate interventional guidance. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) provide the programmability, parallelism and increased computational precision to address this problem. In this paper, we first outline our research on dynamic 3-D cardiac MR and US image acquisition, real-time dual-modality registration and US tracking. Next, we describe our contributions on image processing and optimization techniques for 4-D (3-D + time) cardiac image rendering, and our GPU-accelerated methodologies for multimodality 4-D medical image visualization and optical blending, along with real-time synchronization of dual-modality dynamic cardiac images. Finally, multiple transfer functions, various image composition schemes, and an extended window-level setting and adjustment approach are proposed and applied to facilitate the dynamic volumetric MR and US cardiac data exploration and enhance the feature of interest of US image that is usually restricted to a narrow voxel intensity range. PMID:22736655
Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M
Background In the elderly the diagnosis of chronic heart failure is often challenging and the availability of echocardiography can be limited. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP are valuable tools to diagnose patients with heart failure. However, the performance of this biomarker to detect cardiac abnormalities in the very elderly remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the relation between NT-proBNP and cardiac abnormalities and to evaluate the use of NT-proBNP to exclude structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in a community-based sample of "well-functioning" nonagenarians. Methods A diagnostic cross-sectional study embedded within the Leiden 85-plus Study in the municipality of Leiden, the Netherlands. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured and 2-dimensional echocardiography was performed in a subgroup of 80 well-functioning nonagenarians. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the relation between NT-proBNP and cardiac abnormalities and ROC curve analysis was used to assess the performance of NT-proBNP to exclude cardiac abnormalities. The upper limit of the lowest tertile of NT-proBNP was used as a cut-off value. Results NT-proBNP levels were associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) dimensions, LV systolic and diastolic function, left atrial enlargement and valvular heart disease. LV mass, E/A ratio and degree of aortic regurgitation were identified as independent predictors of NT-proBNP. NT-proBNP levels were higher with greater number of echocardiographic abnormalities (P < 0.001). A cut-off level of 269.5 pg/mL identified patients with abnormal LV dimensions or depressed LV systolic function (sensitivity 85%, negative predictive value (NPV) 77%, area under the curve 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.85)). In addition, high NPV were found for LV systolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, severe valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. The test performance of NT-proBNP to exclude any echocardiographic abnormality showed a sensitivity of 82% and a NPV of 65%. Conclusions In this convenience sample of well-functioning nonagenarians NT-proBNP was related to a wide variety of functional and structural echocardiographic abnormalities. Moreover, NT-proBNP could be used to exclude echocardiographic abnormalities in well-functioning nonagenarians and might be used to indicate who needs to be referred for further cardiovascular examination.
Introduction Cardiac abnormalities can be seen with subarachnoid hemorrhage. To date, there have been isolated case reports of transient left ventricular apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case presentation An adult female was brought to the emergency department with somnolence. A 3 × 3 mm ruptured basilar aneurysm was found and successfully embolized. Two days after the patient developed acute heart failure. Troponin-I was elevated to 4.2 (normal <0.4). On ECG, new symmetric T wave inversion in V3, V4, V5 with prolonged QT were evident. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 20% and akinetic apex along with the distal left ventricular segments, consistent with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Myocardial contrast echocardiography showed a decrease in capillary blood flow and volume in the akinetic areas with delayed contrast replenishment, sparing the basal segments. A repeat study 2 weeks later showed near normalization of the perfusion parameters. The patient improved with medical management. A repeat echocardiogram, a month later revealed an ejection fraction of 45% with no identifiable wall motion abnormality. Conclusion Our case, as well as others reported previously, supports the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage who fulfill the clinical and imaging description of this syndrome.
The purpose of the current study is to describe the natural history of cardiac involvement in Fabry disease and assess prevalence of primary, intrinsic causes of cardiac hypertrophy versus secondary causes, as well as the frequency of acute cardiac events in a large cohort of hemizygous patients. All hemizygous male patients diagnosed and evaluated at the National Institutes of Health
Gheona Altarescu; Deborah Elstein
BACKGROUND: In the elderly the diagnosis of chronic heart failure is often challenging and the availability of echocardiography can be limited. Plasma levels of NT-proBNP are valuable tools to diagnose patients with heart failure. However, the performance of this biomarker to detect cardiac abnormalities in the very elderly remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the relation
Bert Vaes; Victoria Delgado; Jeroen Bax; Jan Degryse; Rudi GJ Westendorp; Jacobijn Gussekloo
In this paper we introduce and investigate an adaptive direct volume rendering (DVR) method for real-time visualization of cardiac 3D ultrasound. DVR is commonly used in cardiac ultrasound to visualize interfaces between tissue and blood. However, this is particularly challenging with ultrasound images due to variability of the signal within tissue as well as variability of noise signal within the blood pool. Standard DVR involves a global mapping of sample values to opacity by an opacity transfer function (OTF). While a global OTF may represent the interface correctly in one part of the image, it may result in tissue dropouts, or even artificial interfaces within the blood pool in other parts of the image. In order to increase correctness of the rendered image, the presented method utilizes blood pool statistics to do regional adjustments of the OTF. The regional adaptive OTF was compared with a global OTF in a dataset of apical recordings from 18 subjects. For each recording, three renderings from standard views (apical 4-chamber (A4C), inverted A4C (IA4C) and mitral valve (MV)) were generated for both methods, and each rendering was tuned to the best visual appearance by a physician echocardiographer. For each rendering we measured the mean absolute error (MAE) between the rendering depth buffer and a validated left ventricular segmentation. The difference d in MAE between the global and regional method was calculated and t-test results are reported with significant improvements for the regional adaptive method (dA4C = 1.5 +/- 0.3 mm, dIA4C = 2.5 +/- 0.4 mm, dMV = 1.7 +/- 0.2 mm, d.f. = 17, all p < 0.001). This improvement by the regional adaptive method was confirmed through qualitative visual assessment by an experienced physician echocardiographer who concluded that the regional adaptive method produced rendered images with fewer tissue dropouts and less spurious structures inside the blood pool in the vast majority of the renderings. The algorithm has been implemented on a GPU, running an average of 16 fps with a resolution of 512x512x100 samples (Nvidia GTX460).
Åsen, Jon Petter; Steen, Erik; Kiss, Gabriel; Thorstensen, Anders; Rabben, Stein Inge
Ceramide, the metabolic product of signaling molecule sphingomyelin, has been implicated in cardiac Ca2+ regulation. To study the possible role of ceramide in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we examined the effects of ceramide on the cardiac contractility of cultured ventricular myocytes under control and simulated diabetic environments. Adult rat ventricular myocytes were maintained in normal (NG, 5.5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM) medium for 24 hr in the absence or presence of the membrane-permeant ceramide analog C2-ceramide, ceramide glucosyltransferase inhibitor D,L-threo-1-pheny-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), or the inactive ceramide analog C2-dihydroceramide. Contractile indices analyzed included peak shortening (PS), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt), and intracellular Ca2+ fura-2 fluorescence intensity (FFI). Myocytes maintained in HG medium displayed reduced PS and +/- dL/dt associated with prolonged TR90 and normal TPS compared to NG myocytes. Interestingly, the HG-induced mechanical dysfunctions were significantly attenuated by C2-ceramide or PDMP. C2-ceramide did not affect the myocyte mechanics in NG myocytes although PDMP shortened TPS without affecting any other indices. The HG-induced contractile abnormalities were not altered by inactive ceramide analog C2-dihydroceramide (except +/- dL/dt). Fura-2 fluorescence recording revealed that HG reduced baseline as well as stimulated intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be abolished by both C2-ceramide and PDMP. These data suggest that alteration of ceramide signaling may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:12643441
Colligan, Peter B; Relling, David P; Ren, Jun
Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) show a high incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac calcific deposits in the myocardium, and/or aortic and mitral valve calcification and thus may carry an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases. This prospective study was designed to assess an effect of parathyroidectomy on cardiac abnormalities of patients with PHPT. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the mechanical performance of the heart muscle, the thickness of the left ventricular wall, myocardial calcific deposits, and valvular calcifications within 12 and 41 months after parathyroidectomy. In a blinded fashion, aortic and mitral value calcifications were determined in 46% and 39% of patients with PHPT. Calcific deposits in the myocardium were found in 74% of patients. Follow-up studies after parathyroidectomy disclosed no evidence of progression of these calcifications. Before operation left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 82%. After parathyroidectomy and 41 months of normocalcemia and normal PTH concentrations, a regression of hypertrophy of the interventricular septum and the posterior wall by -6% and -19% (P < 0.05) was observed. Subgroup analysis disclosed the most impressive long-term reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients without a history of hypertension (-11% and -21%; P < 0.05 and P < 0.005); no changes were determined in 9 patients who developed secondary hyperparathyroidism after operation. The present data show a high incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic and/or mitral valve calcifications in patients with PHPT. Follow-up at 1 year and at 41 months after successful parathyroidectomy disclose regression of hypertrophy. Our results give evidence that parathyroid hormone per se plays an important role in the maintainance of myocardial hypertrophy. Post-surgical restoration of normocalcemia and normalization of parathyroid hormone valvular sclerosis persists without evidence of progression. We further conclude that patients with PHPT and parathyroidectomy are at low risk for the development of severe aortic and mitral valve stenosis within this period of time. PMID:8989242
Stefenelli, T; Abela, C; Frank, H; Koller-Strametz, J; Globits, S; Bergler-Klein, J; Niederle, B
... characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging can help to ... mammography. Many studies have shown that ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help supplement mammography by ...
Background A rare case of a congenital brain neoplasm with intratumoral massive hemorrhage suggested by prenatal ultrasound examination in a 32-week gestational age male fetus is reported. The child died shortly after birth due to cardiorespiratory insufficiency.Methods Autopsy disclosed a large well-delimited tumor with a sponge-like appearance due to high vascularization, which involved nearly the whole left cerebral hemisphere and led to
Manfred Sell; Sabine Huber-Schumacher; Frank K. H. van Landeghem
Seventy three infants who underwent neonatal anatomical correction for transposition of the great arteries with or without a ventricular septal defect were reviewed for evidence of conduction and rhythm abnormalities on preoperative and postoperative 12 lead electrocardiograms and during 24 hour Holter monitoring. There was a partial right bundle branch block pattern in 47% (29/62) of all patients and in 60% (24/40) of those with simple transposition. Complete right bundle branch block was noted in 21% including 5% with simple transposition. Holter monitoring showed sinus rhythm in all patients except three: one had episodes of supraventricular tachycardia, another an intermittent second degree heart block, and a third a complete heart block. Atrial extrasystoles were noted in 47% (29/62) of patients but were frequent in only three patients. Occasional unifocal ventricular extrasystoles were encountered in 37% (23/62) of patients and were frequent in a further 3% (2/62). Only one patient (2%) developed multifocal ventricular extrasystoles. The frequency of important cardiac arrhythmias after neonatal anatomical correction of transposition of the great arteries was 5%, significantly less than that reported after atrial inflow diversion for the same malformation. PMID:1554542
Menahem, S; Ranjit, M S; Stewart, C; Brawn, W J; Mee, R B; Wilkinson, J L
OBJECTIVE To measure the association between cardiac structure and function abnormalities and isolated metabolic syndrome (metabolic syndrome excluding established hypertension or diabetes mellitus). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS We collected data prospectively on a population-based random sample of 2042 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents aged 45 years or older who underwent echocardiography between January 1, 1997, and September 30, 2000. Metabolic syndrome was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. RESULTS The prevalence of isolated metabolic syndrome was 21.7% (214/984) in men and 16.7% (177/1058) in women. Left ventricular (LV) mass index was greater (91.7 vs 87.9 g/m2; P=.04) and LV diastolic dysfunction more prevalent (28.2% [50/177] vs 14.9% [81/544]; P<.001) in women with isolated metabolic syndrome than in women without metabolic syndrome; no difference was found in men. When patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus were included in the cohort, there was a stepwise increase in LV mass index and LV diastolic dysfunction from no metabolic syndrome to isolated metabolic syndrome to metabolic syndrome in women and men. CONCLUSION Isolated metabolic syndrome, which is associated with increased LV mass index and LV diastolic dysfunction in women, identifies women with evidence of early ventricular dysfunction.
Aijaz, Bilal; Ammar, Khawaja A.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Redfield, Margaret M.; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are encapsulated microbubbles that provide a source for acoustic impedance mismatch with the blood, due to difference in compressibility between the gas contained within these microbubbles and the blood. When insonified by an ultrasound beam, these UCAs act as nonlinear scatterers and enhance the echoes of the incident pulse, resulting in scattering of the incident ultrasound beam and emission of fundamental (f0), subharmonic (f0/2), harmonic (n*f0; n ? N) and ultraharmonic (((2n-1)/2)*f0; n ? N & n > 1) components in the echo response. A promising approach to monitor in vivo pressures revolves around the fact that the ultrasound transmit and receive parameters can be selected to induce an ambient pressure amplitude dependent subharmonic signal. This subharmonic signal may be used to estimate ambient pressure amplitude; such technique of estimating ambient pressure amplitude is referred to as subharmonic aided pressure estimation or SHAPE. This project develops and evaluates the feasibility of SHAPE to noninvasively monitor cardiac and hepatic pressures (using commercially available ultrasound scanners and UCAs) because invasive catheter based pressure measurements are used currently for these applications. Invasive catheter based pressure measurements pose risk of introducing infection while the catheter is guided towards the region of interest in the body through a percutaneous incision, pose risk of death due to structural or mechanical failure of the catheter (which has also triggered product recalls by the USA Food and Drug Administration) and may potentially modulate the pressures that are being measured. Also, catheterization procedures require fluoroscopic guidance to advance the catheter to the site of pressure measurements and such catheterization procedures are not performed in all clinical centers. Thus, a noninvasive technique to obtain ambient pressure values without the catheterization process is clinically helpful. While an intravenous injection is required to inject the UCAs into the body, this procedure is considered noninvasive as per the definition provided by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services; invasive procedures include surgical procedures as well as catheterization procedures while minor procedures such as drawing blood (which requires a similar approach as injecting UCAs) are considered noninvasive. In vitro results showed that the standard error between catheter pressures and SHAPE results is below 10 mmHg with a correlation coefficient value of above 0.9—this experimental error of 10 mmHg is less than the errors associated with other techniques utilizing UCAs for ambient pressure estimation. In vivo results proved the feasibility of SHAPE to noninvasively estimate clinically relevant left and right ventricular (LV and RV) pressures. The maximum error in estimating the LV and RV systolic and diastolic pressures was 3.5 mmHg. Thus, the SHAPE technique may be useful for systolic and diastolic pressure estimation given that the standard recommendations require the errors for these pressure measurements to be within 5 mmHg. The ability of SHAPE to identify induced portal hypertension (PH) was also proved. The changes in the SHAPE data correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with the changes in the portal vein (PV) pressures and the absolute amplitudes of the subharmonic signal also correlated with absolute PV pressures. The SHAPE technique provides the ability to noninvasively obtain in vivo pressures. This technique is applicable not only for critically ill patients, but also for screening symptomatic patients and potentially for other clinical pressure monitoring applications, as well.
Dave, Jaydev K.
In conclusion, this intravascular ultrasound study suggests that treatment of cardiac transplant recipients with either ACE inhibitors or CEBs is associated with a decrease in the degree of vascular intimal hyperplasia at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, early intervention with CEBs or ACE inhibitors offers a preventive option for the devastating consequences of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.
Mandeep R. Mehra; Hector O. Ventura; Frank W. Smart; Tyrone J. Collins; Stephen R. Ramee; Dwight D. Stapleton
Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs) to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE) through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD), LA enlargement (LAE), ultrasound lung comets (ULC+), and elevated CVP (eCVP). Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc.) attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90%) versus 130/135 (96%) (P < 0.05). CLUE's combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (%) and accuracy for each abnormality (n) were LVSD (85%, 0.93, n = 5), LAE (89%, 0.74, n = 16), ULC+ (100%, 0.94, n = 5), and eCVP (78%, 0.91, n = 1). Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients. PMID:24024032
Mai, Tuan V; Ahn, David T; Phillips, Colin T; Agan, Donna L; Kimura, Bruce J
Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs) to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE) through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD), LA enlargement (LAE), ultrasound lung comets (ULC+), and elevated CVP (eCVP). Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc.) attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90%) versus 130/135 (96%) (P < 0.05). CLUE's combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (%) and accuracy for each abnormality (n) were LVSD (85%, 0.93, n = 5), LAE (89%, 0.74, n = 16), ULC+ (100%, 0.94, n = 5), and eCVP (78%, 0.91, n = 1). Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients.
Mai, Tuan V.; Ahn, David T.; Phillips, Colin T.; Agan, Donna L.; Kimura, Bruce J.
Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique.
Correa, Candace R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Das@xrt.upenn.edu; Litt, Harold I. [Department of Radiology-Cardiovascular Imaging Section, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ferrari, Victor [Department of Medicine-Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hwang, W.-T. [Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
The recent exponential increase in human genetic studies due to the advances of next generation sequencing has generated unprecedented numbers of new gene variants. Determining which of these are causative of human disease is a major challenge. In-vitro studies and murine models have been used to study inherited cardiac arrhythmias but have several limitations. Zebrafish models provide an attractive alternative for modeling human heart disease due to similarities in cardiac electrophysiology and contraction, together with ease of genetic manipulation, external development and optical transparency. Although zebrafish cardiac mutants and morphants have been widely used to study loss and knockdown of zebrafish gene function, the phenotypic effects of human dominant-negative gene mutations expressed in transgenic zebrafish have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize a transgenic zebrafish arrhythmia model harboring the pathogenic human cardiac sodium channel mutation SCN5A-D1275N, that has been robustly associated with a range of cardiac phenotypes, including conduction disease, sinus node dysfunction, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and dilated cardiomyopathy in humans and in mice. Stable transgenic fish with cardiac expression of human SCN5A were generated using Tol2-mediated transgenesis and cardiac phenotypes were analyzed using video microscopy and ECG. Here we show that transgenic zebrafish expressing the SCN5A-D1275N mutation, but not wild-type SCN5A, exhibit bradycardia, conduction-system abnormalities and premature death. We furthermore show that SCN5A-WT, and to a lesser degree SCN5A-D1275N, are able to compensate the loss of endogenous zebrafish cardiac sodium channels, indicating that the basic pathways, through which SCN5A acts, are conserved in teleosts. This proof-of-principle study suggests that zebrafish may be highly useful in vivo models to differentiate functional from benign human genetic variants in cardiac ion channel genes in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes". PMID:23791817
Huttner, Inken G; Trivedi, Gunjan; Jacoby, Arie; Mann, Stefan A; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Fatkin, Diane
Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young
M S Link
Purpose Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with\\u000a an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods \\u000a 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67?±?13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal
Yasushi Akutsu; Kyouichi Kaneko; Yusuke Kodama; Hui-Ling Li; Jumpei Suyama; Akira Shinozuka; Takehiko Gokan; Mitsuharu Kawamura; Taku Asano; Yuji Hamazaki; Kaoru Tanno; Youichi Kobayashi
Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used with nitrogen-13-ammonia (13NH3) to estimate regional myocardial blood flow, and with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (18FDG) to measure exogenous glucose uptake by the myocardium. We used PET to predict whether preoperative abnormalities in left ventricular wall motion in 17 patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass surgery were reversible. The abnormalities were quantified by radionuclide or contrast angiography
J. Tillisch; R. Brunken; R. Marshall; M. Schwaiger; M. Mandelkern; M. Phelps; H. Schelbert
High-sensitivity troponin T and C-reactive protein to identify patients without cardiac structural and functional abnormalities as assessed by cardiac CT and SPECT imaging: can biomarkers predict cardiac health?
While high-sensitivity troponin-T (hsTnT) and C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are associated with structural heart disease, we thought to determine whether biomarkers can predict which heart is healthy based on multimodality imaging. Patients from the emergency department with acute chest pain suggestive of acute coronary syndrome undergoing contrast enhanced cardiac CT and stress single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging were included. HsTnT and hsCRP were assessed at time of CT. Imaging data were assessed for coronary atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy/dysfunction and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Patients were stratified into those with or without any cardiac findings, who were considered as cardiac healthy. For biomarkers, low cut-off corresponding to good specificity and high cut-off corresponding to good sensitivity for cardiac health were derived. Among 117 patients (52 years, 55 % male), 42 (36 %) were cardiac healthy based on cardiac CT and SPECT imaging. These patients had significantly lower hsTnT and hsCRP levels as compared to those with functional or structural abnormalities (3.58 vs. 5.63 ng/L, p = 0.002; 0.82 vs. 1.93 mg/L, p = 0.0005; respectively). Patients with both low hsTnT (<3.00 ng/L) and hsCRP (<0.45 mg/L) had a probability of 85 % for being cardiac healthy. In contrast, patients with high hsTnT (>7.00 ng/L) and hsCRP (>2.00 mg/L) had 8 % probability for being cardiac healthy. Discriminative capacity of a dual-biomarker strategy was significantly improved as compared to hsTnT or hsCRP alone or to Framingham Risk score (AUC: 0.781 vs. 0.691; vs. 0.678; vs. 0.649; all p ? 0.02, respectively). A dual-biomarker strategy of hsTnT and hsCRP is highly discriminative for patients with normal cardiac structure and function and provides incremental value beyond the Framingham risk score. PMID:23274882
Schlett, Christopher L; Truong, Quynh A; Ahmed, Waleed; Blankstein, Ron; Ferencik, Maros; Uthamalingam, Shanmugam; Bamberg, Fabian; Koenig, Wolfgang; Januzzi, James L; Hoffmann, Udo
Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a prophylactic countermeasure against organophosphorus nerve agents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Hu BChE against whole-body inhalation exposure to a lethal dose of sarin (GB) vapor. Male Göttingen minipigs were subjected to: air exposure, GB vapor exposure, or pretreatment with Hu BChE followed by GB vapor exposure. Hu BChE was administered by i.m. injection 24 h prior to exposure to 4.1 mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 60 min. Electrocardiograms (ECG), electroencephalograms (EEG), and pupil size were recorded throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB present. Untreated animals exposed to GB vapor exhibited cardiac abnormalities and generalized seizures, ultimately succumbing to respiratory failure. Pretreatment with 3.0 or 6.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE delayed blood gas and acid-base disturbances and the onset of cardiac and neural toxic signs, but failed to increase survivability. Pretreatment with 7.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE, however, completely prevented toxic signs, with blood chemistry and ECG and EEG parameters indistinguishable from control during and after GB exposure. GB bound in plasma was 200-fold higher than plasma from pigs that did not receive Hu BChE, suggesting that Hu BChE scavenged GB in blood and prevented it from reaching other tissues. Thus, prophylaxis with Hu BChE alone not only increased survivability, but also prevented cardiac abnormalities and neural toxicity in minipigs exposed to a lethal dose of GB vapor. PMID:21968035
Saxena, Ashima; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Hastings, Nicholas B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P
Activation of cardiac muscle is mediated by the His–Purkinje system, a discrete pathway containing fast-conducting cells (Purkinje fibers) which coordinate the spread of excitation from the atrioventricular node (AV node) to ventricular myocardium . Although pathologies of this specialized conduction system are common in humans, especially among the elderly , their molecular bases have not been defined. Gap junctions are
Alexander M. Simon; Daniel A. Goodenough; David L. Paul
Objectives. This study sought to determine whether early disease is identifiable in asymptomatic relatives of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by means of noninvasive cardiologic assessment.Background. DCM is diagnosed on the basis of advanced heart failure, where cardiac dilation and impaired contractility are recognized in the absence of a recognized etiology (World Health Organization criteria). However, initial clinical presentation may
M. Kamran Baig; JONATHAN H. GOLDMAN; ALIDA L. P. CAFORIO; AMAN S. COONAR; PHILIP J. KEELING; WILLIAM J. MCKENNA
Aim of the study Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Previously we demonstrated that administration of sodium sulfide (Na2S), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, markedly improved the neurological outcome and survival rate at 24h after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Na2S and its impact on the long-term survival after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min at 37°C whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. Mice received Na2S (0.55 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle 1 min before CPR. Results Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and received vehicle exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/12) and depressed neurological function. Cardiac arrest and CPR induced abnormal water diffusion in the vulnerable regions of the brain, as demonstrated by hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 24h after CA/CPR. Extent of hyperintense DWI was associated with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, worse neurological outcomes, and poor survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR. Administration of Na2S prevented the development of abnormal water diffusion and MMP-9 activation and markedly improved neurological function and long-term survival (9/12, P<0.05 vs. vehicle) after CA/CPR. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of Na2S 1 min before CPR improves neurological function and survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR by preventing water diffusion abnormality in the brain potentially via inhibiting MMP-9 activation early after resuscitation.
Kida, Kotaro; Minamishima, Shizuka; Wang, Huifang; Ren, JiaQian; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Nozari, Ala; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Ichinose, Fumito
We present the antenatal cardiac findings in an infant in whom a postnatal diagnosis of congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia) was confirmed. The antenatal findings at 34 weeks’ gestation included biventricular cardiac hypertrophy with pericardial effusion, multiple skeletal anomalies and cerebral ventricular dilatation. A severe CDG-Ia multisystem clinical phenotype evolved in the postnatal period, with the infant succumbing
A. Malhotra; A. Pateman; R. Chalmers; D. Coman; S. Menahem
A 28-year-old woman was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at 9+6 weeks with early fetal cardiac failure (hydrothorax and bradycardia). Doppler analysis of ductus venosus showed a negative A-wave pattern. The follow-up sonogram obtained at 11+6 weeks documented a missed abortion. A transvaginal ultrasound-guided coelocentesis was performed under local cervical anesthesia before uterine suction and 8 mL of clear extracoelomic fluid were successfully aspirated. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated a 45,X karyotype. Ultrasound and Doppler waveform analysis of ductus venosus allowed early diagnosis of fetal cardiac failure. Coelocentesis may be the method of choice for early fetal karyotyping and may be used in the future to induce immunologic tolerance. PMID:19337987
Tonni, Gabriele; Azzoni, Daniela; Ventura, Alessandro; De Felice, Claudio; Marinelli, Maria
Abstract Diabetic cardiomyopathy consists of a series of structural and functional changes. Accumulating evidence supports the concept that a "cardiac stem cell compartment disease" plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. In diabetic hearts, human cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CSPC) are reduced and manifest defective proliferative capacity. Hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and the consequent oxidative stress are enhanced in diabetes: these conditions can induce defects in both growth and survival of these cells with an imbalance between cell death and cell replacement, thus favouring the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and its progression towards heart failure. The preservation of CSPC compartment can contribute to counteract the negative impact of diabetes on the myocardium. The recent studies summarized in this review have improved our understanding of the development and stem cell biology within the cardiovascular system. However, several issues remain unsolved before cell therapy can become a clinical therapeutically relevant strategy. PMID:23772700
Leonardini, Anna; Avogaro, Angelo
Objective: Electrocardiographic repolarization intervals were evaluated to determine the extent of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) and to determine if any of these intervals could serve as a possible predicotr of clinical symptoms.Methods: Thirty-seven electrocardiograms of patients with FD were retrospectively evaluated. QT, JT, rate-corrected QT and JT intervals were calculated as well as QT and
Julie S. Glickstein; Felicia B. Axelrod; Deborah Friedman
In minimally invasive image-guided surgical interventions, different imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US), can provide complementary, multi-spectral image information. Multimodality dynamic image registration is a well-established approach that permits real-time diagnostic information to be enhanced by placing lower-quality real-time images within a high quality anatomical context. For the guidance of cardiac procedures, it would be valuable to register dynamic MRI or CT with intraoperative US. However, in practice, either the high computational cost prohibits such real-time visualization of volumetric multimodal images in a real-world medical environment, or else the resulting image quality is not satisfactory for accurate guidance during the intervention. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) provide the programmability, parallelism and increased computational precision to begin to address this problem. In this work, we first outline our research on dynamic 3D cardiac MR and US image acquisition, real-time dual-modality registration and US tracking. Then we describe image processing and optimization techniques for 4D (3D + time) cardiac image real-time rendering. We also present our multimodality 4D medical image visualization engine, which directly runs on a GPU in real-time by exploiting the advantages of the graphics hardware. In addition, techniques such as multiple transfer functions for different imaging modalities, dynamic texture binding, advanced texture sampling and multimodality image compositing are employed to facilitate the real-time display and manipulation of the registered dual-modality dynamic 3D MR and US cardiac datasets.
Zhang, Q.; Huang, X.; Eagleson, R.; Guiraudon, G.; Peters, T. M.
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a genetically heterogenous form of cardiomyopathy which may remain undiagnosed till adulthood due to the late presentation of typical symptoms such as dyspnea, congestion, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolism. Symptomatic bradycardia secondary to persistent sinus node dysfunction is very rare. Coexistent cardiac defects are common in children however in adults the disease is usually in isolated form. Here, we present a case of twenty-three year-old female LVNC patient with patent ductus arteriosus, bicuspid aortic valve and persistent sinus node dysfunction who presented with dizziness as the first manifestation of the disease.
Gungor, Baris; Alper, Ahmet T; Celebi, Ahmet; Bolca, Osman
CACNA2D2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene located in the human chromosome 3p21.3 region that shows frequent allelic imbalances in lung, breast, and other cancers. The ?2?-2 protein encoded by the gene is a regulatory subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels and is expressed in brain, heart, and other tissues. Here we report that mice homozygous for targeted disruption of the Cacna2d2 gene exhibit growth retardation, reduced life span, ataxic gait with apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells followed by Purkinje cell depletion, enhanced susceptibility to seizures, and cardiac abnormalities. The Cacna2d2tm1NCIF null phenotype has much in common with that of Cacna1a mutants, such as cerebellar neuro-degeneration associated with ataxia, seizures, and premature death. A tendency to bradycardia and limited response of null mutants to isoflurane implicate ?2?-2 in sympathetic regulation of cardiac function. In summary, our findings provide genetic evidence that the ?2?-2 subunit serves in vivo as a component of P/Q-type calcium channels, is indispensable for the central nervous system function, and may be involved in hereditary cerebellar ataxias and epileptic disorders in humans.
Ivanov, Sergey V.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Tessarollo, Lino; McAreavey, Dorothea; Sachdev, Vandana; Fananapazir, Lameh; Banks, Melissa K.; Morris, Nicole; Djurickovic, Draginja; Devor-Henneman, Deborah E.; Wei, Ming-Hui; Alvord, Gregory W.; Gao, Boning; Richardson, James A.; Minna, John D.; Rogawski, Michael A.; Lerman, Michael I.
