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1

A multimodal (MRI/ultrasound) cardiac phantom for imaging experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic cardiac phantom can play a significant role in the evaluation and development of ultrasound and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) motion tracking and registration methods. A four chamber multimodal cardiac phantom has been designed and built to simulate normal and pathologic hearts with different degrees of "infarction" and "scar tissues". In this set up, cardiac valves have been designed and modeled as well. The four-chamber structure can simulate the asymmetric ventricular, atrial and valve motions. Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) is used as the principal material since it can simulate the shape, elasticity, and MR and ultrasound properties of the heart. The cardiac shape is simulated using a four-chamber mold made of polymer clay. An additional pathologic heart phantom containing stiff inclusions has been manufactured in order to simulate an infracted heart. The stiff inclusions are of different shapes and different degrees of elasticity and are able to simulate abnormal cardiac segments. The cardiac elasticity is adjusted based on freeze-thaw cycles of the PVA cryogel for normal and scarred regions. Ultrasound and MRI markers were inserted in the cardiac phantom as landmarks for validations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multimodal phantom that models a dynamic four-chamber human heart including the cardiac valve.

Tavakoli, Vahid; Kendrick, Michael; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alshaher, Motaz; Stoddard, Marcus F.; Amini, Amir

2013-03-01

2

Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

2013-07-01

3

Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

2011-03-01

4

Detection of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using ultrasound.  

PubMed

During the past 25 years, embryonic and early fetal ultrasound and diagnosis have increasingly gained attention in pregnancy care. Modern high-frequency ultrasound transducers make it possible to obtain detailed images of the early conceptus and its organs, and thus move part of the anatomy and anomaly scan from the second to the first trimester. Today, detection of embryonic and fetal structural abnormalities in the first trimester has frequently been reported. One has to distinguish between diagnosis during the early period until about 10 weeks when the embryo or early fetus is small and transvaginal ultrasound is applied, and diagnosis during the late period at the nuchal translucency screening, usually carried out using transabdominal ultrasound. Early first-trimester abnormalities are often diagnosed by chance on clinical indications, whereas late first-trimester diagnoses are the result of systematic screening using ultrasound markers. PMID:24355991

Blaas, Harm-Gerd Karl

2014-04-01

5

A fantastic journey: 3D cardiac ultrasound goes live.  

PubMed

With a recent product introduction, live 3D echo is now clinically practical. It is already beginning to have a profound impact on the way we care for patients at The University of Chicago Medical Center. In the past, dynamic cardiac 3D rendered images were possible by sequentially acquiring 2D images and then using a workstation to input 2D images for Cartesian coordinate conversion and volume rendering. Outside research settings, this time-consuming process proved cumbersome and was simply impractical. Now that these technical and practical issues have been addressed, real-time 3D cardiac sonography has great potential to impact both patient care and throughput in a number of ways, including better pre- and post-surgical planning, improved measurement of heart function, decreased exam times, and enhanced communication between clinicians and their patients. With real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound images, clinicians will be able to better quantify size, shape and function of the heart. However, the most important contribution of real-time 3D sonography in cardiology may be improvement in locating abnormalities for surgical planning. The new technology will also provide important information regarding surgical outcomes. A great benefit to obtaining more diagnostic information and higher diagnostic confidence from real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound images is that it could lead to more rapid exam times and the reduction of patient wait times. Being able to see the whole heart makes examinations more simple and rapid, benefitting the staff and patient. The utility of this technology is unusually broad, as it is able to move beyond diagnostics into a key role in therapeutic procedures. As with any new technology, there will be a learning curve to understanding 3D imaging. Though the matrix transducer is somewhat larger than a standard 2D probe, the ergonomics are quite similar. The interface of the ultrasound unit is also very user friendly. Because real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound involves looking at the heart as if you are holding it in your hands, with the additional ability to turn it any way you want, we expect that the transition from 2D to 3D will be easily achieved. PMID:12510606

Lang, Roberto; Sugeng, Lissa

2002-01-01

6

Application of spatio-temporal image correlation technology in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart disease is the birth defect with the highest incidence in China. Its timely and accurate prenatal diagnosis is critical for appropriate perinatal and postnatal management and salvage treatment. With improvements in the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and clinical manipulation techniques, prenatal diagnosis is conducted increasingly early and with greater accuracy. However, the representations of tiny blood vessels and the determination of abnormal spatial structures in the fetal period continue to cause difficulties in prenatal diagnosis. In theory, spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) technology is able to compensate for the defects of previous traditional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and improve the diagnostic accuracy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical application value of STIC technology combined with traditional 2D ultrasound in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities. A total of 1,286 fetuses were subjected to sequential echocardiographic examination, during which STIC technology was used to collect heart volume data and carry out image post-processing and off-line analysis. In addition, the prenatal and postnatal echocardiography results were compared with the pathology results following the induced labor of fetuses with cardiac abnormalities. The sensitivity, specificity, misdiagnosis rate and rate of missed diagnosis for the STIC technology in the diagnosis of prenatal fetal cardiac abnormalities were 97.4, 99.6, 0.4 and 2.6%, respectively. The total coincidence rate was 99.2% and the positive and negative predictive values were 97.9 and 99.4%, respectively; the statistics for the consistency check of the STIC technology in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities are ?=0.991, P=0.000. STIC technology combined with fetal echocardiography may be used for the definite diagnosis of fetal heart malformations, with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23837046

HE, YIHUA; WANG, JUNLAN; GU, XIAOYAN; ZHANG, YE; HAN, JIANCHENG; LIU, XIAOWEI; LI, ZHIAN

2013-01-01

7

Anatomical and functional cardiac abnormalities in type I diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To analyse the anatomy and systolic and diastolic cardiac function in a group of type I diabetics with no other abnormality and to correlate it with the duration of the disease, the presence of complications, the control of the diabetes and the abnormalities in the autonomous nervous system, 125 type I diabetics and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were

F. Illan; M. Valdés-Chávarri; J. Tebar; A. Garcia; H. Pascual; F. Soria; A. Hernfindez; T. Vicente

1992-01-01

8

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

2014-01-01

9

Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

2011-05-01

10

Assessment of cardiac output by the Doppler ultrasound technique alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal range of aortic blood velocity was established in 140 healthy adults, using a non-invasive Doppler ultrasound technique. Integration of the area under the velocity-time curve for each heart beat gave stroke distance, which, when multiplied by heart rate, gave minute distance. Stroke distance and minute distance are an indication of stroke volume and cardiac output respectively and both

N E Haites; F M McLennan; D H Mowat; J M Rawles

1985-01-01

11

REAL-TIME BLOCK FLOW TRACKING OF ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT MOTION IN 4D CARDIAC ULTRASOUND  

E-print Network

of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA 2 Department of Cardiac SurgeryREAL-TIME BLOCK FLOW TRACKING OF ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT MOTION IN 4D CARDIAC ULTRASOUND Marius George, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA ABSTRACT Real-time cardiac ultrasound allows

12

Focus cardiac ultrasound: the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging viewpoint.  

PubMed

The concept of point-of-care, problem-oriented focus cardiac ultrasound examination (FoCUS) is increasingly applied in the settings of medical emergencies, including cardiac diseases. The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) recognizes that cardiologists are not the only medical professionals dealing with cardiovascular emergencies. In reality, emergency cardiac diagnostics and treatment are also carried out by a wide range of specialists. For the benefit of the patients, the EACVI encourages any medical professional, sufficiently trained to obtain valuable information from FoCUS, to use it in emergency settings. These medical professionals need to have the necessary knowledge to understand the obtained information entirely, and to use it correctly, thoughtfully and with care. In this document, the EACVI underlines major differences between echocardiography and FoCUS, and underscores the need for specific education and training in order to fully utilize advantages and minimize drawbacks of this type of cardiac ultrasound examination in the critically ill patients. PMID:24866902

Neskovic, Aleksandar N; Edvardsen, Thor; Galderisi, Maurizio; Garbi, Madalina; Gullace, Giuseppe; Jurcut, Ruxandra; Dalen, Havard; Hagendorff, Andreas; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Popescu, Bogdan A; Sicari, Rosa; Stefanidis, Alexander

2014-09-01

13

Mapping cardiac fiber orientations from high-resolution DTI to high-frequency 3D ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.

Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

2014-03-01

14

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks  

E-print Network

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks± . maleeha.qazi@siemens.com , glenn.fung@siemens.com Abstract Coronary Heart Disease can be diagnosed by mea- suring and scoring regional motion of the heart wall in ultrasound images of the left ventricle (LV

Rosales, Rómer E.

15

Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused demonstrable abnormalities of mitral valve motion and reduced left ventricular mass and filling associated with systolic dysfunction. PMID:8142200

de Simone, G.; Scalfi, L.; Galderisi, M.; Celentano, A.; Di Biase, G.; Tammaro, P.; Garofalo, M.; Mureddu, G. F.; de Divitiis, O.; Contaldo, F.

1994-01-01

16

Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice  

E-print Network

Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice PATRICIA Bernstein, and Brian Kobilka. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyper.1152/ ajpheart.01063.2001.-- 2A-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) in the midbrain regulate sympathetic nervous system

Kobilka, Brian

17

Cardiac Activation Mapping Using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI)  

PubMed Central

We describe the first mapping of biological current in a live heart using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI). Ablation procedures that treat severe heart arrhythmias require detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave. The conventional procedure is time-consuming and limited by its poor spatial resolution (5–10 mm). UCSDI can potentially improve on existing mapping procedures. It is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acousto-electric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. Data from 2 experiments are presented. A 540 kHz ultrasonic transducer (f/# = 1, focal length = 90 mm, pulse repetition frequency = 1600 Hz) was scanned over an isolated rabbit heart perfused with an excitation-contraction decoupler to reduce motion significantly while retaining electric function. Tungsten electrodes inserted in the left ventricle recorded simultaneously the AE signal and the low-frequency electrocardiogram (ECG). UCSDI displayed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the spreading activation wave. The propagation velocity estimated from UCSDI was 0.25 ± 0.05 mm/ms, comparable to the values obtained with the ECG signals. The maximum AE signal-to-noise ratio after filtering was 18 dB, with an equivalent detection threshold of 0.1 mA/cm2. This study demonstrates that UCSDI is a potentially powerful technique for mapping current flow and biopotentials in the heart. PMID:19411215

Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S.; Jia, Congxian; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O'Donnell, Matthew

2010-01-01

18

Abnormal cardiac enzymes in systemic sclerosis: a report of four patients and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is heterogeneous and can include primary involvement of the myocardium, pericardium and coronary arteries or be secondary to cardiac complications of pulmonary and renal disease. Primary cardiac involvement in SSc is uncommon but can result in ventricular dysfunction, organ failure, arrhythmias and death. It can remain clinically silent and the prevalence is likely to be under-reported. We report four cases of SSc associated with a raised serum troponin T (TnT), in a proportion of whom cardiac MRI myocardial abnormalities were detected. These cases highlight the heterogeneity of cardiac involvement in SSc, the role of cardiac MRI and promising biochemical responses to immunosuppression. Cardiac biomarkers such as TnT may be useful screening tools to identify subclinical cardiac disease and assess response to therapeutic intervention. PMID:24091585

Vasta, B; Flower, V; Bucciarelli-Ducci, C; Brown, S; Korendowych, E; McHugh, N J; Pauling, J D

2014-03-01

19

Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the efficacy of two cardiac anatomy teaching modalities, ultrasound imaging and cadaveric prosections, for learning cardiac gross anatomy. One hundred and eight first-year medical students participated. Two weeks prior to the teaching intervention, students completed a pretest to assess their prior knowledge and to ensure that…

Griksaitis, Michael J.; Sawdon, Marina A.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

2012-01-01

20

Abnormal Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Mice Lacking ASIC3  

PubMed Central

Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3?/? mice. Asic3?/? mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3?/? mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3?/? mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24804235

Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Chen, Wei-Nan

2014-01-01

21

Implementing capon beamforming on a GPU for real-time cardiac ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

Capon beamforming is associated with a high computational complexity, which limits its use as a real-time method in many applications. In this paper, we present an implementation of the Capon beamformer that exhibits realtime performance when applied in a typical cardiac ultrasound imaging setting. To achieve this performance, we make use of the parallel processing power found in modern graphics processing units (GPUs), combined with beamspace processing to reduce the computational complexity as the number of array elements increases. For a three-dimensional beamspace, we show that processing rates supporting real-time cardiac ultrasound imaging are possible, meaning that images can be processed faster than the image acquisition rate for a wide range of parameters. Image quality is investigated in an in vivo cardiac data set. These results show that Capon beamforming is feasible for cardiac ultrasound imaging, providing images with improved lateral resolution both in element-space and beamspace. PMID:24402897

Åsen, Jon Petter; Buskenes, Jo Inge; Colombo Nilsen, Carl-Inge; Austeng, Andreas; Holm, Sverre

2014-01-01

22

[Nuchal translucency and ductus venosus as ultrasound markers of chromosomal abnormalities].  

PubMed

Chromosomal abnormalities are frequent pathologies. We must find new methods for early prenatal diagnosis. Therefore we propose to assess the effectiveness of nuchal translucency thickness and abnormal Doppler of ductus venosus as ultrasound markers of aneuploidies. We evaluated 228 high risk pregnancies between 11 and 14 weeks. Later amniocentesis or newborn evaluation by a genetist was made. 28 patients were lost at follow up; the definitive sample was 200 pregnancies. Nuchal translucency thickness was increased in 5 fetuses, of these 4 presented abnormal Doppler of ductus venosus. Chromosomal anomalies were confirmed in 3 of these fetuses, for an incidence of 1.5%. Nuchal translucency thickness increased had: 100% sensitivity and 98.98% specificity. Abnormal Doppler of ductus venosus had: 100% sensitivity and 99.49% specificity. Nuchal translucency thickness and Doppler of ductus venosus are excellent markers of chromosomal abnormalities PMID:19245170

Díaz, Victor; Guevara, Ramón; Brito, Julio

2008-12-01

23

Glutathione Deficiency in Cardiac Patients Is Related to the Functional Status and Structural Cardiac Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The tripeptide glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) is essential to cell survival, and deficiency in cardiac and systemic glutathione relates to heart failure progression and cardiac remodelling in animal models. Accordingly, we investigated cardiac and blood glutathione levels in patients of different functional classes and with different structural heart diseases. Methods: Glutathione was measured using standard enzymatic recycling method in venous blood

Thibaud Damy; Matthias Kirsch; Lara Khouzami; Philippe Caramelle; Philippe Le Corvoisier; Françoise Roudot-Thoraval; Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé; Luc Hittinger; Catherine Pavoine; Françoise Pecker

2009-01-01

24

Early carotid atherosclerosis and cardiac diastolic abnormalities in hypertensive subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that it is known that hypertension may be associated to early atherosclerosis manifestations, few data are to date available on the relationship between early carotid abnormalities and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. To address this issue, 142 hypertensive patients (64 females and 78 males) younger than 55 years, at the first diagnosis of mild-to-moderate essential hypertension (WHO\\/ISH criteria),

G Parrinello; D Colomba; P Bologna; A Licata; A Pinto; S Paterna; R Scaglione; G Licata

2004-01-01

25

Abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Predicts Cardiac Mortality in Low, Intermediate and High Risk Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction We examined whether heart rate turbulence (HRT) adds to traditional risk factors for cardiac mortality in older adults at low, intermediate and high risk. Methods and Results N=1298, age ?65 years, with 24-hour Holter recordings were studied. HRT, which quantifies heart rate response to ventricular premature contractions, was categorized as: both turbulence onset (TO) and turbulence slope (TS) normal; TO abnormal; TS abnormal; or both abnormal. Independent risks for cardiac mortality associated with HRT or, for comparison, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (>3.0 mg/L), were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and stratified by the presence of no, isolated subclinical (i.e., intermediate risk) or clinical CVD. Having both TS and TO abnormal compared to both normal was associated with cardiac mortality in the low risk group [HR 7.9, 95% CI 2.8–22.5, (p<0.001)]. In the high and intermediate risk groups, abnormal TS and TO ([HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–4.0, p=0.016] and [HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–5.9, p=0.012]), respectively, were also significantly associated with cardiac mortality. In contrast, elevated CRP was associated with increased cardiac mortality risk only in low risk individuals [HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–5.1, p=0.009]. In the low risk group, the c-statistic was 0.706 for the base model, 0.725 for the base model with CRP, and 0.767 for the base model with HRT. Conclusions Abnormal HRT independently adds to risk stratification of low, intermediate and high risk individuals but appears to add especially to the stratification of those considered at low risk. PMID:21134026

Stein, Phyllis K.; Barzilay, Joshua I.

2011-01-01

26

Method to Detect Cardiac Abnormalities Based on Electrocardiography and Sinoatrial Pacemaker Model  

E-print Network

in the developed countries. Early diagnosis and medical treatment of heart diseases can prevent the sudden death, and Irisawa) model to analyze the pole-zero characteristics of the phase error between abnormal cardiac devices for medical treatment of heart diseases such as pacemakers are susceptible

Wu, Mingshen

27

[Ultrasound-guided interscalene block in a patient with supraclavicular anatomical abnormalities due to radiotherapy and surgery].  

PubMed

Regional blocks can be difficult in surgical patients with certain superficial anatomical abnormalities. Such blocks may be possible, however, under ultrasound guidance. We report a case in which a man with a fractured right humerus required an ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block. Secondary to radiotherapy, the patient had right cervical and facial abnormalities that had altered the location of external anatomical landmarks. We describe the approach used to insert the catheter and the exploration of the region by ultrasound. Nerve stimulation was not used to avoid painful contractions. Analgesia was excellent during surgery and over the following 24 hours. PMID:21688510

Errando, C L; Muñoz-Devesa, L; Soldado, M A

2011-05-01

28

Doppler Ultrasound Determination of the Distribution of Human Cardiac Output: Effects of Age and Physical Stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its high spatial, temporal, and dynamic resolution, noninvasive Doppler ultrasound can be used to determine the distribution of phasic cardiac output in humans. The effects of ageing and various common physical stresses on combined human major central and regional blood flows have not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that there are no significant age-related differences in steady-state

E. R. Greene; R. C. Roach

2004-01-01

29

Serial changes in cardiac output during normal pregnancy: a Doppler ultrasound study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the direction and magnitude of change in cardiac output (CO) during pregnancy. Study design: We performed serial measurements of CO on five occasions from 24 weeks gestation to term and once during the puerperium in 26 normal pregnancies (156 measurements) using Doppler ultrasound measurement of flow velocity profiles and aortic root cross sectional area. Result: CO increased

Terence G. Hennessy; Dermot MacDonald; Marie S. Hennessy; Margaret Maguire; Sean Blake; Hugh A. McCann; Declan D. Sugrue

1996-01-01

30

Abnormal Calcium Handling and Exaggerated Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice with Defective Vitamin D Signaling  

PubMed Central

Aim Altered vitamin D signaling is associated with cardiac dysfunction, but the pathogenic mechanism is not clearly understood. We examine the mechanism and the role of vitamin D signaling in the development of cardiac dysfunction. Methods and Results We analyzed 1?-hydroxylase (1?-OHase) knockout (1?-OHase?/?) mice, which lack 1?-OH enzymes that convert the inactive form to hormonally active form of vitamin D. 1?-OHase?/? mice showed modest cardiac hypertrophy at baseline. Induction of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) demonstrated exaggerated cardiac dysfunction in 1?-OHase?/? mice compared to their WT littermates with a significant increase in fibrosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of calcium (Ca2+) transient demonstrated profound Ca2+ handling abnormalities in 1?-OHase?/? mouse cardiomyocytes (CMs), and treatment with paricalcitol (PC), an activated vitamin D3 analog, significantly attenuated defective Ca2+ handling in 1?-OHase?/? CMs. We further delineated the effect of vitamin D deficiency condition to TAC by first correcting the vitamin D deficiency in 1?-OHase?/? mice, followed then by either a daily maintenance dose of vitamin D or vehicle (to achieve vitamin D deficiency) at the time of sham or TAC. In mice treated with vitamin D, there was a significant attenuation of TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, inflammatory markers, Ca2+ handling abnormalities and cardiac function compared to the vehicle treated animals. Conclusions Our results provide insight into the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction, which is associated with severely defective Ca2+ handling and defective vitamin D signaling in 1?-OHase?/? mice. PMID:25268137

Choudhury, Sangita; Bae, Soochan; Ke, Qingen; Lee, Ji Yoo; Singh, Sylvia S.; St-Arnaud, Rene; del Monte, Federica; Kang, Peter M.

2014-01-01

31

Reproducibility of linear cardiac output measurement by Doppler ultrasound alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of a pig aorta in an artificial circulation with pulsed blood flow allowed correlation of minute distance, measured in the aorta by Doppler ultrasound, and absolute blood flow, measured by timed blood-volume collection. The correlation coefficient was 0.99 with a standard error of prediction that was 5.4% of the minute distance predicted at a standard flow rate of 5

F M McLennan; N E Haites; J D Mackenzie; M K Daniel; J M Rawles

1986-01-01

32

Three-Dimensional Cardiac Strain Estimation Using Spatio-Temporal Elastic Registration of Ultrasound Images: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ultrasound methods for measuring myocardial strain are often limited to measurements in one or two dimensions. Cardiac motion and deformation however are truly 3-D. With the introduction of matrix transducer technology, 3-D ultrasound imaging of the heart has become feasible but suffers from low temporal and spatial resolution, making 3-D strain estimation challenging. In this paper, it is shown

An Elen; Hon Fai Choi; Dirk Loeckx; Hang Gao; Piet Claus; Paul Suetens; Frederik Maes; Jan D'hooge

2008-01-01

33

Ultrasound guided vascular access in pediatric cardiac critical care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Safely obtaining vascular access in the pediatric population is challenging. This report highlights our real-world experience in developing a safer approach to obtaining vascular access using ultrasound guidance in children and infants with congenital heart disease. Methods As part of a quality initiative, we prospectively monitored outcomes of all vascular access attempts guided by ultrasound from January 2010 to September 2010. Variables monitored included age, weight, the time from first needle puncture to wire insertion, site of insertion, number of attempts, type of line, and complications. Results There were 77 attempts (15 arterial and 62 venous) to obtain vascular access in 43 patients. The mean age was 15 months (6 days–11 years; median 2.5 months). The mean weight was 7.2 kg (2–46 kg, median 3.8). Success rates were 93% and 95% for arterial and venous cannulation, respectively. Mean time from first needle puncture to wire insertion was 3.9 min (0.5–15 min, median 2 min). Fifty-five (75%) central line cannulations were successful from the first puncture; 17(23%) were successful from the second puncture; and one case (2%) required three punctures. Thirty patients (45%) weighed less than 3.5 kg. This lower body weight did not affect success rate, which was unexpectedly high (96.6%). There were no associated complications. Conclusion Ultrasound guided vascular cannulation in critically ill pediatric patients is safe, effective and efficient. This approach had a high success rate, and was associated with zero complications in our setting.

Jijeh, Abdulraouf M.Z.; Shaath, Ghassan; Kabbani, Mohamed S.; Elbarbary, Mahmoud; Ismail, Sameh

2014-01-01

34

Defects in cardiac function precede morphological abnormalities in fish embryos exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Fish embryos exposed to complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petrogenic sources show a characteristic suite of abnormalities, including cardiac dysfunction, edema, spinal curvature, and reduction in the size of the jaw and other craniofacial structures. To elucidate the toxic mechanisms underlying these different defects, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to seven non-alkylated PAHs, including five two- to four-ring compounds that are abundant in crude oil and two compounds less abundant in oil but informative for structure-activity relationships. We also analyzed two PAH mixtures that approximate the composition of crude oil at different stages of weathering. Exposure to the three-ring PAHs dibenzothiophene and phenanthrene alone was sufficient to induce the characteristic suite of defects, as was genetic ablation of cardiac function using a cardiac troponin T antisense morpholino oligonucleotide. The primary etiology of defects induced by dibenzothiophene or phenanthrene appears to be direct effects on cardiac conduction, which have secondary consequences for late stages of cardiac morphogenesis, kidney development, neural tube structure, and formation of the craniofacial skeleton. The relative toxicity of the different mixtures was directly proportional to the amount of phenanthrene, or the dibenzothiophene-phenanthrene total in the mixture. Pyrene, a four-ring PAH, induced a different syndrome of anemia, peripheral vascular defects, and neuronal cell death, similar to the effects previously described for potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Therefore, different PAH compounds have distinct and specific effects on fish at early life history stages. PMID:15081266

Incardona, John P; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

2004-04-15

35

Ultrasound-diagnosed cardiac tamponade after blunt abdominal trauma-treated with emergent thoracotomy.  