In recent years, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has evolved as an important adjunct to angiography, providing insights that are significantly altering conventional paradigms in diagnosis and therapy. However, major drawbacks in the use of IVUS relied on the fact that a heavy console had to be moved from lab to lab, and extensive time for set up and image analysis. This additional time and the decrease in patients' through-put has not been applicable in clinical practice for many labs. Our manuscript concerns a novel PC-based platform for IVUS that enables the online intergration of digital intracoronary ultrasound images into angiographic images. This new technique offers remote operation, multiple control devices and custom viewing options. The PC-based platform enables IVUS images to be viewed simultaneously from multiple vantage points in the lab, and allows for multiple user interfaces. PMID:17698226
Sievers, Burkhard; Böse, Dirk; Sack, Stefan; Philipp, Sebastian; Wieneke, Heinrich; Erbel, Raimund
The zebrafish has emerged as an excellent genetic model organism for studies of cardiovascular development. Optical transparency and external development during embryogenesis allow for visual analysis in the early development. However, to understand the cardiovascular structures and functions beyond the early stage requires a high-resolution, real-time, non-invasive imaging alternative due to the opacity of adult zebrafish. In this research, we report the development of a high frequency ultrasonic system for adult zebrafish cardiac imaging, capable of 75 MHz B-mode imaging at a spatial resolution of 25 ?m and 45 MHz pulsed-wave Doppler measurement. The system allows for real-time delineation of detailed cardiac structures, estimation of cardiac dimensions, as well as image-guided Doppler blood flow measurements. In vivo imaging studies showed the identification of the atrium, ventricle, bulbus arteriosus, atrioventricular valve, and bulboventricular valve in real-time images, with cardiac measurement at various stages. Doppler waveforms acquired at the ventricle and the bulbus arteriosus demonstrated the utility of this system to study the zebrafish cardiovascular hemodynamics. This high frequency ultrasonic system offers a multitude of opportunities for cardiovascular researchers. In addition, the detection of E-flow and A-flow during the ventricular filling, and the appearance of diastolic flow reversal at bulbus arteriosus suggested the functional similarity of zebrafish heart to that of higher vertebrates.
Sun, Lei; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk
Cardiac rhabdomyoma (CR) is the most common heart tumor in children and is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in either of 2 genes (TSC1 or TSC2) and characterized by the formation of hamartomas in multiple organs. The 2 TSC proteins, hamartin and tuberin, antagonize the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, thus regulating cell growth and proliferation. Recently, some trials treating TSC with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin have been published; however, the impact of such treatment on heart tumors is not known. The aim of the present paper was to study the molecular pathobiology of CRs. Six CR samples were studied. The expression of S6K1, pErk, Erk, Akt, pAkt, 4E-BP1, hamartin, tuberin, mTOR, bcl-2, Bax, and Ki-67 was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods. Increased expression of Bax, mTOR, pS6K, pErk, and 4E-BP1 was found in all CR samples. Hamartin and tuberin expression was decreased in tumors versus normal heart tissues. This is the first study showing mTOR pathway dysregulation and an increased expression of proapoptotic Bax protein in CRs associated with TSC. PMID:17990907
Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Grajkowska, Wiesl?awa; Jó?wiak, Jaros?aw; W?odarski, Pawe?; Sahin, Mustafa; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Doma?ska-Pakie?a, Dorota; Jó?wiak, Sergiusz
The cytoskeleton of the cardiomyocyte has been shown to modulate ion channel function. Cytoskeletal disruption in vitro alters Na(+) channel kinetics, producing a late Na(+) current that can prolong repolarization. This study describes the properties of the cardiac Na(+) channel and cardiac repolarization in neonatal mice lacking ankyrin(B), a cytoskeletal "adaptor" protein. Using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques, I(Na) density was lower in ankyrin(B)(-/-) ventricular myocytes than in wild-type (WT) myocytes (-307+/-26 versus -444+/-39 pA/pF, P<0.01). Ankyrin(B)(-/-) myocytes exhibited a hyperpolarizing shift in activation and inactivation kinetics compared with WT. Slower recovery from inactivation contributed to the negative shift in steady-state inactivation in ankyrin(B)(-/-). Single Na(+) channel mean open time was longer in ankyrin(B)(-/-) versus WT at test potentials (V(t)) of -40 mV (1.0+/-0.1 versus 0. 61+/-0.04 ms, P<0.05) and -50 mV (0.8+/-0.1 versus 0.39+/-0.05 ms, P<0.05). Ankyrin(B)(-/-) exhibited late single-channel openings at V(t) -40 and -50 mV, which were not seen in WT. Late I(Na) contributed to longer action potential durations measured at 90% repolarization (APD(90)) at 1 Hz stimulation in ankyrin(B)(-/-) compared with WT (354+/-26 versus 274+/-22 ms, P<0.05). From ECG recordings of neonatal mice, heart rates were slower in ankyrin(B)(-/-) than in WT (380+/-14 versus 434+/-13 bpm, P<0.01). Although the QT interval was similar in ankyrin(B)(-/-) and WT at physiological heart rates, QT-interval prolongation in response to heart rate deceleration was greater in ankyrin(B)(-/-). In conclusion, Na(+) channels in ankyrin(B)(-/-) display reduced I(Na) density and abnormal kinetics at the whole-cell and single-channel level that contribute to prolonged APD(90) and abnormal QT-rate adaptation. PMID:10700449
Chauhan, V S; Tuvia, S; Buhusi, M; Bennett, V; Grant, A O
Echocardiographic strain imaging is a promising new method for quantifying and displaying the health of cardiac muscle. Accurate regional myocardial function analysis requires high spatial and temporal resolution in addition to fidelity to the underlying deformation. However, all current clinical approaches use speckle-tracking algorithms applied to B-mode images derived from envelope signals. Such approaches are inherently of lower spatial resolution, since they require larger data blocks for deformation tracking due to the absence of phase information. In this paper, we compare the strain estimation performance using B-mode, envelope and radiofrequency signals, utilizing data acquired from a uniformly elastic tissue mimicking phantom, cardiac simulation, and clinical in vivo data. Signal-to-noise ratio improvements using radiofrequency signals for linear and phased array geometries were 5.80 dB and 9.48 dB over that obtained with envelope signals (at peak strain) in phantom studies, respectively. Cardiac simulation studies demonstrate that when averaged over the two cardiac cycles, the mean standard deviation of estimated strain using envelope signals from two of the six segments for a short-axes view (anterior and anterolateral) were 48% and 44% higher than that obtained using radiofrequency signals. These segments were chosen since one was along while the other was situated lateral to the beam propagation direction. In a similar manner, in vivo analysis on a volunteer also indicate that the standard deviation of the estimated strain using B-mode and envelope signals were 16% and 42% higher than that obtained using radiofrequency signals in the anteroseptal segment, and 45% and 27% in the anterior segment. These results demonstrate the significant reduction in the variability of strain estimated along with improvements in the spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratios obtained using radiofrequency signals. PMID:23259981
Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy
Thirty-six children born preterm with very low birth weight without neonatal brain disorders and normal cerebral ultrasound findings were examined at pre-school age: visual, perceptual motor, attention, behaviour and cognitive assessments were performed in the study group as well as in a control group of term children matched for age, sex and parental educational and occupational status. The results showed
Maria Giulia Torrioli; Maria Flavia Frisone; Lucilla Bonvini; Rita Luciano; Maria Grazia Pasca; Roberta Lepori; Giuseppe Tortorolo; Francesco Guzzetta
Autopsies of fetuses with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) have shown abnormal gyration of the temporal lobes. In addition, the head is relatively large compared with the abdomen. We evaluated by ultrasound six consecutive cases of TD at 19 + 0 to 19 + 6 gestational weeks based on last menstrual period. We observed abnormal and deep transverse sulci in the temporal lobes in all cases; these features were confirmed at autopsy. We performed biometric assessment, including biparietal diameter (BPD) and mean abdominal diameter (MAD). For each MAD value in the TD fetuses, we computed mean and SD of the corresponding BPD values from a population-based registry in the relevant age range, and used them to calculate Z-scores for each BPD/MAD ratio. In the general population, the average BPD/MAD ratio was 1.05. In the TD fetuses, the mean BPD was 51.5 (range, 49-54) mm, the MAD was 45 (range, 41-47) mm and the BPD/MAD ratio was 1.15 (range, 1.09-1.20). The average Z-score of the ratios for TD fetuses was 2.44 (range, 1.05-3.39). The ratios for the TD fetuses were significantly higher than were the population ratios (P = 0.016). At autopsy, the mean brain-to-body weight ratio was 20.6% (range, 15.4-24.1%), which was greater than the corresponding mean ratio of 14.9% in normal fetuses. We conclude that abnormal and deep transverse gyration of the temporal lobes can be visualized by ultrasound in mid-second-trimester fetuses with TD. Due to megalencephaly, fetuses with TD have significantly different body proportions, with a larger BPD compared with normal fetuses. PMID:22374812
Blaas, H-G K; Vogt, C; Eik-Nes, S H
Novel COstatus system (Transonic Systems, Inc., NY), based on ultrasound dilution (UD), works off in situ arterial and central venous catheters in pediatric patients to measure cardiac output (CO). The purpose of the present study was to validate CO measurement by UD (COUD) with pulmonary artery (PA) thermodilution (COTD) in a prospective animal study. Ten anesthetized pigs (16–45 kg) were instrumented with pediatric PA, central venous, and peripheral artery catheters. For COUD measurements, normothermic saline (0.5–1.0 ml/kg body weight, up to a maximum of 30 ml) was injected into the venous limb of an arteriovenous loop that was connected between in situ catheters. For COTD measurements, 5–10 ml cold saline was injected into the PA catheter. Sixty-four averaged sets were obtained for comparison. COTD mean was 2.98 ± 1.21 l/min (range 1.33–6.29), and COUD mean was 2.68 ± 1.16 l/min (range 1.33–5.85). This study yielded a correlation r = 0.96, COUD = 0.91* (COTD) ? 0.04 l/min; bias was 0.3 l/min with limits of agreement as ?0.39 to 0.99 l/min; and the percentage error was 23.73% between the methods. CO measurements by UD agreed well with thermodilution measurements in the pediatric swine model.
Thuramalla, Naveen; Searles, Bruce
We report a rare case of mosaic ring chromosome 22 duplication/deletion in a fetus for whom karyotype analysis was required because of an abnormal finding in the maternal serum screening test and a choroid plexus cyst detected on prenatal ultrasound. Additional prenatal study of the amniotic fluid by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and the terminal 22q13.3 deletion was detected on ring chromosome. The final karyotype was 45,XX,-22/46,XX,r(22)(p11q13.2)/46,XX,idicr(22)(p11q13.2;p11q13.2)dn.ishder(22)(N25+, ARSA-, ter-). The pegnancy was terminated. Cytogenetic analysis of the intracardiac blood also revealed ring 22 mosaicism with only one metaphase spread with idicr(22) as the unstable isodicentric rings are subsequently lost from most cells. We discuss the prenatal diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:20149051
Koç, Altu?; Arisoy, Ozgür; Pala, Elif; Erdem, Mehmet; Kaymak, Ay?egül Oztürk; Erkal, Ozgür; Karao?uz, Meral Yirmibe?
Objective: Patellar tendinopathy has been reported to be associated with many intrinsic risk factors. Few have been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study examined the anthropometric and physical performance results of elite junior basketball players with normal or abnormal patellar tendons to see if any measures were associated with changes in tendon morphology.Methods: Agility, leg strength, endurance, and flexibility were measured
J L Cook; Z S Kiss; K M Khan; C R Purdam; K E Webster
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multi-organ inflammatory disorder associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess cardiac involvement using a comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) approach and to determine its association with disease characteristics in RA patients without symptomatic cardiac disease. METHODS: RA patients with no history and\\/or clinical findings of systemic or pulmonary hypertension,
Yasuyuki Kobayashi; Jon T Giles; Masaharu Hirano; Isamu Yokoe; Yasuo Nakajima; Joan M Bathon; Joao AC Lima; Hitomi Kobayashi
Objective:We used maternal immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity index (AI) and fetal ultrasonography (US) to effectively detect a congenital cytomegalovirus-infected fetus that would suffer neurological sequelae after birth.Study Design:The detecting method was prospectively adapted to 1163 unselected pregnant women. IgM, IgG and IgG-AI were measured at the first prenatal examination (10.8±2.2 weeks of gestation). Advanced US was performed for the IgM-positive women at our center. The urine of 1163 neonates was examined via PCR. All infected neonates were followed for neurological development.Result:Most women (83.3%) were seropositive. Among them, 40 (4.1%) were IgM positive. Nine of forty (22.5%) had low AI, of which one showed abnormal US and suffered severe sequelae. The remaining eight had a normal US; however, one infant had hearing impairment. There were another three infected infants with normal development. Their mothers' serological results were: IgM positive with high AI (n=1); IgG positive; IgM negative with high AI (n=1); and both IgG and IgM negative (n=1).Conclusion:This method enabled us to detect infected fetuses having severe sequelae. However, the problem remains of detecting infected fetuses that only have a hearing impairment. PMID:23867961
Kaneko, M; Sameshima, H; Minematsu, T; Kusumoto, K; Yamauchi, A; Ikenoue, T
The earliest signs of cardiovascular disease occur in microcirculations. Changes to mechanical and structural properties of these small resistive vessels alter the impedance to flow, subsequent reflected waves, and consequently, flow waveform morphology. In this paper, we compare two frequency analysis techniques: 1) rootMUSIC and 2) the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to extract features of flow velocity waveform morphology captured using Doppler ultrasound from the ophthalmic artery (OA) in 30 controls and 38 age and sex matched Type I diabetics. Conventional techniques for characterizing Doppler velocity waveforms, such as mean velocity, resistive index, and pulsatility index, revealed no significant differences between the groups. However, rootMUSIC and the DWT provided highly correlated results with the spectral content in bands 2-7 (30-0.8 Hz) significantly elevated in the diabetic group (p < 0.05). The spectral distinction between the groups may be attributable to manifestations of underlying pathophysiological processes in vascular impedance and consequent wave reflections, with bands 5 and 7 related to age. Spectral descriptors of OA blood velocity waveforms are better indicators of preclinical microvascular abnormalities in Type I diabetes than conventional measures. Although highly correlated DWT proved slightly more discriminatory than rootMUSIC and has the advantage of extending to subheart rate frequencies, which may be of interest. PMID:21138796
Agnew, Christina Elizabeth; McCann, A J; Lockhart, C J; Hamilton, P K; McVeigh, G E; McGivern, R C
Background Left coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva is an uncommon congenital coro-nary anomaly that seems to be associated with sudden death in young patients. Case presentation We report a case of cardiac arrest in a 59-year-old patient after sexual intercourse and Silde-nafil ingestion. A coronary arteriography and an angiographic computed tomography scan subsequently revealed a LCA origin from the right aortic sinus along with an intramural course of the left main stem. In addition a distal stenosis of the right coronary artery was detected. After successful resuscitation without neurological deficits coronary artery bypass surgery was performed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating sudden cardiac arrest associated with Sildenafil ingestion in a patient with this type of coronary anomaly. The question arises, whether a cardiac screening is necessary before a Sildenafil therapy is initiated.
Diseases due to mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) are highly heterogeneous, including neuromuscular and cardiac dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and premature ageing syndromes. In this study we characterized the neuromuscular and cardiac phenotypes of patients bearing the heterozygous LMNA R482W mutation, which is the most frequent genotype associated with the familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type (FPLD). Fourteen patients from two unrelated families, including 10 affected subjects, were studied. The two probands had been referred for lipoatrophy and/or diabetes. Lipodystrophy, exclusively observed in LMNA-mutated patients, was of variable severity and limited to postpubertal subjects. Lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbances were more severe in women, even if an enlarged neck was a constant finding. The severity of hypertriglyceridemia and hirsutism in females was related to that of insulin resistance. Clinical muscular alterations were only present in LMNA-mutated patients. Clinical and histological examination showed an invalidating, progressive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in a 42-yr-old woman that had been present since childhood, associated with a typical postpubertal FPLD phenotype. Six of eight adults presented the association of calf hypertrophy, perihumeral muscular atrophy, and a rolling gait due to proximal lower limb weakness. Muscular histology was compatible with muscular dystrophy in one of them and/or showed a nonspecific excess of lipid droplets (in three cases). Immunostaining of lamin A/C was normal in the six muscular biopsies. Surprisingly, calpain 3 expression was undetectable in the patient with the severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, although the gene did not reveal any molecular alterations. At the cardiac level, cardiac septal hypertrophy and atherosclerosis were frequent in FPLD patients. In addition, a 24-yr-old FPLD patient had a symptomatic second degree atrioventricular block. In conclusion, we showed that most lipodystrophic patients affected by the FPLD-linked LMNA R482W mutation show muscular and cardiac abnormalities. The occurrence and severity of the myopathic and lipoatrophic phenotypes varied and were not related. The muscular phenotype was evocative of limb girdle muscular dystrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy and advanced atherosclerosis were frequent. FPLD patients should receive careful neuromuscular and cardiac examination whatever the underlying LMNA mutation. PMID:15531479
Vantyghem, M C; Pigny, P; Maurage, C A; Rouaix-Emery, N; Stojkovic, T; Cuisset, J M; Millaire, A; Lascols, O; Vermersch, P; Wemeau, J L; Capeau, J; Vigouroux, C
PurposeAlthough transfusion has been linked to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) in cardiac surgical patients, this association has not been investigated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Evidence supports an inflammatory mechanism in the development of AF, and red cell transfusions also elicit an inflammatory response. We therefore sought to evaluate whether packed red blood cell transfusion increases
M. Kamran Athar; Sidharth Bagga; Nanda Nair; Vivek Punjabi; Karen Vito; Christa Schorr; David R. Gerber
Background High dietary fat intake is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and metabolic dysfunction including obesity, cardiomyopathy and hypertension. Methods The present study was designed to examine effect of high fat (HF) diet on cardio-vascular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), fed HF diet for 15 weeks, a phenotype designed to mimic metabolic syndrome. Results Development of metabolic syndrome like phenotype was confirmed using parameters, including body weight, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels. High fat diet impaired vascular relaxation by acetylcholine and exacerbated cardiac dysfunction in SHRs as evidenced by lower left ventricular function, and higher coronary resistance (CR) as compared to controls (p < 0.05). The histological examination revealed significant myocardial and peri-vascular fibrosis in hearts from SHRs on HF diet. This cardiac dysfunction was associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, COX-2, NOX-2, TxB2 expression and increase in superoxide (O2-) levels in SHR fed a HF diet (p < 0.05). HO-1 induction via cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP,3 mg/kg), in HF fed rats, not only improved cardiac performance parameters, but also prevented myocardial and perivascular fibrosis. These effects of CoPP were accompanied by enhanced levels of cardiac adiponectin levels, pAMPK, peNOS and iNOS expression; otherwise significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) in HF fed SHRs. Prevention of such beneficial effects of CoPP by the concurrent administration of the HO inhibitor stannic mesoporphyrin (SnMP) corroborates the role of HO system in mediating such effects. Conclusion In conclusion, this novel study demonstrates that up-regulation of HO-1 improves cardiac and vascular dysfunction by blunting oxidative stress, COX-2 levels and increasing adiponectin levels in hypertensive rats on HF diet.
Summary The exact relationship between cardiac arrhythmias and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is uncertain. Several reports have\\u000a implicated both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias in isolated cases, but there have been no studies of the incidence\\u000a or type of arrhythmias that occur in populations at risk for SIDS. Of 1699 infants at high risk for SIDS, 60 (4%) were found\\u000a to
Steven D. Colan; Richard R. Liberthson; Lucienne Cahen; Daniel C. Shannon; Dorothy H. Kelly
Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities during dobutamine and adenosine stress echocardiography with transient myocardial contrast imaging after minute quantities of intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin
We have recently discovered that if ultrasound transmission is briefly suspended (triggered to just one frame per cardiac cycle) after very small doses of intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin, the myocardial contrast produced is significantly enhanced. The objective of this study was to test whether this technique (termed transient response imaging) could identify myocardial perfusion abnormalities during adenosine and dobutamine
Thomas R. Porter; Feng Xie; Karen Kilzer; Ubeydullah Deligonul
Lung disease is common among wild and managed populations of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus. The purpose of the study was to apply standardized techniques to the ultrasound evaluation of dolphin lungs, and to identify normal and abnormal sonographic findings associated with pleuropulmonary diseases. During a 5 yr period (2005 to 2010), 498 non-cardiac thoracic ultrasound exams were performed on bottlenose dolphins at the Navy Marine Mammal Program in San Diego, California, USA. Exams were conducted as part of routine physical exams, diagnostic workups, and disease monitoring. In the majority of routine exams, no abnormal pleural or pulmonary findings were detected with ultrasound. Abnormal findings were typically detected during non-routine exams to identify and track disease progression or resolution; therefore, abnormal results are overrepresented in the study. In order of decreasing prevalence, abnormal sonographic findings included evidence of alveolar-interstitial syndrome, pleural effusion, pulmonary masses, and pulmonary consolidation. Of these findings, alveolar-interstitial syndrome was generally nonspecific as it represented several possible disease states. Pairing ultrasound findings with clinical signs was critical to determine relevance. Pleural effusion, pulmonary masses, and pulmonary consolidation were relatively straightforward to diagnose and interpret. Further diagnostics were performed to obtain definitive diagnoses when appropriate, specifically ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis, fine needle aspirates, and lung biopsies, as well as radiographs and computed tomography (CT) exams. Occasionally, post mortem gross necropsy and histopathology data were available to provide confirmation of diagnoses. Thoracic ultrasound was determined to be a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting pleural and pulmonary diseases in dolphins. PMID:23324421
Smith, Cynthia R; Solano, Mauricio; Lutmerding, Betsy A; Johnson, Shawn P; Meegan, Jennifer M; Le-Bert, Carolina R; Emory-Gomez, Forrest; Cassle, Stephen; Carlin, Kevin; Jensen, Eric D
The ultrasound has become a standard procedure used during pregnancy. It can demonstrate fetal growth and can detect increasing ... abnormalities, hydrocephalus, anencephaly, club feet, and other ... does not produce ionizing radiation and is considered ...
This paper describes a clinically translatable interventional guidance platform to improve the accuracy and precision of stem cell injections into a beating heart. The proposed platform overlays live position of an injection catheter onto a fusion of a pre-procedural MR roadmap with real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Electromagnetic (EM) tracking is used to initialize the fusion. The fusion is intra-operatively compensated for respiratory motion using a novel algorithm that uses peri-operative full volume ultrasound images. Validation of the system on a moving heart phantom produced a landmark registration accuracy of 2.8 +/- 1.45mm. Validation on animal in vivo data produced an average registration accuracy of 2.2 +/- 1.8 mm; indicating that it is feasible to reliably and robustly fuse the MR road-map with catheter position using 3D ultrasound in a clinical setting. PMID:22003628
Parthasarathy, Vijay; Hatt, Charles; Stankovic, Zoran; Raval, Amish; Jain, Ameet
Objective: The aims of this study were: (1) to explore pregnant women’s background knowledge and expectations of 2nd trimester ultrasound screening, and (2) to investigate women’s intentions to proceed to pregnancy termination if fetal anomaly is detected at the 2nd trimester ultrasound screening. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. 300 consecutive pregnant women served as a convenience sample for this
Apostolos P. Athanasiadis; Themistoklis Mikos; Konstantinos Pantazis; Efstratios Assimakopoulos; Filippos Tzevelekis; John N. Bontis
Because myocyte depolarization and repolarization depend on intra- and extracellular shifts in ion gradients, abnormal serum electrolyte levels can have profound effects on cardiac conduction and the electrocardiogram (EKG). Changes in extracellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels can change myocyte membrane potential gradients and alter the cardiac action potential. These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead EKG
Deborah B Diercks; George M Shumaik; Richard A Harrigan; William J Brady; Theodore C Chan
Background ECG-gated image acquisition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been shown to provide more accurate measurements at different\\u000a phases of the cardiac cycle. Objective: We sought to explore the ability dynamic assessment of ECG-gated 3-D IVUS to identify deformable regions of coronary plaques,\\u000a by testing the hypothesis that at a given pressure and region, a faster displacement of the intima would
Gastón A. Rodriguez-Granillo; Pierfrancesco Agostoni; Héctor M. García-García; Pim de Feyter; Patrick W. Serruys
Objectives of this study were to assess diastolic function in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) women, and to evaluate the insulin resistance status and its association with Doppler-echocardiographic indexes. Echocardiograms of 108 consecutive Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were performed. Insulin resistance status was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). All the studied women showed normal diastolic patterns. Patients with AGT (50.9%), as compared with NGT women, had higher HOMA-IR (1.70 ± 1.30 versus 1.01 ± 0.81, P = 0.003), lower QUICKI (0.36 ± 0.005 versus 0.40 ± 0.06, P = 0.004), higher lateral mitral annulus late diastolic velocity (13.6 ± 4.9 versus 11.9 ± 4.9, P = 0.03), and higher A-wave velocity, the wave responsible for the active atrial contraction component (75.2 ± 14.2 versus 67.7 ± 16.2, P = 0.01). At multivariate regression analysis HOMA-IR was the only parameter associated with A-wave velocity. In conclusion, women with AGT had an increased subclinical diastolic active participation, which is associated with higher levels of insulin resistance. For the increased risk of deterioration of cardiac diastolic function, earlier and more seriously than normal pregnancy, AGT women may have a careful followup to detect the early signs of cardiac alteration and to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Pintaudi, B.; Di Vieste, G.; Corrado, F.; Creazzo, M. F.; Fazio, A.; Valenti, A.; D'Anna, R.; Di Benedetto, A.
Using a heart motion observer, we compared the performance of two image reconstruction techniques, a 3D OS-EM algorithm with post Butterworth spatial filtering and a 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm. The task was to classify gated myocardial perfusion (GMP) SPECT images of beating hearts with or without regional motion abnormalities. Noise-free simulated GMP SPECT projection data was generated from two 4D NCAT beating heart phantom models, one with normal motion and the other with a 50% motion defect in a pie-shaped wedge region-of-interest (ROI) in the anterior-lateral left ventricular wall. The projection data were scaled to clinical GMP SPECT count level before Poisson noise was simulated to generate 40 noise realizations. The noise-free and noisy projection data were reconstructed using the two reconstruction algorithms, parameters chosen to optimize the tradeoff between image bias and noise. As a motion observer, a 3D motion estimation method previously developed was applied to estimate the radial motion on the ROI from two adjacent gates. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were computed for radial motion magnitudes corresponding to each reconstruction technique. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as an index for classification of regional motion. The reconstructed images with better bias and noise tradeoff were found to offer better classification for hearts with or without regional motion defects. The 3D cardiac motion estimation algorithm, serving as a heart motion observer, was better able to distinguish the abnormal from the normal regional motion in GMP SPECT images obtained from the 4D MAP-RBI-EM algorithm than from the 3D OS-EM algorithm with post Butterworth spatial filtering.
Tang, Jing; Lee, Taek-Soo; He, Xin; Segars, W. Paul; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.
Background: The introduction of the hand-held cardiac ultrasound (HCU) may potentially increase detection of LV hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. However, whether point-of-care screening for LV hypertrophy and concentric LV geometry by HCU in hypertensive patients is feasible and comparable to that of standard state-of-the-art echocardiography (SE) evaluation remains to be elucidated. Methods and Results: Accordingly, one hundred consecutive patients (66 female, mean age=58±13 years, 32% African-American, mean body mass index=31±8 kg/m2) with the diagnosis of hypertension underwent both HCU and SE examinations in tandem. A cardiology fellow-in-training performed the HCU exam while a cardiac sonographer performed the SE. 37% of hypertensive patients had electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy by Sokolow-Lyon or Cornell voltage criteria. Mean LV mass was 210±42 g with the HCU and 209±40 g with SE. Mean relative wall thickness was 0.45±0.05 by the HCUD and 0.44±0.05 by SE. There was excellent correlation between LV mass and relative wall thickness measurements by HCU and SE (r=0.985, SEE=6.8 g and r=0.762, SEE=0.33, respectively, both p<0.001). The prevalence of LV hypertrophy using prognostically-validated partition values for LV mass/height2.7 of 46.7 and 49.2 g/m2.7 in women and men, respectively was 76% by HCU and 78% by SE (p=NS), with excellent agreement (92%, ?=0.774, p<0.001). Agreement for detection of concentric LV geometry (relative wall thickness>0.43) was also excellent (88%, ? =0.756, p<0.001). Agreement for LV hypertrophy and concentric geometry detection between the cardiology fellow-in-training and sonographer was excellent (? =0.786, p<0.001). Conclusion: Point-of-care screening for LV hypertrophy and concentric LV geometry by HCU is feasible and correlates very well with that of SE. HCU may allow for immediate point-of-care assessment and treatment of cardiac target organ damage in hypertensive patients.
Stoica, Roxana; Heller, Eliot N; Bella, Jonathan N
The next significant advance for cardiovascular ultrasound will be the introduction of clinical three-dimensional (3-D) imaging. With increasing computer power and software and hardware, 3-D ultrasound imaging will become a reality over the next few years. Of all cardiovascular abnormalities, congenital heart disease is one of the most logical entities to lend itself to wide-field and 3-D presentation. Tomographic two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiography has in great part replaced cardiac catheterization as the means of accurately visualizing congenital cardiac defects. However, two distinct limitations exist with current 2-D presentations: (1) limited field of view (ie, 90 degrees sector) and (2) tomographic slices that must be assimilated by the examiner into a 3-D or four-dimensional diagnosis. True 3-D imaging has the ultimate capability of rendering anatomy in a format comparable to looking at the actual cardiac specimen. If electronic rendering were really feasible and of suitable quality, one could envision electronically extracting the heart from a living human and examining abnormalities much as one might examine a cardiac specimen (ie, "electronic vivisection"). This article reviews the state of the art of wide-field and 3-D cardiovascular ultrasound in the assessment of congenital heart disease. PMID:7894231
Seward, J B; Belohlavek, M; O'Leary, P W; Foley, D A; Greenleaf, J F
Between July 2000 and December 2003, a total number of 3,472 fetuses was evaluated by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. All examinations were carried out as part of a detailed level III ultrasound examination for fetal anomalies. The gestational age was between 11 and 35 weeks. A 3D endovaginal probe (5 - 7 MHz) was used for examinations between 11 and 13 weeks, and an abdominal 3D probe (5 MHz) after 13 weeks. Four different 3D image display modes were employed in visualizing fetal malformations: triplanar orthogonal display; surface display; transparent display; and the combined transparent and color display (= glass body-rendering). In 906 of the 3,472 high-risk pregnancies, fetuses with one to five fetal defects were found (mean 1.17). The total number of detected defects was 1,012, exclusive of 48 fetal heart defects. Fetal heart defects were excluded from this study since a reliable demonstration of these defects was not possible by 3D ultrasound. Comparing the 2D and 3D techniques, 3D sonography proved advantageous in 60.8 % of the defects, with the benefit derived from the exact tomographic survey using the multiplanar view in 69.9 % of these cases, from a more precise demonstration of the defect in the surface view in 25.2 %, from a distinct demonstration in the transparent view in 3.9 %, and from a precise demonstration in the combined transparent and color view in 1.0 %. In 42 of the 1,012 malformations (4.2 %), a defect was accurately identified or verified with 3D ultrasound only. 3D ultrasound proves not only a useful tool in appreciating the severity of a fetal defect, but also provides more convincing evidence of a normal fetus than conventional two-dimensional sonograms in cases with increased risk of a recurrent surface malformation. PMID:15700222
Merz, E; Welter, C
Background Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an arrhythmogenic disease for which electrophysiological studies (EPS) have shown to be of limited value. Objective We present a CPVT family in which marked post-pacing repolarization abnormalities during EPS were the only consistent phenotypic manifestation of RyR2 mutation carriers. Methods The study was prompted by the observation of transient marked QT prolongation preceding initiation of ventricular fibrillation during atrial fibrillation in a boy with a family history of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Family members underwent exercise and pharmacologic ECG testing with epinephrine, adenosine and flecainide. Non-invasive clinical tests were normal in 10 patients evaluated, except for both epinephrine and exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias in 1. EPS included bursts of ventricular pacing and programmed ventricular extrastimulation reproducing short-long sequences. Genetic screening involved direct sequencing of genes involved in LQTS as well as RyR2. Results Six patients demonstrated a marked increase in QT interval only in the first beat after cessation of ventricular pacing and/or extrastimulation. All 6 patients were found to have a heterozygous missense mutation (M4109R) in RyR2. Two of them, presenting with aborted SCD also had a second missense mutation (I406T- RyR2). Four family members without RyR2 mutations did not display prominent post-pacing QT changes. Conclusions M4109R- RyR2 is associated with a high incidence of SCD. The contribution of I406T to the clinical phenotype is unclear. In contrast to exercise testing, marked post-pacing repolarization changes in a single beat accurately predicted carriers of M4109R- RyR2 in this family.
Nof, Eyal; Belhassen, Bernard; Arad, Michael; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; Antzelevitch, Charles; Rosso, Raphael; Fogelman, Rami; Luria, David; Eli-Ani, Dalia; Mannens, Marcel M.A.M.; Viskin, Sami; Eldar, Michael; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Glikson, Michael
Diseases due to mutations in the lamin A\\/C gene (LMNA) are highly heterogeneous, including neuromuscular and cardiac dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and premature ageing syn- dromes. In this study we characterized the neuromuscular and cardiac phenotypes of patients bearing the heterozygous LMNA R482W mutation, which is the most frequent genotype associated with the familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dun- nigan type (FPLD).
M. C. Vantyghem; P. PIGNY; C. A. MAURAGE; N. ROUAIX-EMERY; T. STOJKOVIC; J. M. CUISSET; A. MILLAIRE; O. LASCOLS; P. VERMERSCH; J. L. WEMEAU; J. CAPEAU; C. VIGOUROUX
Background- Cardiac involvement which leads to congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of death in patients with thalassemia major due to hemosiderosis and chronic anemia. Although the left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with thalassemia major has been considerably studied, LV diastolic function has not been assessed adequately. In this current study we used Doppler echocardiography to
A. Shahmohammadi; P. N. Davari; Y. Aarabi; M. Meraji; A. Tabib; H. Mortezaeian
Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo.
Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of the ATF3 gene is induced by many stress signals. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of ATF3 is induced by cardiac ischemia coupled with reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion) in both cultured cells and an animal model. Transgenic mice expressing ATF3 under the control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter have atrial enlargement, and atrial and ventricular hypertrophy. Microscopic examination showed myocyte degeneration and fibrosis. Functionally, the transgenic heart has reduced contractility and aberrant conduction. Interestingly, expression of sorcin, a gene whose product inhibits the release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum, is increased in these transgenic hearts. Taken together, our results indicate that expression of ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, in the heart leads to altered gene expression and impaired cardiac function.
Okamoto, Yoshichika; Chaves, Alysia; Chen, Jingchun; Kelley, Robert; Jones, Keith; Weed, Harrison G.; Gardner, Kevin L.; Gangi, Lisa; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Klomkleaw, Wuthichai; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hamlin, Robert L.; Carnes, Cynthia; Altschuld, Ruth; Bauer, John; Hai, Tsonwin
In this paper, a statistical shape analysis method for myocardial contraction is presented that was built to detect and locate regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). For each slice level (base, middle, and apex), 44 short-axis magnetic resonance images were selected from healthy volunteers to train a statistical model of normal myocardial contraction using independent component analysis (ICA). A classification algorithm
Avan Suinesiaputra; Alejandro F. Frangi; Theodorus A. M. Kaandorp; Hildo J. Lamb; Jeroen J. Bax; Johan H. C. Reiber; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt
A computer program product resides on a computer-readable medium and comprises computer-readable, computer-executable instructions for causing a computer to transmit first indicia for an ultrasound propagation arrangement to propagate ultrasound energy to...
G. T. Clement K. H. Hynynen
The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) produce this website which provides information on 15 varieties of sonography including hysterosonography, obstetric ultrasound, and thyroid ultrasound. Sections on each variety of ultrasound provide information on common uses of the procedure, equipment, procedure results & interpretation, benefits and risks, and limitations. This is a great resource for instructors of courses related to diagnostic medical sonography and for the aspiring sonographer or ultrasound technician.
Severe asthma with markedly increased asbestos of 2 types & TXB2, and markedly reduced acetylcholine, DHEA & drug uptake in parts of upper lungs, & similar abnormalities at respiratory & cardiac center of medulla oblongata: complete elimination of this asthma within 15 days using one optimal dose of astragalus & application of strong red light & EMF neutralizer on respiratory centers of abnormal medulla oblongata.
When the window of an Asbestos-contaminated room from a broken ceiling was opened wide, A 73 year-old male physician of Oriental origin, who was sitting in the next room, suddenly developed a severe asthma attack, which did not stop by the use of a hand-held Albuterol inhaler. Temporary relief was obtained only by using a Compressor-Nebulizer (Inspiration 626 with Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083%). During the attack, abnormal areas were discovered at the upper lobes of both lungs, where Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was markedly increased to 500 ng (BDORT units) (the rest of the lung had about 2.5 ng), 2 types of Asbestos (Chrysotile and Crocidolite) were abnormally increased to 0.120-0.135 mg, (BDORT units) Acetylcholine was markedly reduced to 0.5 ng (the rest of the lung was low, about 100 ng), DHEA was extremely reduced to 1 ng (the rest of the lung had about 52 ng), and telomere was less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g). Bacterial & viral infections were also present in these abnormal areas, but no antibiotics entered the abnormal parts of the lungs. Therefore, one optimal dose of Astragalus was given once, which resulted in a rapid continuous excretion of large amounts of the above 2 types of Asbestos & TXB2 in urine & sputum, and Asthma symptoms reduced slightly in severity. Additional acupuncture & shiatsu given on all the known acupuncture points for lung disease only created slight, temporary improvement. Then, the respiratory & cardiac center of the Medulla Oblongata was found to have similar abnormalities as the lungs. Therefore, 100 mW output of Light Emitting Diode of red spectra (650 nm center spectrum) was projected on the abnormal area of the medulla oblongata on the back of the head. This resulted drug uptake of on and off and significantly reduced difficulty of breathing. Additional application of the EMF Neutralizer on the abnormal area of the Medulla Oblongata for 3 hours resulted in continuous drug uptake and complete disappearance of asthma. As a result of one optimal dose of Astragalus, the remaining Asbestos in the lungs & medulla oblongata was completely excreted in the urine and Sputum in 2 weeks. Then, even when the patient entered the Asbestos-contaminated room and slept there every day without opening the window, no asthma attack occurred even as late as 5 months later. PMID:19711774
Omura, Yoshiaki; Henoch, Avraham; Shimotsuura, Yasuhira; Duvvi, Harsha; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ohki, Motomu
Imaging is a noninvasive complement to traditional meth- ods (such as histology) in rodent cardiac studies. Assess- ments of structure and function are possible with ultrasound, microcomputed tomography (microCT), and magnetic reso- nance (MR) imaging. Cardiac imaging in the rodent poses a challenge because of the size of the animal and its rapid heart rate. Each aspect in the process
Ultrasound imaging has been used in a range of cardiac interventions. We describe the use of intravascular ultrasound to assist in coronary sinus lead implantation in a patient where contrast venography was contraindicated. PMID:22469186
Hoffmeister, Peter; Gautam, Sandeep; Peralta, Adelqui; Kinlay, Scott
This book discusses: Introduction to interventional ultrasound/handling of aspirated material/general principles of fine needle aspiration cytology/procedure and principles in ultrasonically guided puncture/puncture of focal liver lesions/intraoperative puncture of the liver guided by ultrasound/Interventional ultrasound in cancer therapy/Interventional echocardiography/Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Are there any risks./Puncture of renal mass lesions/Intrauterine needle diagnosis/Percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
Holm, H.H.; Kristensen, J.K.
Methodological approach for the assessment of ultrasound reproducibility of cardiac structure and function: a proposal of the study group of Echocardiography of the Italian Society of Cardiology (Ultra Cardia SIC) part I.
When applying echo-Doppler imaging for either clinical or research purposes it is very important to select the most adequate modality/technology and choose the most reliable and reproducible measurements. Quality control is a mainstay to reduce variability among institutions and operators and must be obtained by using appropriate procedures for data acquisition, storage and interpretation of echo-Doppler data. This goal can be achieved by employing an echo core laboratory (ECL), with the responsibility for standardizing image acquisition processes (performed at the peripheral echo-labs) and analysis (by monitoring and optimizing the internal intra- and inter-reader variability of measurements). Accordingly, the Working Group of Echocardiography of the Italian Society of Cardiology decided to design standardized procedures for imaging acquisition in peripheral laboratories and reading procedures and to propose a methodological approach to assess the reproducibility of echo-Doppler parameters of cardiac structure and function by using both standard and advanced technologies. A number of cardiologists experienced in cardiac ultrasound was involved to set up an ECL available for future studies involving complex imaging or including echo-Doppler measures as primary or secondary efficacy or safety end-points. The present manuscript describes the methodology of the procedures (imaging acquisition and measurement reading) and provides the documentation of the work done so far to test the reproducibility of the different echo-Doppler modalities (standard and advanced). These procedures can be suggested for utilization also in non referall echocardiographic laboratories as an "inside" quality check, with the aim at optimizing clinical consistency of echo-Doppler data. PMID:21943283
Galderisi, Maurizio; Nistri, Stefano; Mondillo, Sergio; Losi, Maria-Angela; Innelli, Pasquale; Mele, Donato; Muraru, Denisa; D'Andrea, Antonello; Ballo, Piercarlo; Sgalambro, Aurelio; Esposito, Roberta; Marti, Giuliano; Santoro, Alessandro; Agricola, Eustachio; Badano, Luigi P; Marchioli, Roberto; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Marino, Paolo Nicola
Methodological approach for the assessment of ultrasound reproducibility of cardiac structure and function: a proposal of the study group of Echocardiography of the Italian Society of Cardiology (Ultra Cardia SIC) Part I
When applying echo-Doppler imaging for either clinical or research purposes it is very important to select the most adequate modality/technology and choose the most reliable and reproducible measurements. Quality control is a mainstay to reduce variability among institutions and operators and must be obtained by using appropriate procedures for data acquisition, storage and interpretation of echo-Doppler data. This goal can be achieved by employing an echo core laboratory (ECL), with the responsibility for standardizing image acquisition processes (performed at the peripheral echo-labs) and analysis (by monitoring and optimizing the internal intra- and inter-reader variability of measurements). Accordingly, the Working Group of Echocardiography of the Italian Society of Cardiology decided to design standardized procedures for imaging acquisition in peripheral laboratories and reading procedures and to propose a methodological approach to assess the reproducibility of echo-Doppler parameters of cardiac structure and function by using both standard and advanced technologies. A number of cardiologists experienced in cardiac ultrasound was involved to set up an ECL available for future studies involving complex imaging or including echo-Doppler measures as primary or secondary efficacy or safety end-points. The present manuscript describes the methodology of the procedures (imaging acquisition and measurement reading) and provides the documentation of the work done so far to test the reproducibility of the different echo-Doppler modalities (standard and advanced). These procedures can be suggested for utilization also in non referall echocardiographic laboratories as an "inside" quality check, with the aim at optimizing clinical consistency of echo-Doppler data.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of our novel 3D speckle tracking method by using numerical data, and\\u000a to demonstrate the rapid processing of this method by using data obtained from human subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In order to create a method that can rapidly assess cardiac function in regional heart wall segments, a 3D speckle tracking\\u000a algorithm was
Tomoyuki Takeguchi; Masahide Nishiura; Yasuhiko Abe; Hiroyuki Ohuchi; Tetsuya Kawagishi
In this paper, we present a new method for the automatic comparison of myocardial motion patterns and the characterization of their degree of abnormality, based on a statistical atlas of motion built from a reference healthy population. Our main contribution is the computation of atlas-based indexes that quantify the abnormality in the motion of a given subject against a reference population, at every location in time and space. The critical computational cost inherent to the construction of an atlas is highly reduced by the definition of myocardial velocities under a small displacements hypothesis. The indexes we propose are of notable interest for the assessment of anomalies in cardiac mobility and synchronicity when applied, for instance, to candidate selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We built an atlas of normality using 2D ultrasound cardiac sequences from 21 healthy volunteers, to which we compared 14 CRT candidates with left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVDYS). We illustrate the potential of our approach in characterizing septal flash, a specific motion pattern related to LVDYS and recently introduced as a very good predictor of response to CRT. PMID:21315650
Duchateau, Nicolas; De Craene, Mathieu; Piella, Gemma; Silva, Etelvino; Doltra, Adelina; Sitges, Marta; Bijnens, Bart H; Frangi, Alejandro F
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent congenital disease, with 45% of deaths resulting from a congenital defect due to a cardiac malformation. Clinically significant CHD permit survival upon birth, but may become immediately life threatening. Advances in surgical intervention have significantly reduced perinatal mortality, but the outcome for many malformations is bleak. Furthermore, patients living while tolerating a CHD often acquire additional complications due to the long-term systemic blood flow changes caused by even subtle anatomical abnormalities. Accurate diagnosis of defects during fetal development is critical for interventional planning and improving patient outcomes. Advances in quantitative, multidimensional imaging are necessary to uncover the basic scientific and clinically relevant morphogenetic changes and associated hemodynamic consequences influencing normal and abnormal heart development. Ultrasound is the most widely used clinical imaging technology for assessing fetal cardiac development. Ultrasound-based fetal assessment modalities include motion mode (M-mode), two dimensional (2D), and 3D/4D imaging. These datasets can be combined with computational fluid dynamics analysis to yield quantitative, volumetric, and physiological data. Additional imaging modalities, however, are available to study basic mechanisms of cardiogenesis, including optical coherence tomography, microcomputed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Each imaging technology has its advantages and disadvantages regarding resolution, depth of penetration, soft tissue contrast considerations, and cost. In this review, we analyze the current clinical and scientific imaging technologies, research studies utilizing them, and appropriate animal models reflecting clinically relevant cardiogenesis and cardiac malformations. We conclude with discussing the translational impact and future opportunities for cardiovascular development imaging research. PMID:23897595
Gregg, Chelsea L; Butcher, Jonathan T
The use of cardiac ultrasound imaging has enhanced the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes. As ultrasound technology has advanced in the last decade, the indications for imaging patients with coronary artery disease have expanded. There are many advantages of using echocardiography as an imaging technique in patients with chest pain syndromes because it is portable, entirely noninvasive, and
Sharon C. Reimold; Elliott M. Antman
A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images
Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio
Background: To test the diagnostic potential of the SonoHeart, a battery-powered hand-held ultrasound imaging device, in an outpatient clinic setting. Methods: A total of 114 patients with a variety of cardiac diseases were examined by 2 independent cardiologists with the hand-held device using the standard echocardiographic system (SE) as a reference. Global right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function
Eleni C. Vourvouri; Don Poldermans; Johan De Sutter; Fabiola B. Sozzi; Paolo Izzo; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt
Catheter based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this work is the development of catheter based, forward-looking mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The current transducer assembly consists of a single 20 MHz PZT piston mounted on a polyimide table that pivots
J. M. Zara; S. Bobbio; S. Goodwin-Johansson; S. W. Smith
ObjectiveEating disorders (ED) are thought to be risk factors for sudden death, and arrhythmias are one of the major causes of sudden death in ED patients. Late potentials (LPs) are a predictor of arrhythmias and can be measured using signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG). We examined arryhthmogenicity by LPs in ED patients.
Yoshiyuki Takimoto; Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi; Hiroaki Kumano; Tomifusa Kuboki
Background—The prevalence, clinical significance, and determinants of abnormal ECG patterns in trained athletes remain largely unresolved. Methods and Results—We compared ECG patterns with cardiac morphology (as assessed by echocardiography) in 1005 consecutive athletes (aged 2466 years; 75% male) who were participating in 38 sporting disciplines. ECG patterns were distinctly abnormal in 145 athletes (14%), mildly abnormal in 257 (26%), and
Antonio Pelliccia; Barry J. Maron; Franco Culasso; Fernando M. Di Paolo; Antonio Spataro; Alessandro Biffi; Giovanni Caselli; Paola Piovano
Doppler ultrasound detection of abnormally high-pitched signals within the arterial waveform offers a new method for diagnosis, and potentially for prediction, of embolic complications in at-risk patients. The nature of Doppler "microembolic" signals is of particular interest in patients with prosthetic heart valves, where a high prevalence of these signals is observed. Monitoring the middle cerebral artery with 2-MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TC-2000, Nicolet Biomedical; Warwick, UK), we looked for microemboli signals in 150 patients (95 women and 55 men), and found 1 or more signals during a 30-min recording in 89% of 70 patients with Bjork-Shiley valves (principally monostrut), 54% of 50 patients with Medtronic-Hall valves, and 50% of 30 patients with Carpentier-Edwards valves (p < 0.001, chi 2). In the patients with Bjork-Shiley valves, the mean number of signals per hour was 59 (range, 42-86; 95% confidence interval), which was significantly higher than the mean in patients with Medtronic-Hall and Carpentier-Edwards valves (1.5[range, 0.5-2.5] and 1 [range, 0-5.3], respectively; both p < 0.04, multiple comparisons. Bonferroni correction). In the patients undergoing serial pre- and postoperative studies, the causative role of the valve implant was emphasized. There was no correlation between the number of emboli signals and a prior history of neurologic deficit, cardiac rhythm, previous cardiac surgery, or the intensity of oral anticoagulation, in patients with prosthetic heart valves. In Bjork-Shiley patients, dual (mitral and aortic) valves were associated with more signals than were single valves. In Medtronic-Hall patients, the signal count was greater for valves in the aortic position than it was for valves in the mitral position. Comparative studies of Doppler emboli signals in other clinical settings suggest a difference in composition or size of the underlying maternal between prosthetic valve patients and patients with carotid stenosis. These studies also suggest that the signals are of gaseous origin in valve patients. The clinical significance of continuing microembolism remains to be determined.
Grosset, D G; Georgiadis, D; Kelman, A W; Cowburn, P; Stirling, S; Lees, K R; Faichney, A; Mallinson, A; Quin, R; Bone, I; Pettigrew, L; Brodie, E; MacKay, T; Wheatley, D J
We integrated electrocardiogram (ECG) leads onto the face of a cardiac ultrasound transducer and the exterior chassis of a simulated small, portable scanner to minimize the number of devices needed to collect cardiac information. Since the ECG leads were not placed on their standard locations, a precordial ECG was recorded.
Archana Ramireddy; Edward D. Light; S. W. Smith
Complex technical problems interfered with the application of thoracic ultrasound (US) for studies and clinical research. Moreover, in contrast to radiologists, cardiologists, gastroenterologists, internists, obstetricians, gynecologists and others, pulmonologists were not trained in the basics of US images. However, endoscopic US methods were developed in the last 20 years and these methods also provided important results for pulmonologists. As soon
Franco Falcone; Flavio Fois; Daniele Grosso
Cardiac alterations associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been recognized and frequently reported. We systematically reviewed the literature on MEDLINE using the key words: SAH + (heart, cardiac, electrocardiogram, cardiac enzymes, troponin, myoglobin, echocardiography, scintigraphy, Holter, and regional wall motion abnormalities) and included all articles describing cardiac abnormalities in the course of SAH whether spontaneous or secondary. The diagnosis of
Yasser L. Sakr; Issam Ghosn; Jean Louis Vincent
Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with
R. Lisbona; S. Mishkin; V. Derbekyan; J. A. Novales-Diaz; A. Roy; L. Sanders
Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in a 35-year-old woman with right iliac fossa discomfort in whom initial transabdominal images revealed no abnormality. A thickened hyperemic appendix with appendicolith was identified; subsequent surgery and pathological examination confirmed appendicitis. Transvaginal ultrasound may be valuable in women with suspected appendicitis when standard views are normal or equivocal. PMID:8774104
The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.
Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.
Patients with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Although there are several animal and human studies on this topic, the pathophysiology of the increased electrical vulnerability in diabetes is complex and remain undefined. It is conceivable that an interplay of several concomitant factors may facilitate the occurrence of arrhythmias. Atherosclerosis as well as microvascular disease, which are increased in diabetic patients, may facilitate myocardial ischemia that predisposes to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. In addition, autonomic neuropathy and/or cardiac repolarization abnormalities such as prolonged QT interval and altered T-waves of the diabetic heart also increases electrical instability. Therefore, all these factors may simultaneously contribute to create an electrical instability leading to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Recently, we have demonstrated that diabetes is the strongest predictor of atrial fibrillation (AF) progression and that diabetic patients frequently have asymptomatic episodes of AF with silent arrhythmia progression. Another recent study has reported that patients with type 2 diabetes and AF are at substantially higher risk of death of any cause compared with those without AF. These seminal studies emphasize that AF in diabetic patients should be regarded as a prognostic marker of adverse outcome and then a prompt aggressive management of all risk factors is required. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus significantly alters the cardiac electrophysiology throughout several complex mechanisms greatly contributing to create an electrical instability of the heart, which may lead to potentially life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. PMID:20440255
Pappone, C; Santinelli, V
The aging cardiovascular system undergoes many anatomic and physiologic changes. Increased vascular resistance, myocardial "stiffness," abnormalities of rhythmicity of the sinoatrial node, irregular cardiac rhythms, and alterations in heart rate and blood pressure responses are all seen more frequently in older patients. These changes are likely to impair these patients' ability to make the rapid adjustments necessary to maintain cardiac output during exercise and activity. When cardiovascular disease processes are superimposed on the "normal" concomitants of aging, greater alterations in hemodynamic response to exercise activity are noted than usually occur in younger cardiac patients. Exercise testing of older cardiac patients is safe and is usually needed to prescribe an appropriate intensity of exercise activity. The choice of the exercise protocol, the timing of the exercise test in relation to taking prescribed cardiac medication, the choice of exercise equipment, and special considerations for devices such as pacemakers and automatic implantable cardiodefibrillators must be considered before the exercise test is done. Many of these factors and the presence of either silent or overt cardiac symptoms or untoward hemodynamic events will also affect the exercise prescription. Elderly patients usually show substantial functional improvement when participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program and comply well with prescribed exercise. Early educational intervention may be crucial to reducing disability in these patients.
Anderson, J. M.
The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.
Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined the ability of a novel dynamic frame selection based temperature algorithm to track temperatures during ablation of porcine kidney tissue. Here a novel multi-level 2-Dimensional cross-correlation algorithm was required to accurately track the temperature over an 8 minute ablation procedure.
The impact of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes has been highlighted by increasing media coverage, as well as medical\\u000a and lay awareness of the entities associated with SCD. Common etiologies include cardiac abnormalities such as hypertrophic\\u000a cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia\\/cardiomyopathy (ARVD), and coronary artery anomalies, each\\u000a with varying geographic incidence. New recommendations regarding noninvasive preparticipation screening have
Olaf Hedrich; Mark Estes; Mark S. Link
Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.
Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.
Clinical cardiac electrophysiology is a subspecialty of cardiology dealing with the evaluation and management of patients\\u000a with complex rhythm or conduction abnormalities. In the last four decades, clinical cardiac electrophysiology has evolved\\u000a into an established discipline credited with improving and saving hundreds of thousands of lives. We briefly review the basic\\u000a electrophysiologic principles, anatomy of the electric system of the
Senthil Thenappan; Jaffar Ali Raza; R. Wayne Kreeger; Assad Movahed
This paper begins with an overview and a description of the interactions between ultrasound and biological tissues encountered during treatment protocols. In a second part of this seminar, two clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound will be described in details: -Kidney stone destruction by ultrasound (lithotripsy) and High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for treating prostate cancer (HIFU).
Antenatal screening for fetal cardiac abnormalities was introduced over 25 years ago, yet detection of congenital heart disease before birth remains a challenge. While experienced tertiary centers report a high level of diagnostic accuracy, with most major forms of congenital heart disease being detectable before birth, the overall detection rate remains low. Pregnancies at increased risk of having an affected baby are referred to tertiary centers for fetal ECG, but most cases of congenital heart disease will occur in low-risk pregnancies. These cases will only be detected by screening the low-risk population at the time of routine obstetric scanning. Many obstetric ultrasound units have learnt to successfully obtain, and correctly interpret, views of the heart, including the four-chamber view and outflow tract views. However, standards for doing this are not uniform, nationally or internationally, so there is a significant variation in detection rates across individual countries and between different countries. Early diagnosis of babies with lesions that can result in cardiovascular collapse and death, could improve their survival as well as reducing morbidity. In addition, detection of a cardiac abnormality during pregnancy allows time to prepare parents for the likely course of events after birth. It also facilitates detection of other abnormalities in the baby and gives parents a choice, even if the choice is difficult and unwelcome. As well as providing parents with accurate and up-to-date information regarding the their baby's abnormality, it is vital to provide continuing support to help them deal with the problem, regardless of what decisions they make. Much work remains to establish a uniform standard for antenatal detection of cardiac abnormalities. More recent national guidelines for examining the fetal heart along with formalized auditing processes should help to achieve this, although considerable time and effort will be required, particularly with regard to the teaching and training required. PMID:22413979
The cardiac adaptation to exercise training produces a variety of adaptations in cardiac size, shape, and function. To further define these changes and to investigate the effects of maximal conditioning, we studied ultraendurance triathletes training for the Hawaii Ironman Triathlon using echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound, and electrocardiography. In this population, the left ventricle (LV) was of normal size but had increased wall thickness and mass. Systolic function was normal and diastolic function was normal or supernormal (increased ratio of rapid to atrial LV filling velocities). The finding of a pattern of concentric hypertrophy was reinforced by a close relationship between submaximal exercise systolic blood pressure and LV mass (r = 0.88). Examination of valvular function by Doppler ultrasound revealed significantly increased prevalences of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation in athletes, with 91% of athletes (vs 38% of controls) having regurgitation detected in at least one cardiac valve. Analysis of athletes using standard electrocardiographic criteria for the detection of left ventricular hypertrophy showed that these criteria did not reliably detect increased mass. However, changes such as marked QRS prolongation and nonvoltage criteria for LV hypertrophy and RV hypertrophy may be useful in separating physiologic from pathologic hypertrophy. Our studies provide additional descriptions of cardiac changes produced by ultraendurance exercise training and suggest that the hemodynamic load imposed by exercise may be a contributing cause to physiologic hypertrophy. Much yet remains to be learned about the cardiac adaptation to exercise training. PMID:2691833
Douglas, P S
Introduction Over the past 20 years, the spectrum of neonatal neurological malformations has changed due to the diffusion of ultrasound, performed either routinely or as required by maternal alpha-fetoprotein screening or history.DiscussionWe review and illustrate the potential of ultrasound for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities in size or shape of the skull (macrocephaly, microcephaly, craniostenosis), neural tube defects, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus,
M. C. Aubry; J. P. Aubry; M. Dommergues
Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2
Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith
|High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…
Hand-carried cardiac ultrasound (HCU) device: Recommendations regarding new technology. A report from the Echocardiography Task Force on New Technology of the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the American Society of Echocardiography
The newest introduction to echocardiography is a hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) device. It is a small echocardiographic machine that typically weighs less than 6 lb and can obtain echocardiographic images and data. However, neither the device nor the context of the examination fulfills the criteria for a comprehensive or complete echocardiographic examination. The American Society of Echocardiography believes that HCU will
James B. Seward; Pamela S. Douglas; Raimund Erbel; Richard E. Kerber; Itzhak Kronzon; Harry Rakowski; L. David J. Sahn; Eric J. Sisk; A. Jamil Tajik; Samuel Wann
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields excellent quality images of the cardiovascular system utilizing the inherent natural contrast between flowing blood and the surrounding anatomic structures. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of MRI in the noninvasive diagnosis of large vessel disorders, the authors have performed MRI on 40 pts with either aortic or pulmonary artery abnormalities (18 thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysms, 8 aorto-occlusive disease, 6 dissecting aneurysms, 4 Marfan's syndrome, 2 pulmonary artery aneurysms 1 pulmonary artery occlusion, 1 aortic coarctation). Images were obtained in the transverse, coronal and sagital body planes utilizing a 0.6T superconductive magnet. Cardiac and/or respiratory gating was employed in most cases. Correlation was made for all studies with conventional or digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography, and/or ultrasound. The diagnostic information obtained by MRI equaled or exceeded that obtained by other imaging techniques except for the few cases where cardiac arrhythmias precluded adequate gated acquisition. All aneurysms and their relationships to adjacent structures were readily demonstrated as were the presence or absence of mural thrombi and dissecting intimal flaps. Angiographically demonstrated atherosclerotic plaques and luminal stenoses were seen by MRI in all patients without arrhythmias. The authors concluded that MRI is a powerful noninvasive diagnostic aid in the delineation of large vessel disorders, especially where knowledge of anatomic interrelationships can guide surgical or other interventional planning.
Risius, B.; O'Donnell, J.K.; Geisinger, M.A.; Zelch, M.G.; George, C.R.; Graor, R.A.; Moodie, D.S.