PubMed

Ultrasound imaging enhances the physician's ability to evaluate, diagnose, and treat emergency department (ED) patients. Because ultrasound imaging is often time-dependent in the acutely ill or injured patient, the emergency physician is in an ideal position to use this technology. Focused ultrasound examinations provide immediate information and can answer specific questions about the patient's physical condition. We report a case in which blunt trauma to the abdomen and pre-existing pericardial fluid, due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), caused pericardial tamponade, diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography, and subsequent cardiac arrest. An ED thoracotomy released this tamponade, and spontaneous cardiac activity returned. The indications for and efficacy of ED thoracotomy have been debated for many years. Multiple studies have shown that patients with isolated penetrating chest trauma have the best outcome and that patients with blunt trauma without signs of life at the scene or in the ED have the poorest. We demonstrate the importance of ultrasound use by emergency physicians to assess trauma patients with pulseless electrical activity and suggest that in specific clinical situations after blunt trauma, an ED thoracotomy can be life saving. PMID:17239739

Menaker, Jay; Cushman, Jeremy; Vermillion, Jon Mark; Rosenthal, Robert E; Scalea, Thomas M

2007-01-01

36

[Sonomarkers: subtle ultrasound findings in the 20-week ultrasound examination, which have a low association with some chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus].  

PubMed

Currently all pregnant women residing in the Netherlands are offered second trimester ultrasound screening for the detection of fetal congenital structural abnormalities. This routine ultrasound examination takes place at 18 to 22 weeks' gestation. The ultrasound examination may yield soft markers, which are characterized by subtle morphological changes that are often transient and have little or no pathological significance. Soft markers are of interest because of their association with fetal congenital anomalies, in particular aneuploidy. This may create uncertainty for the pregnant woman and the care provider. Information can be found in the literature about the strength of the association of soft markers, when detected as an isolated finding, and the presence of fetal abnormalities. One or more soft markers are detected during routine ultrasound in approximately 5% of pregnant women. 4 markers (echogenic intracardiac focus, echogenic bowel, mild ventriculomegaly and shortened femur) are associated with Down syndrome. Given the low prevalence of Down syndrome in the general population and the relatively low strength of association with the syndrome, the positive predictive value of these markers is very low. The same is true for choroid plexus cysts, which are associated with trisomy 18. Apart from chromosomal abnormalities, some soft markers (echogenic bowel, mild ventriculomegaly and shortened femur) are also associated with non-chromosomal fetal abnormalities. Renal pyelectasis and the 2-vessel (instead of 3-vessel) umbilical cord are associated with non-chromosomal abnormalities only. It is recommended that pregnant women be informed about the nature and implications of these findings before the examination. PMID:19009809

Grijseels, E W M; Cohen-Overbeek, T E; Adama van Scheltema, P N; Groenenberg, I A L; Schoonderwaldt, E M; Steegers, E A P; Wildschut, H I J

2008-10-11

37

Cardiac Repolarization Abnormalities and Potential Evidence for Loss of Cardiac Sodium Currents on ECGs of Patients with Chagas' Heart Disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some individuals with Chagas disease develop right precordial lead ST segment elevation in response to an ajmaline challenge test, and the prevalence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) is also high in Chagas disease. Because these same electrocardiographic abnormalities occur in the Brugada syndrome, which involves genetically defective cardiac sodium channels, acquired damage to cardiac sodium channels may also occur in Chagas disease. We studied several conventional and advanced resting 12-lead/derived Frank-lead ECG parameters in 34 patients with Chagas -related heart disease (mean age 39 14 years) and in 34 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. All ECG recordings were of 5-10 min duration, obtained in the supine position using high fidelity hardware/software (CardioSoft, Houston, TX). Even after excluding those Chagas patients who had resting BBBs, tachycardia and/or pathologic arrhythmia (n=8), significant differences remained in multiple conventional and advanced ECG parameters between the Chagas and control groups (n=26/group), especially in their respective QT interval variability indices, maximal spatial QRS-T angles and low frequency HRV powers (p=0.0006, p=0.0015 and p=0.0314 respectively). In relation to the issue of potential damage to cardiac sodium channels, the Chagas patients had: 1) greater than or equal to twice the incidence of resting ST segment elevation in leads V1-V3 (n=10/26 vs. n=5/26) and of both leftward (n=5/26 versus n=0/26) and rightward (n=7/26 versus n=3/26) QRS axis deviation than controls; 2) significantly increased filtered (40-250 Hz) QRS interval durations (92.1 8.5 versus 85.3 plus or minus 9.0 ms, p=0.022) versus controls; and 3) significantly decreased QT and especially JT interval durations versus controls (QT interval: 387.5 plus or minus 26.4 versus 408.9 plus or minus 34.6 ms, p=0.013; JT interval: 290.5 plus or minus 26.3 versus 314.8 plus or minus 31.3 ms; p=0.0029). Heart rates and Bazett-corrected QTc/JTc intervals were not significantly different between groups. Patients with Chagas heart disease have increased cardiac repolarization abnormalities, especially by advanced ECG. Moreover, as a group, they have decreased uncorrected JT and QT interval durations and increased filtered QRS interval durations (versus age/gender-matched controls), all suggesting a potential loss of cardiac sodium channel function that might be mediated, in part, by cardiac autonomic damage. Overall findings support Brugada et al's recent hypothesis that the pathway leading to sudden death may often be similar in Chagas' disease and Brugada syndrome i.e., damage to the sodium channel (infectious/immunologic/autonomic in Chagas' genetic in Brugada) with consequent loss of sodium currents may facilitate a phase II-reentry based arrhythmic substrate for ventricular fibrillation in both conditions. In general, JT interval-related results have been underreported in the Chagas literature.

Schlegel, T. T.; Medina, R.; Jugo, D.; Nunez, T. J.; Borrego, A.; Arellano, E.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Greco, E. C.; Starc, V.

2007-01-01

38

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound.  

PubMed

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

Carss, Keren J; Hillman, Sarah C; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J; Maher, Eamonn R; Kilby, Mark D; Hurles, Matthew E

2014-06-15

39

Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

Carss, Keren J.; Hillman, Sarah C.; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Kilby, Mark D.; Hurles, Matthew E.

2014-01-01

40

Feasibility of dynamic cardiac ultrasound transmission via mobile phone for basic emergency teleconsultation.  

PubMed

We assessed the feasibility of using a camcorder mobile phone for teleconsulting about cardiac echocardiography. The diagnostic performance of evaluating left ventricle (LV) systolic function was measured by three emergency medicine physicians. A total of 138 short echocardiography video sequences (from 70 subjects) was selected from previous emergency room ultrasound examinations. The measurement of LV ejection fraction based on the transmitted video displayed on a mobile phone was compared with the original video displayed on the LCD monitor of the ultrasound machine. The image quality was evaluated using the double stimulation impairment scale (DSIS). All observers showed high sensitivity. There was an improvement in specificity with the observer's increasing experience of cardiac ultrasound. Although the image quality of video on the mobile phone was lower than that of the original, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in diagnostic performance. Immediate basic teleconsulting of echocardiography movies is possible using current commercially-available mobile phone systems. PMID:20576745

Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Kang, Bo Seung

2010-01-01

41

Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms  

SciTech Connect

Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms.

Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W. (Reed Institute, Miami, FL (USA))

1990-07-01

42

Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma  

SciTech Connect

To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury.

Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

1984-01-19

43

In Vivo Evaluations of a Phased Ultrasound Array for Transesophageal Cardiac Ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias that affects over 2.2 million Americans each year. Catheter ablation, one of the effective treatments, has shown high rate of success in treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Currently, radiofrequency which is being used for catheter ablation is an invasive procedure. Measurable morbidity and significant costs and time are associated with this modality of treatment of permanent or persistent atrial fibrillation. In order to address these issues, a transesophageal ultrasound applicator for noninvasive cardiac ablation was designed, developed and evaluated. The ultrasound energy delivered by the phased array was used to create a lesion in the myocardial tissue. Various factors, simulation results of transducer arrays, current transesophageal medical devices, and throat anatomy, were considered while designing a phased ultrasound transducer that can be inserted into the esophagus. For this research, a two-dimensional sparse phased array with flat tapered elements was fabricated and evaluated in in vivo experiments. Five pigs were anesthetized; the array was passed transesophagealy and positioned over the heart. An operating frequency of 1.6 MHz and 8~15 minutes of array operation resulted in both single and multiple lesions on atrial and ventricular myocardium. The average size of lesions was 5.1+/-2.1 mm in diameter and 7.8+/-2.5 mm in length. Experimental results indicate that the array delivered sufficient power to produce ablation at the focal point while not grossly damaging the tissue surrounding the area of interest. These results demonstrate a potential application of the ultrasound applicator for noninvasive transesophageal cardiac surgery in atrial fibrillation treatment.

Jaiswal, Devina; Werner, Jacob; Park, Eun-Joo; Francischelli, David; Smith, Nadine Barrie

2010-03-01

44

Pituitary and ovarian abnormalities demonstrated by CT and ultrasound in children with features of the McCune-Albright syndrome  

SciTech Connect

In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.

Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

1984-11-01

45

Prevalence of pre-transplant electrocardiographic abnormalities and post-transplant cardiac events in patients with liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background Although cardiovascular disease is thouht to be common in cirrhosis, there are no systematic investigations on the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in these patients and data on the occurrence of post-transplant cardiac events in comparison with the general population are lacking. We aimed to study the prevalence and predictors of ECG abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation and to define the risk of cardiac events post-transplant compared to the general population. Methods Cirrhotic patients undergoing first-time liver transplantation between 1999–2007 were retrospectively enrolled. ECGs at pre-transplant evaluation were reviewed using the Minnesota classification and compared to healthy controls. Standardized incidence ratios for post-transplant cardiac events were calculated. Results 234 patients with cirrhosis were included, 186 with an available ECG (36% with alcoholic and 24% with viral cirrhosis; mean follow-up 4 years). Cirrhotics had a prolonged QTc interval, a Q wave, abnormal QRS axis deviation, ST segment depression and a pathologic T wave more frequently compared to controls (p?abnormalities. Compared to the general Swedish population, patients were 14 times more likely to suffer a cardiac event post-transplant (p?cardiac events (p?abnormalities are common in cirrhosis and are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cirrhosis severity and etiology. Post-transplant cardiac events are more common than in the general population. PMID:24708568

2014-01-01

46

Incidence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in apparently well neonates on a postnatal ward: correlation with antenatal and perinatal factors and neurological status  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo evaluate cranial ultrasonography and neurological examination in a cohort of infants regarded as normal; and to determine the prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities and any potential association with antenatal or perinatal factors or deviant neurological signs.METHODSCranial ultrasound findings and neurological status were evaluated in 177 newborns (gestational age 36.3 to 42 weeks), admitted to a postnatal ward directly after birth

Eugenio Mercuri; Lilly Dubowitz; Sara Paterson Brown; Frances Cowan

1998-01-01

47

The contribution and the importance of modern ultrasound techniques in the diagnosis of major structural abnormalities in the first trimester - case reports.  

PubMed

We describe a series of cases where modern ultrasound (US) techniques diagnosed major structural abnormalities of the fetus in the first trimester (FT), unapparent when using the basic protocol of US investigation. In some cases, major structural abnormalities can be revealed in the FT scan solely to specialized personnel. Perhaps early screening should be confined in specialized centers, because congenital abnormalities detailed diagnostic has a huge impact in counseling the couple and also in prenatal advice of future pregnancies. PMID:24778838

Dragusin, R; Florea, M; Iliescu, D; Cotarcea, Smarandita; Tudorache, Stefania; Novac, Liliana; Cernea, N

2012-01-01

48

The Contribution and the Importance of Modern Ultrasound Techniques in the Diagnosis of Major Structural Abnormalities in the First Trimester – Case Reports  

PubMed Central

We describe a series of cases where modern ultrasound (US) techniques diagnosed major structural abnormalities of the fetus in the first trimester (FT), unapparent when using the basic protocol of US investigation. In some cases, major structural abnormalities can be revealed in the FT scan solely to specialized personnel. Perhaps early screening should be confined in specialized centers, because congenital abnormalities detailed diagnostic has a huge impact in counseling the couple and also in prenatal advice of future pregnancies. PMID:24778838

Dragusin, R.; Florea, M.; Iliescu, D.; Cotarcea, Smarandita; Tudorache, Stefania; Novac, Liliana; Cernea, N.

2012-01-01

49

Transmural Ultrasound Imaging of Thermal Lesion and Action Potential Changes in Perfused Canine Cardiac Wedge Preparations by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation  

PubMed Central

Intra-procedural imaging is important for guiding cardiac arrhythmia ablation. It is difficult to obtain intra-procedural correlation of thermal lesion formation with action potential (AP) changes in the transmural plane during ablation. This study tested parametric ultrasound imaging for transmural imaging of lesion and AP changes in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation using coronary perfused canine ventricular wedge preparations (n?=?13). The preparations were paced from epi/endocardial surfaces and subjected to HIFU application (3.5 MHz, 11 Hz pulse-repetition-frequency, 70% duty cycle, duration 4 s, 3500 W/cm2), during which simultaneous optical mapping (1 kframes/s) using di-4-ANEPPS and ultrasound imaging (30 MHz) of the same transmural surface of the wedge were performed. Spatiotemporally correlated AP measurements and ultrasound imaging allowed quantification of the reduction of AP amplitude (APA), shortening of AP duration at 50% repolarization, AP triangulation, decrease of optical AP rise, and change of conduction velocity along tissue depth direction within and surrounding HIFU lesions. The threshold of irreversible change in APA correlating to lesions was determined to be 43±1% with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) of 0.96±0.01 (n?=?13). Ultrasound imaging parameters such as integrated backscatter, Rayleigh (?) and log-normal (?) parameters, cumulative extrema of ? were tested, with the cumulative extrema of ? performing the best in detecting lesion (ROC AUC 0.89±0.01, n?=?13) and change of APA (ROC AUC 0.79±0.03, n?=?13). In conclusion, characteristic tissue and AP changes in HIFU ablation were identified and spatiotemporally correlated using optical mapping and ultrasound imaging. Parametric ultrasound imaging using cumulative extrema of ? can detect HIFU lesion and APA reduction. PMID:24349337

Wu, Ziqi; Gudur, Madhu S. R.; Deng, Cheri X.

2013-01-01

50

Brugada syndrome and right ventricle morphofunctional abnormalities on echocardiography in young male with family anamnesis of sudden cardiac death.  

PubMed

First presented by Brugada and Brugada in 1992, Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is a primary electrical disease of the heart that causes sudden cardiac death or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This disease is hereditary autosomic dominant transmitted and genetically determined. The syndrome has been linked to mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding for the a-subunit of the sodium channel. Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities indicating Brugada syndrome, include repolarization and depolarization abnormalities in the absence of identifiable structural cardiac abnormalities or other conditions or agents known to lead to ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads (V1-V3). Intravenous administration of sodium channel blocking drugs may modify the ECG pattern. Ajmaline, flecainide, procainamide and propafenone exaggerate the ST-segment elevation or unmask it when it is initially absent. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the only proven effective device treatment for the disease. Although BrS is primary electrical disease, some authors have suggested the presence of morphological and functional abnormalities mainly located in the right ventricle (RV), notably in the outflow tract (RVOT). In this short report we will present a young male, with predisposition and positive family history of sudden cardiac death, with complete diagnostic procedure including propafenon testing unmasking Brugada syndrome. An echosonography revealed dilated apical right ventricle, suggesting BrS is not only electrical disorder, but may include morphofunctional abnormalities, described in previous reports. In addition, we reviewed the possible connection between Brugada syndrome and morphological abnormalities in RV. PMID:24851643

Steiner, Robert; Makarovic, Sandra; Makarovic, Zorin; Bilic-Curcic, Ines

2014-03-01

51

Association Between Tangential Beam Treatment Parameters and Cardiac Abnormalities After Definitive Radiation Treatment for Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the association between radiation treatment (RT) parameters, cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities, and clinical cardiovascular diagnoses among patients with left-sided breast cancer after breast conservation treatment with tangential beam RT. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 416 patients treated between 1977 and 1995 with RT for primary left-sided breast cancer were reviewed for myocardial perfusion imaging and echocardiograms. Sixty-two patients (62/416, 15%) underwent these cardiac diagnostic tests for cardiovascular symptoms and were selected for further study. Central lung distance and maximum heart width and length in the treatment field were determined for each patient. Medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses and evaluation of cardiac risk factors. Results: At a median of 12 years post-RT the incidence of cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities among symptomatic left-sided irradiated women was significantly higher than the predicted incidence of cardiovascular disease in the patient population, 6/62 (9%) predicted vs. 24/62 (39%) observed, p 0.001. As compared with patients with normal tests, patients with cardiac diagnostic test abnormalities had a larger median central lung distance (2.6 cm vs. 2.2 cm, p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with vs. without congestive heart failure had a larger median central lung distance (2.8 cm vs. 2.3 cm, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Contemporary RT for early breast cancer may be associated with a small, but potentially avoidable, risk of cardiovascular morbidity that is associated with treatment technique.

Correa, Candace R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: Das@xrt.upenn.edu; Litt, Harold I. [Department of Radiology-Cardiovascular Imaging Section, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ferrari, Victor [Department of Medicine-Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hwang, W.-T. [Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solin, Lawrence J.; Harris, Eleanor E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2008-10-01

52

Feasibility of remote real-time guidance of a cardiac examination performed by novices using a pocket-sized ultrasound device.  

PubMed

Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs) to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE) through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD), LA enlargement (LAE), ultrasound lung comets (ULC+), and elevated CVP (eCVP). Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc.) attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90%) versus 130/135 (96%) (P < 0.05). CLUE's combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (%) and accuracy for each abnormality (n) were LVSD (85%, 0.93, n = 5), LAE (89%, 0.74, n = 16), ULC+ (100%, 0.94, n = 5), and eCVP (78%, 0.91, n = 1). Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients. PMID:24024032

Mai, Tuan V; Ahn, David T; Phillips, Colin T; Agan, Donna L; Kimura, Bruce J

2013-01-01

53

Ultrasound  

Cancer.gov

Ultrasound uses sound waves with frequencies above those humans can hear. A transducer sends sound waves traveling into the body which are reflected back from organs and tissues, allowing a picture to be made of the internal organs. Ultrasound can show

54

Prevention of sudden cardiac death: return to sport considerations in athletes with identified cardiovascular abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden cardiac death in the athlete is uncommon but extremely visible. In athletes under age 30, genetic heart disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and ion channel disorders account for the majority of the deaths. Commotio cordis, involving blunt trauma to the chest leading to ventricular fibrillation, is also a leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young

M S Link

2009-01-01

55

Abnormal Cerebral Ventricular Change in Alzheimer's Disease Recorded with Cardiac Gated MRI: A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare high-resolution cardiac gated brain magnetic resonance imaging of 19 young healthy subjects with a small group of demented subjects - mainly probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) - with varying degrees of ventricular enlargement. Computer-measured ventricular volume demonstrated cyclic ventricular size variations in all subjects. During cardiac systole, the lateral ventricles vary in size, an average

Artiss L. Powell; Reuben S. Mezrich; Jin-zhao Wang

1991-01-01

56

Architecture design of the multi-functional wavelet-based ECG microprocessor for realtime detection of abnormal cardiac events.  

PubMed

Most of the abnormal cardiac events such as myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and fatal arrhythmia can be diagnosed through continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. According to recent clinical research, early detection and alarming of such cardiac events can reduce the time delay to the hospital, and the clinical outcomes of these individuals can be greatly improved. Therefore, it would be helpful if there is a long-term ECG monitoring system with the ability to identify abnormal cardiac events and provide realtime warning for the users. The combination of the wireless body area sensor network (BASN) and the on-sensor ECG processor is a possible solution for this application. In this paper, we aim to design and implement a digital signal processor that is suitable for continuous ECG monitoring and alarming based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through the proposed architectures--using both programmable RISC processor and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for performance optimization. According to the implementation results, the power consumption of the proposed processor integrated with an ASIC for CWT computation is only 79.4 mW. Compared with the single-RISC processor, about 91.6% of the power reduction is achieved. PMID:23366919

Cheng, Li-Fang; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

2012-01-01

57

Intracranial Ultrasound Abnormalities and Fetal Cytomegalovirus Infection: Report of 8 Cases and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal intracranial and other ultrasonographic findings in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Methods: Data on amniotic fluid CMV-DNA-PCR-positive pregnancies detected in our institution between January 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal biometric measurements, fetal anatomy, amniotic fluid volume, placental thickness and texture were analyzed for abnormalities. Results: Eight fetuses were diagnosed

Y. Dogan; A. Yuksel; I. H. Kalelioglu; R. Has; B. Tatli; A. Yildirim

2011-01-01

58

Abnormalities in cardiac baroreceptor sensitivity in acute ischaemic stroke patients are related to aortic stiffness.  

PubMed

Cardiac BRS (baroreceptor reflex sensitivity) is impaired following ischaemic stroke and predicts the risk of subsequent long-term death and disability. Impaired cardiac BRS may be due to impaired central processing of baroreceptor information following stroke or reduced baroreceptor activity due to increased large artery stiffness. We evaluated the relationship between large (aortic) artery stiffness and cardiac BRS during the acute phase of ischaemic stroke and in comparison with a group of stroke-free control subjects. Thirty-one ischaemic stroke patients were studied within 48 h of onset and again on day 14, along with 26 control subjects free of cerebrovascular disease. Cardiac BRS (determined by spectral analyses) and arterial stiffness estimated by PWVcf (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity) using applanation tonometry were obtained. At baseline, cardiac BRS was lower in the stroke compared with the control group (4.3+/-2.3 compared with 6.5+/-4.2 ms/mmHg; P < 0.05). Cardiac BRS values were correlated with PWVcf at < 48 h (r = -0.51, P < 0.01) and on day 14 (r = -0.54, P < 0.01), but not in the control group (r = -0.27, P = not significant). In quantile regression models, taking into account the effect of all cardiovascular variables, cardiac BRS was independently related to PWVcf at baseline and on day 14 in the stroke patients, but stroke was not related to cardiac BRS level when other cardiovascular variables were considered. Wall stiffness of the arterial vessels involved in the baroreflex arc may account for, at least in part, the reduced cardiac BRS observed in acute stroke patients. PMID:15656783

Eveson, David J; Robinson, Thompson G; Shah, Nainal S; Panerai, Ronney B; Paul, Sanjoy K; Potter, John F

2005-05-01

59

Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123I metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with\\u000a an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67?±?13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal

Yasushi Akutsu; Kyouichi Kaneko; Yusuke Kodama; Hui-Ling Li; Jumpei Suyama; Akira Shinozuka; Takehiko Gokan; Mitsuharu Kawamura; Taku Asano; Yuji Hamazaki; Kaoru Tanno; Youichi Kobayashi

2010-01-01

60

Low-pressure cardiac tamponade masquerading as severe sepsis diagnosed with a bedside ultrasound and as the initial presentation of malignancy  

PubMed Central

Objective We report a patient with low-pressure cardiac tamponade masquerading as sepsis and as the initial presentation of malignancy. A quick diagnosis was done by the intensivist performing a bedside ultrasound. Background The diagnosis of low-pressure cardiac tamponade is a challenge because the classic physical signs of cardiac tamponade can be absent. It is made even more challenging when the vital sign changes and physical examination findings mimic severe sepsis. One of the benefits of a bedside ultrasound in the assessment of a patient with an initial diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock is the rapid diagnosis of cardiac tamponade if it is present. Data Source and Synthesis A 55-year-old male presented to the emergency department with weakness, cough, and syncope. His examination was notable only for dusky mottling of his cheeks, chest, and neck. Specifically, there was no jugular venous distension or pulsus paradoxus. A chest radiograph showed a right upper lobe infiltrate, whereas his electrocardiogram showed only sinus tachycardia. His white blood cell count and lactic acid were elevated. The sepsis protocol was started and a bedside ultrasound revealed signs of cardiac tamponade. The patient immediately improved after a pericardiocentesis. Analysis of the pericardial biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma, later determined to be from a pulmonary primary source. Conclusions Because low-pressure cardiac tamponade is life-threatening and difficult to diagnose, evaluation of the pericardium with a bedside ultrasound should be considered in patients with syncope, severe sepsis, or shock. PMID:25147638

Conti, Ricardo Augusto Slaibi; Oppenheim, Ian Mandeville

2014-01-01

61

Sodium sulfide prevents water diffusion abnormality in the brain and improves long term outcome after cardiac arrest in mice  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Previously we demonstrated that administration of sodium sulfide (Na2S), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, markedly improved the neurological outcome and survival rate at 24h after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective effects of Na2S and its impact on the long-term survival after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min at 37°C whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. Mice received Na2S (0.55 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle 1 min before CPR. Results Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and received vehicle exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/12) and depressed neurological function. Cardiac arrest and CPR induced abnormal water diffusion in the vulnerable regions of the brain, as demonstrated by hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 24h after CA/CPR. Extent of hyperintense DWI was associated with matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activation, worse neurological outcomes, and poor survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR. Administration of Na2S prevented the development of abnormal water diffusion and MMP-9 activation and markedly improved neurological function and long-term survival (9/12, P<0.05 vs. vehicle) after CA/CPR. Conclusion These results suggest that administration of Na2S 1 min before CPR improves neurological function and survival rate at 10 days after CA/CPR by preventing water diffusion abnormality in the brain potentially via inhibiting MMP-9 activation early after resuscitation. PMID:22370005

Kida, Kotaro; Minamishima, Shizuka; Wang, Huifang; Ren, JiaQian; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Nozari, Ala; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Ichinose, Fumito

2012-01-01

62

Abnormal Pulmonary Artery Stiffness in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: In Vivo Study with Intravascular Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing recognition that pulmonary artery stiffness is an important determinant of right ventricular (RV) afterload in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the mechanical properties of the elastic pulmonary arteries (PA) in subjects with PAH, and assessed the effects of PAH-specific therapy on indices of arterial stiffness. Method Using IVUS and simultaneous right heart catheterisation, 20 pulmonary segments in 8 PAH subjects and 12 pulmonary segments in 8 controls were studied to determine their compliance, distensibility, elastic modulus and stiffness index ?. PAH subjects underwent repeat IVUS examinations after 6-months of bosentan therapy. Results At baseline, PAH subjects demonstrated greater stiffness in all measured indices compared to controls: compliance (1.50±0.11×10–2 mm2/mmHg vs 4.49±0.43×10–2 mm2/mmHg, p<0.0001), distensibility (0.32±0.03%/mmHg vs 1.18±0.13%/mmHg, p<0.0001), elastic modulus (720±64 mmHg vs 198±19 mmHg, p<0.0001), and stiffness index ? (15.0±1.4 vs 11.0±0.7, p?=?0.046). Strong inverse exponential associations existed between mean pulmonary artery pressure and compliance (r2?=?0.82, p<0.0001), and also between mean PAP and distensibility (r2?=?0.79, p?=?0.002). Bosentan therapy, for 6-months, was not associated with any significant changes in all indices of PA stiffness. Conclusion Increased stiffness occurs in the proximal elastic PA in patients with PAH and contributes to the pathogenesis RV failure. Bosentan therapy may not be effective at improving PA stiffness. PMID:22479385

Ilsar, Rahn; Bailey, Brian P.; Adams, Mark R.; Celermajer, David S.