Neonatal sudden cardiac death most often results from cardiac electrical diseases, cardiomyopathies, or sudden infant death syndrome. In infants without a known premortem diagnosis or abnormalities identified at autopsy, sudden infant death syndrome accounts for the vast majority of sudden deaths. Potential cardiac causes of some sudden infant death syndrome cases may include malignant brady- or tachyarrhythmias and congenital long
Charles I Berul
Many cardiac abnormalities are of a transient nature, creating a beat-to-beat variation in myocardial function. This work pre- sents the cardiac imaging technique for the measurement of regional function during transient cardiac phenomena. All infor- mation necessary for the reconstruction of a cine loop is ac- quired within a single heartbeat, avoiding the temporal blurring introduced by segmented imaging due
Daniel A. Herzka; J. Andrew Derbyshire; Peter Kellman; Elliot R. McVeigh
Dipyridamole cardiac imaging is a useful alternative technique to exercise stress testing in the evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. Intravenous dipyridamole is still in the investigational phase, while oral dipyridamole is widely available. The hemodynamic effects of dipyridamole include an increase in coronary blood flow (due to coronary vasodilation) which is in excess of the increase in myocardial oxygen consumption and cardiac output. The disparity in the increase in coronary blood flow relative to the cardiac output results in an increase in myocardial thallium activity and an increase in the myocardial/background activity ratio. The quality of the thallium images is better or similar to that of exercise thallium images. The optimal dose of intravenous dipyridamole is 0.56 mg/kg, and of the oral dose it is 300 to 400 mg, although higher doses may be necessary in some patients. Analysis of the thallium images has been to a large extent based on visual inspection of the planar images. Delayed images are helpful to establish the nature of the perfusion abnormalities (transient or fixed). The process of redistribution is based on disparate rates of washout from the normal and abnormal zones. The sensitivity and specificity of dipyridamole thallium imaging, whether intravenous or oral, have been shown in a number of studies to be quite adequate and comparable to that achieved during exercise thallium imaging. Dipyridamole two-dimensional echocardiography has also been used in the detection of coronary artery disease; transient (new or worsening of preexisting) wall motion abnormalities have been found to be a specific marker of coronary artery disease. Transmural as well as regional coronary steal phenomena have been postulated as the mechanism for dipyridamole-induced regional wall motion abnormalities. 65 references.
Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Askenase, A.; Segal, B.L.; Auerbach, N.
Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)
|Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)|
Cardiac surgery continues to be associated with significant adverse cerebral outcomes, ranging from stroke to cognitive decline. The underlying mechanism of the associated cerebral injury is incompletely understood but is believed to be primarily caused by cerebral embolism and hypoperfusion, exacerbated by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Extensive research has been undertaken in an attempt to minimize the incidence of perioperative cerebral injury, and both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies have been investigated. Although many agents demonstrated promise in preclinical studies, there is currently insufficient evidence from clinical trials to recommend the routine administration of any pharmacological agents for neuroprotection during cardiac surgery. The nonpharmacological strategies that can be recommended on the basis of evidence include transesophageal echocardiography and epiaortic ultrasound-guided assessment of the atheromatous ascending aorta with appropriate modification of cannulation, clamping or anastomotic technique and optimal temperature management. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are still required to address further the issues of optimal pH management, glycemic control, blood pressure management and hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass. Past, present and future directions in the field of neuroprotection in cardiac surgery will be discussed. PMID:18402540
Conlon, Niamh; Grocott, Hilary P; Mackensen, G Burkhard
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a leading cause of cardiac-associated mortality in dialysis patients. Risk factors unique to hemodialysis patients include abnormal electrolytes, large-volume ultrafiltration, and prior history of cardiac disease. Few randomized controlled trials of standard cardiac interventions have been completed in dialysis patients. Observational studies suggest that modification of the dialysis prescription may be one place to intervene.
Bessie A Young
Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.
Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT
Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.
Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Huang, Lianjie
The authors report a case of a cephalopagus conjoined twin that was diagnosed at 29 weeks of gestation despite the mother having had two ultrasounds done previously. The fetus had one head and face, fused thoraces, common umbilicus but had two pelvises and two sets of genitalia. The fetus had four normally formed legs and arms. Antenatal ultrasound images are supplemented by post natal photographs. A review of literature, clues to ultrasound diagnosis and possible causes of missing this significant abnormality until the 3rd trimester are discussed.
Sabih, D; Ahmad, E; Sabih, A; Sabih, Q
Quantitative analysis of cardiac motion is of great clinical interest in assessment of ventricular function. Ultrasound imaging, especially matrix transducers acquiring real-time three dimensional data, provide valuable information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted via optical flow computation. Such analysis requires tracking of the image brightness patterns with underlying assumptions of visual persistency. We present a
Elsa D. Angelini; Olivier Gerard
Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...
High-intensity focus ultrasound (HIFU) is gaining wider acceptance in noninvasive or minimally invasive targeting of abnormal tissues (e.g. cancer) for destruction. Piezocomposite transducer technology, especially for phased arrays, is providing high-qual...
E. S. Ebbini
Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare entity and may be difficult to diagnose prior to cardiac surgery. We review the imaging and diagnostic studies necessary to make the diagnosis and discuss therapeutic algorithms to manage this disease. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12163 (J Card Surg 2013;28:525-528). PMID:23844704
Zacek, Pavel; Omran, Nedal; Chek, James L; Krbal, Lukas; Vojacek, Jan; Harrer, Jan
Phrenic nerve palsy is a recognised complication of operation for congenital heart disease in children. The accuracy of ultrasound in assessing diaphragmatic motion was prospectively compared with fluoroscopy in 16 patients in whom phrenic nerve palsy was suspected. Ultrasound successfully identified the five patients with phrenic nerve palsy; there were no false positive or false negative diagnoses. Ultrasound was as effective as fluoroscopy in the diagnosis of abnormalities of diaphragmatic motion. Images
Balaji, S; Kunovsky, P; Sullivan, I
Muscular dystrophies (MD) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease group. In the last few years, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the close und various relations between skeletal muscle disease and heart muscle disease. Cardiac involvement has been documented in a number of primary MDs and is even the dominant feature in some of them. The myocardium can be affected in the form of a dilated cardiomyopathy while the conduction system can be affected resulting in arrhythmias and conduction defects. Many patients with MD die because of cardiac complications like sudden cardiac death or congestive heart failure. Detailed clinical data about cardiac involvement are available for Duchenne/Becker MD, Emery-Dreifuss MD, myotonic dystrophy, and the different limb girdle MDs. Cardiac manifestations were also found in congenital MD, central core disease, proximal myotonic myopathy, and nemaline myopathy. No data about cardiac abnormalities are available in oculopharyngeal MD and rippling muscle disease. The heart of patients with primary MD should be carefully investigated because of the life-threatening events caused by cardiac complications. There is a strong need for a close collaboration between neurologists and cardiologists in order to provide optimal disease management for the affected patients. PMID:15868359
Perrot, A; Spuler, S; Geier, C; Dietz, R; Osterziel, K J
Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. PMID:20527615
Eren, Bulent; Turkmen, Nursel; Turkmen, Nurset; Fedakar, Recep; Senel, Berna; Cetin, Volkan; Cetin, Volkn
From the beginning of the era of X-rays, cardiac radiology has become a target of this new technique. Early pioneers, Ciegem, Rieder, Rosenthal, Williams rapidly accumulated extensive experience with fluoroscopy and radiography and publications on cardiac diseases as soon as 1899 and 1901 and 1902. The next step in cardiac diagnosis was achieved by Forsmann in 1929, with the first attempt at cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography. Many clinicians, Moniz, Reboul, Rousthoi contributed to the development of the technique between 1930 and 1940. A further turning point came in 1941 when Cournand demonstrated that cardiac catheterization was a safe method in man. In the technical field major progress came from Scandinavia were rapid filming was born. The management of ischaemic disease, changed dramatically with the demonstration of coronary anatomy, largely due to Sones, Judkins and Amplatz. A further progress was initiated in 1977 by Gruentzig who invented balloon angioplasty. PMID:8550395
The objective of our study was to evaluate integrated backscatter (IBS) measurement, an ultrasound method of myocardial tissue characterization, in children receiving cardiotoxic anthracyclines for malignancy. Myocardial injury is known to diminish the normal cyclic variation of IBS (CVIBS) during the cardiac cycle. We used a cross-sectional, case-controlled study of children receiving anthracyclines and serial, prospective observation in a subgroup of children. The study took place in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral center for pediatric cardiology and oncology. Children undergoing routine echocardiograms before, during, and after anthracycline treatment participated in this study. Children evaluated in the cardiology clinic for innocent murmurs participated as controls. There was no intervention. CVIBS was measured using specialized echocardiographic software which quantitates the intensity of backscattered echoes returning from myocardial cells within a user-defined region of interest. Standard echocardiographic measures of left ventricular function were also made. The results indicated that abnormal CVIBS was prevalent during anthracycline treatment (17%) and at late follow-up (20%). In serial studies, CVIBS decreased in all children after anthracycline treatment. Anthracycline dose and time since last dose did not predict which children would have abnormalities of left ventricular function or of CVIBS. This report provides preliminary evidence that CVIBS may be a useful supplement to the noninvasive, echocardiographic assessment of the heart during anthracycline treatment in children. PMID:10368451
Goens, M B; Karr, S S; Seibel, N; Martin, G R
There are two potential purposes for cardiac evaluation in patients with cerebrovascular disease: to identify possible cardioembolic pathophysiology for ischemic symptoms and to identify concomitant coronary artery disease. Both have important implications for patient prognosis and treatment, and testing therefore appears to be warranted. On the other hand, the cost conservation movement in medicine dictates that physicians limit unnecessary, costly, possibly risky testing when the diagnostic yield is low. For example, the overall yield of cardiac testing in "usual stroke patients" who have no suggestive history or findings on examination, chest X-ray, or electrocardiogram is less than 10% and may not be indicated routinely. Conversely, young patients with stroke of unknown cause are likely to benefit from aggressive cardiac testing. Many reported series and clinical trials have demonstrated that patients with cerebrovascular disease are more likely to die in follow-up from cardiovascular than from cerebrovascular causes. This risk is best defined and may be highest in patients with carotid disease, in whom the 5-year cardiac mortality rate may be as high as 40 to 50%. Studies have shown that such patients are also likely to have abnormal tests for cardiac ischemia, even when a history of cardiovascular events or symptoms or electrocardiographic abnormalities are lacking. These results, combined with further investigations into which cerebrovascular patients are at highest risk for cardiovascular disease and what testing best identifies underlying, treatable cardiovascular disease, are needed to direct the care and improve the cardiovascular prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular disease. PMID:9744828
Wilterdink, J L; Furie, K L; Easton, J D
Emerging sonography techniques often require increasing the number of transducer elements involved in the imaging process. Consequently, larger amounts of data must be acquired and processed. The significant growth in the amounts of data affects both machinery size and power consumption. Within the classical sampling framework, state of the art systems reduce processing rates by exploiting the bandpass bandwidth of the detected signals. It has been recently shown, that a much more significant sample-rate reduction may be obtained, by treating ultrasound signals within the Finite Rate of Innovation framework. These ideas follow the spirit of Xampling, which combines classic methods from sampling theory with recent developments in Compressed Sensing. Applying such low-rate sampling schemes to individual transducer elements, which detect energy reflected from biological tissues, is limited by the noisy nature of the signals. This often results in erroneous parameter extraction, bringing forward the need to enhance the SNR of the low-rate samples. In our work, we achieve SNR enhancement, by beamforming the sub-Nyquist samples obtained from multiple elements. We refer to this process as "compressed beamforming". Applying it to cardiac ultrasound data, we successfully image macroscopic perturbations, while achieving a nearly eight-fold reduction in sample-rate, compared to standard techniques.
Wagner, Noam; Eldar, Yonina C.; Friedman, Zvi
This textbook was first published in 1974 and subsequently revised in 1980. The current edition, in seven parts and 33 chapters, has been extensively rewritten, and new chapters have been added that present recently developed techniques. The references have been updated to 1985. The purpose of this work is to provide a concise description of the major techniques employed in cardiac catheterization and angiography. Part 1 deals with the history, general principles, and practice of cardiac catheterization and angiography. In part 2, various techniques of cardiac catheterization are discussed and compared. In part 3, techniques for the determination of cardiac output, pressure, resistance, valve area, and shunt flow are described. Part 4 deals briefly with coronary angiography, cardiac ventriculography, pulmonary angiography, and aortography. In part 5, techniques for evaluating cardiac function and intracardiac electrophysiology are presented. The characteristic hemodynamic and angiographic abnormalities in specific disorders are described in part 6. Part 7 deals with special catheter techniques.
The cardiac sodium current underlies excitability in heart, and inherited abnormalities of the proteins regulating and conducting this current cause inherited arrhythmia syndromes. This review focuses on inherited mutations in non-pore forming proteins of sodium channel complexes that cause cardiac arrhythmia, and the deduced mechanisms by which they affect function and dysfunction of the cardiac sodium current. Defining the structure and function of these complexes and how they are regulated will contribute to understanding the possible roles for this complex in normal and abnormal physiology and homeostasis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes". PMID:23557754
Adsit, Graham S; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Galler, Carla M; Kyle, John W; Makielski, Jonathan C
Retrospective review of the abdominal ultrasound (US) examination of 274 children studied for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) was undertaken to determine if there is an increased incidence of renal disease as previously reported. Five major abnormalities were detected in the 126 children with HPS. Three lesions were newly diagnosed and two had been diagnosed previously. Five children had abnormalities classified
S. K. Fernbach; F. P. Morello
In view of the lack of ionizing radiation, ability to image in a variety of planes, and high contrast resolution, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may have a role in obstetrical management. Three fetuses with severe cerebral abnormalities were studied by MR in utero. The findings were correlated with ultrasound examinations and with autopsy results. Ventricular dilatation and progression of hydrocephalus were detected by MR. Although fetal motion may affect image quality, diagnostically useful images were obtained with imaging times of 2.5 min. PMID:6389620
Thickman, D; Mintz, M; Mennuti, M; Kressel, H Y
OBJECTIVE--To study the relation between cardiac systolic activity and cardiac cycle dependent variation in the ultrasound signal arising from within the myocardium. DESIGN--Regional echo amplitude was used as a measure of the myocardial ultrasound signal. Relative echo amplitude values were assigned by standardising echo gain using the posterior parietal pericardium as an in-vivo calibration. M mode measurements of the left ventricle were used to assess cardiac systolic activity. Subjects were studied prospectively. Analysis of echo amplitude was performed by investigators who were blinded to the results of the M mode analysis. The influence of impaired left ventricular performance and abnormal wall motion were assessed. PATIENTS--11 cardiomyopathy patients with impaired ventricular function, eight patients with severe pulmonary hypertension and reversed septal motion, and 19 healthy controls. SETTING--All subject studies were performed at Harefield Hospital. Echo amplitude analysis was performed at the Royal Brompton Hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cyclic variation in echo amplitude was determined as the change in echo amplitude from end diastole to end systole. Additionally, an index of cyclic variation defined as the ratio of the cyclic change in echo amplitude to end diastolic echo amplitude was measured. Both cyclic variation and the cyclic variation index were analysed to see whether they correlated with left ventricular dimensions, fractional shortening, and systolic wall thickening. RESULTS--Stepwise regression analysis showed systolic wall thickening to be the most significant independent variable that correlated with the cyclic variation index for both the septum and posterior wall (r = 0.68, p = 0.0001, septum; r = 0.69, p = 0.0001, posterior wall). The slopes and intercepts for both regression equations were similar (y = 0.005x + 0.006, septum; y = 0.006x + 0, posterior wall). Subgroup analysis showed that the healthy controls, patients with cardiomyopathy, and patients with pulmonary hypertension had similar slopes and intercepts for their individual regression equations. CONCLUSIONS--These data support the hypothesis of a quantitative relation between the extent of cyclic variation of echo amplitude and the degree of segmental myocardial shortening, as measured by systolic wall thickening, which is not significantly influenced by location within the myocardium, left ventricular performance, or wall motion. They provide further evidence of the usefulness of quantitative analysis of myocardial echo amplitude in the study of regional myocardial function in both normal and injured myocardium. Images
Lythall, D A; Logan-Sinclair, R B; Ilsley, C J; Kushwaha, S S; Yacoub, M H; Gibson, D G
This book is written to assist the operator when performing an organized and directed ultrasound examination. It provides, in outline form, a sequential approach to the scanning of abdominal organs and regions by; indicating the structures within the organ or region that should be scanned; suggesting other regions for examination if abnormalities within the initially imaged structures are detected and; suggesting differential diagnostic possibilities when abnormalities are seen.
Cardiac imaging with radiotracers plays an important role in patient evaluation, and the development of suitable imaging instruments has been crucial. While initially performed with the rectilinear scanner that slowly transmitted, in a row-by-row fashion, cardiac count distributions onto various printing media, the Anger scintillation camera allowed electronic determination of tracer energies and of the distribution of radioactive counts in 2D space. Increased sophistication of cardiac cameras and development of powerful computers to analyze, display, and quantify data has been essential to making radionuclide cardiac imaging a key component of the cardiac work-up. Newer processing algorithms and solid state cameras, fundamentally different from the Anger camera, show promise to provide higher counting efficiency and resolution, leading to better image quality, more patient comfort and potentially lower radiation exposure. While the focus has been on myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, increased use of positron emission tomography is broadening the field to include molecular imaging of the myocardium and of the coronary vasculature. Further advances may require integrating cardiac nuclear cameras with other imaging devices, ie, hybrid imaging cameras. The goal is to image the heart and its physiological processes as accurately as possible, to prevent and cure disease processes. PMID:21440695
Travin, Mark I
In this paper a new noninvasive method is proposed for automated estimation of opening and closure timings of fetal cardiac valves. These timings are obtained from Doppler Ultrasound (DUS) signal and fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) as a reference. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is first applied to the DUS signal to decompose it into different components called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The envelope of the first IMF is then taken and its peaks are identified. The opening and closure of the valves are then automatically assigned to the IMF peaks by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). It is shown that this new method can continuously evaluate fetal cardiac valves' (aortic and mitral) motion timings for 82.5?99.7% of cardiac cycles. The estimated timings are verified using the Pulsed Doppler images. These findings can be used as sensitive markers for evaluating the fetal cardiac performance. PMID:24110582
Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Funamoto, Kiyoe; Sugibayashi, Rika; Endo, Miyuki; Velayo, Clarissa; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu
The Notch pathway is an ancient, highly conserved signaling mechanism that participates in essential cell–cell communication\\u000a events between adjacent cells. Mutations in Notch-signaling elements cause cardiac abnormalities in mice and humans, demonstrating\\u000a an essential role for Notch in heart development. Studies with targeted mutant mice indicate that Notch signaling promotes\\u000a the epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition that gives rise to the cardiac valve
José Luis de la Pompa
Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men, with an estimated incidence of 180,000 cases expected to occur in the United States yearly. The majority of the cases are diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy. However, biopsy results are negative in the majority of men because of abnormal exam results. We here describe the yield of
GEOVANNE F. SOUZA; ADRIANO A. CALADO; UBIRAJARA BARROSO JR.; LÍGIA B. P. CHERUBINI; CARLOS B. M. VERONA; M. ZERATI FILHO
Purpose: To determine the incidence dose/time-dependence and functional significance of regional cardiac perfusion abnormalities in patients with left-sided breast cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) with and without doxorubicin. Methods: 160 patie...
L. B. Marks
To determine the incidence, dose/time-dependence, and functional significance of regional cardiac perfusion abnormalities in patients with left- sided breast cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) with and without doxorubicin Methods: 126 patients und...
L. B. Marks
To determine the incidence, dose/time-dependence, and functional significance of regional cardiac perfusion abnormalities in patients with left- sided breast cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) with and without doxorubicin; 153 patients underwent p...
L. B. Marks
In many surgical procedures, ultrasound is used for real- time visualization in order to minimize invasion of healthy tissue. Unfortunately, the exact location of soft tissues and the composition of tissues of interest may be difficult to determine using ultrasound. In interactive image guided surgery (IIGS), the display of present surgical position on preoperative tomographic imags enhances the surgeons locational
Ryan A. Beasley; James D. Stefansic; Alan J. Herline; Louis Guttierez; Robert L. Galloway
Results are reported of a study using intense ultrasound to destroy a solid tumor implanted in the hamster flank. Animals were irradiated with ultrasound as the sole mediating agent or in combination with a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, BCNU. Irradia...
F. J. Fry L. K. Johnson
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
Manion, Patrick J.
AimEstablish the frequency of abnormal vital signs in medical and surgical ward patients; study their association with “critical events,” which for the purposes of this study, were mortality, cardiac arrests and unplanned ICU transfers.
Geoffrey K. Lighthall; Sharmin Markar; Robert Hsiung
Clinicians who diagnose and manage epilepsy frequently encounter diagnoses of a nonneurological nature, particularly when assessing patients with transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). Among these, and perhaps the most important, is cardiac syncope. As a group, patients with cardiac syncope have the highest likelihood of subsequent sudden death, and yet, unlike sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) for example, it is the norm for these tragic occurrences to be both easily predictable and preventable. In the 12 months following initial presentation with cardiac syncope, sudden death has been found to be 6 times more common than in those with noncardiac syncope (N Engl J Med 309, 1983, 197). In short, for every patient seen with T-LOC, two fundamental aims of the consultation are to assess the likelihood of cardiac syncope as the cause, and to estimate the risk of future sudden death for the individual. This article aims to outline for the noncardiologist how to recognize cardiac syncope, how to tell it apart from more benign cardiovascular forms of syncope as well as from seizures and epilepsy, and what can be done to predict and prevent sudden death in these patients. This is achieved through the assessment triad of a clinical history and examination, risk stratification, and 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). PMID:23153208
Anderson, Joseph; O'Callaghan, Peter
BackgroundSudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities
Angelo Livolsi; Nathalie Niederhoffer; Nassim Dali-Youcef; Caroline Rambaud; Catherine Olexa; Walid Mokni; Jean-Pierre Gies; Pascal Bousquet; Rory Edward Morty
Objective: Ultrasound is a widespread noninvasive method of prenatal diagnosis. The detection of fetal abnormalities can provoke anxiety, which needs coping. The coping process of pregnant women with different risk conditions for fetal abnormality were studied in a longitudinal design and compared with a nonrisk control group of women with healthy uncomplicated pregnancies. Methods: The coping strategies of women (n=664)
K. H Brisch; D Munz; K Bemmerer-Mayer; R Terinde; R Kreienberg; H Kächele
This review of literature describes the first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT) which forms the basis of new form of screening which can lead to a significant improvement in detection of congenital anomalies as compared to second trimester screening programs, the so called genetic-sonogram. A growing body of evidence-based studies has demonstrated that fetal NT can be a powerful prenatal screening tool and combined with first trimester serum markers, it can be incredibly promising in near future. It should be expressed as Multiple of median (MoM) and maintained and monitored like any laboratory analyte. The aim of this review was to investigate the different hypotheses on the aetiology of increased NT. Using a computerized database (PubMed), articles on the aetiology of first-trimester NT were retrieved. Furthermore, the cited references of the retrieved articles were used to find additional articles. Based on ultrasonography, the associations of increased NT fetuses are described in relation with Down syndrome, Cardiac anomalies, and a diverse range of other anomalies. The review concludes that first trimester NT ultrasound has the potential to be used as an important tool for the detection of various congenital abnormalities and an early management can be implemented to reduce the mental trauma of expecting mothers by proper counseling and early diagnosis. For the precise measurements, it should be implemented in a meticulous and coherent manner.
Salman Guraya, Shaista
This review of literature describes the first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT) which forms the basis of new form of screening which can lead to a significant improvement in detection of congenital anomalies as compared to second trimester screening programs, the so called genetic-sonogram. A growing body of evidence-based studies has demonstrated that fetal NT can be a powerful prenatal screening tool and combined with first trimester serum markers, it can be incredibly promising in near future. It should be expressed as Multiple of median (MoM) and maintained and monitored like any laboratory analyte. The aim of this review was to investigate the different hypotheses on the aetiology of increased NT. Using a computerized database (PubMed), articles on the aetiology of first-trimester NT were retrieved. Furthermore, the cited references of the retrieved articles were used to find additional articles. Based on ultrasonography, the associations of increased NT fetuses are described in relation with Down syndrome, Cardiac anomalies, and a diverse range of other anomalies. The review concludes that first trimester NT ultrasound has the potential to be used as an important tool for the detection of various congenital abnormalities and an early management can be implemented to reduce the mental trauma of expecting mothers by proper counseling and early diagnosis. For the precise measurements, it should be implemented in a meticulous and coherent manner. PMID:23814750
Salman Guraya, Shaista
Ultrasound energy at frequency lower than 200 kHz has been used recently in medical field for transdermal drug transport and therapy with experimental results better than high frequency ultrasound at few MHz. As a consequence, the low frequency ultrasounds are gained more interest in the medical field. In the paper we review the most promising application of low frequency ultrasounds
A. S. Fiorillo; D. Grimaldi; S. A. Pullano
High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound has enabled the visualization of small embryos and fetuses, and embryology in vivo - '3D sonoembryology' - has been established based on conventional embryology. Recently developed imaging techniques allow the definition of in-vivo anatomy including visualization of the embryonic circulation and dynamic features that could not be characterized in fixed specimens. Three-dimensional ultrasound has facilitated increasingly accurate and objective prenatal diagnoses of cranium bifidum/spina bifida, holoprosencephaly and associated anomalies in the first trimester and may allow detection of pathologic central nervous system (CNS) development at an earlier gestational age. It may be no exaggeration to suggest that prenatal diagnoses of fetal abnormalities have shifted from second to first trimester. However, fetal brain develops rapidly in the second trimester, therefore early scanning covers only selected CNS anomalies described in this article and serial continuous observation in the second trimester will be required. PMID:22800609
Pooh, Ritsuko K
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment. Other features of this syndrome gradually develop. We describe three TRMA patients with heart rhythm abnormalities and structural cardiac anomalies. Eight other reported TRMA patients also had cardiac anomalies. Recently,
A. Lorber; A. Z. Gazit; A. Khoury; Y. Schwartz; H. Mandel
BACKGROUND--Prolongation of the QTc interval has been associated with cardiac dysrhythmias and sudden death. QTc dispersion (interlead variability in QTc interval) has recently been proposed as being a more sensitive marker of repolarisation abnormalities and shown to be a more specific index of arrhythmia risk. Although hypoxaemia and fenoterol have previously been shown to prolong the QTc interval, this does
D G Kiely; R I Cargill; A Grove; A D Struthers; B J Lipworth
Chronic mild liver enzyme abnormalities are attribut- able to hereditary hemochromatosis in at least 3% of cases. Hemochromatosis formerly was diagnosed late with diabetes and hepatic and cardiac failure. Only recently have the autosomal recessive inheritance and subtle early presentations been understood. However, patients still wait many years and see many physicians before receiving a correct diagnosis. Increased serum transferrin
David L. Witte
Participation in sports activity and regular physical training is associated with physiological structural and electrical changes in the heart (athlete’s heart) that enable sustained increases in cardiac output for prolonged periods. Cardiovascular remodelling in the conditioned athlete is often associated with ECG changes. In rare cases, abnormalities of an athlete’s ECG may reflect an underlying heart disease which puts the
D Corrado; A Biffi; C Basso; A Pelliccia; G Thiene
Fabry disease (OMIM 301500) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ?-galactosidase gene (GLA). Loss of ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) activity leads to the abnormal accumulation of glycosphingolipids in lysosomes predominantly of vascular endothelial cells. Clinically the disorder presents with angiokeratomas, clouding of the cornea, and renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular complications. In addition, there is an increased incidence
L. G. Rodrigues; M. J. Ferraz; D. Rodrigues; M. Pais-Vieira; D. Lima; R. O. Brady; M. M. Sousa; M. C. Sá-Miranda
Ultrasound (US) has undergone dramatic changes since its inception three decades ago; the original cumbersome B-mode gantry system has evolved into a high resolution real-time imaging system. This review describes both recent advances in ultrasound and contrast media and likely future developments. Technological advances in electronics and computing have revolutionized ultrasound practice with ever expanding applications. Developments in transducer materials and array designs have resulted in greater bandwidths with improvements in spatial and contrast resolution. Developments in digital signal processing have produced innovations in beam forming, image display and archiving. Technological advances have resulted in novel imaging modes which exploit the non-linear behaviour of tissue and microbubble contrast agents. Microbubble contrast agents have dramatically extended the clinical and research applications of ultrasound. Not only can Doppler studies be enhanced but also novel non-linear modes allow vessels down to the level of the microcirculation to be imaged. Functional and quantitative studies allow interrogation of a wide spectrum of tissue beds. The advent of tissue-specific agents promises to improve the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions to rival that of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound has recently moved into therapeutic applications with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and microbubble assisted delivery of drugs and genes showing great promise. PMID:11952309
Harvey, Christopher J; Pilcher, James M; Eckersley, Robert J; Blomley, Martin J K; Cosgrove, David O
Ultrasonic biophysics is the study of mechanisms responsible for how ultrasound and biological materials interact. Ultrasound-induced bioeffect or risk studies focus on issues related to the effects of ultrasound on biological materials. On the other hand, when biological materials affect the ultrasonic wave, this can be viewed as the basis for diagnostic ultrasound. Thus, an understanding of the interaction of ultrasound with tissue provides the scientific basis for image production and risk assessment. Relative to the bioeffect or risk studies, that is, the biophysical mechanisms by which ultrasound affects biological materials, ultrasound-induced bioeffects are generally separated into thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. Ultrasonic dosimetry is concerned with the quantitative determination of ultrasonic energy interaction with biological materials. Whenever ultrasonic energy is propagated into an attenuating material such as tissue, the amplitude of the wave decreases with distance. This attenuation is due to either absorption or scattering. Absorption is a mechanism that represents that portion of ultrasonic wave that is converted into heat, and scattering can be thought of as that portion of the wave, which changes direction. Because the medium can absorb energy to produce heat, a temperature rise may occur as long as the rate of heat production is greater than the rate of heat removal. Current interest with thermally mediated ultrasound-induced bioeffects has focused on the thermal isoeffect concept. The non-thermal mechanism that has received the most attention is acoustically generated cavitation wherein ultrasonic energy by cavitation bubbles is concentrated. Acoustic cavitation, in a broad sense, refers to ultrasonically induced bubble activity occurring in a biological material that contains pre-existing gaseous inclusions. Cavitation-related mechanisms include radiation force, microstreaming, shock waves, free radicals, microjets and strain. It is more challenging to deduce the causes of mechanical effects in tissues that do not contain gas bodies. These ultrasonic biophysics mechanisms will be discussed in the context of diagnostic ultrasound exposure risk concerns.
O'Brien, William D.
Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS) athrocalasia type (type VII), is characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. No heart involvement has been reported. Two forms have been described: type VII A and VII B. The abnormally processed collagen ?2(I) and the skipping of the exon 6 in COL1A2 gene are typically detected in EDS type VII B. We describe a seven-year old female, with a phenotype consistent with EDS type VII B and a diagnosis further confirmed by biochemical and molecular analyses. Cardiac ultrasound showed normal data in the first year of life. When she was 5 years old, the patient developed mitral valve regurgitation, and aortic and tricuspidal insufficiency at 7 years of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cardiac valvular involvement in EDS VII B. This feature probably has been underreported for the limited follow-up of the patients. Echocardiography might be warranted in the clinical assessment of EDS VII patients.
Background Over the last decade, utilization of ultrasound technology by non-radiologist physicians has grown. Recent advances in affordability, durability, and portability have brought ultrasound to the forefront as a sustainable and high impact technology for use in developing world clinical settings as well. However, ultrasound's impact on patient management plans, program sustainability, and which ultrasound applications are useful in this setting has not been well studied. Methods Ultrasound services were introduced at two rural Rwandan district hospitals affiliated with Partners in Health, a US nongovernmental organization. Data sheets for each ultrasound scan performed during routine clinical care were collected and analyzed to determine patient demographics, which ultrasound applications were most frequently used, and whether the use of the ultrasound changed patient management plans. Ultrasound scans performed by the local physicians during the post-training period were reviewed for accuracy of interpretation and image quality by an ultrasound fellowship trained emergency medicine physician from the United States who was blinded to the original interpretation. Results Adult women appeared to benefit most from the presence of ultrasound services. Of the 345 scans performed during the study period, obstetrical scanning was the most frequently used application. Evaluation of gestational age, fetal head position, and placental positioning were the most common findings. However, other applications used included abdominal, cardiac, renal, pleural, procedural guidance, and vascular ultrasounds. Ultrasound changed patient management plans in 43% of total patients scanned. The most common change was to plan a surgical procedure. The ultrasound program appears sustainable; local staff performed 245 ultrasound scans in the 11 weeks after the departure of the ultrasound instructor. Post-training scan review showed the concordance rate of interpretation between the Rwandese physicians and the ultrasound-trained quality review physicians was 96%. Conclusion We suggest ultrasound is a useful modality that particularly benefits women's health and obstetrical care in the developing world. Ultrasound services significantly impact patient management plans especially with regards to potential surgical interventions. After an initial training period, it appears that an ultrasound program led by local health care providers is sustainable and lead to accurate diagnoses in a rural international setting.
The management of thyroid nodules is multi-disciplinary and involves head and neck surgeons, pathologists and radiologists. Ultrasound is easy to perform, widely available, does not involve ionizing radiation and is readily combined with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). It is therefore an ideal investigation of choice for evaluating thyroid nodules. It evaluates specific features that help in identifying the nature of the nodule and FNAC helps in diagnostic accuracy. In addition, following treatment for thyroid cancer ultrasound provides a safe tool for disease surveillance. This paper discusses the role of ultrasound in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.
Wong, K T; Ahuja, Anil T
Laparoendoscopic surgery is fueled by technology, and advances in medical imaging may bring about further progress. The application of three-dimensional ultrasound to minimally invasive surgery represents technology "just over the horizon." This article describes the scientific basis of three-dimensional ultrasound and its ability "to see" anatomy not readily visualized laparoscopically. Three-dimensional ultrasound may offer a more intuitive, accurate assessment of hidden anatomic structures in real time, using a safe, non-ionizing and cost-effective technology. PMID:8711614
Kavic, M S
This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280
Dietrich, C F; Hocke, M; Jenssen, C
Adjuvant radiation therapy in the management of early stage breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and to a lesser extent other thoracic malignancies has led to a significant improvement in disease-specific survival. Cardiovascular disease is now the most common nonmalignancy cause of death in radiation-treated cancer survivors, most often occurring decades after treatment. The spectrum of radiation-induced cardiac disease is broad, potentially involving any component of the heart. The relative risk of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, pericardial disease, conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death is particularly increased. Over the years contemporary techniques have been introduced to reduce cardiac morbidity and mortality in radiation-treated cancer survivors; however, the long-term effects on the heart still remain unclear, mandating longer follow-up. Awareness and early identification of potential cardiac complications is crucial in cancer survivors, with the management often being quite complex. This review examines the epidemiology of radiation-induced cardiac disease together with its pathophysiology and explores the available treatment strategies and the potential utility of various screening strategies for affected cancer survivors. PMID:23583253
Jaworski, Catherine; Mariani, Justin A; Wheeler, Greg; Kaye, David M
The diagnosis and management of pediatric cardiac emergencies can be challenging and complicated. Early presentations are usually the result of ductal-dependent lesions and appear with cyanosis and shock. Later presentations are the result of volume overload or pump failure and present with signs of congestive heart failure. Acquired diseases also present as congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. PMID:23915599
Barata, Isabel Araujo
People with epilepsy may have abnormal cardiac function. This has been linked to a greater incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In the present review, we assess the evidence linking cardiac failure to SUDEP, and propose the use of the maximal pentylenetetrazol seizure test to model SUDEP in animals to identify causal links between cardiac failure and SUDEP.
Ameer Y. Taha; Flaviu A. Ciobanu; Anjali Saxena; W. McIntyre Burnham
A prospective, descriptive study is reported on the use and success of ultrasound-assisted internal jugular central vein catheterization (CVC) in the emergency department (ED). In patients not in cardiac arrest who had an indication for internal jugular CVC, lines were placed by trained ED staff using ultrasound. Data were collected prospectively on age, sex, body habitus, indication, vein visibility, number of punctures and needle passes, and success. There were 40 attempts at internal jugular CVC in 34 patients and ultrasound was used in 32 of the 40 (80%) attempts. Incidences of successful puncture and cannulation using ultrasound were 93.8% (30 of 32) and 81.3% (26 of 32), respectively, compared with 62.5% (5 of 8) and 62.5% (5 of 8) in the landmark group. In 8 patients with no visual or palpable landmarks, cannulation was successful in 100% (7 of 7) using ultrasound and in 0% (0 of 1) using landmark technique. Ultrasound-assisted internal jugular CVC is an easily learned technique that is useful in the ED. It may be especially helpful in patients in whom landmarks are not visible and not palpable. PMID:9672463
Hrics, P; Wilber, S; Blanda, M P; Gallo, U
Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.
Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities arising from the midline region were identified in 154 of 1008 (15.2%) consecutive neonatal EEGs during a 24-month period. These records were obtained on 97 neonates with a variety of clinical diagnoses. Premature infants made up 79% (77\\/97) of this group. All patients received at least one cranial ultrasound at 7 to 10 days of life. Sixty-two
Mark S. Scher
The purpose of this research is to establish noninvasive tissue characterization with ultrasound by adapting the concepts used in x-ray diffraction and atmospheric probing with radar. The initial period of the research included: (1) hardware acquisition a...
R. C. Waag
This paper is based on material presented at the start of a Health Protection Agency meeting on ultrasound and infrasound. In answering the question 'what is ultrasound?', it shows that the simple description of a wave which transports mechanical energy through the local vibration of particles at frequencies of 20 kHz or more, with no net transport of the particles themselves, can in every respect be misleading or even incorrect. To explain the complexities responsible for this, the description of ultrasound is first built up from the fundamental properties of these local particle vibrations. This progresses through an exposition of the characteristics of linear waves, in order to explain the propensity for, and properties of, the nonlinear propagation which occurs in many practical ultrasonic fields. Given the Health Protection environment which framed the original presentation, explanation and examples are given of how these complexities affect issues of practical importance. These issues include the measurement and description of fields and exposures, and the ability of ultrasound to affect tissue (through microstreaming, streaming, cavitation, heating, etc.). It is noted that there are two very distinct regimes, in terms of wave characteristics and potential for bioeffect. The first concerns the use of ultrasound in liquids/solids, for measurement or material processing. For biomedical applications (where these two processes are termed diagnosis and therapy, respectively), the issue of hazard has been studied in depth, although this has not been done to such a degree for industrial uses of ultrasound in liquids/solids (sonar, non-destructive testing, ultrasonic processing etc.). However, in the second regime, that of the use of ultrasound in air, although the waves in question tend to be of much lower intensities than those used in liquids/solids, there is a greater mismatch between the extent to which hazard has been studied, and the growth in commercial applications for airborne ultrasound. PMID:17045633
Leighton, Timothy G
The heart is the first organ to form in the embryo, and all subsequent events in the life of the organism depend on its function. Inherited mutations in cardiac regulatory genes give rise to congenital heart disease, the most common form of human birth defects, and abnormalities of the adult heart represent the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality
Eric N Olson
Background: Chronic edema in venous insufficiency is associated with leg ulceration, whereas in lymphedema skin ulceration is less frequent and edema from cardiac failure does not cause major skin changes. The reason for these differences is unclear.Objective: Our purpose was to investigate, by means of ultrasound, the distribution of intradermal fluid in patients with edema associated with lipodermatosclerosis, lymphedema, or
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, although perceived to be high, is often difficult to demonstrate in disease free (healthy) obese adults. Hypothesis Changes in circadian blood pressure variability (CBPV) and endothelial function (EF) may be early correlates of cardiometabolic disorders. Methods Asymptomatic men and women in 3 groups: normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10) and obese (n = 15) were evaluated. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded over 7 days: every 30 minutes during the day and every 60 minutes during the night, by automatic ambulatory monitoring. Resting EF was assessed in a fasting state between 8-10 AM by brachial ultrasound. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic indicators were measured and correlations with CBPV and EF were investigated. Results The 3 groups had (Mean(SD)) BMI: 22.6(1.6), 27(3) and 34(5) kg/m2, respectively, weight: 64(16), 79(14), 95(16) kg and waist circumference: 79(9), 93(10), 107(13) cm. None in normal-weight or overweight groups had abnormal CBPV, while 8 of 15 obese adults had one or more CBPV abnormities (p < 0.05). Obese adults with CBPV abnormalities had elevated hs-CRP (15.3(9.3) mg/L), fibrinogen (593(97) mg/dl), fasting serum glucose (102(16) mg/dL), and cardiac risk ratios (Total-C/HDL-C: 5.2(1.9), LDL-C/HDL-C: 3.1(1.4)). Adults in the 3 respective groups who did not have CBPV abnormalities had flow-mediated brachial artery dilatation (FMD) of 0.22(0.06); 0.20(0.04), 0.23(0.02) mm over resting diameter. Obese participants with CBPV abnormalities (Mesor-hypotension, circadian hyper amplitude tension, elevated pulse pressure), had attenuated FMD at 78, 52, and 56% of resting reference diameter (means 0.18(0.07), 0.12(0.08), and 0.13(0.05) mm; p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions Asymptomatic obese adults with abnormal CBPV and EF exhibit unfavorable cardiometabolic profiles.
The peritoneum is one of the most common extrapulmonary sites of tuberculous infection. We report a case of peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) in a 25-year-old man. In this case, ultrasound of the abdomen played an important role in the diagnostic process. The diagnosis of this disease, however, remains a challenge because of its insidious nature, the variability of its presentation, and the limitations of available diagnostic tests. A high index of suspicion should be considered, particularly in high-risk patients with unexplained ascites. In our case ultrasound guided the diagnosis by rapidly identifying abnormal signs, which in high-prevalence settings are extremely suggestive of peritoneal tuberculosis. PMID:23276743
Atzori, Sebastiana; Vidili, Gianpaolo; Delitala, Giuseppe
Modifications were made to a commercial real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system for near simultaneous 3-D scanning with two matrix array transducers. As a first illustration, a transducer cable assembly was modified to incorporate two independent, 3-D intra-cardiac echo catheters, a 7 Fr (2.3 mm O.D.) side scanning catheter and a 14 Fr (4.7 mm O.D) forward viewing catheter with accessory
Matthew P. Fronheiser; Edward D. Light; Salim F. Idriss; Patrick D. Wolf; Stephen W. Smith
Amyloidosis is a severe systemic disease. Cardiac involvement may occur in the three main types of amyloidosis (acquired monoclonal light-chain, hereditary transthyretin and senile amyloidosis) and has a major impact on prognosis. Imaging the heart to characterize and detect early cardiac involvement is one of the major aims in the assessment of this disease. Electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography are important diagnostic and prognostic tools in patients with cardiac involvement. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging better characterizes myocardial involvement, functional abnormalities and amyloid deposition due to its high spatial resolution. Nuclear imaging has a role in the diagnosis of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy. Cardiac biomarkers are now used for risk stratification and staging of patients with light-chain systemic amyloidosis. Different types of cardiac complications may occur, including diastolic followed by systolic heart failure, atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, embolic events and sometimes sudden death. Senile amyloid and hereditary transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy have better prognoses than light-chain amyloidosis. Cardiac treatment of heart failure is usually ineffective and is often poorly tolerated because of its hypotensive and bradycardiac effects. The three main types of amyloid disease, despite their similar cardiac appearance, have specific new aetiological treatments that may change the prognosis of this disease. Cardiologists should be aware of this disease to allow early treatment. PMID:24070600
Mohty, Dania; Damy, Thibaud; Cosnay, Pierre; Echahidi, Najmeddine; Casset-Senon, Danielle; Virot, Patrice; Jaccard, Arnaud
Cardiac tamponade is a cardiological emergency requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid a fatal outcome. It can complicate a number of medical conditions and it is important, therefore, that all practitioners are aware of its presentation, diagnosis and management. These are outlined. We suggest that, with certain specific and important exceptions, percutaneous catheter pericardiocentesis is to be recommended in the management of cardiac tamponade. We include a review of 51 consecutive cases treated at our own institution. Catheter pericardiocentesis was successful in 49 (96%) cases and 36 (80%) patients did not require any further intervention. There were no major and only two minor complications which required no additional treatment. We review previous literature concerning percutaneous pericardiocentesis. Using recommended procedures, pericardiocentesis is successful in 90-100% of cases and major complications are rare. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
Ball, J. B.; Morrison, W. L.
Ultrasounds and ionizing radiation are extensively used for diagnostic applications in the cardiology clinical practice. This paper reviewed the available information on occupational risk of the cardiologists who perform, every day, cardiac imaging procedures. At the moment, there are no consistent evidence that exposure to medical ultrasound is capable of inducing genetic effects, and representing a serious health hazard for
Maria Grazia Andreassi
Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014
Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery.
Weisse, Allen B.
Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is a multisystem disease affecting numerous organs and systems. Cardiac involvement is frequent. Sudden death, due to fatal cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances occurs in 30% of patients with MD. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities and methods of early detection of myocardial and conduction system disturbances. ECG, 24-hr Holter monitoring, echocardiography and electrophysiologic studies of the conduction system (electrophysiologic study) were carried out in 45 patients. Analysis of late ventricular potentials was done in 36 patients. Genetic studies revealed multiplication of CTG triplets in all patients. Cardiological abnormalities were detected in 89% of our patients. Disturbances of intraventricular conduction with prolongation of HV interval were most frequent (72%). Electrophysiologic study was the most sensitive method for detecting heart involvement in MD (positive findings in 87% patients). Abnormal findings were also discovered by Holter monitoring (64%), ECG (58%), analysis of late ventricular potentials (55%) and by echocardiography in 46% patients. The results of this study indicate a high rate of cardiac involvement in MD. PMID:11294088
Rakocevi?-Stojanovi?, V; Gruji?, M; Seferovi?, P; Lavrni?, D; Pavlovic, S; Neskovi?, V; Romac, S; Apostolski, S
Cardiac monitoring of ventricular assist devices (VADs) is important for detecting heart failure risks, such as critical arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation, and for supplying data that are useful for hemodynamic control. Specifically, impedance cardiograms (ICGs) are especially beneficial because they have no effect on the tissue or organs and can monitor various parameters simultaneously, including the heart rate and heart contractions. In this article, we measured impedance changes in porcine left ventricles using electrodes placed around the inlet and outlet cannulae of the VAD. The measured left ventricular impedance (LVI) waveform changes are caused by heart movements, such as cardiac muscle contraction and changes in blood volume as a result of heart filling and emptying. In contrast to other impedance measurements, LVI is less affected by the movement of other organs. Using a porcine model, LVIs were measured and compared with blood flow data measured with an ultrasound blood flowmeter. The ICG showed the same frequency as the animal's heart rate, and their amplitudes were closely related to cardiac output (CO). However, the waveform differed from other vital signs, such as CO, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure. Ultrasound images were used to explain the impedance waveform. In the ultrasound images, we obtained the shape and size of the animal's heart and calculated the predicted impedance data. We then compared these to the actual measured data. These results show that the impedance signal contains detailed information on heart rate and CO; these results were unaffected by the cannulae or VAD perfusion. PMID:22188560
Choi, Seong Wook; Park, Sung Min
BACKGROUND Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been established as an effective treatment for preserving neurological function after out of hospital cardiac arrest (CA). Use of TH has been limited in cardiac surgery patients in particular because of concern about adverse effects such as hemorrhage and dysrhythmia. Little published data describe efficacy or safety of TH in cardiac surgical patients who suffer unintentional CA. However, the benefits of TH are such as may suggest clinical equipoise, even in this high risk patient population. OBJECTIVE To report a series of three patients in our institution’s cardiac surgery intensive care unit who suffered unintentional CA within 48 hours of cardiac surgery and were treated with TH. METHODS After institutional review board approval, study patients were identified by diagnosis of undesired intraoperative CA or arrest on ICU days 1–2, as well as having documented TH. The institution’s electronic medical record and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, comorbid diagnoses, surgical procedure, and outcomes including hemorrhage, re-warming dysrhythmias, infection, in-hospital mortality, and neurologic outcome were assessed. TH was initiated and monitored using active cooling pads according to written institutional protocol. RESULTS Four patients received TH after perioperative arrest. One patient was inadequately cooled and had massive surgical bleeding, and was therefore excluded from this review. The remaining three patients had a predicted mortality of 14.6% (±13.3) based on Euroscore calculation, and were cooled for 17.6±4.0 hours after CA. Coagulopathy, hypovolemia, severe electrolyte abnormalities, and re-warming dysrhythmias were not identified in any patient. 2 patients were discharged home and 1 was discharged to a long-term care facility. CONCLUSION Herein we report the safe and successful use of TH after unintentional perioperative CA in 3 cardiac surgery patients. These data suggest that further investigation of this therapy may be warranted given the potential benefit and apparent safety in a small series.
Rinehart, Thomas W.; Merkel, Matthias J.; Schulman, Peter M.; Hutchens, Michael P.
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been established as an effective treatment for preserving neurological function after out of hospital cardiac arrest (CA). Use of TH has been limited in cardiac surgery patients in particular because of concern about adverse effects such as hemorrhage and dysrhythmia. Little published data describe efficacy or safety of TH in cardiac surgical patients who suffer unintentional CA. However, the benefits of TH are such as may suggest clinical equipoise, even in this high risk patient population. OBJECTIVE: To report a series of three patients in our institution's cardiac surgery intensive care unit who suffered unintentional CA within 48 hours of cardiac surgery and were treated with TH. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, study patients were identified by diagnosis of undesired intraoperative CA or arrest on ICU days 1-2, as well as having documented TH. The institution's electronic medical record and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, comorbid diagnoses, surgical procedure, and outcomes including hemorrhage, re-warming dysrhythmias, infection, in-hospital mortality, and neurologic outcome were assessed. TH was initiated and monitored using active cooling pads according to written institutional protocol. RESULTS: Four patients received TH after perioperative arrest. One patient was inadequately cooled and had massive surgical bleeding, and was therefore excluded from this review. The remaining three patients had a predicted mortality of 14.6% (±13.3) based on Euroscore calculation, and were cooled for 17.6±4.0 hours after CA. Coagulopathy, hypovolemia, severe electrolyte abnormalities, and re-warming dysrhythmias were not identified in any patient. 2 patients were discharged home and 1 was discharged to a long-term care facility. CONCLUSION: Herein we report the safe and successful use of TH after unintentional perioperative CA in 3 cardiac surgery patients. These data suggest that further investigation of this therapy may be warranted given the potential benefit and apparent safety in a small series. PMID:23420469
Rinehart, Thomas W; Merkel, Matthias J; Schulman, Peter M; Hutchens, Michael P
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.
Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No
Serial estimations of activities of creatine kinase and its MB isoenzyme, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase and of concentrations of alpha1-acid glycoprotein were performed in 15 healthy well-trained male marathon runners. Estimations were made initially within three days before a race and then one, 24, and 96 hours after the race. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy was carried out
E M Ohman; K K Teo; A H Johnson; P B Collins; D G Dowsett; J T Ennis; J H Horgan
The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques.
Crum, Lawrence A.
Medical ultrasound imaging has advanced dramatically since its introduction only a few decades ago. This paper provides a short historical background, and then briefly describes many of the system features and concepts required in a modern commercial ultrasound system. The topics addressed include array beam formation, steering and focusing; array and matrix transducers; echo image formation; tissue harmonic imaging; speckle reduction through frequency and spatial compounding, and image processing; tissue aberration; Doppler flow detection; and system architectures. It then describes some of the more practical aspects of ultrasound system design necessary to be taken into account for today's marketplace. It finally discusses the recent explosion of portable and handheld devices and their potential to expand the clinical footprint of ultrasound into regions of the world where medical care is practically non-existent. Throughout the article reference is made to ways in which ultrasound imaging has benefited from advances in the commercial electronics industry. It is meant to be an overview of the field as an introduction to other more detailed papers in this special issue.
Powers, Jeff; Kremkau, Frederick
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by
JANET R. ALBERS; SHARON K. HULL; ROBERT M. WESLEY
Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.
A. E. Davies
Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormal psychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.
W. S. Taylor
Pigment abnormalities have been reported to occur on both sides of flatfish. Hypomelanosis or pseudo-albinism, characterized by white patches or areas devoid of normal pigmentation on the ocular surface of the skin, is common in both wild and hatchery reared flatfish. The blind side may display hypermelanosis in the form of dark spots, known as ambicoloration of the skin. The
Arietta Venizelos; Daniel D Benetti
Ideally, each participant in psychotherapy should be accepted as a unique individual with no reference to diagnosis. Most forms of psychotherapy are limited by assumptions about abnormality that focus on pathology while ignoring the potential for growth that exists in all. Effective psychotherapy requires respect for human complexity. Each person needs to be perceived as embodying a unique balance of
LUCIEN A. BUCK
Cardiac channelopathies are potentially lethal inherited arrhythmia syndromes and an important cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. Other cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances also may indicate the presence of an underlying cardiac disorder. The 12-lead ECG is utilised as both a screening and a diagnostic tool for detecting conditions associated with SCD. Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of a pathological cardiac disease. This article describes ECG findings present in primary electrical diseases afflicting young athletes and outlines appropriate steps for further evaluation of these ECG abnormalities. The ECG findings defined as abnormal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine. PMID:23303761
Drezner, Jonathan A; Ackerman, Michael J; Cannon, Bryan C; Corrado, Domenico; Heidbuchel, Hein; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Anderson, Jeffrey; Ashley, Euan; Asplund, Chad A; Baggish, Aaron L; Börjesson, Mats; DiFiori, John P; Fischbach, Peter; Froelicher, Victor; Harmon, Kimberly G; Marek, Joseph; Owens, David S; Paul, Stephen; Pelliccia, Antonio; Schmied, Christian M; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Ricardo; Vetter, Victoria L; Wilson, Mathew G
Cardiac disease is frequently associated with abnormalities in electrical function that can severely impair cardiac performance with potentially fatal consequences. The available therapeutic options have some efficacy but are far from perfect. The curative potential of gene therapy makes it an attractive approach for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. To date, gene therapy research strategies have targeted three major classes of cardiac arrhythmias: 1) ventricular arrhythmias, 2) atrial fibrillation, and 3) bradyarrhythmias. Various vehicles for gene transfer have been employed with adeno-associated viral gene delivery being the preferred choice for long-term gene expression, and adenoviral gene delivery for short-term proof of concept work. In combination with the development of novel delivery methods, gene therapy may prove to be an effective strategy to eliminate the most debilitating of arrhythmias.
Greener, Ian; Donahue, J. Kevin
Envenomation of domestic animals by snakes occurs frequently in certain geographic areas. However, reports describing clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, therapeutic approaches, and outcomes are sparse. This review summarizes various snake families, venom types associated with harmful snakes, and the significant hematologic, hemostatic, and biochemical abnormalities associated with envenomation. Hematologic abnormalities include RBC membrane abnormalities, hemolysis, hemoconcentration, leukogram changes, and platelet abnormalities, specifically thrombocytopenia. Coagulopathies associated with snake envenomation are well described in human medicine, and many studies have demonstrated properties of venoms that lead to both procoagulation and anticoagulation. As expected, similar abnormalities have been described in domestic animals. Biochemical abnormalities are associated with the effects of venom on tissues such as liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, vascular endothelium, and kidney as well as effects on protein components and cholesterol. This comprehensive review of clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with envenomation and their relationships to characterized venom constituents should be useful both in the diagnosis and management of envenomation and should serve as a foundation for future research in this field. PMID:21827516
Goddard, Amelia; Schoeman, Johan P; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Nagel, Salome S; Aroch, Itamar
We present a new wavelet-based strategy for autonomous feature extraction and segmentation of cardiac structures in dynamic ultrasound images. Image sequences subjected to a multidimensional (2D plus time) wavelet transform yield a large number of individual subbands, each coding for partial structural and motion information of the ultrasound sequence. We exploited this fact to create an analysis strategy for autonomous analysis of cardiac ultrasound that builds on shape- and motion specific wavelet subband filters. Subband selection was in an automatic manner based on subband statistics. Such a collection of predefined subbands corresponds to the so-called footprint of the target structure and can be used as a multidimensional multiscale filter to detect and localize the target structure in the original ultrasound sequence. Autonomous, unequivocal localization by the autonomous algorithm is then done using a peak finding algorithm, allowing to compare the findings with a reference standard. Image segmentation is then possible using standard region growing operations. To test the feasibility of this multiscale footprint algorithm, we tried to localize, enhance and segment the mitral valve autonomously in 182 non-selected clinical cardiac ultrasound sequences. Correct autonomous localization by the algorithm was feasible in 165 of 182 reconstructed ultrasound sequences, using the experienced echocardiographer as reference. This corresponds to a 91% accuracy of the proposed method in unselected clinical data. Thus, multidimensional multiscale wavelet footprints allow successful autonomous detection and segmentation of the mitral valve with good accuracy in dynamic cardiac ultrasound sequences which are otherwise difficult to analyse due to their high noise level.
Jansen, Christian H. P.; Arigovindan, Muthuvel; Sühling, Michael; Marsch, Stefan; Unser, Michael A.; Hunziker, Patrick
Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence and prevalence are increasing in Western countries, due particularly to diabetes mellitus and hypertension-related nephropathies. CKD may lead to end-stage renal failure, with extensive morbidity, mortality and increasing health costs. Primary and secondary prevention requires a better knowledge of mechanisms underlying renal scarring, the development of specific therapies to slow down the progression of the disease and the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools to characterize the process. Ultrasound elastography is a new imaging technique under development that provides information about renal stiffness. Kidney elasticity measurements with ultrasound should be performed with a quantitative technique, such as Shearwave techniques. However kidney stiffness is not only related to fibrosis, as it also sensitive to mechanical and functional parameters such as anisotropy, vascularization, hydronephrosis and external pressure. This paper reviews the existing ultrasound elastography techniques. Elastography is a new tool under development for renal tissue characterization and needs further validation in clinical practice. PMID:23567180
Grenier, N; Gennisson, J-L; Cornelis, F; Le Bras, Y; Couzi, L
Ultrasound is a type of energy which can help analytical chemists in almost all their laboratory tasks, from cleaning to detection. A generic view of the different steps which can be assisted by ultrasound is given here. These steps include preliminary operations usually not considered in most analytical methods (e.g. cleaning, degassing, and atomization), sample preparation being the main area of application. In sample preparation ultrasound is used to assist solid-sample treatment (e.g. digestion, leaching, slurry formation) and liquid-sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction, emulsification, homogenization) or to promote heterogeneous sample treatment (e.g. filtration, aggregation, dissolution of solids, crystallization, precipitation, defoaming, degassing). Detection techniques based on use of ultrasonic radiation, the principles on which they are based, responses, and the quantities measured are also discussed. PMID:17103146
Priego Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D
This review article discusses the current scope of high-resolution diagnostic ultrasound in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, both as a complementary tool to electrodiagnosis and in some cases as a stand-alone imaging modality. Indications, limitations, potential for research, and training and credentialing are discussed. Indications include needle guidance for nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography, diagnosis of nerve entrapment, diagnostic muscle imaging via grayscale analysis, and dynamic real-time imaging, including sonopalpation, to provide additional diagnostic information. The role of neuromuscular ultrasound in research is discussed, including the need to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and cost-effectiveness of these techniques when they are used alone or in combination. Training and credentialing are reviewed, specifically noting the challenge of the lack of formal training programs and the relatively long, flat learning curve of diagnostic ultrasound. PMID:22269451
Boon, Andrea J; Smith, Jay; Harper, C Michel
The basic electrophysiology of temporary and permanent cardiac pacing is reviewed, as are the indications, the types of pacing systems, and the methods of implantation. Recent developments in power sources and leads are described. The mercury-zinc battery is now obsolete and is being replaced by lithium, rechargeable, and isotopic power systems. While ventricular pacing continues to be the standard, a brief review of atrial programmed systems is given, including atrial pacing and atrioventricular synchronized and atrioventricular sequential pacing. Conventional pacing is aimed at the control of symptomatic bradycardia. Brief reference is made to experimental pacing systems designed to control ventricular or supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. PMID:453992
Smyth, N P
Friedreich's ataxia is one of the most frequent ataxias of childhood. The disease is inherited in autosomal recessive mode. It is caused by deficiency of mitochondrial protein frataxin, which is responsible for the degenerative impairment of the spinocerebellar and corticospinal tracts and posterior columns of the spinal cord and for the heart damage. We present a case report of a patient with a complete clinical syndrome. Patient experienced slowly progressive neurological symptomatology from the age of 6 years, which consisted of instability, gait abnormalities, tremor and ataxia. Adult patient became immobile with severe quadruparesis and dysarthria. Cardiac involvement presented in adulthood with multifocal atrial tachycardia became the chief symptom. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was diagnosed. Diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia was confirmed by genetic analysis. Pharmacotherapy with coenzyme Q10 and carnitine was introduced with effort to slow down progression of cardiac impairment. Causal treatment is still impossible. PMID:15061120
Kolek, M; Mrózek, V; Schenk, P
High-power ultrasound can generate cavitation within a liquid and through cavitation provide a source of energy which can be used to enhance a wide range of chemical processes. Such uses of ultrasound have been grouped under the general name sonochemistry. This review will concen- trate on applications in organic synthesis where ultrasound seems to provide a distinct alternative to other,
Timothy J. Mason
The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and
Robert Held; Thuc Nghi Nguyen; Shahram Vaezy
Ultrasound B-scan images often exhibit intensity inhomogeneities caused by non-uniform beam attenuation within the body. These cause major problems for image analysis, both by manual and computer-aided techniques, particularly the computation of quantitative measurements. We present a statistical model that exploits knowledge of tissue properties and intensity inhomogeneities in ultrasound for simultaneous contrast enhancement and image segmentation. The underlying model was originally proposed for correction of the B1 bias field distortion and segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A physics-based model of intensity inhomogeneities in ultrasound images shows that the bias field correction method is well suited to ultrasound B-scan images. The tissue class labeling and the intensity correction field are estimated using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) principle, in an iterative, multi-resolution manner. The algorithm has been applied to breast and cardiac ultrasound images. The results demonstrate that it can successfully remove intensity inhomogeneities caused by varying attenuation as well as uninteresting intensity changes of background tissues. With the removal of intensity inhomogeneities, significant improvement is achieved in tissue contrast and segmentation result.