2012-01-01

63

Alzheimer Disease in a Mouse Model: MR Imaging-guided Focused Ultrasound Targeted to the Hippocampus Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier and Improves Pathologic Abnormalities and Behavior.  

PubMed

Purpose To validate whether repeated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments targeted to the hippocampus, a brain structure relevant for Alzheimer disease ( AD Alzheimer disease ), could modulate pathologic abnormalities, plasticity, and behavior in a mouse model. Materials and Methods All animal procedures were approved by the Animal Care Committee and are in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Seven-month-old transgenic (TgCRND8) (Tg) mice and their nontransgenic (non-Tg) littermates were entered in the study. Mice were treated weekly with MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound in the bilateral hippocampus (1.68 MHz, 10-msec bursts, 1-Hz burst repetition frequency, 120-second total duration). After 1 month, spatial memory was tested in the Y maze with the novel arm prior to sacrifice and immunohistochemical analysis. The data were compared by using unpaired t tests and analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis. Results Untreated Tg mice spent 61% less time than untreated non-Tg mice exploring the novel arm of the Y maze because of spatial memory impairments (P < .05). Following MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, Tg mice spent 99% more time exploring the novel arm, performing as well as their non-Tg littermates. Changes in behavior were correlated with a reduction of the number and size of amyloid plaques in the MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound-treated animals (P < .01). Further, after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment, there was a 250% increase in the number of newborn neurons in the hippocampus (P < .01). The newborn neurons had longer dendrites and more arborization after MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound, as well (P < .01). Conclusion Repeated MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatments led to spatial memory improvement in a Tg mouse model of AD Alzheimer disease . The behavior changes may be mediated by decreased amyloid pathologic abnormalities and increased neuronal plasticity. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25222068

Burgess, Alison; Dubey, Sonam; Yeung, Sharon; Hough, Olivia; Eterman, Naomi; Aubert, Isabelle; Hynynen, Kullervo

2014-12-01

64

Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... couldn't see my baby at my 7 week ultrasound. Why? At the 7th week of pregnancy, your baby is about ½ an ... 1 in 120 pregnancies at 15 to 20 weeks gestation. Most disappear during pregnancy or within several ...

65

Heart rate, conduction and ultrasound abnormalities in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.  

PubMed

Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two clinically overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders strongly associating with pain, fatigue and other secondary aspects. Though not considered a diagnostic criterion for most EDS subtypes, cardiovascular involvement is a well-known complication in EDS. A case-control study was carried out on 28 adults with JHS/EDS-HT diagnosed according to current criteria, compared to 29 healthy subjects evaluating resting electrocardiographic (ECG), 24-h ECG and resting heart ultrasound data. Results obtained in the ECG studies showed a moderate excess in duration of the PR interval and P wave, an excess of heart conduction and rate abnormalities and an increased rate of mitral and tricuspid valve insufficiency often complicating with "true" mitral valve prolapse in the ecocardiographic study. These variable ECG subclinical anomalies reported in our sample may represent the resting surrogate of such a subnormal cardiovascular response to postural changes that are known to be present in patients with JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings indicate the usefulness of a full cardiologic evaluation of adults with JHS/EDS-HT for the correct management. PMID:24752348

Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Celletti, Claudia; Colotto, Marco; Amato, Silvia; Colella, Alessandra; Curione, Mario; Danese, Chiara

2014-07-01

66

Cardiac abnormalities detection from compressed ECG in wireless telemonitoring using principal components analysis (PCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Wireless telecardiology applications ECG signal is compressed before transmission to support faster data delivery and reduce consumption of bandwidth. However, most of the ECG analysis and diagnosis algorithms are based on processing of the original ECG signal. Therefore, compressed ECG data needs to be decompressed first before the existing algorithms and tools can be applied to detect cardiovascular abnormalities.

Ayman Ibaida; Ibrahim Khalil; Fahim Sufi

2009-01-01

67

The Role of RBM25/LUC7L3 in Abnormal Cardiac Sodium Channel Splicing Regulation in Human Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Human heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased cardiac voltage-gated Na+ channel current (encoded by SCN5A), and the changes have been implicated in the increased risk of sudden death in HF. Nevertheless, the mechanism of SCN5A downregulation is unclear. A number of human diseases are associated with alternative mRNA splicing, which has received comparatively little attention in the study of cardiac disease. Splicing factor expression profiles during human HF and a specific splicing pathway for SCN5A regulation were explored in this paper. Methods and Results Gene array comparisons between normal human and heart failure tissues demonstrated that 17 splicing factors, associated with all major spliceosome components, were upregulated. Two of these splicing factors, RBM25 and LUC7L3, were elevated in human heart failure tissue and mediated truncation of SCN5A mRNA in both Jurkat cells and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). RBM25/LUC7L3-mediated abnormal SCN5A mRNA splicing reduced Na+ channel current 91.1 ± 9.3% to a range known to cause sudden death. Overexpression of either splicing factor resulted in an increase in truncated mRNA and a concomitant decrease in the full-length SCN5A transcript. Conclusions Of the 17 mRNA splicing factors upregulated in HF, RBM25 and LUC7L3 were sufficient to explain the increase in truncated forms and the reduction in full length Na+ channel transcript. Since the reduction in channels was in the range known to be associated with sudden death, interruption of this abnormal mRNA processing may reduce arrhythmic risk in heart failure. PMID:21859973

Gao, Ge; Xie, An; Huang, Shu-Ching; Zhou, Anyu; Zhang, Jianhua; Herman, Amanda M.; Ghassemzadeh, Sassan; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Kasturirangan, Srinivasan; Raicu, Mihai; Sobieski, Michael A.; Bhat, Geetha; Tatooles, Antone; Benz, Edward J.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Dudley, Samuel C.

2011-01-01

68

The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

2014-01-01

69

Functional, morphological and electrocardiographical abnormalities in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and apical aneurysm: correlation with cardiac MR  

PubMed Central

Objective The prognosis of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (APH) has been benign, but apical myocardial injury has prognostic importance. We studied functional, morphological and electrocardiographical abnormalities in patients with APH and with apical aneurysm and sought to find parameters that relate to apical myocardial injury. Methods Study design: a multicentre trans-sectional study. Patients: 45 patients with APH and 5 with apical aneurysm diagnosed with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the database of Hamamatsu Circulation Forum. Measure: the apical contraction with cine-cardiac MR (CMR), the myocardial fibrotic scar with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-CMR, and QRS fragmentation (fQRS) defined when two ECG-leads exhibited RSR’s patterns. Results Cine-CMR revealed 27 patients with normal, 12 with hypokinetic and 11 with dyskinetic apical contraction. TTE misdiagnosed 11 (48%) patients with hypokinetic and dyskinetic contraction as those with normal contraction. Apical LGE was apparent in 10 (83%) and 11 (100%) patients with hypokinetic and dyskinetic contraction, whereas only in 11 patients (41%) with normal contraction (p<0.01). Patients with dyskinetic apical contraction had the lowest left ventricular ejection fraction, the highest prevalence of ventricular tachycardia, and the smallest ST depression and depth of negative T waves. The presence of fQRS was associated with impaired apical contraction and apical LGE (OR=8.32 and 8.61, p<0.05). Conclusions CMR is superior to TTE for analysing abnormalities of the apex in patients with APH and with apical aneurysm. The presence of fQRS can be a promising parameter for the early detection of apical myocardial injury. PMID:25332823

Suwa, Kenichiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saitoh, Takeji; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Tawarahara, Kei; Ohtani, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Yasushi; Takase, Hiroyuki; Terada, Hajime; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayashi, Hideharu

2014-01-01

70

Perceptual-motor, visual and cognitive ability in very low birthweight preschool children without neonatal ultrasound abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six children born preterm with very low birth weight without neonatal brain disorders and normal cerebral ultrasound findings were examined at pre-school age: visual, perceptual motor, attention, behaviour and cognitive assessments were performed in the study group as well as in a control group of term children matched for age, sex and parental educational and occupational status. The results showed

Maria Giulia Torrioli; Maria Flavia Frisone; Lucilla Bonvini; Rita Luciano; Maria Grazia Pasca; Roberta Lepori; Giuseppe Tortorolo; Francesco Guzzetta

2000-01-01

71

AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-Binding Domain Deficient Mice Develop Normally but Have an Abnormal Response to ?-Adrenergic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642

Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.

2013-01-01

72

Ultrasound for the Anesthesiologists: Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound is a safe, portable, relatively inexpensive, and easily accessible imaging modality, making it a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool in medicine. Anesthesiologists encounter a variety of emergent situations and may benefit from the application of such a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in their routine practice. This paper reviews current and potential applications of ultrasound in anesthesiology in order to encourage anesthesiologists to learn and use this useful tool as an adjunct to physical examination. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and vascular access represent the most popular ultrasound applications in anesthesiology. Ultrasound has recently started to substitute for CT scans and fluoroscopy in many pain treatment procedures. Although the application of airway ultrasound is still limited, it has a promising future. Lung ultrasound is a well-established field in point-of-care medicine, and it could have a great impact if utilized in our ORs, as it may help in rapid and accurate diagnosis in many emergent situations. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement and transcranial color coded duplex (TCCD) are relatively new neuroimaging modalities, which assess intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Gastric ultrasound can be used for assessment of gastric content and diagnosis of full stomach. Focused transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography facilitate the assessment of left and right ventricular function, cardiac valve abnormalities, and volume status as well as guiding cardiac resuscitation. Thus, there are multiple potential areas where ultrasound can play a significant role in guiding otherwise blind and invasive interventions, diagnosing critical conditions, and assessing for possible anatomic variations that may lead to plan modification. We suggest that ultrasound training should be part of any anesthesiology training program curriculum. PMID:24348179

Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Elbarbary, Mahmoud; Blaivas, Michael; Durieux, Marcel E.

2013-01-01

73

Detection and display of acoustic window for guiding and training cardiac ultrasound users  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful ultrasound data collection strongly relies on the skills of the operator. Among different scans, echocardiography is especially challenging as the heart is surrounded by ribs and lung tissue. Less experienced users might acquire compromised images because of suboptimal hand-eye coordination and less awareness of artifacts. Clearly, there is a need for a tool that can guide and train less experienced users to position the probe optimally. We propose to help users with hand-eye coordination by displaying lines overlaid on B-mode images. The lines indicate the edges of blockages (e.g., ribs) and are updated in real time according to movement of the probe relative to the blockages. They provide information about how probe positioning can be improved. To distinguish between blockage and acoustic window, we use coherence, an indicator of channel data similarity after applying focusing delays. Specialized beamforming was developed to estimate coherence. Image processing is applied to coherence maps to detect unblocked beams and the angle of the lines for display. We built a demonstrator based on a Philips iE33 scanner, from which beamsummed RF data and video output are transferred to a workstation for processing. The detected lines are overlaid on B-mode images and fed back to the scanner display to provide users real-time guidance. Using such information in addition to B-mode images, users will be able to quickly find a suitable acoustic window for optimal image quality, and improve their skill.

Huang, Sheng-Wen; Radulescu, Emil; Wang, Shougang; Thiele, Karl; Prater, David; Maxwell, Douglas; Rafter, Patrick; Dupuy, Clement; Drysdale, Jeremy; Erkamp, Ramon

2014-03-01

74

Focused cardiac ultrasound: a training course for pediatric intensivists and emergency physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Focused echocardiographic examinations performed by intensivists and emergency room physicians can be a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing the hemodynamic status of critically ill children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve achieved using a theoretical and practical training program designed to enable pediatric intensivists and emergency physicians to conduct targeted echocardiograms. Methods Theoretical and practical training sessions were conducted with 16 pediatric intensivist/emergency room physicians. The program included qualitative analyses of the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) functions, evaluation of pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade and valvular regurgitation and measurements of the distensibility index of the inferior vena cava (dIVC), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac index (CI). The practical training sessions were conducted in the intensive care unit; each student performed 24 echocardiograms. The students in training were evaluated in a practical manner, and the results were compared with the corresponding examinations performed by experienced echocardiographers. The evaluations occurred after 8, 16 and 24 practical examinations. Results The concordance rates between the students and echocardiographers in the subjective analysis of the LV function were 81.3% at the first evaluation, 96.9% at the second evaluation and 100% at the third evaluation (p?

2014-01-01

75

Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging  

PubMed Central

Surgery to correct severe heart arrhythmias usually requires detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave prior to ablation. The pinpoint electrical mapping procedure is laborious and limited by its spatial resolution (5–10 mm). We propose ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), a direct 3-D imaging technique that potentially facilitates existing mapping procedures with superior spatial resolution. The technique is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. AE-modulated voltage recordings are used to map and reconstruct current densities. In this preliminary study, we tested UCSDI under controlled conditions and compared it with conventional electrical mapping techniques. A 2-D dipole field was produced by a pair of electrodes in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution. Boundary electrodes detected the AE signal while a 7.5-MHz focused ultrasound transducer was scanned across the bath. UCSDI located the current source and sink to within 1 mm of their actual positions. A future UCSDI system potentially provides real-time 3-D images of the cardiac activation wave coregistered with anatomical ultrasound and would greatly facilitate corrective procedures for heart abnormalities. PMID:18595802

Witte, Russell S.; Huang, Sheng-Wen; O'Donnell, Matthew

2008-01-01

76

Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

2014-03-01

77

Does Ultrasound-Guided Directional Vacuum-Assisted Removal Help Eliminate Abnormal Nipple Discharge in Patients with Benign Intraductal Single Mass?  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate whether the removal of an intraductal mass using an ultrasound (US)-guided directional vacuum-assisted device can eliminate symptoms in patients presenting with abnormal nipple discharge. Materials and Methods Between March 2004 and October 2006, 36 patients who presented with abnormal nipple discharge, underwent US-guided, 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy for a benign intraductal single mass on US. The ability of the procedure to eliminate nipple discharge was evaluated by physical examination during follow-up US. Lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and histologic features were analyzed to identify factors affecting symptom resolution. Results Of the 36 lesions, 25 (69%) were intraductal papillomas, 10 (28%) were fibrocystic changes, and one (3%) was a fibroadenoma. The nipple discharge disappeared in 69% (25 of 36) of the women at a mean follow-up time of 25 months (range 12-42 month). There was no difference in the lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and the histologic features between groups that eliminated the symptom compared those with persistent nipple discharge. Conclusion US-guided directional vacuum-assisted removal of an intraductal mass appears to eliminate nipple discharge in only 69% of patients and thus, it should not be considered as an alternative to surgical excision. PMID:19885313

Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Woo Kyung; Park, Jeong Seon; Chung, Se-Yeong; Jang, Mijung

2009-01-01

78

In emergently ventilated trauma patients, low end-tidal CO2 and low cardiac output are associated and correlate with hemodynamic instability, hemorrhage, abnormal pupils, and death  

PubMed Central

Background In a smaller experience, the authors previously demonstrated that end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and cardiac output (CO) had a positive association in emergently intubated trauma patients during Emergency Department resuscitation. The aim of this larger study was to reassess the relationship of PetCO2 with CO and identify patient risk-conditions influencing PetCO2 and CO values. Methods The investigation consists of acutely injured trauma patients requiring emergency tracheal intubation. The study focuses on the prospective collection of PetCO2 and noninvasive CO monitor (NICOM®) values in the Emergency Department. Results From the end of March through August 2011, 73 patients had 318 pairs of PetCO2 (mm Hg) and CO (L/min.) values. Mean data included Injury Severity Score (ISS) ?15 in 65.2%, Glasgow Coma Score of 6.4?±?4.6, hypotension in 19.0%, and death in 34.3%. With PetCO2???25 (15.9?±?8.0), systolic blood pressure was 77.0?±?69, CO was 3.2?±?3.0, cardiac arrest was 60.4%, and mortality was 84.9%. During hypotension, CO was lower with major blood loss (1.9), than without major loss (5.0; P?=?0.0008). Low PetCO2 was associated with low CO (P??20, hypotension, bradycardia, major blood loss, abnormal pupils, cardiac arrest, and death. Low CO was associated (P???0.0059) with ISS?>?20, hypotension, bradycardia, major blood loss, abnormal pupils, cardiac arrest, and death. Conclusions During emergency department resuscitation, a decline in PetCO2 correlates with decreases in noninvasive CO in emergently intubated trauma patients. Decreasing PetCO2 and declining NICOM CO are associated with hemodynamic instability, hemorrhage, abnormal pupils, and death. The study indicates that NICOM CO values are clinically discriminate and have physiologic validity. PMID:24020798

2013-01-01

79

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

80

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

81

Association of interatrial septal abnormalities with cardiac impulse conduction disorders in adult patients: experience from a tertiary center in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

Interatrial septal disorders, which include: atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm, are frequent congenital anomalies found in adult patients. Early detection of these anomalies is important to prevent their hemodynamic and/or thromboembolic consequences. The aims of this study were: to assess the association between impulse conduction disorders and anomalies of interatrial septum; to determine the prevalence of different types of interatrial septum abnormalities; to assess anatomic, hemodynamic, and clinical consequences of interatrial septal pathologies. Fifty-three adult patients with impulse conduction disorders and patients without ECG changes but with signs of interatrial septal abnormalities, who were referred to our center for echocardiography, were included in a prospective transesophageal echocardiography study. Interatrial septal anomalies were detected in around 85% of the examined patients. Patent foramen ovale was encountered in 32% of the patients, and in combination with atrial septal aneurysm in an additional 11.3% of cases. Atrial septal aneurysm and atrial septal defect were diagnosed with equal frequency in 20.7% of our study population. Impulse conduction disorders were significantly more suggestive of interatrial septal anomalies than clinical signs and symptoms observed in our patients (84.91% vs 30.19%, P=0.002). Right bundle branch block was the most frequent impulse conduction disorder, found in 41 (77.36%) cases. We conclude that interatrial septal anomalies are highly associated with impulse conduction disorders, particularly with right bundle branch block. Impulse conduction disorders are more indicative of interatrial septal abnormalities in earlier stages than can be understood from the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:21977304

Bakalli, Aurora; Pllana, Ejup; Kocinaj, Dardan; Bekteshi, Tefik; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Musliu, Nebih; Gashi, Zaim

2011-01-01

82

Non-invasive in vivo measurement of cardiac output in C57BL/6 mice using high frequency transthoracic ultrasound: evaluation of gender and body weight effects.  

PubMed

Even though mice are being increasingly used as models for human cardiovascular diseases, non-invasive monitoring of cardiovascular parameters such as cardiac output (CO) in this species is challenging. In most cases, the effects of gender and body weight (BW) on these parameters have not been studied. The objective of this study was to provide normal reference values for CO in C57BL/6 mice, and to describe possible gender and/or BW associated differences between them. We used 30-MHz transthoracic Doppler ultrasound to measure hemodynamic parameters in the ascending aorta [heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), CO, and cardiac index (CI)] in ten anesthetized mice of either sex. No differences were found for HR, SV, and CO. Both SI and CI were statistically lower in males. However, after normalization for BW, these differences disappeared. These results suggest that if comparisons of cardiovascular parameters are to be made between male and female mice, values should be standardized for BW. PMID:24852337

Domínguez, Elisabet; Ruberte, Jesús; Ríos, José; Novellas, Rosa; Del Alamo, Maria Montserrat Rivera; Navarro, Marc; Espada, Yvonne

2014-10-01

83

Women’s Expectations and Intention to Terminate Pregnancy in Case of Abnormal Findings at the Second Trimester Level II Ultrasound Scan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were: (1) to explore pregnant women’s background knowledge and expectations of 2nd trimester ultrasound screening, and (2) to investigate women’s intentions to proceed to pregnancy termination if fetal anomaly is detected at the 2nd trimester ultrasound screening. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. 300 consecutive pregnant women served as a convenience sample for this

Apostolos P. Athanasiadis; Themistoklis Mikos; Konstantinos Pantazis; Efstratios Assimakopoulos; Filippos Tzevelekis; John N. Bontis

2009-01-01

84

One, two and three-dimensional ultrasound measurements of carotid atherosclerosis before and after cardiac rehabilitation: preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background It is still not known how patients who are post-transient ischemic attack (TIA) or post-stroke might benefit from prospectively planned comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR). In this pilot evaluation of a larger ongoing randomized-controlled-trial, we evaluated ultrasound (US) measurements of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects following TIA or mild non-disabling stroke and their relationship with risk factors before and after 6-months of CCR. Methods Carotid ultrasound (US) measurements of one-dimensional intima-media-thickness (IMT), two-dimensional total-plaque-area (TPA), three-dimensional total-plaque-volume (TPV) and vessel-wall-volume (VWV) were acquired before and after 6-months CCR for 39 subjects who had previously experienced a TIA and provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized controlled trial. We maintained blinding for this ongoing study by representing treatment and control groups as A or B, although we did not identify which of A or B was treatment or control. Carotid IMT, TPA, TPV and VWV were measured before and after CCR as were changes in body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results There were no significant differences in US measurements or risk factors between groups A and B. There was no significant change in carotid ultrasound measurements for group A (IMT, p?=?.728; TPA, p?=?.629; TPV, p?=?.674; VWV, p?=?.507) or B (IMT, p?=?.054; TPA, p?=?.567; TPV, p?=?.773; VWV, p?=?.431) at the end of CCR. There were significant but weak-to-moderate correlations between IMT and VWV (r?=?0.25, p?=?.01), IMT and TPV (r?=?0.21, p?=?.01), TPV and TPA (r?=?0.60, p?