Xiao, Guofang; Brady, J. Michael; Noble, Alison J.; Zhang, Yongyue
The 48,XXYY syndrome is a rare uncommon gonosome aneuploidy and its incidence is estimated to be 1:18,000-1:40,000. The phenotype associated with this syndrome, classically described as Klinefelter variant, is extremely variable but developmental abnormalities are always present. Ultrasound signs during pregnancy are inconsistent, and only three prenatal cases have been described in the literature. Here, we report a case of 48,XXYY syndrome identified in prenatal period because of the presence of polyhydramnios and bilateral clubfeet on second trimester ultrasound. This observation shows the importance of chromosomal prenatal diagnosis in cases with bilateral clubfeet on morphologic ultrasound. This diagnosis is essential for further characterization of the prenatal phenotype and to improving genetic counselling. PMID:23473874
Kemeny, S; Pebrel-Richard, C; Gouas, L; Veronese, L; Lemery, D; Tchirkov, A; Goumy, C; Vago, P
A robotic 5D ultrasound system and method, for use in a computer integrated surgical system, wherein 3D ultrasonic image data is integrated over time with strain (i.e., elasticity) image data. By integrating the ultrasound image data and the strain image data, the present invention is capable of accurately identifying a target tissue in surrounding tissue; segmenting, monitoring and tracking the target tissue during the surgical procedure; and facilitating proper planning and execution of the surgical procedure, even where the surgical environment is noisy and the target tissue is isoechoic.
Boctor; Emad M. (Baltimore, MD); Choti; Michael (Glen Arm, MD); Fichtinger; Gabor (Bethesda, MD); Taylor; Russell (Severna Park, MD); Prince; Jerry L. (Lutherville, MD)
The death rate of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is up to 30 times greater than that of age-matched normal women. Bradycardia, hypotension and mitral valve prolapse are cardiac abnormalities that can be frequently found in AN patients. Risk of death is substantially linked to QT prolongation, which could be due to hypokalemia (binge/purging type AN) or to a starvation-derived anatomical remodelling of the heart (restricting type AN). The principal risk factors are duration of illness > 10 years, chronic hypokalemia, plasmatic albumin chronically < 3.6 g/dl and absolute QT > or = 600 ms. PMID:12793099
Ravaldi, Claudia; Vannacci, Alfredo; Ricca, Valdo
Diagnostic ultrasound imaging of the breast has been limited principally to the abnormal, non-lactating breast. Due to the rapid improvement of imaging technology, high-resolution ultrasound images can now be obtained of the lactating breast. Ultrasound scanning techniques, however, require modifications to accommodate the breast changes that occur in lactation. Furthermore, the function of the breast with regard to milk ejection can be assessed with ultrasound by identification of milk duct dilation and milk flow. At milk ejection, the echogenic duct walls expand as milk flows forward towards the nipple. Milk flow appears as echogenic foci rapidly moving within the milk duct. This paper provides a detailed description of the ultrasound technique used for the detection and reviews nuances associated with the procedure. PMID:19486512
Geddes, Donna T
Objective: To verify the diagnostic efficiency of venous duplex ultrasound and lymphangioscintigraphy (LAS) in establishing the cause of leg edema and to clarify the pathology of these leg edemas. Materials and Methods: Between April 2009, and March 2010, 62 patients with leg edema of unknown origin were referred to the Edema Clinic of the Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine. All patients underwent a venous duplex ultrasound scan and LAS. Results: Of 62 patients, lymphatic insufficiency, venous insufficiency or both was diagnosed in 42 (68%), and lymphedema, in 29 (47%). Venous duplex ultrasound detected obvious venous disorders in only 13 (21%), and for 20 patients, the ultrasound and LAS did not reveal any abnormalities; however, for 15 of the 20 (24% of all patients), venous edema was attributed to functional causes. Conclusion: Venous duplex ultrasound and LAS assisted in the diagnosis of leg edema of unknown origin and also proved useful in establishing treatment strategies.
Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943
Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James
Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.
Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S. [Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada)] [and others
Objectives: Patients with raised serum prostate-specific antigen and\\/or an abnormal-feeling prostate were subjected to transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy to rule out any prostatic malignancy. There are many methods for pain relief and to treat discomfort during the procedure but we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) midazolam for pain control. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of 50
Pritesh Shrimali; Yogesh Bhandari; Sushil Kharbanda; Mangesh Patil; Vardachary Srinivas; Satish Gaitonde; Ranjit Mankeshwar
The purpose of this paper is to assist researchers in writing their research protocols and subject consent forms so that both the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and subjects are assured of the minimal risk associated with diagnostic B-scan ultrasound as it is used in speech research. There have been numerous epidemiological studies on fetal…
Epstein, Melissa A.
Simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiation is shown as a new technique for digestion of solid and liquid samples suitable for chemical and food analysis. Its application in analytical chemistry has been shown by decreases in digestion time: determination of copper in edible oils and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. PMID:14624979
Chemat, Smain; Lagha, Ahcene; Ait Amar, Hamid; Chemat, Farid
Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions.
Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.
Ultrasound-responsive liposomes are drug-loaded liposomes that contain a small amount of gas (often air). Co-encapsulation of a pharmaceutic along with this gas renders the liposomes acoustically active, allowing for ultrasound imaging as well as controlled release of the contents through ultrasound stimulation. Methods for the facile production of gas-containing liposomes with simultaneous drug encapsulation are available. Conventional procedures are used to prepare liposomes composed of phospholipid and cholesterol, namely, hydration of the lipid film followed by sonication. After sonication, the gas is introduced by one of two methods. The first method involves freezing and lyophilizing the sonicated liposomes in the presence of mannitol, the relevant property of which appears to be that it accentuates freezing damage to the lipid membranes. The other technique employs freezing of liposomes under elevated pressure of the desired gas. The concept of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery has many potential applications to specific clinical conditions such as cancer, thrombus, arterial restenosis, myocardial infarction, and angiogenesis because of its ability to localize the delivery of therapeutic agents that would cause side effects if given in large amounts systemically. PMID:20072876
Medical ultrasound research has experienced a renaissance in the past decade leading to innovations in flow mapping, elasticity and thermal imaging, measurement of optical properties, beamforming, and image enhancement. In this thesis, we focus on ultrasound elastography, an emerging imaging modality with great potential to become a part of several ultrasound diagnostic applications. Elastography images the stiffness of soft tissue by applying a mechanical stimulus and estimating the disturbance created by this stimulus. In freehand elastography, soft tissue is palpated by hand using the ultrasound transducer. The elastography image is generated by comparing the pre- and post-compression images to form a displacement map which is then differentiated to produce the final strain map. To achieve the best result in freehand elastography, the sonographer must compress and decompress the tissue uniformly in a specific direction with adequate compression. This can be a difficult task even for trained users. A small rotational or out-of-plane motion in the collected ultrasound frames can render them unusable for elastography. This has made freehand elastography highly qualitative and user-dependent. We tackle this issue by incorporating the extra information from a position sensor attached to the ultrasound transducer. Our aim is to show that the localization information of ultrasound images may be utilized to improve the quality and reliability of freehand elastography. For this purpose, we have developed a frame selection scheme that finds pairs of images with optimal compression and minimal lateral and out-of-plane displacement. Relying on the localization information, our algorithm merges multiple strain images computed from the selected frame pairs. This method is applicable to both 2D and 3D elastography. Our 3D elastography does not require for the transducer to be held still during the acquisition of each volume. Instead, the sonographer freely palpates the tissue similar to the 2D case while a series of volumes are being collected. For applications such as needle ablation therapy, it is also possible to palpate the tissue internally using the ablation needle. In this case, we have assessed the feasibility of incorporating the localization information about the tip of the needle in elastography. We have evaluated these methods using tissue mimicking phantom, animal, and patient experiments. Our results suggest that in challenging clinical conditions, the proposed methods are capable of producing high-quality strain images.
Pulsed tissue Doppler (TD) is a new ultrasound tool that al- lows quantification of myocardial regional wall motion. To investigate the cardiac effects of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH), the present study assessed left ventricular (LV) myocar- dial regional function in SH by pulsed TD. Twenty women with SH and 20 healthy women underwent standard Doppler echocardiograms and pulsed TD, placing a
GIOVANNI VITALE; MAURIZIO GALDERISI; GELSY ARIANNA LUPOLI; ALDO CELENTANO; ILARIA PIETROPAOLO; NICOLA PARENTI; ORESTE DE DIVITIIS; GIOVANNI LUPOLI
With ultrasound strain imaging, the function of tissue and organs can be identified. The technique uses multiple images, acquired from tissue under different degrees of deformation. We recently applied this technique on hearts and skeletal muscles. Cardiac data was acquired in dogs with a valvar aorta stenosis. Muscle data was acquired from the orbicular oral muscle in the upper lip.
Chris L. De Korte; Richard G. P. Lopata; Maartje M. Nillesen; Gert Weijers; Nancy J. Van Hees; Inge H. Gerrits; Christos Katsaros; Livia Kapusta; Johan M. Thijssen
Motion of carotid artery plaques during the cardiac cycle may contribute to plaque disruption and embolism. We have developed a computerized method that objectively analyzes such motion from a sequence of ultrasound (US) radiofrequency (RF) images. A displacement vector map is obtained by 2-D correlation of local areas in consecutive images. From this map, motion dynamics can be quantified and
Jon Bang; Torbjørn Dahl; Annemarieke Bruinsma; Jon Harald Kaspersen; Toril A Nagelhus Hernes; Hans Olav Myhre
Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) potentially improves 3-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment for cardiac and neurologic disorders, including arrhythmia and epilepsy. In this study, we report 4-D imaging of a time varying electric dipole in saline. A 3-D dipole field was produced in
Zhaohui Wang; Ragnar Olafsson; Pier Ingram; Qian Li; Russell S. Witte
Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243
Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and collectively are the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. The 12-lead ECG is utilised as both a screening and diagnostic tool for detecting conditions associated with SCD. Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of an underlying pathological cardiac disorder. This article describes ECG findings present in cardiomyopathies afflicting young athletes and outlines appropriate steps for further evaluation of these ECG abnormalities. The ECG findings defined as abnormal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine. PMID:23303760
Drezner, Jonathan A; Ashley, Euan; Baggish, Aaron L; Börjesson, Mats; Corrado, Domenico; Owens, David S; Patel, Akash; Pelliccia, Antonio; Vetter, Victoria L; Ackerman, Michael J; Anderson, Jeff; Asplund, Chad A; Cannon, Bryan C; DiFiori, John; Fischbach, Peter; Froelicher, Victor; Harmon, Kimberly G; Heidbuchel, Hein; Marek, Joseph; Paul, Stephen; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Schmied, Christian M; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Ricardo; Wilson, Mathew
Cardiac tamponade is a common cause of hypotension and low output after cardiac surgery. The authors present a case of false tamponade diagnosis on transesophageal echocardiography in a patient who underwent mitral valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting. The diagnosis was not confirmed at surgery, and the cause of the abnormal right atrial filling was a prominent Eustachian valve trapped in the suture for correction of an iatrogenic inferior vena cava laceration. Such a complication must be kept in mind when repairing inferior vena cava lacerations and should be more widely known. PMID:19117724
Almeida, Jorge; Garcia, Raquel; Monteiro, Vítor; Pinho, Paulo
Aquaporins are a group of proteins with high-selective permeability for water. A subgroup called aquaglyceroporins is also permeable to glycerol, urea and a few other solutes. Aquaporin function has mainly been studied in the brain, kidney, glands and skeletal muscle, while the information about aquaporins in the heart is still scarce. The current review explores the recent advances in this field, bringing aquaporins into focus in the context of myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and blood osmolarity disturbances. Since the amount of data on aquaporins in the heart is still limited, examples and comparisons from better-studied areas of aquaporin biology have been used. The human heart expresses aquaporin-1, -3, -4 and -7 at the protein level. The potential roles of aquaporins in the heart are discussed, and some general phenomena that the myocardial aquaporins share with aquaporins in other organs are elaborated. Cardiac aquaporin-1 is mostly distributed in the microvasculature. Its main role is transcellular water flux across the endothelial membranes. Aquaporin-4 is expressed in myocytes, both in cardiac and in skeletal muscle. In addition to water flux, its function is connected to the calcium signaling machinery. It may play a role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Aquaglyceroporins, especially aquaporin-7, may serve as a novel pathway for nutrient delivery into the heart. They also mediate toxicity of various poisons. Aquaporins cannot influence permeability by gating, therefore, their function is regulated by changes of expression-on the levels of transcription, translation (by microRNAs), post-translational modification, membrane trafficking, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Studies using mice genetically deficient for aquaporins have shown rather modest changes in the heart. However, they might still prove to be attractive targets for therapy directed to reduce myocardial edema and injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:24158693
Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Valen, Guro; Vaage, Jarle
Background and Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and etiology of chronic liver abnormalities in 70 living patients with sickle cell disease from the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of the State University of Campinas. Methods: Clinical and laboratory investigations, including liver function tests, serological tests for viral hepatitis and abdominal ultrasound, were performed in all patients. Additionally,
Fabiola Traina; Stefano Gonçalves Jorge; Ademar Yamanaka; Luciana R. de Meirelles; Fernando Ferreira Costa; Sara T. O. Saad
Noninvasive blood flow measurements based on Doppler ultrasound studies are the main clinical tool for studying the cardiovascular status in fetuses at risk for circulatory compromise. Usually, qualitative analysis of peripheral arteries and, in particular clinical situations such as severe growth restriction or volume overload, also of venous vessels close to the heart or of flow patterns in the heart are being used to gauge the level of compensation in a fetus. Quantitative assessment of the driving force of the fetal circulation, the cardiac output, however, remains an elusive goal in fetal medicine. This article reviews the methods for direct and indirect assessment of cardiac function and explains new clinical applications. Part 1 of this review describes the concept of cardiac function and cardiac output and the techniques that have been used to quantify output. Part 2 summarizes the use of arterial and venous Doppler studies in the fetus and gives a detailed description of indirect measures of cardiac function (like indices derived from the duration of segments of the cardiac cycle) with current examples of their application. PMID:21614744
Tutschek, B; Schmidt, K G
Five different tests were used to evaluate oesophageal function in 22 patients who presented to a cardiac unit with acute chest pain but whose cardiological investigations were negative. Eight patients had an abnormality on oesophagoscopy, 10 had an abnormal pH monitoring study, six had a positive acid infusion test, 10 had an abnormal manometric study and six had an abnormal oseophageal transit scintiscan. Concordance for the three tests of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was low at 28%, and for the two tests of oesophageal motility only 55%. Only two patients had normal results in all five tests.
Lee, R J E; Collins, B J; Spence, R A J; Crookes, P F; Campbell, N P S; Adgey, A A J
With technical improvements in catheter designs, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging of coronary arteries has become a routine procedure in most cardiac catheterization laboratories. In clinical practice, IVUS imaging of the coronary arteries is commonly performed to answer specific clinical questions such as the evaluation of an indeterminate narrowing of the left main coronary artery. In recent years, IVUS is also being performed as an endpoint for drug treatment trials in the assessment of atherosclerosis progression and/or regression. In this review we will focus on how validation studies of coronary IVUS systems have advanced our ability to use this powerful imaging tool and understand IVUS images, how acoustic and geometric factors affect proposed image processing tools and illustrate some current clinical uses of coronary IVUS. PMID:16996414
McKay, Charles R; Shavelle, David M
Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.
Vaidya, Chandan J.
Stress echocardiography is a routinely used clinical procedure to diagnose cardiac dysfunction by comparing wall motion information in prestress and poststress ultrasound images. Incomplete data, complicated imaging protocols and misaligned prestress and poststress views, however, are known limitations of conventional stress echocardiography. We discuss how the first two limitations are overcome via the use of real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging,
Raj Shekhar; Vladimir Zagrodsky; Mario J. Garcia; James D. Thomas
We studied 186 paraplegic patients to clarify the pathogenesis of the sacroiliac (SI) joint abnormalities reported in these patients. Partial or complete fusion of SI joints was noted in 47 patients (25%), and milder degrees of abnormalities of these joints were present in 27 patients (15%). The abnormalities differed from those seen in ankylosing spondylitis and were found more commonly
M A Khan; I Kushner; A A Freehafer
Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis.
Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D
Manometric examination of the oesophagus frequently reveals abnormalities whose cause is unknown and whose physiological importance is not clear. A large body of literature dealing with oesophageal motility abnormalities has evolved over the past few decades but comparisons among studies have been compromised by the lack of a widely accepted system for classifying the abnormal motility patterns, and by the
S J SPECHLER; D O CASTELL
Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561
Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph
Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.
This presentation is part of the Technology and Intervention in Pregnancy and Childbirth track.\\u000aThree main questions are the focus of this paper: First, how does ultrasound shape the relationship between woman and fetus? Second, which major cultural models of pregnancy does ultrasound mobilize? Third, what potential risks, harms and wrongs for women does ultrasound entail? In answering these questions,
Sarah Clark Miller
An image formation framework for ultrasound imaging from synthetic transducer arrays based on sparsity-driven regularization functionals using single-frequency Fourier domain data is proposed. The framework involves the use of a physics-based forward model of the ultrasound observation process, the formulation of image formation as the solution of an associated optimization problem, and the solution of that problem through efficient numerical algorithms. The sparsity-driven, model-based approach estimates a complex-valued reflectivity field and preserves physical features in the scene while suppressing spurious artifacts. It also provides robust reconstructions in the case of sparse and reduced observation apertures. The effectiveness of the proposed imaging strategy is demonstrated using experimental data.
Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; C,etin, Mujdat; Karl, W. Clem
Experiments have been carried out on a small-scale simulated cooling water system using a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens to represent the slime-forming microbial community, to examine the opportunities for control using ultrasound. Glass tubes (18 mm I.D. x 1 m long) through which contaminated water flowed at 1 m/s were dosed with ultrasound along the tube axis. Glass tubes were employed to facilitate the use of infrared absorbance for biofilm accumulation assessment. The preliminary results demonstrate that control of biofilm formation and the removal of established biofilms on the inside of tubes may be achieved by the technology, but there may be some limitations with respect to removal.
Elastography is a newly emerging study of interest that can be especially helpful when used as an adjunct to conventional B-mode ultrasound in evaluating breast lesions. It is estimated that 80% of breast lesions currently biopsied prove to be benign. Reducing that percentage is advantageous to both patients and the imaging community. The specificity of conventional ultrasound when added to a mammography work-up needs improvement. Adding elastography may improve specificity. This Directed Reading describes different acoustic techniques used to obtain an elastogram and evaluation of scoring procedures. Major technique differences exist in imaging the elastic properties of tissue. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your continuing education preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. PMID:21406711
Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.
Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen
Summary Diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely improved since the development of high-resolution ultrasound equipment. In the past, ultrasound was only considered useful for the diagnosis of cysts. Meanwhile, it improves the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions, local preoperative staging and guided interventional diagnosis. In dense breasts, mammography has limited sensitivity. Furthermore, women with dense parenchyma have a highly increased risk of breast cancer development. Ultrasound is useful to examine dense breast tissue. Recent studies have shown that the detection of small cancers with high-resolution ultrasound is increased by 3–4 cancers per 1,000 women without clinical or mammographic abnormalities. Furthermore, stage distribution is similar between mammographically and sonographically detected carcinomas. Ultrasound is routinely used for curative diagnosis, to overcome the limitations of mammography. However, within the mammographic screening in Germany, breast density is not considered as important. Ultrasound is only used if a suspicious lesion is detected by mammography. Interestingly, 2 years ago, a screening project started in Austria in which ultrasound is always added in cases of dense breasts. Preliminary data show that the detection of additional carcinomas is increased in the same order as shown in previous studies. Therefore, an improved cancer detection and differentiation can be expected with high-resolution ultrasound.
Ankyrins are critical components of ion channel and transporter signaling complexes in the cardiovascular system. Over the past five years, ankyrin dysfunction has been linked with abnormal ion channel and transporter membrane organization and fatal human arrhythmias. Loss-of-function variants in the ankyrin-B gene (ANK2) cause “ankyrin-B syndrome” (previously called type 4 long QT syndrome), manifested by a complex cardiac phenotype including ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. More recently, dysfunction in the ankyrin-B-based targeting pathway has been linked with a highly penetrant and severe form of human sinus node disease. Ankyrin-G (a second ankyrin gene product) is required for normal expression, membrane localization, and biophysical function of the primary cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.5. Loss of the ankyrin-G/Nav1.5 interaction is associated with human cardiac arrhythmia (Brugada syndrome). Finally, in the past year ankyrin dysfunction has been associated with more common arrhythmia and cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Specifically, large animal studies reveal striking remodeling of ankyrin-B and associated proteins following myocardial infarction. Additionally, the ANK2 locus has been linked with QTc interval variability in the general human population. Together, these findings identify a host of unanticipated and exciting roles for ankyrin polypeptides in cardiac function. More broadly, these findings illustrate the importance of local membrane organization for normal cardiac physiology.
Hashemi, Seyed M.; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.
Investigation of paediatric skeletal trauma requires careful consideration of not only the site of injury, but the proposed\\u000a mechanism of trauma and the age of the child. Ultrasound is increasingly being used to detect and delineate musculoskeletal\\u000a injury, either as the primary imaging modality or as an adjunct to other modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (MRI). The advent of high
It has been demonstrated an intrathoracic artificial heart with membrane pump delivering a pulsed flow and connected with an extracorporeal source of energy can keep a cardiotomized animal alive for several months without biological organic disturbances. The next experimental step would be intrathoracic implantation in man of a similar heart with an energy converter connected to an extracorporeal source giving the patient a 6-8 hour period of autonomy. At rest or during the night the batteries attached to the patient's waist would easily be recharged. Current research concentrates on reduction of artificial heart volume and miniaturization of the energy converter and regulatory electronic circuits. Kinetic pumps, which are small and without valvular prosthesis facilitate miniaturization. They deliver a high-speed continuous flow and have not yet been shown in long-term experiments to be free from biological disturbances. The clinical phase of stage II artificial hearts, due to begin in 1990, will be preceded by attempts at implanting hearts animated by an extracorporeal source of energy, pending cardiac replacement. PMID:6219372
AIM: To find a non-invasive strategy for detecting choledocholithiasis before cholecystectomy, with an acceptable negative rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstones were included in the study. Patients with abnormal liver functions and common bile duct abnormalities on ultrasound were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Patients with normal ultrasound were referred to magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. All those who had a negative magnetic resonance or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography. RESULTS: Seventy-eight point five percent of patients had laparoscopic cholecystectomy directly with no further investigations. Twenty-one point five percent had abnormal liver function tests, of which 52.8% had normal ultrasound results. This strategy avoided unnecessary magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in 47.2% of patients with abnormal liver function tests with a negative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography rate of 10%. It also avoided un-necessary endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 35.2% of patients with abnormal liver function. CONCLUSION: This strategy reduces the cost of the routine use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, in the diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Al-Jiffry, Bilal O; Elfateh, Abdeen; Chundrigar, Tariq; Othman, Bassem; AlMalki, Owaid; Rayza, Fares; Niyaz, Hashem; Elmakhzangy, Hesham; Hatem, Mohammed
Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.
Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.
Summary Analysis of heart rate dynamics by methods based on nonlinear dynamics has opened a new approach for studying the abnormalities\\u000a in heart rate behavior as a predictor of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent studies have shown that the new nonlinear measures, particularly\\u000a fractal analysis methods of heart rate dynamics, perform better than traditional analysis methods as a predictor of sudden\\u000a cardiac
T. H. Mäkikallio; M. P. Tulppo; T. Seppänen; H. V. Huikuri
Cardiac syndrome X (CSX) describes patients with angina-like chest pain, positive stress ischemia, and nonobstructive coronary\\u000a angiograms. Microvascular angina (MVA) is an etiologic mechanism in women with cardiac symptoms and abnormal vascular dysfunction\\u000a without obstructive coronary artery disease, although not all patients with MVA show detectable ischemia. CSX is more prevalent\\u000a in women than men, with an average age in
C. Noel Bairey Merz; Wafia Eteiba; Carl J. Pepine; B. Delia Johnson; Leslee J. Shaw; Sheryl F. Kelsey
Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies, and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload, and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction that has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality in patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem, and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212
Gladwin, Mark T; Sachdev, Vandana
After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The terminology of normal and abnormal menstrual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The causes of menstrual dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Consequences of menstrual dysfunction in young women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Health concerns because of menstrual dysfunction.
Robots ultrasound (RUS) can be defined as the combination of ultrasound imaging with a robotic system in medical interventions. With their potential for high precision, dexterity, and repeatability, robots are often uniquely suited for ultrasound integration. Although the field is relatively young, it has already generated a multitude of robotic systems for application in dozens of medical procedures. This paper reviews the robotic ultrasound systems that have been developed over the past two decades and describes their potential impact on modern medicine. The RUS projects reviewed include extracorporeal devices, needle guidance systems, and intraoperative systems. PMID:23475917
Priester, Alan M; Natarajan, Shyam; Culjat, Martin O
A versatile, computationally-efficient two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking method based on high resolution ultrasound imaging is proposed to quantify regional myocardial dysfunction in mice. Ultrasound scans were performed on the hearts of normal and post myocardial infarction (MI) mice with a Vevo770 scanner (VisualSonics, Toronto, Canada) operating at 30 MHz frequency. Regional myocardial motion was tracked using a 2D Minimum Sum of Absolute Differences (MSAD) block-matching algorithm. Motion analyses calculated from ultrasound images were compared to "gold-standard" analyses performed using small animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The radial and circumferential components of strain were compared between ultrasound and MRI short axis views and promising correlations were obtained (R = 0.90 and R = 0.85 for radial and circumferential strain, respectively). Therefore, ultrasound imaging, followed by 2D image tracking, provides an effective, low cost, mobile method to quantify murine cardiac function accurately and reliably.
Li, Yinbo; Garson, Christopher D.; Xu, Yaqin; Beyers, Ronald J.; Epstein, Frederick H.; French, Brent A.; Hossack, John A.
Abnormalities in cardiac repolarization have been implicated in cardiac arrhythmogenesis caused by disease, mutations and drugs. Of particular concern for regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical industry and society is the fact that certain drugs, in particular those not designed to affect the heart, can exhibit cardio-toxicity (i.e.unwanted side effects), which can put patients at risk of developing lethal arrhythmias. Drug cardiotoxicity is
Despite the critical importance of proper cell cycle regulation in establishing the correct morphology of organs and tissues during development, relatively little is known about how cell proliferation is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. The control of cell proliferation within the developing heart is of considerable interest, given the high prevalence of congenital cardiac abnormalities among humans, and recent interest in the isolation of cardiac progenitor populations. We therefore review studies exploring the contribution of cell proliferation to overall cardiac morphology and the molecular mechanisms regulating this process. In addition, we also review recent studies that have identified progenitor cell populations within the adult myocardium, as well as those exploring the capability of differentiated myocardial cells to proliferate post-natally. Thus, the exploration of cardiomyoctye cell cycle regulation, both during development as well as in the adult heart, promises to yield many exciting and important discoveries over the coming years.
Goetz, Sarah C.; Conlon, Frank L.
In utero infection of the fetus has become recognized as an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Since both anatomic and functional abnormalities have been described in the fetus related to various infections, ultrasonography may be a valuable diagnostic tool in this regard. A complete review of the current literature was undertaken to report available information on this topic. Common pathogens or clinical conditions were selected. The identified data were confounded by the way in which each case originally presented for study. Although certain anomalies were frequently associated with individual organisms, their incidence could not be determined, nor were most specific to that infectious agent. Representative ultrasound images are presented for common and unusual cases.
Treadwell, Marjorie C.; Gonik, Bernard
Objective: To document cardiac abnormalities secondary to pulmonary disease in primary antibody deficiency. Patients and methods: A cross sectional audit study of patients from a regional immunology centre. Subjects undergoing two dimensional and Doppler transthoracic echocardiography were reviewed. Ventricular dimensions and function, valvular competence, and estimated pulmonary artery pressure were recorded. Data were compared with clinical variables, pulmonary function tests, and thoracic computed tomography data. Results: Nineteen patients with common variable immunodeficiency and one with IgG2 subclass deficiency were included, mean age at diagnosis 37.5 years, mean estimated diagnostic delay 10.94 years. Left ventricular impairment was found in 15% and right heart dilatation in 20%. Pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg) was found in 45% (9/20), graded as moderate (40–60 mm Hg) in 44% of cases. Pulmonary function was obstructive in 47% (9/19). Fifty five percent of the patients with computed tomography data within the last five years (10/18) had confirmed bronchiectasis. Patients with right heart dilatation and/or moderate pulmonary hypertension (n = 6) had a more prolonged diagnostic delay (p = 0.04) and more severe lung disease. Conclusion: Echocardiographic abnormalities are common in primary antibody deficiency, associated with diagnostic delay and pulmonary complications. Pulmonary hypertension should be considered in those with severe lung disease and can be confirmed by echocardiography.
Johnston, S; Hill, S; Lock, R; Dwight, J; Unsworth, D; Gompels, M
Sonography can be highly dependent on real-time imaging and as such is highly physician intensive. Such situations arise mostly during complicated ultrasound radiology studies or echocardiology examinations. Under those circumstances it would be of benefit to transmit real-time images beyond the immediate area of the ultrasound laboratory when a physician is not on location. We undertook this study to determine
Andre J. Duerinckx; Alek S. Hayrapetian; Edward G. Grant; Daniel J. Valentino; Darius Rahbar; Mike Kiszonas; Ricky Franco; Michelle Melany; Sherelle L. Narin; Nagesh Ragavendra
Cardiovascular disease accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its prevalence and mechanisms of association have not been elucidated. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities and potential risk factors in patients with COPD at their first exacerbation requiring hospital admission. Transthoracic echocardiography was prospectively performed in 342 patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 52 ± 16% predicted) 3 months after discharge. Significant cardiac alterations were present in 64% of patients; 27% left- and 48% right-heart disorders. The most common were right ventricle enlargement (30%) and pulmonary hypertension (19%). Left ventricle enlargement was present in 6%, left ventricle systolic dysfunction in 13%, left ventricle diastolic impairment in 12% and left atrial dilatation in 29%. Echocardiographic abnormalities were unrelated to COPD severity and were more frequent in patients with self-reported cardiac disease. They were also observed in 63% of patients with no known cardiac disease or cardiovascular risk factors other than smoking. We conclude that cardiac abnormalities are highly prevalent in COPD patients at the time of their first severe exacerbation, even in the absence of established cardiac disease or cardiovascular risk factors. Considering the prognostic and therapeutic implications of cardiac comorbidity, echocardiography should be considered in the assessment of patients with clinically significant COPD. PMID:23018914
Freixa, Xavier; Portillo, Karina; Paré, Carles; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez, Federico P; Benet, Marta; Roca, Josep; Farrero, Eva; Ferrer, Jaume; Fernandez-Palomeque, Carlos; Antó, Josep M; Barberà, Joan Albert
A new mouse cardiac electrophysiology method was used to study mice harboring an alpha-myosin heavy chain Arg403Gln missense mutation (alpha-MHC403/+), which results in histological and hemodynamic abnormalities characteristic of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and sudden death of uncertain etiology during exercise. Wild-type animals had completely normal cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, FHC mice demonstrated (a) electrocardiographic abnormalities including prolonged repolarization intervals and rightward axis; (b) electrophysiological abnormalities including heterogeneous ventricular conduction properties and prolonged sinus node recovery time; and (c) inducible ventricular ectopy. These data identify distinct electrophysiologic abnormalities in FHC mice with a specific alpha-myosin mutation, and also validate a novel method to explore in vivo the relationship between specific genotypes and their electrophysiologic phenotypes.
Berul, C I; Christe, M E; Aronovitz, M J; Seidman, C E; Seidman, J G; Mendelsohn, M E
Sonographic detection and evaluation of congenital anomalies of the uterus represent an important segment in the additional therapeutic procedure, that is, treatment of patients with congenital anomalies of the uterus. Besides the primary reason that is manifested in the total cure of the patients, the secondary reason represents the decrease of costs of treatment of congenital anomalies of the uterus. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used in this paper. In 1997 Kurjak and Kupesic compared the sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultra sound, color Doppler, hysterosonography and three-dimensional ultrasound during diagnosis of the uterus septum. Representation of pathological findings in our paper in comparison to the examined group is: uterus subseptus = 15.38%, double horned uterus = 10.25%. The examined group includes intrauterine abnormalities of the uterus, analyzing, in that process, individual, pathological entities of intrauterine abnormalities. The research is a prospective, target, clinical study. In the examined group, due to the clinical suspicion of intrauterine abnormalities, 78 patients were examined in the following manner: two-dimensional transabdominal and transvaginal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations were made and then three-dimensional transabdominal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations. This means that in the detection of congenital anomalies of the uterus, the same sonographic techniques were first applied on the conventional and then also on the multidimensional base. Our research showed that three-dimensional technique is a more reliable diagnostic tool than two-dimensional technique. Sensitivity and specificity rate as well as positive predictive value show that this technique is an extraordinary one for assessing the volume, and position of congenital abnormalities. PMID:20514782
Miseljic, Nenad; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Mehmedbasic, Senad; Miseljic, Sanja
The overall goal of the Cardiac Arrhythmia PORT was to identify the best strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death among patients with known heart disease. The authors documented substantial increases over time in specialized testing and use of implantab...
M. A. Hlaky
In medical pulse-echo ultrasound imaging, a constant sound speed of 1,540 m/s in soft tissues is assumed. When the actual speed is different the mismatch can lead to image distortions. Even if the assumed speed is correct, ultrasound images can be difficult to interpret due to image blurring and the presence of speckle. However, this can be improved by non-blind deconvolution if the point-spread function (PSF) is known. In clinical applications a sufficiently accurate estimate of the PSF is difficult to obtain because of the unknown properties (including speed of sound) of soft tissues. In this paper, we address two topics: first, we explore the sensitivity of our deconvolution algorithm to variations in the speed of sound in the tissue; second, we extend our deconvolution algorithm to enable it to adapt to (and estimate) an unknown sound speed. In the first topic, the results reveal that the deconvolution output is sufficiently sensitive to the accuracy of the sound speed that the speed itself can be estimated using deconvolution. However, qualitative assessment suggests that we may not need the exact speed of sound for successful deconvolution so long as the assumed speed does not deviate significantly from the true value. In the second topic, the goal is gradually to adapt the assumed sound speed to improve the deconvolution and eventually estimate the true sound speed. We tested our algorithm with in vitro phantoms where the estimation error was found to be +0.01 ± 0.60% (mean ± standard deviation). In addition to the speed estimation itself, our method has also proved capable of producing better restoration of the ultrasound images than deconvolution by an assumed speed of 1,540 m/s when this assumption is significantly in error.
Shin, H.-C.; Prager, R. W.; Gomersall, H.; Kingsbury, N.; Treece, G. M.; Gee, A. H.
Aim: to draw the attention to upper abdominal abnormalities, which may be revealed incidentally in patients referred for a chest computed tomography (CT) after cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed prospectively and retrospectively the CT results of all patients referred for a chest CT, with suspected sternal infection or for other reasons, after cardiac surgery, to assess possible upper
Sara Apter; Gabriel Amir; Michael Taler; Gabriela Gayer; Joseph Kuriansky; Michal Amitai; Aram Kurtz Smolinsky; Marjorie Hertz
Chronic heart failure (CHF), the new epidemic in cardiology, is characterized by energetic failure of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. The failing heart wastes energy due to anatomical changes that include cavity enlargement, altered geometry, tachycardia, mitral insufficiency and abnormal loading, while skeletal muscle undergoes atrophy. Cardiac and skeletal muscles also have altered high-energy phosphate production and handling in CHF.
B. Mettauer; J. Zoll; A. Garnier; R. Ventura-Clapier
This paper discusses the trial results of a perso nalised Cardiac Rhythm Management (CRM) system using a smart phone (PDA) and a wireless ECG sensor. The system is used in a trial to record and diagnose abnormal cardiac arrhythmias. This novel approach uses standard mobile phones, off-the-shelf ECG sensors and personalised feedback to the patient wh en compared to a
Peter Leijdekkers; Valérie Gay; Edward Barin
We describe a male neonate with severe arachnodactyly, hypermobility of the fingers, flexion contractures of elbows, wrists, hips, and knees, micrognathia, crumpled ears, rockerbottom feet, loose redundant skin, and ocular abnormalities. Severe cardiac valve insufficiency and aortic dilatation resulted in cardiac failure and death 20 hours after birth. This case represents the severe end of the clinical spectrum of Marfan
I M Buntinx; P J Willems; S E Spitaels; P J Van Reempst; A M De Paepe; J E Dumon
Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387
Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the usefulness of MR imaging in the clinical evaluation of congenital and acquired\\u000a cardiac diseases characterised by ventricular septal wall motion abnormality. Recognition of the features of abnormal ventricular\\u000a septal motion in MR images is important to evaluate the haemodynamic status in patients with congenital and acquired heart\\u000a diseases in routine clinical
Cristina Méndez; Rafaela Soler; Esther Rodriguez; Marisol López; Lucia Álvarez; Noela Fernández; Lorenzo Montserrat
We have developed an equipment using ultrasound transducers to help in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The equipment consists of an X-Y axes displacement system controlled by a microcomputer and uses two ultrasound transducers in opposite sides to inspect the calcaneus region of the patient. We have used two pairs of transducers with 500 kHz and 1 MHz central frequencies. Each pair of transducers was fixed in the X-Y displacement system submerged in a small water tank with a support for the foot of the patient. The transmitter was excited with pulses of 400 - 600 kHz or 800 - 1200 kHz and the ultrasound waves propagating through the bone in the calcaneus region are received by the opposite transducer, amplified and acquired in a digital oscilloscope. The data are transferred to the microcomputer and the ultrasound attenuation and the ultrasound transmission velocity are determined. The system was tested in patients, selected from a group that had already been diagnosed using a DEXA equipment. The results showed that there is a decrease in the ultrasound transmission velocity and the ultrasound attenuation in osteoporotic patients when compared to healthy patients of the same sex and age group. The conclusion is that ultrasound attenuation and the transmission velocity in the calcaneus region may be used as parameters in the evaluation of osteoporosis using our new system.
Maia, Joaquim M.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Nantes Button, Vera Lucia S.; Dantas, Ricardo G.
Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
|Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…
The propagation of ultrasonic waves is nonlinear. Phenomena associated with the propagation of diagnostic ultrasound pulses cannot be predicted using linear assumptions alone. These include a progressive distortion in waveform, the generation of frequency harmonics and acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation,
Francis A Duck
Cardiac output is the amount of blood the heart pumps in 1 minute, and it is dependent on the heart rate, contractility, preload, and afterload. Understanding of the applicability and practical relevance of each of these four components is important when interpreting cardiac output values. In the present article, we use a simple analogy comparing cardiac output with the speed of a bicycle to help appreciate better the effects of various disease processes and interventions on cardiac output and its four components.
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with CMR.\\u000a\\u000aChapter 2 describes our finding that left-right ratios are preserved across all sports
Background- Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up\\u000a to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of routine obstetric ultrasonography\\u000a in the monitoring of pregnancy and identification of fetal malformations has partly contributed to lowering of fetal mortality\\u000a rates. In Nigeria which has a high maternal
Atinuke M Agunloye; Adejumoke I Ayede; Samuel I Omokhodion
Acute traumatic posterior shoulder dislocations are rare. The diagnosis is often missed or delayed, as radiologic abnormalities can be subtle. We report a case of a 37-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with severe right shoulder pain and inability to move his arm after a motor vehicle collision. Based on examination, he was initially thought to have an anterior dislocation; however, point-of-care (POC) ultrasound clearly demonstrated a posterior shoulder dislocation. Real-time ultrasound-guided intra-articular local anesthetic injection facilitated closed reduction in the emergency department without procedural sedation, and POC ultrasound confirmed successful reduction at the bedside after the procedure. This case demonstrates that POC ultrasound can be a useful diagnostic tool in the rapid assessment and treatment for patients with suspected posterior shoulder dislocation. PMID:22944540
Beck, Sierra; Chilstrom, Mikaela
Although pediatric cardiac disorders are not commonly seen in the Emergency Department, they are important to identify to prevent further morbidity or mortality. Diagnosis may be complicated by the lack of classic complaints such as chest pain or palpitations that are commonly associated with cardiac disorders. In fact, presenting complaints associated with pediatric cardiac disorders, like “fussiness” or “difficulty feeding,”
Ghazala Q Sharieff; Todd W Wylie
Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to
Orhan Uzun; Dirk G Wilson; Gordon M Vujanic; Jonathan M Parsons; Joseph V De Giovanni
This article describes the anaesthetic management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The techniques used are principally those applied to patients with ischaemic heart disease, which represents 56% of all cardiac surgery carried out in the UK. Where appropriate, management strategies for those patients with aortic and mitral valve disease are discussed. Monitoring techniques used for cardiac anaesthesia are detailed along
John W. W. Gothard; James W. Keogh
One of the most, basic trade-offs in ultrasound imaging involves frame rate, depth, and number of lines. Achieving good spatial resolution and coverage requires a large number of lines, leading to decreases in frame rate. An even more serious imaging challenge occurs with imaging modes involving spatial compounding and 3-D/4-D imaging, which are severely limited by the slow speed of sound in tissue. The present work can overcome these traditional limitations, making ultrasound imaging many-fold faster. By emitting several beams at once, and by separating the resulting overlapped signals through spatial and temporal processing, spatial resolution and/or coverage can be increased by many-fold while leaving frame rates unaffected. The proposed approach can also be extended to imaging strategies that do not involve transmit beamforming, such as synthetic aperture imaging. Simulated and experimental results are presented where imaging speed is improved by up to 32-fold, with little impact on image quality. Object complexity has little impact on the method’s performance, and data from biological systems can readily be handled. The present work may open the door to novel multiplexed and/or multidimensional protocols considered impractical today.
White, P. Jason; Thomenius, Kai; Clement, Gregory T.
Context: A recent cluster of sudden cardiac deaths in marathon runners has attracted considerable media attention and evoked concern over the safety of long-distance running and competition. This review discusses the acute and potential long-term risks associated with marathon running and puts these into perspective with the many health benefits afforded by habitual vigorous exercise. Evidence Acquisition: Data sources included peer-reviewed publications from 1979 to January 2010 as identified via PubMed and popular media. Results: Marathon running is associated with a transient and low risk of sudden cardiac death. This risk appears to be even lower in women and is independent of marathon experience or the presence of previously reported symptoms. Most deaths are due to underlying coronary artery disease. The value of preparticipation screening is limited by its insensitivity and impracticality of widespread implementation. Appropriate preparation and deployment of trained medical personnel and availability of automatic external defibrillators are expected to have a major impact on survival from cardiac arrests during marathons. Cardiac biochemical and functional abnormalities are commonly observed transiently following completion of a marathon, although their clinical significance is unknown. Conclusions: Sudden cardiac deaths associated with marathon running are exceedingly rare events. Prevention should focus on recognition and investigation of prodromal symptoms, if present, and access to rapid defibrillation and trained medical personnel. The robust association of endurance running with improved quality of life and longevity underscores the importance of putting risks into perspective with other well-established health benefits of regular vigorous exercise.
Day, Sharlene M.; Thompson, Paul D.
Clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound at point-of-care or emergency situations, although common, has not been well documented in veterinary medicine. Medical records of after-hour emergency equine admissions during a 10-year period were reviewed and horses that received ultrasound scans were identified. Data sheets for each ultrasound scan performed during emergency clinical evaluation were collected and reviewed. Data extracted included anatomical region imaged, body system affected, documented ultrasonographic diagnosis and final diagnosis. Six hundred and nine records were available of which 108 horses had an ultrasound diagnostic procedure performed. The most common reason for emergency ultrasonography was to investigate gastrointestinal abnormalities, the largest proportion of these being large intestinal disorders. A complete ultrasound report was documented in 57% of evaluations, of which 79% correlated with a final diagnosis. Incomplete reporting made accurate interpretation of records difficult. Results indicate that the use of ultrasound in the emergency setting may be of diagnostic benefit and impact on patient management. Ultrasound training should be provided to residents in order to gain proficiency, especially with regard to the gastrointestinal system. PMID:21526735
Viljoen, A; Saulez, M N; Carstens, A; Gummow, B
Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness
D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir
Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.
Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro
This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.
Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William
Radiographic abnormalities in two children with Laron dwarfism are described. In addition to a characteristic bone age, which was retarded for the chronological age but advanced for the height of the patients, there were marked skull changes and minor skeletal abnormalities in the long bones and vertebrae. Such findings on a skeletal survey should lead the radiologist to suspect the
M. Vasil; A. Baxova; K. Kozlowski
Ultrasound contrast is gaining acceptance worldwide as an adjunct to conventional ultrasound imaging. It has clinical applications as diverse as liver disease detection and characterization, myocardial perfusion and wall motion studies, and cerebral vascularity and perfusion imaging. This paper will focus on imaging techniques used for transcranial ultrasound contrast imaging. The interaction of ultrasound with the microbubbles in the contrast
Jeff Powers; Michalakis Averkiou; Matthew Bruce
Background Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) are involved in the tissue hypoxic response. Hypothesis HIF-1? and HO-1 levels may predict cardiac ischemia and adverse cardiac events during non-cardiac surgery. Methods HIF-1? and HO-1 levels were determined in elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery preoperatively and at 30 minutes, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. Results were analyzed with respect to the occurrence of adverse cardiac events. Results A total of 380 patients with a mean age of 65.3 years were included, and 54 (14.2%) who had adverse cardiac events during or after the surgery. HIF-1? and HO-1 levels in the adverse cardiac event group were significantly higher than in the group without adverse cardiac events at each time point (all, P<0.05). In multivariates regression analysis, the odds of an adverse cardiac event was increased by every 1-year increase in age (odd ratio [OR] 1.39, P<0.001), abnormal ECG at baseline (OR 2.27, P?=?0.048), myocardial infarction history (OR 3.18, P?=?0.015), and positive baseline cTnI level were associated with an increased likelihood of an adverse cardiac event (OR 8.78, P?=?0.019), and for every 1 unit increase of HO-1, the odds of an adverse cardiac event increased by 1.30 (P?=?0.002). Conclusion Determination of preoperative HO-1 levels may aid in identifying patients at risk of developing ischemic cardiac events.
Zheng, Hong; Ma, Hai-Ping; Wang, Jiang; Ma, Ming
\\u000a \\u000a Background The myocardial dysfunction in nontraumatic sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not well understood. Borderline elevations of\\u000a cardiac biomarkers, electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities and systolic dysfunction have been reported but the\\u000a clinical significance of these abnormalities is uncertain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patients without history of cardiac disease were prospectively evaluated for cardiac dysfunction. Myocardial regional wall\\u000a motion and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were serially studied
Prasad Vannemreddy; Prasanna Venkatesh; Kumar Dinesh; Pratap Reddy; Anil Nanda
Background. Pediatric patients undergoing repair of congenital cardiac abnormalities have a significant risk of an adverse neurologic event. Therefore this retrospective cohort study examined the potential benefit of interventions based on intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in decreasing both postoperative neurologic sequelae and length of hospital stay as a cost proxy. Methods: With informed parental consent approved by the institutional review board,
Erle H. Austin; Harvey L. Edmonds; Steven M. Auden; Vedad Seremet; Greg Niznik; Aida Sehic; Michael K. Sowell; Caryn D. Cheppo; Karen M. Corlett
Aims Transient systolic and diastolic abnormalities in ventricular function have previously been docu- mented during endurance sports. However, these described alterations may be limited by the tech- niques applied. We sought, using less load-dependent methods, to characterize both the extent and the chronology of the cardiac changes associated with endurance events. Methods and results Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed prior
Tomas G. Neilan; Danita M. Yoerger; Pamela S. Douglas; Jane E. Marshall; Elkan F. Halpern; David Lawlor; Michael H. Picard; Malissa J. Wood
Quantitative description of the cardiac left ventricle (LV) motion is desirable to assist in detecting myocardial motion abnormalities. It has been recognized that the torsion component of the LV movement is considerably more difficult to track than its radial counterpart. We develop a motion estimation method that estimates three-dimensional (3-D) LV motion vector field (MVF) that includes the twisting motion
Jing Tang; W. Paul Segars; Benjamin M. W. Tsui
Safety assurance for diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics began with a tacit assumption of safety allowed by a federal law enacted in 1976 for then-existing medical ultrasound equipment. The implementation of the 510(k) pre-market approval process for diagnostic ultrasound resulted in the establishment of guideline upper limits for several examination categories in 1985. The obstetrical category has undergone substantial evolution from initial limits (I. e., 46 mW/cm2 spatial peak temporal average (SPTA) intensity) set in 1985. Thermal and mechanical exposure indices, which are displayed on-screen according to an Output Display Standard (ODS), were developed for safety assurance with relaxed upper limits. In 1992, with the adoption of the ODS, the allowable output for obstetrical ultrasound was increased both in terms of the average exposure (e. g. to a possible 720 mW/cm2 SPTA intensity) and of the peak exposure (via the Mechanical Index). There has been little or no subsequent research with the modern obstetrical ultrasound machines to systematically assess potential risks to the fetus using either relevant animal models of obstetrical exposure or human epidemiology studies. The assurance of safety for obstetrical ultrasound therefore is supported by three ongoing means: (I) review of a substantial but uncoordinated bioeffect research literature, (ii) the theoretical evaluation of diagnostic ultrasound exposure in terms of thermal and nonthermal mechanisms for bioeffects, and (iii) the skill and knowledge of professional sonographers. At this time, there is no specific reason to suspect that there is any significant health risk to the fetus or mother from exposure to diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics. This assurance of safety supports the prudent use of diagnostic ultrasound in obstetrics by trained professionals for any medically indicated examination.
Miller, Douglas L
Sudden death among athletes is very rare (1:50,000–1:100,000 annually) but it is still 2–4 times more frequent than in the\\u000a age-matched control population and attracts significant media attention. We propose a mechanism underlying sudden cardiac\\u000a death in athletes that does not relate to myocardial ischemia but is based on repolarization abnormalities due to potassium\\u000a channel downregulation and can also be
András Varró; István Baczkó
Objective:Prenatal ultrasound has led to the early diagnosis of major anomalies. However, the ready availability of this technology has led to increasing challenges for physicians counseling affected parents, which is all the more difficult in a twin pregnancy with only one affected fetus. This paper reviews the medical and ethical considerations in twin pregnancies discordant for a serious cardiac condition.Study
A Malhotra; S Menahem; P Shekleton; L Gillam
Palpation of pedal pulses alone is known to be an unreliable indicator for the presence of arterial disease. Using portable Doppler ultrasound to measure the resting ankle brachial pressure index is superior to palpation of peripheral pulses as an assessment of the adequacy pf the arterial supply in the lower limb. Revisiting basics, this article aims to aid the clinician to understand and perform hand-held Doppler ultrasound effectively while involving the client or patient in the process. The author describes the basics of Doppler ultrasound, how to select correct equipment for the process, and interpretation of results to further enhance clinicians' knowledge. PMID:16835512
A method for using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to treat neurological structures to achieve a desired therapeutic affect. Depending on the dosage of HIFU applied, it can have a reversible or irreversible effect on neural structures. For exampl...
J. L. Foley S. Vaezy J. W. Little
The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology clinical practice has rapidly increased over the past decade. Ultrasound has enabled rheumatologists to diagnose, prognosticate and monitor disease outcome. Although international standardization remains a concern still, the use of ultrasound in rheumatology is expected to grow further as costs fall and the opportunity to train in the technique improves. We present a review of value of ultrasound, focusing on major applications of ultrasound in rheumatologic diseases.
Kang, Taeyoung; Horton, Laura; Emery, Paul
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare condition characterized by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage of unknown etiology. Cardiac involvement in the form of myocarditis and right ventricular hypertrophy have been reported to occur in association with IPH, although findings on echocardiography have not been described. Herein is presented a case of an adult with IPH and echocardiographic abnormalities.
Anthony A. Bavry; Steven Knoper; Joseph S. Alpert
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare condition characterized by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage of unknown etiology. Cardiac involvement in the form of myocarditis and right ventricular hypertrophy have been reported to occur in association with IPH, although findings on echocardiography have not been described. Herein is presented a case of an adult with IPH and echocardiographic abnormalities. PMID:10965093
Bavry, A A; Knoper, S; Alpert, J S
We examined the pathology findings of the cardiac conduction system in 42 human autopsies who were considered to have died an accidental death. Abnormalities in serial sections of the conduction system were found in seven and of these three had an accessory pathway in the conduction system. In one of these there was mild Ebstein's anomaly (ME), two had fibromuscular
N. Nishida; N. Ikeda; K. Kudo; A. Tsuji; A. Kiyoshima
Perturbations in cardiac development result in congenital heart disease, the leading cause of birth defect-related infant morbidity and mortality. Advances in cardiac developmental biology have significantly augmented our understanding of signalling pathways and transcriptional networks underlying heart formation. Cardiogenesis is initiated with the formation of mesodermal multipotent cardiac progenitor cells and is governed by cross-talk between developmental cues emanating from endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal cells. The molecular and transcriptional machineries that direct the specification and differentiation of these cardiac precursors are part of an evolutionarily conserved programme that includes the Nkx-, Gata-, Hand-, T-box- and Mef2 family of transcription factors. Unravelling the hierarchical networks governing the fate and differentiation of cardiac precursors is crucial for our understanding of congenital heart disease and future stem cell-based and gene therapies. Recent molecular and genetic lineage analyses have revealed that subpopulations of cardiac progenitor cells follow distinctive specification and differentiation paths, which determine their final contribution to the heart. In the last decade, progenitor cells that contribute to the arterial pole and right ventricle have received much attention, as abnormal development of these cells frequently results in congenital defects of the aortic and pulmonary outlets, representing the most commonly occurring congenital cardiac defects. In this review, we provide an overview of the building plan of the vertebrate four-chambered heart, with a special focus on cardiac progenitor cell specification, differentiation and deployment during arterial pole development. PMID:23297764
Rana, M S; Christoffels, V M; Moorman, A F M
The aim of our study was to investigate the parameters of fetal circulation of normal pregnancies and their relationship to fetal cardiac output. We performed a cross-sectional study of 315 normal singleton pregnancies between 20 and 40 weeks' gestation without fetal chromosomal or structural malformations. After follow-up to delivery, 212 patients who fit all the criteria were enrolled for final analysis. Blood flow velocity waveforms were obtained from the tricuspid and mitral ventricular inflow, ascending aorta (AAO), pulmonary artery (PA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), renal artery (RA), umbilical artery (UA), descending aorta (DAO), inferior vena cava (IVC) and ductus venosus (DV) using duplex (real-time Doppler) ultrasound (US) scanner. The peak velocity of DV, AAO, PA and MCA were also obtained. At the intracardiac level, the ratio of peak flow velocity of E wave to peak flow velocity of A wave (E:A ratio) of mitral valve (MV) increased more rapidly than tricuspid valve (TV) E:A ratio. For the great vessels, aortic peak velocity remained higher than the pulmonary peak velocity with advancing gestation. The cardiac output closely correlated to the cardiac compliance and flow resistance indices at arterial and venous level. The acceleration time in the fetal arteries increased with advancing gestation in AAO, PA, MCA and DAO, but it decreased in RA and kept constant in UA. In addition, the acceleration time of UA was unrelated to cardiac output. The changes of the fetal intracardiac, arterial and venous impedances were remarkable through the gestation and related to cardiac output. Fetal cardiac output correlated well with the changes of arterial resistance, except with the DAO. The ventricular compliance increased with advancing gestation, especially in the left side, and was highly related to the change of cardiac output. The acceleration time in major arteries positively correlated with the gestational age and cardiac output, except in UA and RA; this indicates the difference of the changes of mean arterial pressure in uteroplacental circulation, fetal organs and great vessels. In conclusion, the fetal cardiac output correlated well with the ventricular compliance and was influenced by both hemodynamic changes in peripheral resistance and mean arterial pressure. PMID:10942825
Chang, C H; Chang, F M; Yu, C H; Liang, R I; Ko, H C; Chen, H Y
Two new cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) caused by dystrophinopathy are reported. One patient, a 24 year old man, had a family history of X linked DC, while the other, a 52 year old man, had sporadic disease. Each had abnormal dystrophin immunostaining in muscle or cardiac biopsy specimens, but neither had muscle weakness. Serum creatine kinase activity was raised only in the patient with familial disease. Analysis of dystrophin gene mutations showed a deletion of exons 48-49 in the patient with familial DC and of exons 49-51 in the other. Dystrophin transcription in cardiac tissue from the patient with sporadic disease showed abundant expression, predominantly of the muscle isoform. This study, together with previous reports, suggests that some patients with DC have a dystrophinopathy that can be diagnosed using a combination of biochemical and genetic analyses.?? Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy; dystrophin; Becker muscular dystrophy
Muntoni, F.; Di, L; Porcu, M.; Sinagra, G.; Mateddu, A.; Marrosu, G.; Ferlini, A.; Cau, M.; Milasin, J.; Melis, M. A.; Marrosu, M. G.; Cianchetti, C.; Sanna, A.; Falaschi, A.; Camerini, F.; Giacca, M.; Mestroni, L.
Discusses ultrasonography of the fetus including number, location, normal and abnormal growth patterns, and abnormalities of the fetus. The normal uterus and ovary is described and findings related to contraceptive devices are covered. Primary audience: p...
Of the 7,827 babies born in Sheffield between March 1989 and August 1991, a total of 114 (1.4%) who had either clinical abnormality of the hip or high-risk factors for congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) were examined by ultrasound at birth and at regular intervals. Dynamic ultrasound assessment of both hips was done to diagnose instability and to monitor the treatment. Abnormal findings were recorded in 55 babies at the first visit, and 31 of these subsequently required treatment with the Pavlik harness (3.9 per 1,000). Only one case of late CDH has been seen among the babies who were not examined by ultrasound. There were no cases of avascular necrosis in our series. Dynamic ultrasound examination of high-risk infants' hips is a reliable method of screening for CDH. Monitoring of hips treated with the Pavlik harness, by dynamic ultrasound examination, can identify failure to obtain a concentric reduction, and in such cases, splintage can be abandoned in favour of other modes of treatment. It can, therefore, reduce the chances of overtreatment and its associated complications. PMID:8543599
Vedantam, R; Bell, M J
We present a new percutaneous ultrasound-guided galactography technique that may be used in patients in whom the conventional technique fails and breast ultrasonography show dilated ducts. PMID:8270666
Rissanen, T; Typpö, T; Tikkakoski, T; Turunen, J; Myllymäki, T; Suramo, I
... or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the ... probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back and a ...
Detailed analysis of scanning images obtained at ultrasound biomicroscopy (USBM) in 11 patients with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome revealed the USBM signs reflecting pathological changes in the anterior eyeball. The value of USBM is that the technique permits evaluation of the involvement of anatomic structures into the pathological process in corpore as this is the only mode of lifetime imaging of high-resolution silent eyeball areas. It is also important that USBM can differentiate the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome from other abnormalities with the same clinical picture. The authors recommend that USBM be used to diagnose and to monitor different types of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. PMID:19566045
Avetisov, S E; Ambartsumian, A R
Retrospective review of the abdominal ultrasound (US) examination of 274 children studied for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) was undertaken to determine if there is an increased incidence of renal disease as previously reported. Five major abnormalities were detected in the 126 children with HPS. Three lesions were newly diagnosed and two had been diagnosed previously. Five children had abnormalities classified as minor or normal variants. Renal abnormalities were found in six of the 148 children who did not HPS. Only three of these were newly diagnosed and medically important. Eight children without HPS had minor abnormalities or normal variants of the kidneys. Newly diagnosed medically important renal lesions were present in 2.4% of children screened for HPS. The incidence of the finding was the similar in children with and without HPS. PMID:8414755
Fernbach, S K; Morello, F P
A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities.
Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah
Abnormalities in MANETs can be malicious attacks or selfish nodes which can affect network architecture and network operation significantly. Clearly, there are two distinct objectives: 1) To design/examine attacks and develop countermeasures and 2) design...
Results for abnormal states in nuclear matter are reviewed and compared with pi exp - condensates in the context of chiral invariance and the sigma model. The relative importance of symmetry breaking and conserving interactions is assessed for the two pro...