2013-01-01

85

Abnormal Calcium Cycling and Cardiac Arrhythmias Associated With the Human Ser96Ala Genetic Variant of Histidine-Rich Calcium-Binding Protein  

PubMed Central

Background A human genetic variant (Ser96Ala) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) histidine?rich Ca2+?binding (HRC) protein has been linked to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the precise mechanisms affecting SR function and leading to arrhythmias remain elusive. Methods and Results We generated transgenic mice with cardiac?specific expression of human Ala96 HRC or Ser96 HRC in the null background to assess function in absence of endogenous protein. Ala96 HRC decreased (25% to 30%) cardiomyocyte contractility and Ca2+ kinetics compared with Ser96 HRC in the absence of any structural or histological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of Ca2+ waves was significantly higher (10?fold), although SR Ca2+ load was reduced (by 27%) in Ala96 HRC cells. The underlying mechanisms involved diminished interaction of Ala96 HRC with triadin, affecting ryanodine receptor (RyR) stability. Indeed, the open probability of RyR, assessed by use of ryanodine binding, was significantly increased. Accordingly, stress conditions (5 Hz plus isoproterenol) induced aftercontractions (65% in Ala96 versus 12% in Ser96) and delayed afterdepolarizations (70% in Ala96 versus 20% in Ser96). The increased SR Ca2+ leak was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation (1.6?fold) of RyR at Ser2814 by calmodulin?dependent protein kinase II. Accordingly, inclusion of the calmodulin?dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93 prevented Ser2814 phosphorylation and partially reversed the increases in Ca2+ spark frequency and wave production. Parallel in vivo studies revealed ventricular ectopy on short?term isoproterenol challenge and increased (4?fold) propensity to arrhythmias, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, after myocardial infarction in Ala96 HRC mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that aberrant SR Ca2+ release and increased susceptibility to delayed afterdepolarizations underlie triggered arrhythmic activity in human Ala96 HRC carriers. PMID:24125847

Singh, Vivek P.; Rubinstein, Jack; Arvanitis, Demetrios A.; Ren, Xiaoping; Gao, Xiaoqian; Haghighi, Kobra; Gilbert, Mark; Iyer, Venkat R.; Kim, Do Han; Cho, Chunghee; Jones, Keith; Lorenz, John N.; Armstrong, Clara F.; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Gyorke, Sandor; Kranias, Evangelia G.

2013-01-01

86

Patients with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan Type Due to a LMNA R482W Mutation Show Muscular and Cardiac Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases due to mutations in the lamin A\\/C gene (LMNA) are highly heterogeneous, including neuromuscular and cardiac dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and premature ageing syn- dromes. In this study we characterized the neuromuscular and cardiac phenotypes of patients bearing the heterozygous LMNA R482W mutation, which is the most frequent genotype associated with the familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dun- nigan type (FPLD).

M. C. Vantyghem; P. PIGNY; C. A. MAURAGE; N. ROUAIX-EMERY; T. STOJKOVIC; J. M. CUISSET; A. MILLAIRE; O. LASCOLS; P. VERMERSCH; J. L. WEMEAU; J. CAPEAU; C. VIGOUROUX

2004-01-01

87

Are asymptomatic ultrasound abnormalities in the achilles tendon of elite soccer players risk factors for symptoms one year later? a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAchilles tendinopathy is common and can bring a sports career to a premature end. Identifying players at an increased risk of this debilitating condition could lead to better prevention.ObjectivesThe primary aim was to compare asymptomatic elite soccer players with and without baseline ultrasound changes in terms of development of Achilles tendinopathy symptoms at one year follow-up. This study also investigated

S Jhingan; M Perry; G ODriscoll; M Ahmad; N Maffulli; D Morrissey

2011-01-01

88

Usefulness of Aspirin Therapy in High-risk Pregnant Women with Abnormal Uterine Artery Doppler Ultrasound at 14-16 Weeks Pregnancy: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in high-risk pregnant women with abnormal findings at uterine artery Dopp- ler velocimetry performed at 14-16 weeks. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. Methods The trial enrolled 139 women at risk of

Alaa Ebrashy; Magdy Ibrahim; Ayman Marzook; Dalia Yousef

89

Cardiac image segmentation for contrast agent videodensitometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicator dilution techniques are widely used in the intensive care unit and operating room for cardiac parameter measurements. However, the invasiveness of current techniques represents a limitation for their clinical use. The development of stable ultrasound contrast agents allows new applications of the indicator dilution method. Ultrasound contrast agent dilutions permit an echographic noninvasive measurement of cardiac output, ejection fraction,

Massimo Mischi; Antonius A. C. M. Kalker; Henricus H. M. Korsten

2005-01-01

90

Reversible regional wall motion abnormalities on exercise technetium-99m–gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography predict high-grade angiographic stenoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to determine the level of angiographic stenosis at which reversible regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) are present on exercise stress technetium-99m (Tc-99m)– gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), and whether assessments of stress and rest RWMA add incremental diagnostic information.

Louise Emmett; Robert M Iwanochko; Michael R Freeman; Alan Barolet; Douglas S Lee; Mansoor Husain

2002-01-01

91

Hip Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

92

Ultrasound - Breast  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

93

Abdominal Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

94

Scrotal Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

95

Ultrasound -- Vascular  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

96

Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

97

A knock-in mouse model of N-terminal R420W mutation of cardiac ryanodine receptor exhibits arrhythmogenesis with abnormal calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RyR2) mutations cause fatal arrhythmogenic diseases such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. The N-terminal region of RyR2 is one of the hot spots for mutations. In this study, we investigated cardiac phenotypes of a knock-in mouse model carrying R420W mutation of RyR2. The N-terminal R420W mutation has already been found in juvenile sudden death cadavers of unrelated families. The depolarization-induced Ca(2+) transient amplitude was significantly lower in cardiomyocytes from RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice compared with wild-type mice. The time to peak of the Ca(2+) transient was significantly increased in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice. Furthermore, the prolonged decay time from the peak of the Ca(2+) transient was detected in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice. ECG telemetry revealed that various types of arrhythmias were induced in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice in response to administration of caffeine and adrenaline. The mutant mice showed high occurrences of arrhythmias in response to heart stimulants compared with wild-type mice. These findings suggest that R420W mutation impairs depolarization-induced Ca(2+) oscillation in cardiomyocytes, which possibly results in sudden death due to stress-induced arrhythmias. PMID:25193700

Okudaira, Noriyuki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Hirata, Yutaka; Oku, Yoshitaka; Nishio, Hajime

2014-09-26

98

Fetal cardiac malposition: incidence and outcome of associated cardiac and extracardiac malformations.  

PubMed

Cardiac malposition is a rare but important finding when detected on fetal ultrasound. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of fetal cardiac malposition, associated abnormalities, and clinical outcome in a tertiary-care medical center. Records of fetuses (1993 to 2006) with dextroposition, dextrocardia, mesocardia, ectopia cordis, or heterotaxy were reviewed. The presence of congenital heart disease (CHD), extracardiac anomalies, and outcome were noted. Cardiac malposition was present in 101 fetuses among a total of 3313 (3%) pregnancies. In 78 (78%) patients, the heart was positioned in the right hemithorax. Of those, 26 (33%) had dextrocardia (CHD = 21), and 52 (67%) had dextroposition (CHD = 14). Sixteen (16%) patients had mesocardia (CHD = 8), and 7 (7%) had ectopia cordis (CHD = 6). The majority (58%) of fetal cardiac malposition was caused by intrathoracic masses. Concomitant CHD occurred in 50%. Outcome was available in 97%. The perinatal and neonatal mortality rate was 30%; the elective termination rate was 4%. Patients with CHD had higher mortality rates. The highest mortality rates occurred in ectopia cordis and combined disease of diaphragmatic hernia and CHD. PMID:18401841

Falkensammer, Christine B; Ayres, Nancy A; Altman, Carolyn A; Ge, Shuping; Bezold, Louis I; Eidem, Benjamin W; Kovalchin, John P

2008-05-01

99

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-09-01

100

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

101

Ultrasound Despeckling for Contrast Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.

2010-01-01

102

Ultrasound despeckling for contrast enhancement.  

PubMed

Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

Tay, Peter C; Garson, Christopher D; Acton, Scott T; Hossack, John A

2010-07-01

103

Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and "Braslet-M" Occlusion Cuffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in remotely guided imaging techniques on ISS allow the acquisition of high quality ultrasound data using crewmember operators with no medical background and minimal training. However, ongoing efforts are required to develop and validate methodology for complex imaging protocols to ensure their repeatability, efficiency, and suitability for use aboard the ISS. This Station Developmental Test Objective (SDTO) tests a cardiovascular evaluation methodology that takes advantage of the ISS Ultrasound capability, the Braslet-M device, and modified respiratory maneuvers (Valsalva and Mueller), to broaden the spectrum of anatomical and functional information on human cardiovascular system during long-duration space missions. The proposed methodology optimizes and combines new and previously demonstrated methods, and is expected to benefit medically indicated assessments, operational research protocols, and data collections for science. Braslet-M is a current Russian operational countermeasure that compresses the upper thigh to impede the venous return from lower extremities. The goal of the SDTO is to establish and validate a repeatable ultrasound-based methodology for the assessment of a number of cardiovascular criteria in microgravity. Braslet-M device is used as a means to acutely alter volume distribution while focused ultrasound measurements are performed. Modified respiratory maneuvers are done upon volume manipulations to record commensurate changes in anatomical and functional parameters. The overall cardiovascular effects of the Braslet-M device are not completely understood, and although not a primary objective of this SDTO, this effort will provide pilot data regarding the suitability of Braslet-M for its intended purpose, effects, and the indications for its use.

Bogomolov, V. V.; Duncan, J. M.; Alferova, I. V.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Ebert, D.; Hamilton, D. R.; Matveev, V. P.; Sargsyan, A. E.

2008-01-01

104

Polyamines mediate abnormal Ca/sup 2 +/ transport and Ca/sup 2 +/-induced cardiac cell injury in the calcium paradox  

SciTech Connect

Ca/sup 2 +/-free perfusion renders heart cells Ca/sup 2 +/-sensitive so that readmission of Ca/sup 2 +/ causes a sudden massive cellular injury attributed to abnormal entry of Ca/sup 2 +/ into cells (Ca paradox). Hormonal stimulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes was earlier shown to be mediated by polyamines (PA). 5 min perfusion of rat heart with Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium induce a prompt 40-50% decline in levels of the PA putrescine (PUT), spermidine and spermine and their rate-regulatory synthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and readmission of Ca/sup 2 +/-containing medium abruptly (< 30-60 sec) increased the levels of ODC and PA. The ODC inhibitor ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, 5mM) blocked Ca/sup 2 +/ reperfusion-induced increases in ODC and PA and also prevented increased /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake and heart injury, manifested by loss of contractility, release of enzymes (CPK, LDH), myoglobin and protein, and E.M. lesions (contracture bands, mitochondrial changes). 1 mM PUT negated DFMO inhibition, repleted heart PA and restored Ca/sup 2 +/ reperfusion-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx and cell injury. These data indicate that the Ca/sup 2 +/-directed depletion-repletion cycle of ODC and PA triggers excessive transsarcolemmal Ca/sup 2 +/ transport leading to the calcium paradox.

Trout, J.J.; Koenig, H.; Goldstone, A.D.; Lu, C.Y.; Fan, C.C.

1986-03-05

105

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

106

Obstetrical Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face-up on an examination table that can ... ovaries. Transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed with you lying on your back, possibly with your feet in ...

107

Thyroid ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

2013-01-01

108

Image guidance in cardiac electrophysiology  

E-print Network

Cardiac arrhythmias are characterized by a disruption or abnormal conduction of electrical signals within the heart. Treatment of arrhythmias has dramatically evolved over the past half-century, and today, minimally-invasive ...

Malchano, Zachary John

2006-01-01

109

Cardiac involvement in leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a neglected global disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiac complications such as chest pain, arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema and refractory shock have been reported in patients with severe disease. However, the frequency and extent of cardiac involvement in leptospirosis, are under-reported and poorly understood. Multiple factors may contribute to clinical manifestations that suggest cardiac involvement, causing diagnostic confusion. A variety of electrocardiographic changes occur in leptospirosis, with atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular conduction blocks and non-specific ventricular repolarization abnormalities being the most common. Electrolyte abnormalities are likely to contribute to electrocardiographic changes; direct effects on Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) transporters in the renal tubules have been postulated. Echocardiographic evidence of myocardial dysfunction has not been adequately demonstrated. The diagnostic value of cardiac biomarkers is unknown. Histopathological changes in the myocardium have been clearly shown, with myocardial inflammation and vasculitis present in postmortem studies. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of cardiac involvement in leptospirosis is poorly understood. Cardiac involvement, demonstrated electrocardiographically or clinically, tends to predict poor outcome. No specific therapies are available to prevent or treat cardiac involvement in leptospirosis; current management is based on correction of deranged homeostasis and supportive therapy. Evidence suggests that direct myocardial damage occurs in patients with severe leptospirosis, and further studies are recommended to elucidate its pathophysiology, clinical features and contribution to overall prognosis, and to identify appropriate diagnostic investigations and specific therapies. PMID:22818758

Navinan, Mitrakrishnan Rayno; Rajapakse, Senaka

2012-09-01

110

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

111

Interventional ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses: Introduction to interventional ultrasound/handling of aspirated material/general principles of fine needle aspiration cytology/procedure and principles in ultrasonically guided puncture/puncture of focal liver lesions/intraoperative puncture of the liver guided by ultrasound/Interventional ultrasound in cancer therapy/Interventional echocardiography/Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Are there any risks./Puncture of renal mass lesions/Intrauterine needle diagnosis/Percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

Holm, H.H.; Kristensen, J.K.

1985-01-01

112

Interventional ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 12 chapters and several case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: The Interplay of Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in the Planning and Execution of Interventional Procedures: Ulltrasound Guided Biopsy; Interventioal Genitourinary Sonography; Diagnosis and Treatment of Pericardial Effusion Using Ultrasonic Guidance; and New Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures--Cholecystostomy, Pancreatography, Gastrostomy.

VanSonnenberg, E. (Univ. of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA (US))

1987-01-01

113

Ultrasound studies.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the clinical use of ultrasound with the obstetric, gynecologic, and trauma patient by reviewing recent case studies of the use of ultrasound for diagnostic purposes. The article also summarizes the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) guidelines for use in several types of patients. The AIUM is a multidisciplinary association whose purpose is to "advance the art and science of ultrasound in medicine and research through educational, scientific, literary, and professional activities." The organization provides guidelines in conjunction with many professional organizations, such as the American College of Cardiology and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. AIUM also serves as an accrediting body for ultrasound practices. PMID:20193883

Smith-Francis, Melan; Orr, Patty

2010-03-01

114

Detecting ECG Abnormalities via Transductive Transfer Department of Computer  

E-print Network

Detecting ECG Abnormalities via Transductive Transfer Learning Kang Li Department of Computer@buffalo.edu ABSTRACT Detecting Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities is the pro- cess of identifying irregular cardiac-physic systems and health infor- matics, embedding the function of ECG abnormality detec- tion to various devices

Buffalo, State University of New York

115

Clinical Significance of Abnormal Electrocardiographic Patterns in Trained Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The prevalence, clinical significance, and determinants of abnormal ECG patterns in trained athletes remain largely unresolved. Methods and Results—We compared ECG patterns with cardiac morphology (as assessed by echocardiography) in 1005 consecutive athletes (aged 2466 years; 75% male) who were participating in 38 sporting disciplines. ECG patterns were distinctly abnormal in 145 athletes (14%), mildly abnormal in 257 (26%), and

Antonio Pelliccia; Barry J. Maron; Franco Culasso; Fernando M. Di Paolo; Antonio Spataro; Alessandro Biffi; Giovanni Caselli; Paola Piovano

2010-01-01

116

Imaging management of palpable breast abnormalities.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Women commonly present to imaging departments with a palpable breast abnormality. However, widespread confusion remains regarding the most appropriate sequence and extent of imaging required. The purpose of this article is to discuss the evidence informing current management guidelines for the care of patients with palpable breast abnormalities. CONCLUSION. Ultrasound is a highly effective imaging tool for guiding effective evaluation of women with palpable breast abnormalities and should be used for all women with suspicious findings at clinical breast examination. The exception is cases in which mammography shows a clearly benign correlate or a normal, fatty area of breast tissue in the location of the palpable finding. Breast ultrasound should be the primary imaging tool for women with palpable lumps who are pregnant, lactating, or younger than 30 years. For women 40 years old and older, mammography, followed in most cases by ultrasound, is recommended. For women 30-39 years old, ultrasound or mammography may be performed first at the discretion of the radiologist or referring provider. There is little to no role for breast MRI or other advanced imaging technologies in the routine diagnostic evaluation of palpable breast abnormalities. PMID:25341156

Lehman, Constance D; Lee, Amie Y; Lee, Christoph I

2014-11-01

117

Musculoskeletal Ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... For other ultrasound exams, the patient is positioned lying face-up or face-down on an examination ... infants and children are performed with the child lying on his or her back on the examination ...

118

Transvaginal ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

... ovary, ultrasound imaging of pelvic structures. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive ... cell neoplasms, sex-cord stromal tumors. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive ...

119

Ultrasound -- Pelvis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

120

Training guidelines for ultrasound: worldwide trends.  

PubMed

Sound travels through objects that block light. Only very recently has technology advanced enough to decipher ultrasound for medical use. Machines have become smaller, cheaper, more versatile and more advanced than ever before. The medical use of ultrasound spreads across many fields so that traditional areas no longer have a monopoly. With this comes the question of training doctors. This has been done by various colleges and societies worldwide. Some have been quicker to act than others. There also needs to be an understanding of when broad experience and advanced technical skills are required or when limited skills will do. In addition, some procedures can be performed more safely with ultrasound where the knowledge of ultrasound is not paramount. This article covers current provision of training in echocardiography and ultrasound in areas relevant to anaesthetists who are working in critical care (including accident and emergency) and complex surgery (mainly cardiac). PMID:19862894

Bennett, Sean

2009-09-01

121

Second-opinion magnetic resonance imaging for suspected fetal central nervous system abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of magnetic resonance imaging and gestational age in the setting of fetuses with suspected abnormalities of the central nervous system that were detected by ultrasound scanning. Study design: Multiplanar magnetic resonance studies were performed in fetuses with suspected central nervous system abnormalities on ultrasound scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging was

Diane M. Twickler; Kevin P. Magee; Jacqueline Caire; Michael Zaretsky; James L. Fleckenstein; Ronald M. Ramus

2003-01-01

122

Cardiac lipofibromatosis.  

PubMed

We present a case of cardiac lipofibromatosis associated with atrial fibrillation and complete heart block requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Multimodality cardiac imaging including transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance were useful for tissue characterization of this rare cardiac diagnosis. PMID:23146562

Shen, Seeger; Rizkallah, Jacques; Kirkpatrick, Iain D C; Khadem, Ali; Jassal, Davinder S

2013-04-01

123

First trimester screening using ultrasound and serum markers in Panamanians: Factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background: There is no published data on the association between serum biochemical and ultrasonographic markers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies using ultrasound and maternal serum markers during the first trimester in Panamanians. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 468 first trimester singleton pregnancies conducted over a 7-year period. All women attending a prenatal screening clinic during the study period were informed of the study and the option to participate. Two maternal serum markers, free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and four fetal ultrasound markers, nuchal translucency thickness, nasal bone, flow across the tricuspid valve, and flow in the ductus venosus (DV), were measured by certified maternal fetal medicine specialists. Adverse outcomes included miscarriage, major structural defects, genetic disorders, and major fetal cardiac defects. Results: A total of 454 (97%) pregnancies were unaffected. Median maternal age was 31.5 years (range: 18-50). Maternal age was significantly greater in cases of adverse outcome (P = 0.007). The number of adverse outcomes associated with an absent or hypoplastic nasal bone, tricuspid valve regurgitation, and abnormal flow in the DV were significantly greater relative to unaffected pregnancies (Ps < 0.001). No differences were found in fetal crown-rump length or maternal serum levels of ?-hCG or PAPP-A. Conclusion: Abnormal ultrasound markers are associated with adverse outcomes. Women with normal ultrasound and serum markers should be reassured of low risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25097629

Herrera, Tania T.; Sinisterra, Scarlett; Solis, Alcibiades; Britton, Gabrielle B.

2014-01-01

124

Technical Note Ultrasound Probe with Integrated ECG Lead: Feasibility Study  

E-print Network

Technical Note Ultrasound Probe with Integrated ECG Lead: Feasibility Study ARCHANA RAMIREDDY 27708 stephen.w.smith@duke.edu We integrated electrocardiogram (ECG) leads onto the face of a cardiac of devices needed to col- lect cardiac information. Since the ECG leads were not placed on their standard

Smith, Stephen

125

Cardiac toxicity of clonidine.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by mild renal insufficiency and severe systemic hypertension inadvertently received an excessive amount of clonidine hydrochloride. In association with a presumed toxic level of clonidine in the serum, the patient developed abnormalities of cardiac conduction, including 2:1 atrioventricular block, complete heart block, 3:2 Wenckebach block, and first-degree atrioventricular block. The transient nature of these abnormalities, with the return of normal conduction upon the cessation of therapy with clonidine, implicates this drug as being capable of producing high-grade atrioventricular block at toxic levels. PMID:923317

Williams, P L; Krafcik, J M; Potter, B B; Hooper, J H; Hearne, M J

1977-12-01

126

Advances in catheter-based ultrasound imaging Intracardiac Echocardiography and the ACUSON AcuNavTM Ultrasound Catheter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional transthoracic and transesophageal ultrasound imaging often cannot satisfy imaging requirements for many advanced catheter-based interventional cardiac procedures due to restricted access to the anatomy. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) can provide almost unrestricted access and has been shown to be very effective in accurately guiding interventional cardiac procedures by providing high quality visualization of intracardiac anatomy and intracardiac devices. ICE is

T. L. Proulx; D. Tasker; J. Bartlett-Roberto

2005-01-01

127

Sudden cardiac death in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in athletes has been highlighted by increasing media coverage, as well as medical\\u000a and lay awareness of the entities associated with SCD. Common etiologies include cardiac abnormalities such as hypertrophic\\u000a cardiomyopathy (HCM), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia\\/cardiomyopathy (ARVD), and coronary artery anomalies, each\\u000a with varying geographic incidence. New recommendations regarding noninvasive preparticipation screening have

Olaf Hedrich; Mark Estes; Mark S. Link

2006-01-01

128

Using ultrasound to determine external pacer capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcutaneous cardiac pacing is a temporary treatment of hemodynamically unstable bradycardias. However, the rhythmic skeletal muscle contractions that occur during external pacing can make it difficult to assess the hemodynamic status of the patient. We report a case of using bedside ultrasound to assess the effectiveness of transcutaneous pacer capture.

Douglas Ettin; Thomas Cook

1999-01-01

129

The ultrasound challenge 2.0: introducing interinstitutional competition in medical student ultrasound education.  

PubMed

The Ultrasound Challenge was developed at The Ohio State University College of Medicine to introduce focused ultrasound to medical students. The goal was to develop experience in ultrasound through practice and competition. Initially this competition was held between Ohio State University College of Medicine students from years 1 through 4. The Ultrasound Challenge 2.0 was held in 2013. The event expanded on the previous structure by including students from the Wayne State University College of Medicine. The goal of this article is to describe our experiences with expansion of our interinstitutional ultrasound event. The challenge consisted of 6 stations: focused assessment with sonography for trauma, aortic ultrasound, cardiac ultrasound, pelvic ultrasound, musculoskeletal ultrasound, and vascular access. The participants were given a handbook outlining the expectations for each station ahead of time. Vascular access was graded in real time using the Brightness Mode Quality Ultrasound Imaging Examination Technique (B-QUIET) method. The remainder were timed, saved, and graded after the event by 3 independent faculty members using the B-QUIET method. The highest score with the fastest time was the winner. The Ultrasound Challenge 2.0 included 40 participants: 31 from The Ohio State University College of Medicine and 9 from the Wayne State University College of Medicine. The makeup of the winners in all categories consisted of 1 first-year medical student, 7 second-year medical students, 3 third-year medical students, and 10 fourth-year medical students. The Ultrasound Challenge 2.0 was a success for those who participated. It provided the first known interinstitutional medical student ultrasound competition. Students from both institutions were able to practice their image acquisition skills, demonstrate abilities in a competitive environment, and develop collegiality and teamwork. PMID:25425378

Cortez, Eric J; Boulger, Creagh T; Eastin, Travis; Adkins, Eric J; Granitto, Emily; Pollard, Katherine; Bahner, David P

2014-12-01

130

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Clinical characterization of cardiovascular abnormalities  

E-print Network

: As affected animals increased in age, more cardiac abnormalities were found with increasing severity not recognized. MPS I and MPS VI cats have similar cardiovascular findings to those seen in children and constitute important models for testing new MPS therapies. Abbreviations 2D two-dimensional ECG

Ponder, Katherine P.

131

Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

Subasic, Kim

2010-01-01

132

[Craniofacial malformations in prenatal ultrasound evaluation. Literature review].  

PubMed

Fetal face is the key anatomical location, both psychologically and clinically for the mother and the clinician. Ultrasound prenatal examination of the maxillofacial region allows to evaluate the fetal face in the first weeks of gestation. In ambulatory intravaginal ultrasound, sensitivity of the facial defect detection is 20-30% in cases without the risk of TORCH and fetal abnormalities, which may arouse suspicion of the presence of facial malformation. Facial defects form a wide group of pathologies. Unfortunately challenges connected with 2D and 3D ultrasound imaging cause frequent misdiagnoses in early gestation. Maxillofacial abnormalities can be solitary or they can coexist with other abnormalities or syndromes. In case of detecting a facial defect, a precise and thorough ultrasound of whole fetal body is necessary whereas in case of detecting any fetal body abnormality a precise and thorough ultrasound examination of the fetal face is obligatory Unfortunately most contemporary prenatal ultrasound standards propose only the overall "face and orbits" evaluation of the fetal face. The evaluation is difficult at 23 and 24 weeks of gestation and seems to be rather challenging in the third trimester of gestation. Not only facial malformations but also facial dimorphic features may lead to the suspicion of genetic syndrome and they may be extremely important in making correct diagnosis. Attempts at standardization in fetal face ultrasound evaluation have proved to be extremely difficult. Advantages of 2D ultrasound over 3D ultrasound and 3D ultrasound over 2D ultrasound in fetal face evaluation have been a topic of much debate. Most typically fetal face is examined with 2D ultrasound in a few basic planes: coronary sagittal, frontal and oblique. The planes preferred in the evaluation of facial structures are discussed in details in the paper Fetal facial defects evaluated in the ultrasound examination may be divided into a few main groups: examination of the orbit and eyeball defects, examination of the external nose and nasal cavity defects, examination of the cleft defects involving the lip, hard and soft palate which may be unilateral or bilateral, examination of external ear defects, examination of mandibular defects and detection of fetal tumors. 3D ultrasound evaluation of the fetal face is extremely useful in visualization of the face, thus presenting a problem to parents and clinicians. Prenatal ultrasound examination provides necessary and extremely useful data concerning fetal facial abnormalities, which allows to plan care and further treatment including interventions in pediatric ENT, pediatric surgery and plastic surgery areas. Cooperation of ultrasound diagnostician and clinicians taking care of a child in the future is therefore necessary when designing treatment scheme in cases of fetal facial defects. PMID:24191520

Zieli?ski, Rafa?; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

2013-09-01

133

Ultrasound Annual, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

1984-01-01

134

Portable Bladder Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary retention, requiring intermittent catheterization, whereas a PVR urine volume of 100 mL to 150 mL or less is generally considered an acceptable result of bladder training. Urinary retention has been associated with poor outcomes including UTI, bladder overdistension, and higher hospital mortality rates. The standard method of determining PVR urine volumes is intermittent catheterization, which is associated with increased risk of UTI, urethral trauma and discomfort. The Technology Being Reviewed Portable bladder ultrasound products are transportable ultrasound devices that use automated technology to register bladder volume digitally, including PVR volume, and provide three-dimensional images of the bladder. The main clinical use of portable bladder ultrasound is as a diagnostic aid. Health care professionals (primarily nurses) administer the device to measure PVR volume and prevent unnecessary catheterization. An adjunctive use of the bladder ultrasound device is to visualize the placement and removal of catheters. Also, portable bladder ultrasound products may improve the diagnosis and differentiation of urological problems and their management and treatment, including the establishment of voiding schedules, study of bladder biofeedback, fewer UTIs, and monitoring of potential urinary incontinence after surgery or trauma. Review Strategy To determine the effectiveness and clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound as reported in the published literature, the Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. Nonsystematic reviews, nonhuman studies, case reports, letters, editorials, and comments were excluded. Summary of Findings Of the 4 included studies that examined the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound in the elderly population, all found the device to be acceptable. One study reported that the device underestimated catheterized bladder volume In patients with urology

2006-01-01

135

Non-invasive assessment of cardiac output in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Stroke distance, the systolic velocity integral of aortic blood flow, is a linear analogue of stroke volume; its product with heart rate is minute distance, analogous to cardiac output. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of assessing cardiac output in children with a simple non-invasive Doppler ultrasound technique, and to determine the normal range of values. METHODS: Peak aortic blood

J R Richardson; J Ferguson; J Hiscox; J Rawles

1998-01-01

136

Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

Vaezy, Shahram

2005-04-01

137

Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden cardiac death in athletes, although relatively uncommon, is a well-recognized condition generally associated with some congenital abnormalities. It, however, continues to be of vast interest to the public as athletes are seen as a distinct group of individuals who are especially able to tolerate more intense physical activities than the general population. Obviously, intense activities predispose susceptible athletes to

Peem Lorvidhaya; Shoei K. Stephen Huang

2003-01-01

138

Breast biopsy - ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... care provider first cleans the area on your breast, and injects a numbing medicine. The doctor makes ...

139

Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.  

PubMed

Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance. PMID:23979618

Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Vaidiyanathan, Sabanayagam; Garstka, Maria; Szucs, Szilard; Iohom, Gabriella

2013-09-01

140

Venous Ultrasound (Extremities)  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

141

General Ultrasound Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

142

Eye and orbit ultrasound  

MedlinePLUS

Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

143

Cardiac trauma. Diagnosis, management, and current therapy.  

PubMed

In cardiac trauma the two main mechanisms of injury are blunt and penetrating trauma. Common cardiac effects of trauma include myocardial rupture, contusion, laceration, pericardial insult, coronary injury, valvular damage, arrhythmias, and conduction abnormalities. Hemodynamic instability can develop rapidly and pose marked risk to patient survival. An adequate level of clinical awareness and timely use of diagnostic techniques such as echocardiography, aortography, and cardiac angiography are essential for rapid identification of cardiac trauma. Once the diagnosis is made, prompt surgical intervention is often the key to survival. PMID:9158386

Olsovsky, M R; Wechsler, A S; Topaz, O

1997-05-01

144

Novel flow quantification of the carotid bulb and the common carotid artery with vector flow ultrasound.  

PubMed

Abnormal blood flow is usually assessed using spectral Doppler estimation of the peak systolic velocity. The technique, however, only estimates the axial velocity component, and therefore the complexity of blood flow remains hidden in conventional ultrasound examinations. With the vector ultrasound technique transverse oscillation the blood velocities of both the axial and the transverse directions are obtained and the complexity of blood flow can be visualized. The aim of the study was to determine the technical performance and interpretation of vector concentration as a tool for estimation of flow complexity. A secondary aim was to establish accuracy parameters to detect flow changes/patterns in the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bulb (CB). The right carotid bifurcation including the CCA and CB of eight healthy volunteers were scanned in a longitudinal plane with vector flow ultrasound (US) using a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus, BK Medical, Denmark) with a linear 5 MHz transducer transverse oscillation vector flow software. CCA and CB areas were marked in one cardiac cycle from each volunteer. The complex flow was assessed by medical expert evaluation and by vector concentration calculation. A vortex with complex flow was found in all carotid bulbs, whereas the CCA had mainly laminar flow. The medical experts evaluated the flow to be mainly laminar in the CCA (0.82 ± 0.14) and mainly complex (0.23 ± 0.22) in the CB. Likewise, the estimated vector concentrations in CCA (0.96 ± 0.16) indicated mainly laminar flow and in CB (0.83 ± 0.07) indicated mainly turbulence. Both methods were thus able to clearly distinguish the flow patterns of CCA and CB in systole. Vector concentration from angle-independent vector velocity estimates is a quantitative index, which is simple to calculate and can differentiate between laminar and complex flow. PMID:25218449

Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Lange, Theis; Lönn, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2014-11-01

145

Focal testicular lesions: colour Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and tissue elastography as adjuvants to the diagnosis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review is to illustrate the potential of different and newer ultrasound techniques beyond conventional B-mode imaging, including colour Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and tissue elastography, in the characterisation of both benign and malignant intratesticular lesions. Normally, testicular malignancies, either primary or secondary, demonstrate an increase in colour Doppler signal. However, there is a diversity of benign testicular lesions that may mimic testicular malignancies. The use of CEUS improves characterisation of testicular lesions, and confirms lack of vascularity in benign abnormalities such as epidermoid cysts, infarctions, abscesses and changes following trauma. Tissue elastography allows further evaluation of the cellular consistency of the abnormality. Familiarity with the appearances seen with these ultrasound techniques in both benign and malignant abnormalities should aid in improving confidence in arriving at the correct diagnosis. PMID:22674702

Huang, D Y; Sidhu, P S

2012-01-01

146

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

147

Cardiac Mechanics Evaluated by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography  

PubMed Central

Natural myocardial markers, or speckles, originated from constructive and destructive interference of ultrasound in the tissues may provide early diagnosis of myocardial changes and be used in the prediction of some cardiac events. Due to its relatively temporal stability, speckles can be tracked by dedicated software along the cardiac cycle, enabling the analysis of the systolic and diastolic function. They are identified by either conventional 2D grey scale and by 3D echo, conferring independence of the insonation angle, thus allowing assessment of cardiac mechanics in the three spatial planes: longitudinal, circumferential, and radial. The purposes of the present paper are: to discuss the role and the meaning of cardiac strain obtained by speckle tracking during the evaluation of cardiac physiology and to discuss clinical applications of this novel echocardiographic technology. PMID:24844877

Abduch, Maria Cristina Donadio; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Mathias, Wilson; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz de Campos

2014-01-01

148

Cardiac metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumours metastatic to the heart (cardiac metastases) are among the least known and highly debated issues in oncology, and few systematic studies are devoted to this topic. Although primary cardiac tumours are extremely uncommon (various postmortem studies report rates between 0.001% and 0.28%), secondary tumours are not, and at least in theory, the heart can be metastasised by any malignant

R Bussani; F De-Giorgio; A Abbate; F Silvestri

2007-01-01

149

Cardiac asthma.  

PubMed

Cardiac dyspnea, especially if present only with exercise, is often confused with asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm. Cardiac dyspnea or asthma is the consequence of pulmonary edema due to pulmonary venous hypertension and not due to asthmatic bronchoconstriction. In overt, acute congestive heart failure, the diagnosis may be readily made by history and physical examination and pertinent laboratory and imaging data. PMID:23337063

Buckner, Kern

2013-02-01

150

Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2

Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith

2000-01-01

151

Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers  

SciTech Connect

Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

1988-06-01

152

Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni: ultrasound manifestations.  

PubMed

Ultrasound (US) was performed in 103 patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. The abnormal US findings are reported and correlated with the pathologic and anatomic characteristics. The main US findings are periportal fibrosis, left lobe hypertrophy, thickening of the wall of the gallbladder, granulomas, splenic nodules, and widening of the portal vessel system. Frequent but nonspecific findings include splenomegaly and the presence of collateral vessels. Portal vein thrombosis was present in a few cases. It is concluded that US is a major tool in the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:6387793

Cerri, G G; Alves, V A; Magalhães, A

1984-12-01

153

Ultrasound evaluation of scrotal pathology.  

PubMed

Palpable scrotal mass, acute scrotal pain, and enlarged scrotum are common scenarios in clinical practice. The imaging modality of choice to evaluate scrotal pathology is ultrasound (US). US is key in determining if a palpable abnormality is extratesticular or intratesticular and cystic or solid. US findings help narrow the differential to benign or malignant causes. Extratesticular lesions are more common and usually benign. Rarely, extratesticular solid lesions are malignant but US features are nonspecific. Accurately diagnosing rare benign intratesticular lesions is vital to avoid unnecessary orchiectomy. This article reviews extratesticular and intratesticular lesions presenting as a palpable mass and other conditions commonly seen. PMID:22498445

Mirochnik, Brandon; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K; Kanth, Nalini

2012-03-01

154

Ultrasound findings in trisomy 22.  

PubMed

We sought to identify the characteristic sonographic findings of fetal trisomy 22 by performing a retrospective review of nine cases of fetal trisomy 22. All cases of chromosomal mosaicism were excluded, as were first-trimester losses. Indications for sonography, gestational age, and sonographically detected fetal anomalies were analyzed. The majority of patients were referred for advanced maternal age or abnormal ultrasound findings on screening exam. Oligohydramnios was the most common sonographic finding, present in 55% of affected fetuses. Intrauterine growth restriction and increased nuchal thickness were slightly less frequent. PMID:18850513

Schwendemann, Wade D; Contag, Stephen A; Koty, Patrick P; Miller, Richard C; Devers, Patricia; Watson, William J

2009-02-01

155

Cardiac Syndrome X: update 2014.  

PubMed

Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX), characterized by angina-like chest discomfort, ST segment depression during exercise, and normal epicardial coronary arteries at angiography, is highly prevalent in women. CSX is not benign, and linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes and a poor quality of life. Coronary microvascular and endothelial dysfunction and abnormal cardiac nociception have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CSX. Treatment includes life-style modification, anti-anginal, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-ischemic medications. Non-pharmacological options include cognitive behavioral therapy, enhanced external counterpulsation, neurostimulation, and stellate ganglionectomy. Studies have shown the efficacy of individual treatments but guidelines outlining the best course of therapy are lacking. PMID:25091971

Agrawal, Shilpa; Mehta, Puja K; Bairey Merz, C Noel

2014-08-01

156

Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Cardiac sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm and is difficult to diagnose. The case of a 51-year-old man with a left atrial tumour, locally recurrent three months after its surgical removal, is presented. Computed tomography showed metastatic spread to the lung parenchyma. On revised histology, the mass extirpated was a sarcoma. Because of the metastatic spread, further therapy was symptomatic only; the patient died 15 months after the first manifestation of his problems. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma with metastatic spread to the lungs. Difficulty in diagnosing and treating cardiac tumours is discussed. PMID:20428274

Chlumský, J; Holá, D; Hlavácek, K; Michal, M; Svec, A; Spatenka, J; Dusek, J

2001-01-01

157

Second trimester ultrasound markers of fetal aneuploidy.  

PubMed

Although it is widely accepted that the best time to screen for chromosomal abnormalities is the first trimester, ultrasound evaluation of the fetus in the second trimester has also been shown to be useful for this purpose. A multitude of markers of varying strength has been developed over the past 30 years. In addition, the optimal time to diagnose fetal anomalies with confidence is also the mid second trimester. Therefore, performance of obstetrical ultrasound at this point in gestation continues to be an important component of prenatal care. PMID:24488055

Sonek, Jiri; Croom, Christopher

2014-03-01

158

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

159

[Cardiac angiosarcoma].  

PubMed

The paper outlines the authors'case of cardiac angiosarcoma. It provides the gross and microscopic characteristics of this tumor and procedures for its clinical and immunomorphological diagnosis. PMID:21695990

Kir'ianov, N A; Terekhov, M V; Sukhanov, S A; Lozhkin, E A; Nikolaeva, N B

2011-01-01

160

Cardiac Cephalalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a patient with cardiac cephalalgia and review reported cases from the English-language literature based on the new diagnostic criteria published in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, ed 2. Twenty-two patients, including ours, with headaches of cardiac origin were reviewed. The cases fit three of the four new criteria well: Criteria B (acute myocardial ischemia has occurred, 100%),

Shih-Pin Chen; Jong-Ling Fuh; Wen-Chung Yu; Shuu-Jiun Wang

2004-01-01

161

Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems. Ultrasound parameters are optimized to achieve maximum cell internalization of molecules and increased nanoparticle delivery to a cell layer on a coverslip. In-vivo studies demonstrate the possibility of using a lower dose of paclitaxel to slow tumor growth rates, increase doxorubicin concentration in tumor tissue, and enhance tumor delivery of fluorescent molecules through treatments that combine nanoparticles with ultrasound and microbubbles.

Mullin, Lee B.

162

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

163

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

164

Drosophila Models of Cardiac Disease  

PubMed Central

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a useful model for cardiac diseases, both developmental abnormalities and adult functional impairment. Using the tools of both classical and molecular genetics, the study of the developing fly heart has been instrumental in identifying the major signaling events of cardiac field formation, cardiomyocyte specification, and the formation of the functioning heart tube. The larval stage of fly cardiac development has become an important model system for testing isolated preparations of living hearts for the effects of biological and pharmacological compounds on cardiac activity. Meanwhile, the recent development of effective techniques to study adult cardiac performance in the fly has opened new uses for the Drosophila model system. The fly system is now being used to study long-term alterations in adult performance caused by factors such as diet, exercise, and normal aging. The fly is a unique and valuable system for the study of such complex, long-term interactions, as it is the only invertebrate genetic model system with a working heart developmentally homologous to the vertebrate heart. Thus, the fly model combines the advantages of invertebrate genetics (such as large populations, facile molecular genetic techniques, and short lifespan) with physiological measurement techniques that allow meaningful comparisons with data from vertebrate model systems. As such, the fly model is well situated to make important contributions to the understanding of complicated interactions between environmental factors and genetics in the long-term regulation of cardiac performance. PMID:21377627

Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, R.J.

2013-01-01

165

Cardiac hybrid imaging.  

PubMed

Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. PMID:24658682

Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Alkadhi, Hatem

2014-05-01

166

Ultrasound Annual, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The 1983 edition of Ultrasound Annual features a state-of-the-art assessment of real-time ultrasound technology and a look at improvements in real-time equipment. Chapters discuss important new obstetric applications of ultrasound in measuring fetal umbilical vein blood flow and monitoring ovarian follicular development in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Other topics covered include transrectal prostate ultrasound using a linear array system; ultrasound of the common bile duct; ultrasound in tropical diseases; prenatal diagnosis of craniospinal anomalies; scrotal ultrasonography; opthalmic ultrasonography; and sonography of the upper abdominal venous system.

Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

1983-01-01

167

Effects of Trichothecenes on Cardiac Cell Electrical Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to relatively small amounts of trichothecenes causes sudden death in humans and experimental animals. Prior to death, heart function becomes abnormal. Therefore, trichothecenes may have lethal effects on cardiac cells or on the nerves in the hear...

W. T. Woods

1985-01-01

168

Spectrum of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among 168 Consecutive Referrals to an Urban Private Hospital in South-Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10-76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement. PMID:24701123

Oyedeji, Adebayo T; Akintunde, Adeseye A; Owojori, Olukolade O; Peter, Johnson O

2014-01-01

169

Spectrum of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among 168 Consecutive Referrals to an Urban Private Hospital in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10–76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement. PMID:24701123

Oyedeji, Adebayo T.; Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Owojori, Olukolade O.; Peter, Johnson O.

2014-01-01

170

About Cardiac Arrest  

MedlinePLUS

... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More About Cardiac Arrest Updated:Sep 10,2014 What is cardiac arrest? ... to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! Cardiac Arrest • Home • About Cardiac Arrest • Understand Your Risk for ...

171

Medical Ultrasound Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

Hughes, Stephen

2001-01-01

172

Ultrasound Research Interface  

Cancer.gov

The ultrasound research interface permits extensive instrument parameter control of a commercially available scanner that allows access to, and export of, the beam-formed signal data while simultaneously displaying the ultrasound system-processed data as a clinical image.

173

Sudden death caused by cardiac sarcoidosis in childhood.  

PubMed

This report describes an adolescent who presented with ventricular tachycardia (VT) originating from the right ventricular apex, with no apparent underlying cause. Cardiac sarcoidosis was identified only at postmortem examination after sudden death. There must be a high index of suspicion for subtle forms of primary myocardial abnormalities in such cases. Investigation for VT should include specific investigations for cardiac sarcoidosis when no other pathology has been identified and there are persistent conduction abnormalities on resting ECG. PMID:12380936

Duke, Christopher; Rosenthal, Eric

2002-09-01

174

Simplifying the ultrasound findings of the major fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.  

PubMed

Sonographic aneuploidy markers and structural anomalies associated with the 5 most common chromosomal aneuploidies are organized and simplified to highlight the many sonographic findings that are commonly seen with each aneuploidy. Identification of these findings allows families to have the option to pursue prenatal genetic testing to confirm or exclude chromosomal abnormalities suggested by such prenatal ultrasound findings and make informed decisions about the subsequent management of their pregnancy. We review the most common major human chromosomal aneuploidies, including trisomies 21, 18, and 13; Turner syndrome; and triploidy. The focus is on the major structural anomalies seen with each of these, as well as ultrasound markers (findings associated with increased risk of chromosomal abnormality but also seen in normal fetuses). The role of clinical information such as maternal serum screening and new cell-free fetal DNA screening is also reviewed. As patients do not usually present for fetal ultrasound with a known diagnosis, a concise knowledge of ultrasound and clinical findings will alert radiologists to concerning cases and prompt a guided search for important associated anomalies. Fetal ultrasound can be challenging owing to the many findings and sometimes technically difficult evaluation. By simplifying the ultrasound findings seen with the major chromosomal abnormalities and highlighting the role of clinical history, we hope that an informed search for specific sonographic findings can be performed; thereby, reducing missed diagnoses. PMID:25239075

Liau, Joy; Romine, Lorene; Korty, Lauren A; Chao, Cherng; White, Katherine; Harmon, Sheena; Ho, Yoona; Hull, Andrew D; Pretorius, Dolores H

2014-01-01

175

Cardiac Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The heart is a pump that is comprised of cardiac myocytes and other cell types and whose proper function is critical to quality of life. The ability to trigger regeneration of heart muscle following injury eludes adult mammals, a deficiency of great clinical impact. Major research efforts are attempting to change this through advances in cell therapy or activating endogenous regenerative mechanisms that exist only early in life. By contrast with mammals, lower vertebrates like zebrafish demonstrate an impressive natural capacity for cardiac regeneration throughout life. This review will cover recent progress in the field of heart regeneration with a focus on endogenous regenerative capacity and its potential manipulation. PMID:22449849

Choi, Wen-Yee; Poss, Kenneth D.

2012-01-01

176

Biological effects of ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Ultrasonic Bioeffects and Ther Clinical Relevance: An Overview; Investigations into Genetic and Inherited Changes Produced by Ultrasound; Ultrasound and the Mammalian Fetus; Epidemiology and Human Exposure; and Local Hyperthermia by Ultrasound for Cancer Therapy.

Nyborg, W.L.; Ziskin, M.C.

1985-01-01

177

Neuroprotection in pediatric cardiac surgery: What is on the horizon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological injury still occurs in association with pediatric cardiac surgery, despite major progress in reducing mortality. Forty to 50% of 5 year olds who underwent complex open cardiac surgery as neonates and young infants have impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. In order to apply neuroprotective strategies, it is necessary to develop markers for acute neurological injury, and surrogates that predict later abnormal

Dean B. Andropoulos; Kenneth M. Brady; R. Blaine Easley; Charles D. Fraser Jr.

2010-01-01

178

3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32? × ?32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability.

Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Esteban Arango, Juan; Imbault, Marion; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

2014-10-01

179

Aicardi syndrome: Neonatal diagnosis by means of transfontanellar ultrasound.  

PubMed

Aicardi syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by a characteristic classical trio of neurological clinical abnormalities (spasms), agenesis of the corpus callosum and ophthalmological abnormalities (chorioretinal lacunae). The diagnosis can be suspected by prenatal ultrasound with color Doppler identifying the agenesis of the corpus callosum. Usually, the diagnosis is confirmed in the neonate period by transfontanellar ultrasound and ophthalmological examination. We present a case of newborn with Aicardi syndrome, being the transfontanellar identified partial dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and a cyst in the inter-hemispheric fissure. Ophthalmological examination showed bilateral chorioretinal lacunae. PMID:25071893

Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Araujo Júnior, E; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

2014-07-28

180

Cardiac Rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A heart transplant or a lung transplant Angina Heart failure The ...