Abstract Ultrasound is an inexpensive and widely,used imaging,modality,for the diagnosis and staging of a number of diseases. In the past two decades, it has benefited from major advances in technology and has become,an indispensable imaging modality, due to its flexibility and non-invasive character. In the last decade, research investigators and commercial companies have further advanced,ultrasound imaging with the development,of 3D
Aaron Fenster; Donal B. Downey
Rapid progress in non-invasive ultrasound techniques has resulted in a wide variety of clinical applications for the assessment of cerebrovascular diseases. Recent highlights in ultrasound research include the evaluation of vascular ageing as a degenerative process, the demonstration of plaque development, motion and vulnerability in atherosclerosis and multi-dimensional as well as innovative imaging techniques (e.g., compound imaging) to depict early
Michael Hennerici; Hansjoerg Baezner; Michael Daffertshofer
Our Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system has been developed to the engineering prototype stage and generated unique data sets of both transmission and reflection ultrasound (US). This paper will help define the clinical underpinnings of the developmental process and interpret the imaging results from a similar perspective. The CURE project was designed to incorporate numerous diagnostic parameters to improve upon two major areas of early breast cancer detection. CURE may provide improved tissue characterization of breast masses and reliable detection of abnormal microcalcifications found in some breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Current breast US is limited to mass evaluation, whereas mammography also detects and guides biopsy of malignant calcifications. Screening with CURE remains a distant goal, but improved follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may represent a feasible breakthrough. Improved tissue characterization could result in reduction of the estimated one million benign biopsies each year in the United States, costing up to several billion dollars. Most breast calcifications are benign and comprise-80% of stereotactic biopsies guided by mammography. Ultrasound has the capability of finding some groups of calcifications, but further improvements in resolution should also address tissue characterization to define the soft tissue filling of ducts by DCIS. In this manner, CURE may be able to more accurately identify the malignant calcifications associated with progression of DCIS or early cancers. Currently, high-resolution US images of the breast are performed in the reflection mode at higher frequencies, which also limits depth of penetration. Reconstruction of reflection ultrasound images relies upon acoustic impedance differences in the tissue and includes only direct backscatter of the ultrasound signal. Resolution and tissue contrast of current US continues to improve with denser transducer arrays and image processing, but the operator dependent nature of using a moveable transducer head remains a significant problem for thorough coverage of the entire breast. We have therefore undertaken the development of a whole breast (i.e., including auxiliary tail) system, with improved resolution and tissue characterization abilities. The extensive ultrasound physics considerations, engineering, materials process development and subsequent algorithm reconstruction are beyond the scope of this initial paper. The proprietary nature of these processes will be forthcoming as the intellectual property is fully secured. We will focus here on the imaging outcomes as they apply to eventual expansion into clinical use.
Littrup, P J; Duric, N; Azevedo, S; Chambers, D; Candy, J V; Johnson, S; Auner, G; Rather, J; Holsapple, E T
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and for this reason computer-based diagnosis of cardiac diseases is a very important task. In this article, a method for segmentation of aortic outflow velocity profiles from cardiac Doppler ultrasound images is presented. The proposed method is based on the statistical image atlas derived from ultrasound images of healthy volunteers. The ultrasound image segmentation is done by registration of the input image to the atlas, followed by a propagation of the segmentation result from the atlas onto the input image. In the registration process, the normalized mutual information is used as an image similarity measure, while optimization is performed using a multiresolution gradient ascent method. The registration method is evaluated using an in-silico phantom, real data from 30 volunteers, and an inverse consistency test. The segmentation method is evaluated using 59 images from healthy volunteers and 89 images from patients, and using cardiac parameters extracted from the segmented image. Experimental validation is conducted using a set of healthy volunteers and patients and has shown excellent results. Cardiac parameter segmentation evaluation showed that the variability of the automated segmentation relative to the manual is comparable to the intra-observer variability. The proposed method is useful for computer aided diagnosis and extraction of cardiac parameters. PMID:21156328
Kalini?, Hrvoje; Lon?ari?, Sven; Cikeš, Maja; Mili?i?, Davor; Bijnens, Bart
We demonstrate that microscopic imaging is feasible in ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) of soft biological tissues, using a high-frequency focused ultrasound transducer with a 75-MHz central frequency. Our experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms show that at an imaging depth of about 2 mm, an axial resolution better than 30 microm can be achieved, whereas the lateral resolution is 38 microm. A long-cavity scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer (CFPI) is used for real-time detection of multiply scattered light modulated by high-frequency ultrasound pulses propagating in an optically scattering medium. We also compare the performances of various high-frequency focused ultrasound transducers with central frequencies of 15 MHz, 30 MHz, 50 MHz, and 75 MHz. The comparison is based on two-dimensional (2-D) images of optically absorbing objects positioned at a few millimeters depth below the surface of both optically scattering phantoms and soft biological tissue samples. Our experimental results show that modulation depth and image contrast decrease with an increase in ultrasound frequency. In addition, we use analytical calculations to show that modulation depth decreases with increasing ultrasound frequency. PMID:19021426
Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Wang, Lihong V
As in other organs, tissue characterization is important for many cardiac diseases. For example, in ischemic heart disease, differentiation between reversibly and irreversibly damaged myocardium in patients with a prior myocardial infarction is crucial in determining disease severity, functional recovery and patient outcome. With the recent advent of the single inversion-recovery contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence (delayed contrast-enhanced MRI), contrast between normal and abnormal tissues could be significantly enhanced compared with the conventional cardiac MRI sequences, enabling even subtle abnormalities to be visualized. Together with other advances in cardiac MRI (e.g. functional imaging, coronary artery imaging), MRI has become one of the preferred non-invasive modalities to study cardiac diseases. In this paper an overview of the versatility of delayed contrast-enhanced MRI for investigating cardiac diseases is given. PMID:15801058
Bogaert, Jan; Dymarkowski, Steven
Diseases related to lamin A/C mutations (laminopathies) are extremely heterogeneous. The common cardiac phenotype is idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy with atrioventricular block and/or arrhythmias. Moreover, patients with lamin A/C gene mutations are at increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Here we present a family with a strong positive history of sudden cardiac death in presence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac conduction abnormalities, related to a novel lamin A/C mutation in exon 3. PMID:20461955
Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Botto, Nicoletta; Vittorini, Simona; Pulignani, Silvia; Aquaro, Giovanni; Sicari, Rosa
The objective of this review was to establish whether three-dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) ultrasonography adds diagnostic information to what is currently provided by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound in the diagnosis of the most frequent fetal structural defects: congenital heart disease and central nervous system congenital anomalies. There are evidences suggesting that 3D ultrasound allows to reduce the operator dependency in the visualization of standard diagnostic planes, thus reducing the examination time require for the obstetric ultrasound examination, with minimal impact on the visualization quality of the anatomic landmarks. Furthermore, operators with minimal experience may record cardiac or brain volumes that can be successfully analyzed off-line locally or sent by internet to experts for remote review. As a consequence 3D ultrasonography promises to become the method of choice for diagnosis congenital structural defects. PMID:21926949
Rizzo, G; Pietrolucci, M; Aiello, E; Mammarella, S; Bosi, C; Arduini, D
Ultrasound guidance for femoral nerve blockade allows visualization of normal and abnormal anatomy. Two cases of femoral nerve blockade under ultrasound guidance are presented where a major perineural pathologic lesion was incidentally revealed. These pathologic lesions, an abscess and a hematoma, resulted in significant adaptations in clinical care and have not been reported previously. We review and discuss incidental pathologic lesions that can be found in the femoral region. Identification of these 2 pathologic lesions facilitated our perioperative management strategies in two separate cases. PMID:21697688
Auyong, David B; Tokeshi, Jay; Joshi, Sonali; Anderson, Corrie T M
. The objective of our study was to evaluate integrated backscatter (IBS) measurement, an ultrasound method of myocardial tissue\\u000a characterization, in children receiving cardiotoxic anthracyclines for malignancy. Myocardial injury is known to diminish\\u000a the normal cyclic variation of IBS (CVIBS) during the cardiac cycle. We used a cross-sectional, case-controlled study of children\\u000a receiving anthracyclines and serial, prospective observation in a
M. B. Goens; S. S. Karr; N. Seibel; G. R. Martin
The estimation and analysis of cardiac motion provides important information for the quantification of the elasticity and contractility of the myocardium. Taking advantage of the recent progress on real-time ultrasound imaging, unstitched volumetric data can be captured in a high frame rate. In this paper, we propose a learning-based method to automatically estimate the 3D displacements and velocities of the
Yang Wang; Bogdan Georgescu; Dorin Comaniciu; Helene Houle
The aim of the study was to develop an early ultrasound diagnostic schema for the determination of increased risk for fetal\\u000a chromosomal aneuploidies. The study was conducted on a population of 1318 pregnant women divided into 2 groups: 1255 women\\u000a with the normal course of pregnancy and 63 women with diagnosed fetal abnormalities. There were 34 cases of chromosomal abnormalities
Piotr Sieroszewski; Ma?gorzata Perenc; El?bieta Ba?-Budecka; Jacek Suzin
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with severe cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities. Cor pulmonale and right-sided heart failure may ensue. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is one of several treatment modalities suggested for OSAS. Tracheotomy and CPAP treatment in adult OSAS patients and adenotonsillectomy in children with OSAS were shown to lead to improvement in some cardiac parameters. Cardiac function was prospectively evaluated in 19 OSAS patients before and after UPPP. No significant changes after surgery were noted on electrocardiographic studies. Improvement in global and regional function of both ventricles was seen in 91% of the patients. A trend toward significant elevation in left ventricular ejection fraction and a statistically significant increase in right ventricular ejection fraction were observed (45% +/- 9% to 50% +/- 7% [p = 0.007]). Our results support performance of UPPP in selected OSAS patients for relief of potentially life-threatening cardiac pathologies. PMID:1383911
Zohar, Y; Talmi, Y P; Frenkel, H; Finkelstein, Y; Rudnicki, C; Fried, M; Zahavi, Y
Impaired arterial oxygenation, ranging from increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDo2) to hypoxemia, is commonly present in patients with cirrhosis. Nitric oxide (NO), through pulmonary vasodilatation, may play a major role in the oxygen abnormalities of cirrhosis. Our aim was to study the relationship between NO production and O2 abnormalities in 45 nonsmoking patients with cirrhosis and without major cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Intrapulmonary shunting was detected by contrast-enhanced (CE) echocardiography. Lung volumes and diffusion, arterial blood gas analysis, serum NO2-/NO3-, NO output in the exhaled air, and cardiac index by the echocardiographic method were determined in all patients. Twenty-seven (60%) patients had an abnormally increased (> 15 mm Hg) AaDo2. The mean values of exhaled NO output and serum NO2-/NO3- were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls (252 +/- 117 vs. 75.2 +/- 19 nL/min/m2, P < .0001; and 47.5 +/- 29.4 vs. 32.9 +/- 10.1 micromol/L, P < .02, respectively). In all patients, there was a significant correlation between exhaled NO and AaDo2 (r = .78, P < .0001). Twelve patients (26.6%) were found to have CE-echocardiographic evidence of intrapulmonary shunting (positive CE-echo). Nine patients were considered to have hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) on the basis of an AaDo2 > 15 mm Hg and positive CE-echo. These 9 patients had a mean value of exhaled NO significantly higher than patients without HPS (331 +/- 73.2 vs. 223 +/- 118.4 nL/min/m2, P < .05). In all patients, cardiac index was positively correlated with exhaled NO (r = .47, P < .001) and with serum NO2-/NO3- (r = .43, P < .01). The results suggest an important role of NO in the oxygenation and circulatory abnormalities of patients with cirrhosis. PMID:9328302
Rolla, G; Brussino, L; Colagrande, P; Dutto, L; Polizzi, S; Scappaticci, E; Bergerone, S; Morello, M; Marzano, A; Martinasso, G; Salizzoni, M; Bucca, C
Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the effectiveness the screening program? How often should population-based screening occur? What are appropriate treatment options after screening based on the size of aneurysms? Are there differences between universal and targeted screening strategies? What are the harms of screening? Summary of Findings Population-based ultrasound screening is effective in men aged 65 to 74 years, particularly in those with a history of smoking. Screening reduces the incidence of AAA ruptures, and decreases rates of emergency surgical repair for AAA and AAA-attributable mortality. Acceptance rates decline with increasing age and are lower for women. Low acceptance rates may affect the effectiveness of a screening program. A one-time screen is sufficient for a population-based screening program with regard to initial negative scans and development of large AAAs. There is no difference between early elective surgical repair and surveillance for small aneurysms (4.0–5.4 cm). Repeated surveillance of small aneurysms is recommended. Targeted screening based on history of smoking has been found to detect 89% of prevalent AAAs and increase the efficiency of screening programs from statistical modeling data. Women have not been studied for AAA screening programs. There is evidence suggesting that screening women for AAA should be considered with respect to mortality and case fatality rates in Ontario. It is important that further evaluation of AAAs in women occur. There is a small risk of physical harm from screening. Less than 1% of aneurysms will not be visualized on initial screen and a re-screen may be necessary; elective surgical repair is associated with a 6% operative morality rate and about 3% of small aneurysms may rupture during surveillance. These risks should be communicated through informed consent prior to screening. There is little evidence of severe psychological harms associated with screening. Conclusions Based on this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there is sufficient evidence to determine that AAA screening using ultrasound is effective
The amyloidoses are a group of hereditary or acquired disorders caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils that impair tissue structure and function. All amyloidoses result from protein misfolding, a common mechanism for disorders in older persons including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Cardiac amyloidoses in the elderly are most often caused by abnormalities in the protein transthyretin (TTR), a serum transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Mutations in TTR can result in familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, and wild-type TTR can result in senile cardiac amyloidosis. These underdiagnosed disorders are much more common than previously thought. The resulting restrictive cardiomyopathy can cause congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and advanced conduction system disease. Although historically difficult to make, the diagnosis of TTR cardiac amyloidosis has become easier in recent years with advances in cardiac imaging and more widespread use of genetic analysis. While therapy to this point has largely involved supportive medical care, avoidance of potentially toxic agents, and rarely organ transplantation, the near future brings the possibility of targeted pharmacotherapies designed to prevent TTR misfolding and amyloid deposition. As these disease modifying agents are designed to prevent disease progression, it has become increasingly important that older persons with TTR amyloidosis be expeditiously identified and considered for enrollment in clinical registries and trials.
Dharmarajan, Kumar; Maurer, Mathew S.
Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and L-type Ca2+ channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine68, PLM stimulates Na+-K+-ATPase but inhibits Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in cardiac myocytes. In heterologous expression systems, PLM modulates the gating of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Therefore, PLM occupies a key modulatory role in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis and is intimately involved in regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Genetic ablation of PLM results in a slight increase in baseline cardiac contractility and prolongation of action potential duration. When hearts are subjected to catecholamine stress, PLM minimizes the risks of arrhythmogenesis by reducing Na+ overload and simultaneously preserves inotropy by inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. In heart failure, both expression and phosphorylation state of PLM are altered and may partly account for abnormalities in EC coupling. The unique role of PLM in regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and potentially L-type Ca2+ channel in the heart, together with the changes in its expression and phosphorylation in heart failure, make PLM a rational and novel target for development of drugs in our armamentarium against heart failure.
Cheung, Joseph Y.; Wang, JuFang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J.; Rabinowitz, Joseph E.; Chan, Tung O.; Feldman, Arthur M.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation that can lead to structural damage of cartilage, bone and tendons. Assessing the inflammatory activity and the severity is essential in RA to help rheumatologists in adopting proper therapeutic strategies and in evaluating disease outcome and response to treatment. In the last years musculoskeletal (MS) ultrasonography (US) underwent tremendous technological development of equipment with increased sensitivity in detecting a wide set of joint and soft tissues abnormalities. In RA MSUS with the use of Doppler modalities is a useful imaging tool to depict inflammatory abnormalities (i.e. synovitis, tenosynovitis and bursitis) and structural changes (i.e. bone erosions, cartilage damage and tendon lesions). In addition, MSUS has been demonstrated to be able to monitor the response to different therapies in RA to guide local diagnostic and therapeutic procedures such as biopsy, fluid aspirations and injections. Future applications based on the development of new tools may improve the role of MSUS in RA. PMID:23979615
Rizzo, Chiara; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Gattamelata, Angelica; Vavala, Caterina; Valesini, Guido; Iagnocco, Annamaria
Minimally invasive techniques for use inside the beating heart, such as mitral valve replacement and septal defect repair, are the focus of this work. Traditional techniques for these procedures require an open chest approach and a cardiopulmonary bypass machine. New techniques using port access and a combined surgical guidance tool that includes an overlaid two-dimensional ultrasound image in a virtual reality environment are being developed. To test this technique, a cardiac phantom was developed to simulate the anatomy. The phantom consists of an acrylic box filled with a 7% glycerol solution with ultrasound properties similar to human tissue. Plate inserts mounted in the box simulate the physical anatomy. An accuracy assessment was completed to evaluate the performance of the system. Using the cardiac phantom, a 2mm diameter glass toroid was attached to a vertical plate as the target location. An elastic material was placed between the target and plate to simulate the target lying on a soft tissue structure. The target was measured using an independent measurement system and was represented as a sphere in the virtual reality system. The goal was to test the ability of a user to probe the target using three guidance methods: (i) 2D ultrasound only, (ii) virtual reality only and (iii) ultrasound enhanced virtual reality. Three users attempted the task three times each for each method. An independent measurement system was used to validate the measurement. The ultrasound imaging alone was poor in locating the target (5.42 mm RMS) while the other methods proved to be significantly better (1.02 mm RMS and 1.47 mm RMS respectively). The ultrasound enhancement is expected to be more useful in a dynamic environment where the system registration may be disturbed.
Wiles, Andrew D.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Christopher; Linte, Cristian A.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry M.
Components with defects are identified from the response to strains applied at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. The relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0.vertline., is determined as a function of applied strain amplitude for an acceptable component, where .function..sub.0 is the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak of a selected mode to determine a reference relationship. Then, the relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0 is determined as a function of applied strain for a component under test, where fo .function..sub.0 the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak to determine a quality test relationship. The reference relationship is compared with the quality test relationship to determine the presence of defects in the component under test.
Johnson, Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); TenCate, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Guyer, Robert A. (Amherst, MA); Van Den Abeele, Koen E. A. (Sint-Niklaas, BE)
An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.
Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Visscher, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Zachary (Santa Fe, NM)
Histotripsy is a well-controlled ultrasonic tissue ablation technology that mechanically and progressively fractionates tissue structures using cavitation. The fractionated tissue volume can be monitored with ultrasound imaging because a significant ultrasound backscatter reduction occurs. This paper correlates the ultrasound backscatter reduction with the degree of tissue fractionation characterized by the percentage of remaining normal-appearing cell nuclei on histology. Different degrees of tissue fractionation were generated in vitro in freshly excised porcine kidneys by varying the number of therapeutic ultrasound pulses from 100 to 2000 pulses per treatment location. All ultrasound pulses were 15 cycles at 1 MHz delivered at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and 19 MPa peak negative pressure. The results showed that the normalized backscatter intensity decreased exponentially with increasing number of pulses. Correspondingly, the percentage of normal appearing nuclei in the treated area decreased exponentially as well. A linear correlation existed between the normalized backscatter intensity and the percentage of normal appearing cell nuclei in the treated region. This suggests that the normalized backscatter intensity may be a potential quantitative real-time feedback parameter for histotripsy-induced tissue fractionation. This quantitative feedback may allow the prediction of local clinical outcomes, i.e., when a tissue volume has been sufficiently treated.
Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Winterroth, Frank; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Rothman, Edward D.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.
Objective The aim of this study is to understand the diagnostic utility of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-based microarrays for pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 2858 pregnancies with abnormal ultrasounds and normal karyotypes (when performed) tested in our laboratory using CGH microarrays targeted to known chromosomal syndromes with later versions providing backbone coverage of the entire genome. Abnormalities were stratified according to organ system involvement. Detection rates for clinically significant findings among these categories were calculated. Results Clinically significant genomic alterations were identified in cases with a single ultrasound anomaly (n = 99/1773, 5.6%), anomalies in two or more organ systems (n = 77/808, 9.5%), isolated growth abnormalities (n = 2/76, 2.6%), and soft markers (n = 2/77, 2.6%). The following anomalies in isolation or with additional anomalies had particularly high detection rates: holoprosencephaly (n = 9/85, 10.6%), posterior fossa defects (n = 21/144, 14.6%), skeletal anomalies (n = 15/140, 10.7%), ventricular septal defect (n = 14/132, 10.6%), hypoplastic left heart (n = 11/68, 16.2%), and cleft lip/palate (n = 14/136, 10.3%). Conclusions Microarray analysis identified clinically significant genomic alterations in 6.5% of cases with one or more abnormal ultrasound findings; the majority were below the resolution of karyotyping. Larger data sets such as this allow for sub-stratification by specific anomalies to determine risks for genomic alterations detectable by microarray analysis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shaffer, Lisa G; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Dabell, Mindy P; Coppinger, Justine; Bandholz, Anne M; Ellison, Jay W; Ravnan, J Britt; Torchia, Beth S; Ballif, Blake C; Fisher, Allan J
One hundred and sixty seven children, ranging in age from 5 weeks to 16 years, with chronic upper or lower respiratory tract problems, or both, were investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. Abnormal ciliary function was found in 18 cases all of whom had chronic lower respiratory disease and most of whom also had upper respiratory problems. Fifteen of the 18 cases had reduced ciliary beat frequencies (less than 10 Hz) associated with dyskinesia and the other three showed apparent absence of ciliated cells. Of the 15 cases with reduced ciliary beat frequencies, ciliary ultrastructure was normal in seven cases but abnormal with missing dynein arms and occasional abnormalities of microtubular arrangement in eight. Respiratory symptoms in the perinatal period were more common in children with abnormal ciliary function and present in all those with ultrastructural abnormalities or absence of ciliated cells compared with 34 (26%) of 132 children, in whom symptoms were recorded, with normal ciliary function. This study would suggest that all children with unexplained chronic respiratory disease, in particular those with symptoms starting in the perinatal period, should be investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. PMID:3355203
Buchdahl, R M; Reiser, J; Ingram, D; Rutman, A; Cole, P J; Warner, J O
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a disease modifying, device-driven treatment that can reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. According to the current guidelines, the indication for CRT is only based on QRS duration and functional class of heart failure. However, a substantial amount of patients do not respond to therapy. In addition, CRT is accompanied by significant cost and potential morbidity. It is therefore vital to improve patient selection for CRT to improve patient outcome and minimize therapy-related complications. In this regard, cardiac sympathetic innervation may be of interest. This review addresses the currently available literature, 9 studies with a total number of 225 patients, on CRT and cardiac innervation scintigraphy with (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. PMID:23749044
Scholtens, A M; Braat, A J A T; Tuinenburg, A; Meine, M; Verberne, H J
Minimally invasive strategies can be expanded by combining standard surgical and interventional techniques. We performed a longitudinal prospective study of all pediatric patients who have undergone hybrid cardiac surgery at the University of Chicago Children's Hospital. Hybrid cardiac surgery was defined as combined catheter-based and surgical interventions in either one setting or in a planned sequential fashion within 24 hours.
E. A. Bacha; Z. M. Hijazi; Q. L. Cao; R. Abdulla; J. P. Starr; J. Quinones; P. Koenig; B. Agarwala
During the course of a clinical pathologic study of cardiac lesions observed in 375 autopsies at ABCC, focal cardiac myocytolysis (FCM) was found in 21 hearts. There was no evidence that FCM was related to prior exposure at the time of the bomb. Myocardia...
A. Steer T. Kawashima T. Nakashima D. S. Dock K. K. Lee
Cardiac data on multiple variables for a selected population of 220 men and 338 women participating in a drug treatment study of dobutamine for heart attack prevention. Garfinkel, Alan, et. al. "Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Predicting Cardiac Events in Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33.3 (1999) 708-16.
Alan Garfinkel (University of California Los Angeles;Physiological Sci/Med-Cardio)
Utilization of advanced information, telecommunication and implant technology for cardiac risk stratification and management is one of the greatest challenges for modern health care provision. Sudden cardiac death is the major contributor to overall cardiovascular mortality with approximately 60% of all coronary heart disease fatalities occurring annually. Although some high-risk patient groups have been identified with reasonable sensitivity and specificity
H. Hutten; M. Hribernigg; G. Rauchegger
This article provides an overview of the process and application of cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction and coronary artery bypass grafting. The authors discuss risk factor modification targeting smoking, serum cholesterol, hypertension, and exercise training. The role of the physician and the practitioner are addressed as well as the physiological and psychological benefits of cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:1613314
Gremillion, M M; VanHoof, C C; Landreneau, J W
There are a number of accepted anaesthetic techniques for cardiac surgery. New drugs continue to be introduced into clinical practice, and there are differences of opinion about the optimal anaesthetic for a particular cardiac procedure. However, there is evidence that it is not the initial choice of a particular anaesthetic technique or group of drugs that is crucial to outcome,
John W. W. Gothard; Moira Wattie
Objective: To determine the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on sympathetic nervous function in heart failure (HF). Background: Neurohormonal dysregulation and cardiac autonomic dysfunction are associated with HF and contribute to HF progression and its poor prognosis. We hypothesized that mechanical resynchronization improves cardiac sympathetic function in HF. Methods: Sixteen consecutive patients receiving CRT for advanced cardiomyopathy and 10 controls were included in this prospective study. NYHA class, 6-minute walk distance, echocardiographic parameters, plasma norepinephrine (NE) were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Cardiac sympathetic function was determined by 123iodine metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. Results: Along with improvement in NYHA class (3.1 ± 0.3 to 2.1 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) and LVEF (23 ± 6% to 33 ± 12%, P < 0.001 delayed heart/mediastinum (H/M) 123 I-MIBG ratio increased significantly (1.8 ± 0.7 to 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.04) while the H/M 123I-MIBG washout rate decreased significantly (54 ± 25% to 34± 24%, P = 0.01) from baseline to 6-month follow-up. The heart rate variability (HRV) measured in SD of normal-to-normal intervals also increased significantly from baseline (82 ± 30 ms) to follow-up (111 ± 32 ms, P = 0.04). The improvement in NYHA after CRT was significantly associated with baseline 123I-MIBG H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). The improvement in LVESV index was associated with baseline 123I-MIBG delayed H/M ratio (r = ?0.67, P = 0.02) and H/M washout rate (r = 0.65, P = 0.03). Conclusion: After CRT, improvements in cardiac symptoms and LV function were accompanied by rebalanced cardiac autonomic control as measured by 123I-MIBG and HRV.
CHA, YONG-MEI; OH, JAE; MIYAZAKI, CHINAMI; HAYES, DAVID L.; REA, ROBERT F.; SHEN, WIN-KUANG; ASIRVATHAM, SAMUEL J.; KEMP, BRAD J.; HODGE, DAVID O.; CHEN, PENG-SHENG; CHAREONTHAITAWEE, PANITHAYA
Diabetes mellitus has long been linked to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the magnitude of this association, and the mechanism accounting for this phenomenon, have not been precisely defined. In this review, we evaluate the epidemiological data pertaining to the association between diabetes mellitus and sudden cardiac death and discuss various proposed mechanisms that may account for this relationship. Potential factors contributing to the increased risk of sudden cardiac death observed in patients with diabetes mellitus include silent myocardial ischemia, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, abnormal cardiac repolarization, hypoglycemia, a hypercoaguable state secondary to diabetes mellitus, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and impaired respiratory response to hypoxia and hypercapnea. We conclude that diabetes mellitus does appear to be associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although this increased risk is relatively modest, given the large number of diabetic patients worldwide, the absolute number of sudden cardiac deaths attributable to diabetes mellitus remains significant. Little evidence exists to support any specific mechanism(s) accounting for this association. Further investigation into the pathophysiology of sudden cardiac death in diabetes mellitus may yield improved risk stratification tools as well as identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:20544609
Bergner, Daniel W; Goldberger, Jeffrey J
Cardiac rhythms arise from electrical activity generated by precisely timed opening and closing of ion channels in individual cardiac myocytes. These impulses spread throughout the cardiac muscle to manifest as electrical waves in the whole heart. Regularity of electrical waves is critically important since they signal the heart muscle to contract, driving the primary function of the heart to act as a pump and deliver blood to the brain and vital organs. When electrical activity goes awry during a cardiac arrhythmia, the pump does not function, the brain does not receive oxygenated blood, and death ensues. For more than 50 years, mathematically based models of cardiac electrical activity have been used to improve understanding of basic mechanisms of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical function. Computer-based modeling approaches to understand cardiac activity are uniquely helpful because they allow for distillation of complex emergent behaviors into the key contributing components underlying them. Here we review the latest advances and novel concepts in the field as they relate to understanding the complex interplay between electrical, mechanical, structural, and genetic mechanisms during arrhythmia development at the level of ion channels, cells, and tissues. We also discuss the latest computational approaches to guiding arrhythmia therapy. PMID:22886409
Roberts, Byron N; Yang, Pei-Chi; Behrens, Steven B; Moreno, Jonathan D; Clancy, Colleen E
Cardiac rhythms arise from electrical activity generated by precisely timed opening and closing of ion channels in individual cardiac myocytes. These impulses spread throughout the cardiac muscle to manifest as electrical waves in the whole heart. Regularity of electrical waves is critically important since they signal the heart muscle to contract, driving the primary function of the heart to act as a pump and deliver blood to the brain and vital organs. When electrical activity goes awry during a cardiac arrhythmia, the pump does not function, the brain does not receive oxygenated blood, and death ensues. For more than 50 years, mathematically based models of cardiac electrical activity have been used to improve understanding of basic mechanisms of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical function. Computer-based modeling approaches to understand cardiac activity are uniquely helpful because they allow for distillation of complex emergent behaviors into the key contributing components underlying them. Here we review the latest advances and novel concepts in the field as they relate to understanding the complex interplay between electrical, mechanical, structural, and genetic mechanisms during arrhythmia development at the level of ion channels, cells, and tissues. We also discuss the latest computational approaches to guiding arrhythmia therapy.
Roberts, Byron N.; Yang, Pei-Chi; Behrens, Steven B.; Moreno, Jonathan D.
BACKGROUND: Cardiac mortality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has recently become important, because risk of respiratory failure has been reduced due to widespread use of the respirator. The cardiac involvement is characterized by distinctive electrocardiographic abnormalities or dilated cardiomyopathy, but the pathogenesis has remained obscure. In research on DMD, Golden retriever-based muscular dystrophy (GRMD) has attracted much attention as an
Naoko Yugeta; Nobuyuki Urasawa; Yoko Fujii; Madoka Yoshimura; Katsutoshi Yuasa; Michiko R Wada; Masao Nakura; Yoshiki Shimatsu; Masayuki Tomohiro; Akio Takahashi; Noboru Machida; Yoshito Wakao; Akinori Nakamura; Shin'ichi Takeda
Chronic administration of propionyl-l-carnitine has been recently shown to correct hypertrophy related abnormalities in muscle mechanics. Accordingly, this study investigated whether the drug would similarly improve cardiac dynamics in rats with pressure overload. Enalapril was used for comparison. Drugs were administered in the drinking water for 3 weeks to Wistar Kyoto rats with a 2 week abdominal aortic constriction. Cardiac
Rosella Micheletti; Eugenio Donato di Paola; Antonio Schiavone; Roberto Rossi; Giuseppe Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Becker-Kiener muscular dystrophy (BMD) represents an X-linked genetic disease associated with myocardial involvement potentially resulting in dilated cardio