181

The use of doppler ultrasound to evaluate lesions of localized scleroderma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler ultrasound shows great promise for the evaluation of localized scleroderma (LS). Disease-related structural changes,\\u000a such as tissue thickening, atrophy, and architectural alterations, can be readily detected using ultrasound. High spatial\\u000a resolution enables monitoring of changes in tissue thickness over the course of disease and treatment. Doppler ultrasound\\u000a may also aid assessment of disease activity. Both abnormal tissue echogenicity and

Suzanne C. Li; Melissa S. Liebling

2009-01-01

182

Reversible abnormalities of myocardial relaxation in hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Fifteen selected hypothyroid patients without symptoms or signs of cardiovascular disease and an equal number of matched control subjects underwent simultaneous recording of electrocardiogram and phono-, apex-, and echocardiography to assess dynamic systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Both the systolic preejection period and the isovolumic relaxation period were significantly increased in the hypothyroid group. However, whereas the rate of myocardial contraction, assessed from the echocardiograph of the left ventricular posterior wall, was identical in patients and control subjects, the diastolic thinning rate of the muscle was markedly slowed in the hypothyroid individuals. The abnormalities demonstrated were in the main completely reversed after 3 months of T4 therapy. These results demonstrate a relatively selective and readily reversible disturbance of the rate of myocardial relaxation in hypothyroidism, suggesting an intrinsic abnormality of cardiac muscle. This allows an intriguing parallel to be drawn with the delayed relaxation phase of voluntary muscle contraction, long recognized as a direct measure of tissue thyroid function in hypothyroidism. The abnormality of diastolic function we have described is of similar character to that found in patients with other cardiomyopathies and which has been shown to be a major cause of disturbance of global cardiac action. PMID:4008607

Vora, J; O'Malley, B P; Petersen, S; McCullough, A; Rosenthal, F D; Barnett, D B

1985-08-01

183

Abnormal Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and to ascertain if this has any correlation with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACE) in these (ACS) patients. Materials: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 83 consecutive ACS patients without previously known

Paitoon Nitipitichai; Nakarin Sansanayudh; Preecha Urrojanaungul; Chumpol Piamsomboon; Sopon Sanguanwong; Channarong Nakasawad; Prasart Laothavorn; Waraporn Tiyanont; Pachum Tasukon

2007-01-01

184

Abnormal muscle mechanosignaling triggers cardiomyopathy in mice with Marfan syndrome  

PubMed Central

Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibrillin 1, are unusually vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. The prevailing view is that MFS-associated cardiac dysfunction is the result of aortic and/or valvular disease. Here, we determined that dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in fibrillin 1–deficient mice is a primary manifestation resulting from ECM-induced abnormal mechanosignaling by cardiomyocytes. MFS mice displayed spontaneous emergence of an enlarged and dysfunctional heart, altered physical properties of myocardial tissue, and biochemical evidence of chronic mechanical stress, including increased angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) signaling and abated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity. Partial fibrillin 1 gene inactivation in cardiomyocytes was sufficient to precipitate DCM in otherwise phenotypically normal mice. Consistent with abnormal mechanosignaling, normal cardiac size and function were restored in MFS mice treated with an AT1R antagonist and in MFS mice lacking AT1R or ?-arrestin 2, but not in MFS mice treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or lacking angiotensinogen. Conversely, DCM associated with abnormal AT1R and FAK signaling was the sole abnormality in mice that were haploinsufficient for both fibrillin 1 and ?1 integrin. Collectively, these findings implicate fibrillin 1 in the physiological adaptation of cardiac muscle to elevated workload. PMID:24531548

Cook, Jason R.; Carta, Luca; Benard, Ludovic; Chemaly, Elie R.; Chiu, Emily; Rao, Satish K.; Hampton, Thomas G.; Yurchenco, Peter; Costa, Kevin D.; Hajjar, Roger J.; Ramirez, Francesco

2014-01-01

185

12-lead ECG in the athlete: physiological versus pathological abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in sports activity and regular physical training is associated with physiological structural and electrical changes in the heart (athlete’s heart) that enable sustained increases in cardiac output for prolonged periods. Cardiovascular remodelling in the conditioned athlete is often associated with ECG changes. In rare cases, abnormalities of an athlete’s ECG may reflect an underlying heart disease which puts the

D Corrado; A Biffi; C Basso; A Pelliccia; G Thiene

2009-01-01

186

Cardiac valve disease: an unreported feature in Ehlers Danlos syndrome arthrocalasia type?  

PubMed Central

Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS) athrocalasia type (type VII), is characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. No heart involvement has been reported. Two forms have been described: type VII A and VII B. The abnormally processed collagen ?2(I) and the skipping of the exon 6 in COL1A2 gene are typically detected in EDS type VII B. We describe a seven-year old female, with a phenotype consistent with EDS type VII B and a diagnosis further confirmed by biochemical and molecular analyses. Cardiac ultrasound showed normal data in the first year of life. When she was 5 years old, the patient developed mitral valve regurgitation, and aortic and tricuspidal insufficiency at 7 years of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cardiac valvular involvement in EDS VII B. This feature probably has been underreported for the limited follow-up of the patients. Echocardiography might be warranted in the clinical assessment of EDS VII patients. PMID:23158907

2012-01-01

187

Channelopathies from Mutations in the Cardiac Sodium Channel Protein Complex  

PubMed Central

The cardiac sodium current underlies excitability in heart, and inherited abnormalities of the proteins regulating and conducting this current cause inherited arrhythmia syndromes. This review focuses on inherited mutations in non-pore forming proteins of sodium channel complexes that cause cardiac arrhythmia, and the deduced mechanisms by which they affect function and dysfunction of the cardiac sodium current. Defining the structure and function of these complexes and how they are regulated will contribute to understanding the possible roles for this complex in normal and abnormal physiology and homeostasis. PMID:23557754

Adsit, Graham S.; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Galler, Carla M.; Kyle, John W.; Makielski, Jonathan C.

2013-01-01

188

A decade of discoveries in cardiac biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart is the first organ to form in the embryo, and all subsequent events in the life of the organism depend on its function. Inherited mutations in cardiac regulatory genes give rise to congenital heart disease, the most common form of human birth defects, and abnormalities of the adult heart represent the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality

Eric N Olson

2004-01-01

189

A rare infectious complication after endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration in an oncological patient and review of the literature.  

PubMed

An endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of a mediastinal lymph node was performed in a cancer patient. Shortly after this procedure, a streptococcus salivarius endocarditis was diagnosed. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of endocarditis following ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration in the absence of cardiac risk factors. PMID:19432028

van Fraeyenhove, F; Lamot, C; Vogelaers, D; Van Belle, S; Cesmeli, E; Rottey, S

2009-01-01

190

The Associations of Nuchal Translucency and Fetal Abnormalities; Significance and Implications  

PubMed Central

This review of literature describes the first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT) which forms the basis of new form of screening which can lead to a significant improvement in detection of congenital anomalies as compared to second trimester screening programs, the so called genetic-sonogram. A growing body of evidence-based studies has demonstrated that fetal NT can be a powerful prenatal screening tool and combined with first trimester serum markers, it can be incredibly promising in near future. It should be expressed as Multiple of median (MoM) and maintained and monitored like any laboratory analyte. The aim of this review was to investigate the different hypotheses on the aetiology of increased NT. Using a computerized database (PubMed), articles on the aetiology of first-trimester NT were retrieved. Furthermore, the cited references of the retrieved articles were used to find additional articles. Based on ultrasonography, the associations of increased NT fetuses are described in relation with Down syndrome, Cardiac anomalies, and a diverse range of other anomalies. The review concludes that first trimester NT ultrasound has the potential to be used as an important tool for the detection of various congenital abnormalities and an early management can be implemented to reduce the mental trauma of expecting mothers by proper counseling and early diagnosis. For the precise measurements, it should be implemented in a meticulous and coherent manner. PMID:23814750

Salman Guraya, Shaista

2013-01-01

191

Cardiac optogenetics  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics is an emerging technology for optical interrogation and control of biological function with high specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. Mammalian cells and tissues can be sensitized to respond to light by a relatively simple and well-tolerated genetic modification using microbial opsins (light-gated ion channels and pumps). These can achieve fast and specific excitatory or inhibitory response, offering distinct advantages over traditional pharmacological or electrical means of perturbation. Since the first demonstrations of utility in mammalian cells (neurons) in 2005, optogenetics has spurred immense research activity and has inspired numerous applications for dissection of neural circuitry and understanding of brain function in health and disease, applications ranging from in vitro to work in behaving animals. Only recently (since 2010), the field has extended to cardiac applications with less than a dozen publications to date. In consideration of the early phase of work on cardiac optogenetics and the impact of the technique in understanding another excitable tissue, the brain, this review is largely a perspective of possibilities in the heart. It covers the basic principles of operation of light-sensitive ion channels and pumps, the available tools and ongoing efforts in optimizing them, overview of neuroscience use, as well as cardiac-specific questions of implementation and ideas for best use of this emerging technology in the heart. PMID:23457014

2013-01-01

192

Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

Weisse, Allen B.

2011-01-01

193

Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

1984-08-01

194

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

195

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

196

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

197

Bilateral Right-Sideness with Normal Cardiac Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laterality sequences are characterized by a failure of normal asymmetry in morphogenesis. Bilateral right-sidedness typically manifests with asplenia and complex congenital heart disease. Many infants also have abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. We describe an infant who was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound with a right-sided stomach. Postnatally, plain radiograph and ab- dominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of a right-sided

C Dimitriades; S Olister; D Liu; E Fontenot; B Barkemeyer

198

Molecular basis of hereditary cardiomyopathy: abnormalities in calcium sensitivity, stretch response, stress response and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyopathy is caused by functional abnormality of cardiac muscle. The functional abnormality involved in its etiology includes both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and cardiomyopathy caused by the intrinsic factors is called as idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathy. There are several clinical types of primary cardiomyopathy including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Linkage studies and candidate gene approaches have explored

Akinori Kimura

2010-01-01

199

Intravascular ultrasound imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book will give vascular surgeons, cardiologists, radiologists, and technologists a complete working knowledge of intravascular ultrasound imaging and the crucial role of this new technology in endovascular diagnosis and therapy. The book reviews the essential principles of vascular pathology and ultrasound imaging and then provides state-of-the-art information on intraluminal ultrasound imaging devices and techniques, including practical guidelines for using catheters, optimizing image quality, and avoiding artifacts. Image interpretation and computerized image reconstruction are also discussed in detail. The first section explains the diagnostic, therapeutic, and experimental applications of intravascular ultrasound, particularly as a adjunct to angioplasty and other current interventional procedures.

Cavaye, D.M.; White, R.A. (UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1992-01-01

200

Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

... waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ...

201

CO(2)-Dependent vasomotor reactivity of cerebral arteries in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: time course and effect of augmentation of cardiac output with dobutamine.  

PubMed

Failing cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation may contribute to cerebral damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to describe the time course of CO(2)-dependent vasoreactivity, measured as CBF velocity in response to hyperventilation (vasomotor reactivity [VMR] index). We included 13 patients who had had severe TBI, 8 of whom received norepinephrine (NE) based on clinical indication. In these patients, measurements were also performed after dobutamine administration, with a goal of increasing cardiac output by 30%. Blood flow velocity was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound in both hemispheres. All patients except one had an abnormal VMR index in at least one hemisphere within the first 24?h after TBI. In those patients who did not receive catecholamines, mean VMR index recovered within the first 48 to 72?h. In contrast, in patients who received NE within the first 48?h period, VMR index did not recover on the second day. Cardiac output and mean CBF velocity increased significantly during dobutamine administration, but VMR index did not change significantly. In conclusion, CO(2) vasomotor reactivity was abnormal in the first 24?h after TBI in most of the patients, but recovered within 48?h in those patients who did not receive NE, in contrast to those eventually receiving the drug. Addition of dobutamine to NE had variable but overall insignificant effects on CO(2) vasomotor reactivity. PMID:21501044

Haenggi, Matthias; Andermatt, Anna; Anthamatten, Claudia; Galimanis, Aikaterini; Mono, Marie-Luise; Alfieri, Alexander; Fung, Christian; Takala, Jukka; Jakob, Stephan M

2012-06-10

202

Diagnosis of cardiovascular lesions by percutaneous angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed simultaneous angioscopy and intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS) to evaluate the luminal changes of cardiac chambers, valves and vessels in patients with various categories of cardiovascular disease. We observed cardiac chambers in 7, coronary arteries in 3, aortic valve in 6, aorta in 10, vena cava in 2, pulmonary arteries in 3 and femoral arteries in 5 pts. The angioscopy was suitable for detection of the changes in color and for 3D evaluation of small changes. The IVUS was suitable for detection of calcified tissues and for evaluation of cardiac and vessel wall structures. Furthermore, we could observe dynamic motion of the cardiac valves by the IVUS. The results indicate that simultaneous observation by IVUS and angioscopy gives us much more information on the cardiovascular changes.

Hirose, Junichi; Sasaki, Michihiko; Oshima, Tomomitsu; Morizuki, Osamu; Takahashi, Minoru; Kawamura, K.; Uchida, Yasumi

1995-05-01

203

A cortical potential reflecting cardiac function  

PubMed Central

Emotional trauma and psychological stress can precipitate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death through arrhythmogenic effects of efferent sympathetic drive. Patients with preexisting heart disease are particularly at risk. Moreover, generation of proarrhythmic activity patterns within cerebral autonomic centers may be amplified by afferent feedback from a dysfunctional myocardium. An electrocortical potential reflecting afferent cardiac information has been described, reflecting individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity (awareness of one's own heartbeats). To inform our understanding of mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenesis, we extended this approach, identifying electrocortical potentials corresponding to the cortical expression of afferent information about the integrity of myocardial function during stress. We measured changes in cardiac response simultaneously with electroencephalography in patients with established ventricular dysfunction. Experimentally induced mental stress enhanced cardiovascular indices of sympathetic activity (systolic blood pressure, heart rate, ventricular ejection fraction, and skin conductance) across all patients. However, the functional response of the myocardium varied; some patients increased, whereas others decreased, cardiac output during stress. Across patients, heartbeat-evoked potential amplitude at left temporal and lateral frontal electrode locations correlated with stress-induced changes in cardiac output, consistent with an afferent cortical representation of myocardial function during stress. Moreover, the amplitude of the heartbeat-evoked potential in the left temporal region reflected the proarrhythmic status of the heart (inhomogeneity of left ventricular repolarization). These observations delineate a cortical representation of cardiac function predictive of proarrhythmic abnormalities in cardiac repolarization. Our findings highlight the dynamic interaction of heart and brain in stress-induced cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:17420478

Gray, Marcus A.; Taggart, Peter; Sutton, Peter M.; Groves, David; Holdright, Diana R.; Bradbury, David; Brull, David; Critchley, Hugo D.

2007-01-01

204

Ultrasound thermometry in hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hyperthermia thermometry system using an ultrasound nonlinear effect caused by superposed pulses was developed. A feasibility study was made to obtain temperature mapping of tissue phantoms and of anesthetized pigs heated by an ultrasound applicator. The thermometry system consists of a mechanical sector scanner and a mainframe with a color monitor. The distribution of the temperature rise is calculated

S. Ueno; M. Hashimoto; H. Fukukita; T. Yano

1990-01-01

205

The biological effects of diagnostic cardiac imaging on chronically exposed physicians: the importance of being non-ionizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasounds and ionizing radiation are extensively used for diagnostic applications in the cardiology clinical practice. This paper reviewed the available information on occupational risk of the cardiologists who perform, every day, cardiac imaging procedures. At the moment, there are no consistent evidence that exposure to medical ultrasound is capable of inducing genetic effects, and representing a serious health hazard for

Maria Grazia Andreassi

2004-01-01

206

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical principles and current applications of echocardiography in assessment of heart diseases are reviewed. Technical considerations and unresolved points relative to the use of echocardiography in various disease states are stressed. The discussion covers normal mitral valve motion, mitral stenosis, aortic regurgitation, atrial masses, mitral valve prolapse, and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Other topics concern tricuspic valve abnormalities, aortic valve disease, pulmonic valve, pericardial effusion, intraventricular septal motion, and left ventricular function. The application of echocardiography to congenital heart disease diagnosis is discussed along with promising ultrasonic imaging systems. The utility of echocardiography in quantitative evaluation of cardiac disease is demonstrated.

Popp, R. L.

1976-01-01

207

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

208

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

209

Travels through the time-frequency zone: advanced Doppler ultrasound processing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doppler ultrasound echoes from cardiac structures is rich in detail and highly nonstationary. The goal of time frequency analysis is to extract features from these echo signals for high confidence visual and machine classification of cardiovascular condition. Presented are side-by-side comparisons of numerous time-frequency representations (TFRs) of Doppler ultrasound data. The techniques illustrated include the short-time Fourier transform, the wavelet

L. Marple; T. Brotherton; R. Barton; E. Lugo; D. Jones

1993-01-01

210

The efficacy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of long head of the biceps tendon pathology.  

PubMed

The use of shoulder ultrasound as an imaging modality has recently gained widespread attention; however, the ability of ultrasound to diagnose long head of the biceps tendon pathology accurately still remains unclear. The biceps tendons in 71 patients were prospectively evaluated by comparison of standard ultrasonographic and arthroscopic examinations. Arthroscopic examination was used as the gold standard comparison. Ultrasound showed a 100% specificity and 96% sensitivity for subluxation or dislocation. Ultrasound detected all complete ruptures of the biceps tendon but detected none of the 23 partial-thickness tears. Overall, ultrasound diagnosed 35 of 36 normal biceps tendons (specificity, 97%) and 17 of 35 abnormal biceps tendons (sensitivity, 49%). Ultrasound can reliably diagnose complete rupture, subluxation, or dislocation of the biceps tendon. It is not reliable for detecting intraarticular partial-thickness tears. PMID:16414462

Armstrong, April; Teefey, Sharlene A; Wu, Thomas; Clark, Aileen M; Middleton, William D; Yamaguchi, Ken; Galatz, Leesa M

2006-01-01

211

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

212

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

213

Origins of Cardiac Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Cardiac fibroblasts play a critical role in maintenance of normal cardiac function. They are indispensable for damage control and tissue remodeling on myocardial injury and principal mediators of pathological cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. Despite their manyfold functions, cardiac fibroblasts remain poorly characterized in molecular terms. Evidence is evolving that cardiac fibroblasts are a heterogeneous population and likely derive from various distinct tissue niches in health and disease. Here, we review our emerging understanding of where cardiac fibroblasts come from, as well as how we can possibly use this knowledge to develop novel therapies for cardiac fibrosis. PMID:21106947

Zeisberg, Elisabeth M.; Kalluri, Raghu

2011-01-01

214

Real-time 4D Ultrasound Mosaicing and Visualization  

PubMed Central

Intra-cardiac 3D ultrasound imaging has enabled new minimally invasive procedures. Its narrow field of view, however, limits its efficacy in guiding beating heart procedures where geometrically complex and spatially extended moving anatomic structures are often involved. In this paper, we present a system that performs electrocardiograph gated 4D mosaicing and visualization of 3DUS volumes. Real-time operation is enabled by GPU implementation. The method is validated on phantom and porcine heart data. PMID:22003606

Brattain, Laura J; Howe, Robert D

2011-01-01

215

Safety of Microbubbles and Transcranial Ultrasound in Rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of this study was to evaluate the safety of large doses of microbubbles and ultrasound administered to the head of rabbits as if they were receiving acute stroke therapy of a similar nature. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand White rabbits were used, N=24, in three groups 1] n=4 control (no treatment), 2] n=10 bubble control (ultrasound plus aspirin), and 3] n=10 target group (ultrasound plus aspirin plus MRX-815 microbubbles). Group 3 was infused with IV bubbles over 1 hour at 0.16cc/kg. Ultrasound was delivered to the dehaired side of the head during bubble infusion and for 1 additional hour at 0.8 W/cm2 20% pulsed wave. Rabbits survived for 22 to 24 hours, were imaged with computerized tomography and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including contrast studies, and sacrificed. Tetrazolium (TTC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) sections were made for pathological examination. Results: All 24 animals showed absence of bleeding, endothelial damage, EKG abnormalities, stroke, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, or other acute abnormalities. CT and MRI showed no bleeding or signs of stroke, but two animals had mild hydrocephalus. The EKGs showed normal variation in QTc. Rabbit behavior was normal in all. Minimal chronic inflammation unrelated to the study was seen in 5. Two animals were excluded because of protocol violations and replaced during the study. Conclusion: The administered dose of microbubbles and ultrasound demonstrated no detrimental effects on the healthy rabbit animal model.

Culp, William C.; Brown, Aliza T.; Hennings, Leah; Lowery, John; Culp, Benjamin C.; Erdem, Eren; Roberson, Paula; Matsunaga, Terry O.

2007-05-01

216

Insights from CTA with Comparison to Modalities of Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive imaging of atherosclerosis by cardiac CT continues to rapidly evolve. A large collection of data has emerged on\\u000a detection and quantification of coronary plaque in vivo with cardiac CT with comparison to the gold standard of clinical plaque\\u000a assessment, intravascular ultrasound. Given inherent spatial limitations, although the correlation is significant, the variability\\u000a and limits of agreement of these measurements

Benita Burke; Matthew J. Budoff

217

[Cardiac reserve in Parkinson's disease and exercise therapy].  

PubMed

The clinical feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not based on the identification of the extrapyramidal symptom such as bradykinesia, restinbg tremor, rigidity, but also other non-motor symptom (REM sleep disorder, autonomic dysfunction, hyposmia etc). According to the cardio-sympathetic dysfunction, it is well known abnormal MIBG and orthostatic hypotension finding was seen in early disease stage. Furthermore denervation supersensitivity using ?1 stimulant correlates the severity of MIBG image, so that this abnormal cardiac function induces inadequate cardiac capacity for exercise. Inadequate cardiac capacity makes easy fatigability, which correlates the abnormal MIBG image and cardio-sympathetic damage. So it is difficult to prescribe a specific exercise program to meet individual PD patients needs. Music therapy and trunk exercise (for example Tai-Chi exercise) are better suited for PD patients. PMID:24291996

Hirayama, Masaaki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sobue, Gen

2013-01-01

218

Cardiac conduction disturbance after loperamide abuse.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Prescription opioid abuse is a major public health concern and an ongoing epidemic in the United States. Loperamide is a widely available and inexpensive over-the-counter antidiarrheal with peripheral mu-opioid receptor activity. Online resources discuss the use of loperamide for the amelioration of withdrawal symptoms or recreational abuse. We describe the clinical course of 5 patients abusing loperamide, 3 of whom had life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Methods. In this observational case series, patients with cardiac arrhythmias or history of loperamide abuse with cardiac arrhythmias were identified; 5 patients were identified and 4 of the 5 patients were seen directly at the bedside. Clinical profile and outcome of patients is reported. Results. We report 5 patients with history of loperamide abuse; 3 of the 5 patients had life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. One of the patients experienced a second life-threatening arrhythmia after he resumed loperamide abuse. Loperamide levels were obtained in 4 of the 5 patients and were at least one order of magnitude greater than therapeutic concentrations. Discontinuation of loperamide resulted in complete resolution of cardiac conduction disturbances. Conclusion. This case series describes several patients with cardiac conduction abnormalities and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias temporally related to loperamide abuse. With the recent efforts to restrict the diversion of prescription opioids, increasing abuse of loperamide as an opioid substitute may be seen. Toxicologists should be aware of these risks and we urge all clinicians to report such cases to FDA Medwatch(®). PMID:25345436

Marraffa, J M; Holland, M G; Sullivan, R W; Morgan, B W; Oakes, J A; Wiegand, T J; Hodgman, M J

2014-11-01

219

Abdominal ultrasound (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

220

Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... abdominal area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

221

Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... bladder area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

222

Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

223

Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... pelvic area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

224

Ultrasound: Infant Hip  

MedlinePLUS

... hip area, and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

225

Office urologic ultrasound.  

PubMed

Advances in technology have made ultrasound equipment available for office use. The indications for examination vary depending on the region of the body where disease is suspected. For some conditions, ultrasound may not be an appropriate diagnostic modality. It is the responsibility of the physician to decide whether office ultrasonography is of value. As the equipment is assimiliated into the diagnostic armamentarium, more information on the cost effectiveness and efficacy of office ultrasound for the urologist will become available. Ultrasonography should be performed by the clinician only after appropriate training. Office-based, urologist-operated ultrasound should not replace the proper evaluation of the patient by a radiologist who is trained specifically to make diagnoses using this modality. However, for quick, efficient evaluation of the patient to uncover a disease process, office ultrasonography may supplement the information available through routine history, physical examination, and laboratory studies. PMID:2460987

Acino, S; Resnick, M I

1988-11-01

226

Biofouling control with ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been carried out on a small-scale simulated cooling water system using a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens to represent the slime-forming microbial community, to examine the opportunities for control using ultrasound. Glass tubes (18 mm I.D. x 1 m long) through which contaminated water flowed at 1 m\\/s were dosed with ultrasound along the tube axis. Glass tubes were

T. R. Bott

2000-01-01

227

Ultrasound in analytical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound is a type of energy which can help analytical chemists in almost all their laboratory tasks, from cleaning to detection.\\u000a A generic view of the different steps which can be assisted by ultrasound is given here. These steps include preliminary operations\\u000a usually not considered in most analytical methods (e.g. cleaning, degassing, and atomization), sample preparation being the\\u000a main area

F. Priego Capote; M. D. Luque de Castro

2007-01-01

228

CARDIAC MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

With light and electron microscopy a comparison has been made of the morphology of ventricular (V) and Purkinje (P) fibers of the hearts of guinea pig, rabbit, cat, dog, goat, and sheep. The criteria, previously established for the rabbit heart, that V fibers are distinguished from P fibers by the respective presence and absence of transverse tubules is shown to be true for all animals studied. No evidence was found of a permanent connection between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the extracellular space. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of V fibers formed couplings with the sarcolemma of a transverse tubule (interior coupling) and with the peripheral sarcolemma (peripheral coupling), whereas in P fibers the SR formed only peripheral couplings. The forms of the couplings were identical. The significance, with respect to excitation-contraction coupling, of the difference in the form of the couplings in cardiac versus skeletal muscle is discussed together with the electrophysiological implications of the differing geometries of bundles of P fibers from different animals. PMID:5645545

Sommer, Joachim R.; Johnson, Edward A.

1968-01-01

229

A novel mouse model of X-linked cardiac hypertrophy.  

PubMed

We recovered a novel mouse mutant exhibiting neonatal lethality associated with severe fetal cardiac hypertrophy and with some adult mice dying suddenly with left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using Doppler echocardiography, we screened surviving adult mice in this mutant line for cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac dimensions were obtained either from two-dimensional images collected using a novel ECG-gated ultra-high-frequency ultrasound system or by traditional M-mode imaging on a clinical ultrasound system. These analyses identified, among the littermates, two populations of mice: those with apparent cardiac hypertrophy with hypercontractile function characterized by ejection fraction of 75-80%, and normal littermates with ejection fraction of 53-55%. Analysis of the ECG-gated two-dimensional cines indicated that the hypertrophy was of the nonobstructive type. Further analysis of heart-to-body weight ratio confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Histopathology showed increased ventricular wall thickness, enlarged myocyte size, and mild myofiber disarray. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy revealed mitochondria hyperproliferation and dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum. Genome scanning using microsatellite DNA markers mapped the mutation to the X chromosome. DNA sequencing showed no mutations in the coding regions of several candidate genes on the X chromosome, including several known to be associated with left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings suggest that this mouse line may harbor a mutation in a novel gene causing X-linked cardiomyopathy. PMID:18424640

Leatherbury, L; Yu, Q; Chatterjee, B; Walker, D L; Yu, Z; Tian, X; Lo, C W

2008-06-01

230

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

231

Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. Results A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). Conclusion General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE. PMID:24252303

2013-01-01

232

MitoQ administration prevents endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction.  

PubMed

Sepsis elicits severe alterations in cardiac function, impairing cardiac mitochondrial and pressure-generating capacity. Currently, there are no therapies to prevent sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that administration of a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant, 10-(6'-ubiquinonyl)-decyltriphenylphosphonium (MitoQ), would prevent endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac mitochondrial and contractile function. Studies were performed on adult rodents (n = 52) given either saline, endotoxin (8 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)), saline + MitoQ (500 microM), or both endotoxin and MitoQ. At 48 h animals were killed and hearts were removed for determination of either cardiac mitochondrial function (using polarography) or cardiac pressure generation (using the Langendorf technique). We found that endotoxin induced reductions in mitochondrial state 3 respiration rates, the respiratory control ratio, and ATP generation. Moreover, MitoQ administration prevented each of these endotoxin-induced abnormalities, P < 0.001. We also found that endotoxin produced reductions in cardiac pressure-generating capacity, reducing the systolic pressure-diastolic relationship. MitoQ also prevented endotoxin-induced reductions in cardiac pressure generation, P < 0.01. One potential link between mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction is caspase activation; we found that endotoxin increased cardiac levels of active caspases 9 and 3 (P < 0.001), while MitoQ prevented this increase (P < 0.01). These data demonstrate that MitoQ is a potent inhibitor of endotoxin-induced mitochondrial and cardiac abnormalities. We speculate that this agent may prove a novel therapy for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:19657095

Supinski, G S; Murphy, M P; Callahan, L A

2009-10-01

233

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

234

Cardiac tamponade--still a difficult clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old man with multiple risk factors for ischaemic heart disease attended the emergency department (ED) with sudden-onset chest pain, dizziness and breathlessness. He was tachycardic but had normal heart sounds and normal QRS complexes on ECG. Bedside ultrasound was performed, revealing a pericardial effusion. Emergent pericardiocentesis was performed with excellent outcome. This case highlights the importance of early detection of cardiac tamponade as well as the role of bedside ultrasound in diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:24997706

Ni Leidhin, Caoilfhionn; Moran, Suzanne; MacLean, Alastair

2014-07-01

235

Lung ultrasound in the critically ill.  

PubMed

Lung ultrasound is a basic application of critical ultrasound, defined as a loop associating urgent diagnoses with immediate therapeutic decisions. It requires the mastery of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding (yielding seashore sign), the A-line (horizontal artifact), the quad sign, and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion, the fractal, and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line, and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndrome, abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. All of these disorders were assessed using CT as the "gold standard" with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90% to 100%, allowing ultrasound to be considered as a reasonable bedside "gold standard" in the critically ill. The BLUE-protocol is a fast protocol (<3 minutes), which allows diagnosis of acute respiratory failure. It includes a venous analysis done in appropriate cases. Pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax yield specific profiles. Pulmonary edema, e.g., yields anterior lung rockets associated with lung sliding, making the "B-profile." The FALLS-protocol adapts the BLUE-protocol to acute circulatory failure. It makes sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography (right ventricle dilatation, pericardial effusion), then lung ultrasound for assessing a direct parameter of clinical volemia: the apparition of B-lines, schematically, is considered as the endpoint for fluid therapy. Other aims of lung ultrasound are decreasing medical irradiation: the LUCIFLR program (most CTs in ARDS or trauma can be postponed), a use in traumatology, intensive care unit, neonates (the signs are the same than in adults), many disciplines (pulmonology, cardiology…), austere countries, and a help in any procedure (thoracentesis). A 1992, cost-effective gray-scale unit, without Doppler, and a microconvex probe are efficient. Lung ultrasound is a holistic discipline for many reasons (e.g., one probe, perfect for the lung, is able to scan the whole-body). Its integration can provide a new definition of priorities. The BLUE-protocol and FALLS-protocol allow simplification of expert echocardiography, a clear advantage when correct cardiac windows are missing. PMID:24401163

Lichtenstein, Daniel A

2014-01-01

236

Lung ultrasound in the critically ill  

PubMed Central

Lung ultrasound is a basic application of critical ultrasound, defined as a loop associating urgent diagnoses with immediate therapeutic decisions. It requires the mastery of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line), lung sliding (yielding seashore sign), the A-line (horizontal artifact), the quad sign, and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion, the fractal, and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation, the B-line, and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndrome, abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax, and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. All of these disorders were assessed using CT as the “gold standard” with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 90% to 100%, allowing ultrasound to be considered as a reasonable bedside “gold standard” in the critically ill. The BLUE-protocol is a fast protocol (<3 minutes), which allows diagnosis of acute respiratory failure. It includes a venous analysis done in appropriate cases. Pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax yield specific profiles. Pulmonary edema, e.g., yields anterior lung rockets associated with lung sliding, making the “B-profile.” The FALLS-protocol adapts the BLUE-protocol to acute circulatory failure. It makes sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography (right ventricle dilatation, pericardial effusion), then lung ultrasound for assessing a direct parameter of clinical volemia: the apparition of B-lines, schematically, is considered as the endpoint for fluid therapy. Other aims of lung ultrasound are decreasing medical irradiation: the LUCIFLR program (most CTs in ARDS or trauma can be postponed), a use in traumatology, intensive care unit, neonates (the signs are the same than in adults), many disciplines (pulmonology, cardiology…), austere countries, and a help in any procedure (thoracentesis). A 1992, cost-effective gray-scale unit, without Doppler, and a microconvex probe are efficient. Lung ultrasound is a holistic discipline for many reasons (e.g., one probe, perfect for the lung, is able to scan the whole-body). Its integration can provide a new definition of priorities. The BLUE-protocol and FALLS-protocol allow simplification of expert echocardiography, a clear advantage when correct cardiac windows are missing. PMID:24401163

2014-01-01

237

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi, W. J. Russell, M. Komatsuda, S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

238

Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Thigh Cuffs and Respiratory Maneuvers on Crewmembers of the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, and a decrease in leg diameter. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (ECHO) in a baseline steady state and during preload reduction introduced with thigh occlusion cuffs used as a counter-measure device (Braslet cuffs) measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations. Methods: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (Expeditions 16 - 20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 +/- 46.days after launch (mean +/- SD; 33 - 185). Twenty Seven cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained with/without respiratory maneuvers before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs. Results: Non-physicians performed diagnostic-quality cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations using remote guidance. Three of 27 combinations of maneuvers and Braslet or Braslet alone were identified as being significant changed when compared to baseline. Eleven of 81 differences between combinations of Mueller, Valsalva or baseline were significant and related to cardiac preload reduction or increase in lower extremity venous volume. Conclusions: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts commensurate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques to measure the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an invaluable tool in determining the volume status of the cardiac patient at the 'microgravity bedside'.

Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen; Ebert, Douglas; Whitson, Peggy A.; Feiveson, Alan; Alferova, Irina V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Duncan, J. Michael

2011-01-01

239

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

240

Enabling microscale and nanoscale approaches for bioengineered cardiac tissue.  

PubMed

In this issue of ACS Nano, Shin et al. present their finding that the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) results in improved functionality of bioengineered cardiac tissue. These CNT-GelMA hybrid materials demonstrate cardiac tissue with enhanced electrophysiological performance; improved mechanical integrity; better cell adhesion, viability, uniformity, and organization; increased beating rate and lowered excitation threshold; and protective effects against cardio-inhibitory and cardio-toxic drugs. In this Perspective, we outline recent progress in cardiac tissue engineering and prospects for future development. Bioengineered cardiac tissues can be used to build "heart-on-a-chip" devices for drug safety and efficacy testing, fabricate bioactuators for biointegrated robotics and reverse-engineered life forms, treat abnormal cardiac rhythms, and perhaps one day cure heart disease with tissue and organ transplants. PMID:23527748

Chan, Vincent; Raman, Ritu; Cvetkovic, Caroline; Bashir, Rashid

2013-03-26

241

Cardiac Syndrome X  

MedlinePLUS

Related terms: angina, microvascular angina Cardiac syndrome X patients have the pain of angina , but they do not have coronary artery disease ( CAD ). So even though patients with cardiac syndrome X ...

242

[Ultrasound in suspected intussusception].  

PubMed

Intussusception is one of the main abdominal emergencies in children. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis is poor and in only 30-40% of cases is the clinical diagnosis of intussusception confirmed. Many unnecessary barium enemas are performed due to clinical misdiagnosis. Sonography can demonstrate intussusception, is widely available, easily performed, does not produce radiation and can be used to screen suspected cases. From 1991-1993, in 6 of 14 consecutive cases of clinically suspected intussusception the ultrasound examination was positive. In 4 of them barium enema revealed intussusception, which was reduced by the barium enema procedure. A child was sent for surgery because ultrasonography showed a duplication cyst which was considered the leading point for the bowel invagination. In the last case surgery for bowel obstruction revealed impacted stool misdiagnosed by ultrasound as an intussusception mass. In all the 8 cases in which ultrasound was negative, follow-up confirmed the absence of intussusception. The sensitivity of the ultrasound examination was 100% and the negative predictive value 100%. These results are not in accord with those of other authors. We find ultrasound a reliable imaging modality for the diagnosis of intussusception. It can identify leading points as well as other causes for the clinical presentation, including ovarian torsion or appendicitis. PMID:7959392

Barzilai, M

1994-07-01

243

Advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) and management of nonpalpable breast abnormalities: a community hospital experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of diagnostic techniques have been in use for determining the nature of non-palpable mammographic abnormalities over the last decade, these include stereotactic and ultrasound guided cytology, core biopsy and vacuum assisted core biopsy techniques as well as open surgical breast biopsy. Recently, a less invasive alternative has been investigated; the Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI) technique (U.S. Surgical

I. A. Jacobs; A. H. Chevinsky; W. Diehl; T. J. Smith

2001-01-01

244

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

245

Physical exercise in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease complicated by cardiac arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to a multimodal, therapeutic exercise program was studied in 184 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated with ventricular extrasystole and cardiac fibrillation. Therapeutic exercise comprised auto?genic relaxation practice, deep breathing, breath holding, and physical exercise promoting relaxation. Arrhythmias, myocardium and cardiac conductivity abnormalities, and anxiety and irritability of activated patients were all alleviated with minimum appropriate drug

S. V. Khruschev; V. A. Margazin; G. S. Kozlov; A. V. Britvenkov

1992-01-01

246

Renal vein Doppler ultrasound of maternal kidneys in normal second and third trimester pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow pattern in intrarenal veins depends on renal parenchymal histology and cardiac physiology. The intrarenal venous impedance index obtained by Doppler ultrasound is related to compliance in vein, and can be helpful in the assessment of renal parenchymal compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow,

N Karabulut

2003-01-01

247

Multichannel ultrasound current source density imaging of a 3-D dipole field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) potentially improves 3-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment for cardiac and neurologic disorders, including arrhythmia and epilepsy. In this study, we report 4-D imaging of a time varying electric dipole in saline. A 3-D dipole field was produced in

Zhaohui Wang; Ragnar Olafsson; Pier Ingram; Qian Li; Russell S. Witte

2010-01-01

248

Improvement in Doppler ultrasound human foetal heart rate records by signal correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the determination of foetal heart rate from Doppler ultrasound signals is described and evaluated.\\u000a It determines the most probable pulse interval from the recurrence times of multiple echoes generated by each cardiac pulse.\\u000a The method, when optimised, is shown to offer an improvement over current systems, especially in reduced signal loss.

D. L. Tuck

1982-01-01

249

Modification of cardiac function in cirrhotic patients with and without ascites  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Abnormalities in cardiac function have been reported in liver cirrhosis, suggesting a latent cardiomyopathy in these patients. In this study we investigated cardiac function in cirrhotic patients and in controls.METHODS:A total of 20 cirrhotic patients without previous or ongoing ascites, 20 cirrhotic patients with moderate-to-severe ascites, and 10 healthy controls were studied by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac dimensions and left

Valentina Valeriano; Stefania Funaro; Raffaella Lionetti; Oliviero Riggio; Giovanna Pulcinelli; Pierluigi Fiore; Andrea Masini; Stefano De Castro; Manuela Merli

2000-01-01

250

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury to multiple vital organ systems and a chronic hemolytic anemia, both contributing to progressive organ dysfunction. The introduction of treatments that induce protective fetal hemoglobin and reduce infectious complications has greatly prolonged survival. However, with increased longevity, cardiovascular complications are increasingly evident, with the notable development of a progressive proliferative systemic vasculopathy, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Pulmonary hypertension is reported in autopsy studies and numerous clinical studies have shown that increased pulmonary pressures are an important risk marker for mortality in these patients. In epidemiological studies, the development of PH is associated with intravascular hemolysis, cutaneous leg ulceration, renal insufficiency, iron overload and liver dysfunction. Chronic anemia in sickle cell disease results in cardiac chamber dilation and a compensatory increase in left ventricular mass. This is often accompanied by left ventricular diastolic dysfunction which has also been a strong independent predictor of mortality patients with sickle cell disease. Both PH and diastolic dysfunction are associated with marked abnormalities in exercise capacity in these patients. Sudden death is an increasingly recognized problem and further cardiac investigations are necessary to recognize and treat high-risk patients. PMID:22440212

Gladwin, Mark T.; Sachdev, Vandana

2013-01-01

251

Transgenic Analysis of the Role of FKBP12.6 in Cardiac Function and Intracellular Calcium Release  

PubMed Central

Abstract FK506 binding protein12.6 (FKBP12.6) binds to the Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in cardiomyocytes and stabilizes RyR2 to prevent premature sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. Previously, two different mouse strains deficient in FKBP12.6 were reported to have different abnormal cardiac phenotypes. The first mutant strain displayed sex-dependent cardiac hypertrophy, while the second displayed exercise-induced cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. In this study, we tested whether FKBP12.6-deficient mice that display hypertrophic hearts can develop exercise-induced cardiac sudden death and whether the hypertrophic heart is a direct consequence of abnormal calcium handling in mutant cardiomyocytes. Our data show that FKBP12.6-deficient mice with cardiac hypertrophy do not display exercise-induced arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac death. To investigate the role of FKBP12.6 overexpression for cardiac function and cardiomyocyte calcium release, we generated a transgenic mouse line with cardiac specific overexpression of FKBP12.6 using ?-myosin heavy chain (?MHC) promoter. MHC-FKBP12.6 mice displayed normal cardiac development and function. We demonstrated that MHC-FKBP12.6 mice are able to rescue abnormal cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal calcium release in FKBP12.6-deficient mice. PMID:22087651

Liu, Ying; Chen, Hanying; Ji, Guangju; Li, Baiyan; Mohler, Peter J.; Zhu, Zhiming; Yong, Weidong; Chen, Zhuang; Xu, Xuehong

2011-01-01

252

Potential role of ultrasound in anesthesia and intensive care  

PubMed Central

One of the most exiting recent technological advances in the field of anesthesia to track the region of interest is the introduction of anatomical evaluation by ultrasound imaging. Widespread use of this modality depends on its proven clinical efficacy, cost effectiveness, and practicality as it allows anesthesiologist to evaluate complex and varied anatomy prior to needle insertion. Sound used in medicine is not significantly transmitted by air or bone but through fluids which make up the larger part of soft tissues in the body. Ultrasound has been shown to offer excellent guidance for difficult venous access, epidural space identification in cases of difficult anatomy, delineating nerve plexuses for chronic nerve blocks, for regional anesthesia, and in transesophageal echocardiography for cardiac imaging with blood flows or in an otherwise high-risk patient where interventional procedure is required. It has special application to assess the narrowest diameter of the subglottic upper airway. A systemic literature search was performed in PubMed and the Cochrane library. The search strategy was set up using either single text word or combinations. We also included the studies where in these techniques were compared with conventional methods . Despite the initial excitement of this technique, ultrasound visualization is still indirect and images are subject to individual interpretation. It is gradually becoming routine in daily practice at our institution due to its reliability and safety. Though ultrasound is much safer, exposure in terms of intensity and time should be limited as far as possible, as high-energy ultrasound can cause heating and damage to tissues. In this review, we discuss established and future areas of ultrasound imaging and emphasize the use of B-mode ultrasound to improve the efficacy of interventional techniques. We have also illustrated potential uses with reference to cross-sectional B-mode images which visually represent a slice of tissues and are the easiest images for interpretation by clinicians.

Gupta, Prashant K.; Gupta, Kumkum; Dwivedi, Amit Nandan D.; Jain, Manish

2011-01-01

253

Prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 1p36: a focus on brain abnormalities and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Monosomy 1p36 is an increasingly recognized chromosomal anomaly. We describe two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had brain abnormalities detected on prenatal ultrasound. The first patient was ascertained prenatally with ultrasound abnormalities, including ventriculomegaly, a single umbilical artery, a unilateral club foot, a ventricular septal defect, and intra-uterine growth retardation. Amniocentesis showed a normal karyotype. A postnatal MRI showed moderate to severe non-obstructive hydrocephalus, bilateral colpocephaly, and abnormal myelination of the anterior limb of the internal capsule. A postnatal karyotype demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.3 that was not detected prenatally due to low resolution. Molecular studies by array comparative genome hybridization (CGH) identified a terminal deletion of approximately 10 Mb. Our second patient was a fetus who had brain abnormalities suggestive of holoprosencephaly identified on prenatal ultrasound. Amniocentesis showed 46,XX,der(1)t(1;20)(p36.1;p12.2), that was found to be maternally inherited. Fetal autopsy demonstrated hydrocephalus, focal polymicrogyria, and cerebellar hypoplasia. However, holoprosencephaly was not confirmed. In addition to describing two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had abnormal brain anatomy on prenatal ultrasounds, we review the literature of other prenatally detected patients with monosomy 1p36 and review brain abnormalities seen both prenatally and postnatally. PMID:19006213

Campeau, Philippe M; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Cartier, Lola; Mackay, Katherine L; Shaffer, Lisa G; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Thomas, Mary Ann

2008-12-01

254

Basic Principles of Ultrasound  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a team of medical professionals and health-care specialists, the main Echo Web site contains a wide range of resources dealing primarily with diagnostic ultrasounds, sonography, and the field of echocardiography. One of the most helpful of these resources is the Basic Principles of Ultrasound online course, which is available here at no cost. The course itself is divided into six different sections, along with a bibliography and FAQ area. Visitors can use the online course to learn about the basic principles of ultrasound, the basic science behind related devices and instruments, and the ways to use these devices safely. Instructors might also do well to use this website in conjunction with lectures on the subject, or as away to give students an additional resource to consult at their leisure.

2004-01-01

255

Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

2013-01-01

256

Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adre; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O'Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

2009-01-01

257

A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

2008-03-01

258

Magnetocardiography and cardiac risk.  

PubMed

Risk evaluation is a challenging problem in clinical cardiology. Recently, the development of new therapeutic strategies for malignant cardiac arrhythmias and ischemia has urged the need for more accurate screening methods of risk patients The purpose of this review is to summarize the current scientific evidence on the applicability of a new method, high-resolution magnetocardiography (HR-MCG), in identification of cardiac patients at risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and ischemic episodes. In recent years different methods for recognizing the electromagnetic abnormalities indicating the increased risk have been used with promising results. At present, the following conclusions can be made: 1) MCG can reliably identify patients prone to malignant ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction as well as in cardiomyopathy, in long QT syndrome, and in operated congenital heart disease. 2) Several analysis methods seem to work: high-pass filtering, relative smoothness score and magnetic field map trajectory plots. 3) Detection and localization of acute and chronic ischemia seems technically feasible and may be one of the most important new clinical applications of the method. 4) Larger clinical series are needed to optimize these techniques and to evaluate their feasibility in the clinics. 5) Prognostic studies should also be started as soon as possible. There are already many multichannel MCG measurement systems available in hospitals to enable clinical studies.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Risikoabschätzung stellt in der klinischen Kardiologie ein schwieriges Problem dar. Kürzlich hat die Entwicklung neuer Strategien bei malignen kardialen Arrhythmien und der Ischämie die, Notwendigkeit an exakteren Untersuchungsmethoden bei Risikopatienten unterstrichen. Diese Ubersicht soll dem Zweck dienen, die derzeitige wissenschaftliche Anwendbarkeit einer neuen Methode, der hochauflösenden Magnetokardiographie (HR-MCG) bei Herzpatienten nachzuweisen, bei denen ein Risiko des Auftretens maligner Kammerarrhythmien und ischämischen Episoden beseht. Im Verlauf der letzten Jahre sind mit vielversprechenden Resultaten verschiedene Methoden zum Nachweis elektromagnetischer Störungen entwickelt worden, die auf ein erhöhtes Risiko hinweisen. Momentan können daraus die folgenden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen werden: 1) Die MCG kann das erhöhte Risiko bei den Patienten zuverlässig aufzeigen, die einen Herzinfarkt durchgemacht haben oder an einer Kardiomyopathie, einem langen QT-Syndrom oder einer operierten, kongenitalen Herzerkrankung leiden. 2) Es scheinen verschiedene Auswertungsmethoden zu funktionieren: Hochpassfiltrierung, Relative Smoothness Score und Magnetkarten-Trajektaufzeichnungen. 3) Nachweis und Lokalisation der akuten und chronischen Ischämie erscheinen technisch möglich zu sein und können eine der wichtigsten neuen klinischen Untersuchungsmethoden darstellen. 4) Umfangreichere klinische Studien sind erforderlich, um die Optimierung dieser Methoden zu erreichen und ihre Eignung unter klinischen Bedingungen aufzuzeigen. 5) So bald als möglich sollten ausserdem prognostische Studien eingeleitet werden. Es existieren in Krankenhäusern bereits einige Multikanal-MCG-Messgeräte, die sich zur Durchführung klinischer Studien eignen. PMID:19484514

Mäkijärvi, M

1997-09-01

259

The Neural Crest in Cardiac Congenital Anomalies  

PubMed Central

This review discusses the function of neural crest as they relate to cardiovascular defects. The cardiac neural crest cells are a subpopulation of cranial neural crest discovered nearly 30 years ago by ablation of premigratory neural crest. The cardiac neural crest cells are necessary for normal cardiovascular development. We begin with a description of the crest cells in normal development, including their function in remodeling the pharyngeal arch arteries, outflow tract septation, valvulogenesis, and development of the cardiac conduction system. The cells are also responsible for modulating signaling in the caudal pharynx, including the second heart field. Many of the molecular pathways that are known to influence specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are reviewed. The cardiac neural crest cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various human cardiocraniofacial syndromes such as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial, CHARGE, Fetal Alcohol, Alagille, LEOPARD, and Noonan syndromes, as well as Retinoic Acid Embryopathy. The loss of neural crest cells or their dysfunction may not always directly cause abnormal cardiovascular development, but are involved secondarily because crest cells represent a major component in the complex tissue interactions in the head, pharynx and outflow tract. Thus many of the human syndromes linking defects in the heart, face and brain can be better understood when considered within the context of a single cardiocraniofacial developmental module with the neural crest being a key cell type that interconnects the regions. PMID:22595346

Keyte, Anna; Hutson, Mary Redmond

2012-01-01

260

Cardiac Output and Central Distribution of Blood Flow in the Human Fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The objectives of this study were to establish reference ranges for left and right cardiac output and to investigate blood flow distribution through the foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus, and pulmonary bed in human fetuses. Methods and Results—A prospective study was performed in 222 normal fetuses from 13 to 41 weeks of gestation with high-resolution color Doppler ultrasound. Cardiac output and

Gunther Mielke; Norbert Benda

2010-01-01

261

Non-neoplastic intratesticular lesions mimicking tumour on ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   It has recently been emphasized that the incidence of benign testicular lesions is much higher than previously suspected.\\u000a Sonography is reported to have a high sensitivity but poor specificity in the evaluation of intratesticular abnormalities.\\u000a This report reviews the common and unusual lesions that can mimic testicular tumour on ultrasound, and discusses the clinical\\u000a and sonographic features that may

S. Strauss; P. Gottlieb; A. Kessler; M. Graif; Z. Heyman; H. Manor

2000-01-01

262

Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

2009-02-01

263

USEFUL: Ultrasound Exam for Underlying Lesions Incorporated into Physical Exam  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Ultrasound Screening Exam for Underlying Lesions (USEFUL) was developed in an attempt to establish a role for bedside ultrasound in the primary and preventive care setting. It is the purpose of our pilot study to determine if students were first capable of performing all of the various scans required of our USEFUL while defining such an ultrasound-assisted physical exam that would supplement the standard hands-on physical exam in the same head-to-toe structure. We also aimed to assess the time needed for an adequate exam and analyze if times improved with repetition and previous ultrasound training. Methods: Medical students with ranging levels of ultrasound training received a 25-minute presentation on our USEFUL followed by a 30-minute hands-on session. Following the hands-on session, the students were asked to perform a timed USEFUL on 2–3 standardized subjects. All images were documented as normal or abnormal with the understanding that an official detailed exam would be performed if an abnormality were to be found. All images were read and deemed adequate by board eligible emergency medicine ultrasound fellows. Results: Twenty-six exams were performed by 9 students. The average time spent by all students per USEFUL was 11 minutes and 19 seconds. Students who had received the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine's integrated ultrasound curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster (p< 0.0025). The time it took to complete the USEFUL ranged from 6 minutes and 32 seconds to 17 minutes, and improvement was seen with each USEFUL performed. The average time to complete the USEFUL on the first standardized patient was 13 minutes and 20 seconds, while 11 minutes and 2 seconds, and 9 minutes and 20 seconds were spent performing the exam on the second and third patient, respectively. Conclusion: Students were able to effectively complete all scans required by the USEFUL in a timely manner. Students who have been a part of the integrated ultrasound in medicine curriculum performed the USEFUL significantly faster than students who had not. Students were able to significantly improve upon the time it took them to complete the USEFUL with successive attempts. Future endpoints are aimed at assessing the feasibility and outcomes of an ultrasound-assisted physical exam in a primary care setting and the exam's effect on doctor-patient satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):260–266.] PMID:24868302

Steller, Jon; Russell, Bianca; Lotfipour, Shahram; Maldonado, Graciela; Siepel, Tim; Jakle, Halsey; Hata, Stacy; Chiem, Alan; Fox, John Christian

2014-01-01

264

[Malignant cardiac tumors].  

PubMed

Cardiac neoplasms are a rare occurrence in clinical practice. The various frequencies of primary and secondary malignant tumors vary from report to report, approximately 1% in most autopsy series and 4% in cancer patient's autopsies. Cardiac malignancies account for less 1% of cardiac surgery and about for 0.1% of cardiac echographic studies. The presence of metastatic tumor to the heart usually indicates widespread metastases. Lung carcinomas are the most commonly encountered tumor followed by breast and pancreas cancer and melanoma. Apart from primary pericardial mesothelioma, primary cardiac tumors are high-grade sarcomas with a high metastatic potency that often becomes evident early after surgery. Symptoms are non specific, occur late in the disease and affect few patients; especially secondary neoplasms of the heart take their course so fast that they cannot become symptomatic. The signs of cardiac neoplasms are divided into systemic symptoms (fever, arthralgias and myalgias), cardiac symptoms (congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, chest pain) and uncommon embolisms. Diagnosis is actually made easier with cardiac echography. Cardiac RMI is helpful to estimate vessels and pericardium involvement. Due to its poor prognosis, treatment of cardiac metastases is restricted to best supportive care. For primary cardiac neoplasms, surgery must be carefully discussed because operative intervention is often followed by rapid widespread metastases that adjuvant chemotherapy cannot avoid in most cases. PMID:15899620

Debourdeau, Philippe; Gligorov, Joseph; Teixeira, Luis; Aletti, Marc; Zammit, Christine

2004-11-01

265

Cardiac gated ventilation  

SciTech Connect

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

1995-12-31

266

Cardiac gated ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. We evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50msec scan aperture. Multislice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. We observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a nonfailing model of the heart.

Hanson, C. William, III; Hoffman, Eric A.

1995-05-01

267

Live volumetric imaging (LVI) intracardiac ultrasound catheter.  

PubMed

The Live Volumetric Imaging (LVI) catheter is capable of real-time 3D intracardiac echo (ICE) imaging, uniquely providing full volume sectors with deep penetration depth and high volume frame rate. The key enabling technology in this catheter is an integrated piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (pMUT), a novel matrix phased array transducer fabricated using semiconductor microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing techniques. This technology innovation may enable better image guidance to improve accuracy, reduce risk, and reduce procedure time for transcatheter intracardiac therapies which are currently done with limited direct visualization of the endocardial tissue. Envisioned applications for LVI include intraprocedural image guidance of cardiac ablation therapies as well as transcatheter mitral and aortic valve repair. PMID:23773496

Dausch, David E; Castellucci, John B; Gilchrist, Kristin H; Carlson, James B; Hall, Stephen D; von Ramm, Olaf T

2013-01-01

268

Prenatal abnormal features of the fourth ventricle in Joubert syndrome and related disorders.  

PubMed

Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD) are characterized by absence or underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis and a malformed brainstem. This family of disorders is a member of an emerging class of diseases called ciliopathies. We describe the abnormal features of the brain, particularly the fourth ventricle, in seven fetuses affected by JSRD. In three cases abnormality of the fourth ventricle was isolated and in four cases there were associated malformations. The molar tooth sign (MTS) was always present and visible on two-dimensional ultrasound and, when performed, on three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The fourth ventricle was always abnormal, in both axial and sagittal views, presenting pathognomonic deformities. It is important to identify JSRD, preferably prenatally or at least postnatally, due to its high risk of recurrence of about 25%. A detailed prenatal assessment of the fourth ventricle in several views may help to achieve this goal. PMID:23868831

Quarello, E; Molho, M; Garel, C; Couture, A; Legac, M P; Moutard, M L; Bault, J P; Fallet-Bianco, C; Guibaud, L

2014-02-01

269

Intravascular ultrasound speckle statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ridge based speckles segmentation algorithm is proposed for segmenting speckle images and its application in IVUS (intravascular ultrasound) images is studied. An IVUS image may be treated as a height map with ridges corresponding to the center of the speckles. The author proposes a ridge detection algorithm based on the calculation of the maximum ascent direction. The algorithm's running

Dongbai Guo

1998-01-01

270

Neural network assisted cardiac auscultation.  

PubMed

Traditional cardiac auscultation involves a great deal of interpretive skill. Neural networks were trained as phonocardiographic classifiers to determine their viability in this rôle. All networks had three layers and were trained by backpropagation using only the heart sound amplitude envelope as input. The main aspect of the study was to determine what topologies, gain and momentum factors lead to efficient training for this application. Neural networks which are trained with heart sound classes of greater similarity were found to be less likely to converge to a solution. A prototype normal/abnormal classifier was also developed which provided excellent classification accuracy despite the sparse nature of the training data. Future directions for the development of a full-scale computer-assisted phonocardiographic classifier are also considered. PMID:7795716

Cathers, I

1995-02-01

271

Benefit of neurophysiologic monitoring for pediatric cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Pediatric patients undergoing repair of congenital cardiac abnormalities have a significant risk of an adverse neurologic event. Therefore this retrospective cohort study examined the potential benefit of interventions based on intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in decreasing both postoperative neurologic sequelae and length of hospital stay as a cost proxy. Methods: With informed parental consent approved by the institutional review board,

Erle H. Austin; Harvey L. Edmonds; Steven M. Auden; Vedad Seremet; Greg Niznik; Aida Sehic; Michael K. Sowell; Caryn D. Cheppo; Karen M. Corlett

1997-01-01

272

Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

1997-01-01

273

Bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the United States. While the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines define NAFLD as hepatic steatosis detected either on histology or imaging without a secondary cause of abnormal hepatic fat accumulation, no imaging modality is recommended as standard of care for screening or diagnosis. Bedside ultrasound has been evaluated as a non-invasive method of diagnosing NAFLD with the presence of characteristic sonographic findings. Prior studies suggest characteristic sonographic findings for NAFLD include bright hepatic echoes, increased hepatorenal echogenicity, vascular blurring of portal or hepatic vein and subcutaneous tissue thickness. These sonographic characteristics have not been shown to aid bedside clinicians easily identify potential cases of NAFLD. While sonographic findings such as attenuation of image, diffuse echogenicity, uniform heterogeneous liver, thick subcutaneous depth, and enlarged liver filling of the entire field could be identified by clinicians from bedside ultrasound. The accessibility, ease of use, and low-side effect profile of ultrasound make bedside ultrasound an appealing imaging modality in the detection of hepatic steatosis. When used with appropriate clinical risk factors and steatosis involves greater than 33% of the liver, ultrasound can reliably diagnose NAFLD. Despite the ability of ultrasound in detecting moderate hepatic steatosis, it cannot replace liver biopsy in staging the degree of fibrosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the diagnostic accuracy, utility, and limitations of ultrasound in the diagnosis of NAFLD and its potential use by clinicians in routine practices. PMID:24944472

Khov, Nancy; Sharma, Amol; Riley, Thomas R

2014-01-01

274

Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr) RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23580199

Yu, Lin; Daniels, Joseph; Glaser, Alex E.; Wolf, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

275

An Artificial Vector Model for Generating Abnormal Electrocardiographic Rhythms  

PubMed Central

We present generalizations of our previously published artificial models for generating multi-channel ECG to provide simulations of abnormal cardiac rhythms. Using a three-dimensional vectorcardiogram (VCG) formulation, we generate the normal cardiac dipole for a patient using a sum of Gaussian kernels, fitted to real VCG recordings. Abnormal beats are specified either as perturbations to the normal dipole or as new dipole trajectories. Switching between normal and abnormal beat types is achieved using a first-order Markov chain. Probability transitions can be learned from real data or modeled by coupling to heart rate and sympathovagal balance. Natural morphology changes from beat-to-beat are incorporated by varying the angular frequency of the dipole as a function of the inter-beat (RR) interval. The RR interval time series is generated using our previously described model whereby time- and frequency-domain heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability characteristics can be specified. QT-HR hysteresis is simulated by coupling the Gaussian kernels associated with the T-wave in the model with a nonlinear factor related to the local HR (determined from the last n RR intervals). Morphology changes due to respiration are simulated by introducing a rotation matrix couple to the respiratory frequency. We demonstrate an example of the use of this model by simulating HR-dependent T-Wave Alternans (TWA) with and without phase-switching due to ectopy. Application of our model also reveals previously unreported effects of common TWA estimation methods. PMID:20308774

Clifford, Gari D.; Nemati, Shamim; Sameni, Reza

2010-01-01

276

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

277

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

278

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

279

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

280

Ultrasound’s Risk: Reproductive autonomy and epistemic moral injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Technology and Intervention in Pregnancy and Childbirth track.\\u000aThree main questions are the focus of this paper: First, how does ultrasound shape the relationship between woman and fetus? Second, which major cultural models of pregnancy does ultrasound mobilize? Third, what potential risks, harms and wrongs for women does ultrasound entail? In answering these questions,

Sarah Clark Miller

2010-01-01

281

Tuberous Sclerosis and Cardiac Tumors: New Electrocardiographic Finding in an Infant  

PubMed Central

Cardiac rhabdomyoma, the primary cardiac tumor most often diagnosed in children, is frequently present in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Most pediatric patients with rhabdomyoma are asymptomatic; however, various electrocardiographic abnormalities can be detected, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, ectopic atrial tachycardia, and atrioventricular node dysfunction. We describe the case of a 10-month-old infant girl who had tuberous sclerosis and multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Her electrocardiographic presentation was notable for dome-shaped T waves and no ST segment in some leads. To our knowledge, this electrocardiographic finding has not been described in patients with tuberous sclerosis and cardiac masses. PMID:25425989

Sap, Fatih; Sert, Ahmet; Odabas, Dursun

2014-01-01

282

Towards Model-Based Estimation of the Cardiac Electro-Mechanical Activity from ECG Signals  

E-print Network

Towards Model-Based Estimation of the Cardiac Electro-Mechanical Activity from ECG Signals by comparing the actual patient's ECG with computational results and the deformation of the biomechani- cal-to-access measurements on a patient: the ECG (Electrocardiogram), and a time sequence of volumetric ultrasound images

Coudière, Yves

283

Recurrence of nonfamilial cardiac myxoma in the left ventricle: A case report.  

PubMed

A left atrial myxoma was found and removed in a 47-year-old woman admitted for acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, without family history of cardiac tumor. Follow-up echocardiography, 15 months later, demonstrated a new myxoma in the left ventricle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 42:576-577, 2014. PMID:24797084

Song, Xiaole; Tang, Li; Yang, Jun; Li, Nan

2014-11-12

284

Medical and ethical considerations in twin pregnancies discordant for serious cardiac disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Prenatal ultrasound has led to the early diagnosis of major anomalies. However, the ready availability of this technology has led to increasing challenges for physicians counseling affected parents, which is all the more difficult in a twin pregnancy with only one affected fetus. This paper reviews the medical and ethical considerations in twin pregnancies discordant for a serious cardiac condition.Study

A Malhotra; S Menahem; P Shekleton; L Gillam

2009-01-01

285

Biofouling control with ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been carried out on a small-scale simulated cooling water system using a monoculture of Pseudomonas fluorescens to represent the slime-forming microbial community, to examine the opportunities for control using ultrasound. Glass tubes (18 mm I.D. x 1 m long) through which contaminated water flowed at 1 m/s were dosed with ultrasound along the tube axis. Glass tubes were employed to facilitate the use of infrared absorbance for biofilm accumulation assessment. The preliminary results demonstrate that control of biofilm formation and the removal of established biofilms on the inside of tubes may be achieved by the technology, but there may be some limitations with respect to removal.

Bott, T.R.

2000-06-01

286

Sparsity driven ultrasound imaginga)  

PubMed Central

An image formation framework for ultrasound imaging from synthetic transducer arrays based on sparsity-driven regularization functionals using single-frequency Fourier domain data is proposed. The framework involves the use of a physics-based forward model of the ultrasound observation process, the formulation of image formation as the solution of an associated optimization problem, and the solution of that problem through efficient numerical algorithms. The sparsity-driven, model-based approach estimates a complex-valued reflectivity field and preserves physical features in the scene while suppressing spurious artifacts. It also provides robust reconstructions in the case of sparse and reduced observation apertures. The effectiveness of the proposed imaging strategy is demonstrated using experimental data. PMID:22352501

Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Cleveland, Robin O.; C,etin, Mujdat; Karl, W. Clem

2012-01-01

287

Ultrasound-Assisted Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freezing is a well-known preservation method widely used in the food industry. The advantages of freezing are to a certain degree counterbalanced by the risk of damage caused by the formation and size of ice crystals. Over recent years new approaches have been developed to improve and control the crystallization process, and among these approaches sonocrystallization has proved to be very useful, since it can enhance both the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate. Although ultrasound has been successfully used for many years in the evaluation of various aspects of foods and in medical applications, the use of power ultrasound to directly improve processes and products is less popular in food manufacturing. Foodstuffs are very complex materials, and research is needed in order to define the specific sound parameters that aid the freezing process and that can later be used for the scale-up and production of commercial frozen food products.

Delgado, A. E.; Sun, Da-Wen

288

Abnormal agitated saline study results after tetralogy of Fallot repair.  

PubMed

Residual intracardiac or extracardiac shunting is frequently seen in patients with repaired congenital heart disease and can cause systemic hypoxemia. We present the case of an adult with tetralogy of Fallot who underwent two corrective surgical procedures as a child with subsequent pulmonary valve replacement due to residual pulmonary insufficiency. Further details of her operative history were otherwise unknown. After being lost to follow-up for many years, she presented with unexplained cyanosis and a markedly abnormal agitated saline study on transthoracic echocardiography in which only the left heart filled after contrast administration. We review the differential diagnosis for such a presentation and discuss the utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define the etiology. Cardiac MRI, a frequently used imaging modality to longitudinally assess adult patients with congenital heart disease, provides excellent image quality of cardiac structures and the ability to perform angiography in a variety of imaging planes. These advantages render cardiac MRI, a useful modality to determine the etiology of unexplained cyanosis in these patients as both intracardiac and extracardiac shunts can be detected. PMID:24102990

Tunks, Robert D; Barker, Piers C A; Johnson, Jason N; Campbell, Michael J

2013-11-01

289

Towards Ultrasound Molecular Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Health systems are facing both health promotion and disease prevention thus requiring the discovery of new sustainable clinical\\u000a and technological approaches concerning both (early) diagnosis and (personalized) therapy. This chapter aims to highlight\\u000a the main steps forward toward the ultrasound molecular imaging, a new emerging technological approach which will contribute\\u000a to accomplish the convergence of diagnosis and therapy in clinical

Vincenzo Lionetti; Sergio Paddeu

290

Clinical ophthalmic ultrasound improvements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of digital synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution ultrasound images of eye and orbit was proposed. The parameters of the switched array configuration to reduce data collection time to a few milliseconds to avoid eye motion problems in the eye itself were established. An assessment of the effects of eye motion on the performance of the system was obtained. The principles of synthetic techniques are discussed. Likely applications are considered.

Garrison, J. B.; Piro, P. A.

1981-01-01

291

Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

2011-01-01

292

Intensity dependence of focused ultrasound lesion position  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the spatial distribution of intensity loss from an ultrasonic beam is critical to predicting lesion formation in focused ultrasound surgery. To date most models have used linear propagation models to predict the intensity profiles needed to compute the temporally varying temperature distributions. These can be used to compute thermal dose contours that can in turn be used to predict the extent of thermal damage. However, these simulations fail to adequately describe the abnormal lesion formation behavior observed for in vitro experiments in cases where the transducer drive levels are varied over a wide range. For these experiments, the extent of thermal damage has been observed to move significantly closer to the transducer with increasing transducer drive levels than would be predicted using linear propagation models. The simulations described herein, utilize the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) nonlinear propagation model with the parabolic approximation for highly focused ultrasound waves, to demonstrate that the positions of the peak intensity and the lesion do indeed move closer to the transducer. This illustrates that for accurate modeling of heating during FUS, nonlinear effects must be considered.

Meaney, Paul M.; Cahill, Mark D.; ter Haar, Gail R.

1998-04-01

293

Sudden cardiac death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of cardiac deaths that are sudden is approximately 50%, and decreases with age. The causes of sudden cardiac death are diverse, and are a function of age. In children and adolescents, coronary anomalies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and myocarditis are frequent substrates for lethal arrhythmias; in adults, coronary atherosclerosis and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy are the most common findings at

Renu Virmani; Allen P Burke; Andrew Farb

2001-01-01

294

Hybrid Pediatric Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally invasive strategies can be expanded by combining standard surgical and interventional techniques. We performed a longitudinal prospective study of all pediatric patients who have undergone hybrid cardiac surgery at the University of Chicago Children's Hospital. Hybrid cardiac surgery was defined as combined catheter-based and surgical interventions in either one setting or in a planned sequential fashion within 24 hours.

E. A. Bacha; Z. M. Hijazi; Q. L. Cao; R. Abdulla; J. P. Starr; J. Quinones; P. Koenig; B. Agarwala

2005-01-01

295

Computational approaches to understand cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias  

PubMed Central

Cardiac rhythms arise from electrical activity generated by precisely timed opening and closing of ion channels in individual cardiac myocytes. These impulses spread throughout the cardiac muscle to manifest as electrical waves in the whole heart. Regularity of electrical waves is critically important since they signal the heart muscle to contract, driving the primary function of the heart to act as a pump and deliver blood to the brain and vital organs. When electrical activity goes awry during a cardiac arrhythmia, the pump does not function, the brain does not receive oxygenated blood, and death ensues. For more than 50 years, mathematically based models of cardiac electrical activity have been used to improve understanding of basic mechanisms of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical function. Computer-based modeling approaches to understand cardiac activity are uniquely helpful because they allow for distillation of complex emergent behaviors into the key contributing components underlying them. Here we review the latest advances and novel concepts in the field as they relate to understanding the complex interplay between electrical, mechanical, structural, and genetic mechanisms during arrhythmia development at the level of ion channels, cells, and tissues. We also discuss the latest computational approaches to guiding arrhythmia therapy. PMID:22886409

Roberts, Byron N.; Yang, Pei-Chi; Behrens, Steven B.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

2012-01-01

296

Functional cardiac tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609

Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

2013-01-01

297

Heart sound reproduction based on neural network classification of cardiac valve disorders using wavelet transforms of PCG signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac auscultatory proficiency of physicians is crucial for accurate diagnosis of many heart diseases. Plenty of diverse abnormal heart sounds with identical main specifications and different details representing the ambient noise are indispensably needed to train, assess and improve the skills of medical students in recognizing and distinguishing the primary symptoms of the cardiac diseases. This paper proposes a versatile

Sepideh Babaei; Amir Geranmayeh

2009-01-01

298

Pretransport and Posttransport Characteristics and Outcomes of Neonates Who Were Admitted to a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The objective for this study was to characterize the impact and the safety of transporting neonates with known or suspected cardiac abnormalities. METHODS. We reviewed retrospectively the charts and computerized records of 192 admissions to a cardiac ICU in 2002. Patients were included when they were 28 days of age at admission and were transported from adjacent obstetric facilities

Scott B. Yeager; Jeffrey D. Horbar; Karla M. Greco; Julianna Duff; Ravi R. Thiagarajan; Peter C. Laussen

2010-01-01

299

Adults with genetic syndromes and cardiovascular abnormalities: Clinical history and management  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular abnormalities, especially structural congenital heart defects (CHDs), commonly occur in malformation syndromes and genetic disorders. Individuals with syndromes comprise a significant proportion of those affected with selected CHDs such as complete atrioventricular canal, interrupted arch type B, supravalvar aortic stenosis and pulmonary stenosis. As these individuals age, they contribute to the growing population of adults with special health care needs. Although most will require longterm cardiology followup, primary care providers, geneticists and other specialists should be aware of (1) the type and frequency of cardiovascular abnormalities, (2) the range of clinical outcomes, and (3) guidelines for prospective management and treatment of potential complications. This article reviews fundamental genetic, cardiac, medical and reproductive issues associated with common genetic syndromes which are frequently associated with a cardiovascular abnormality. New data are also provided about the cardiac status of adults with a 22q11.2 deletion and with Down syndrome. PMID:18580689

Lin, Angela E.; Basson, Craig T.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Magoulas, Pilar L.; McDermott, Deborah A.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M.; McPherson, Elspeth; Morris, Colleen A.; Noonan, Jacqueline; Nowak, Catherine; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Pyeritz, Reed E.; Rope, Alan F.; Zackai, Elaine; Pober, Barbara R.

2009-01-01

300

System for the diagnosis and monitoring of coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, cardiomyopathy and other cardiac conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed and stored in a useful form using a computer. The computer monitor displays various useful information, and in particular graphically displays various permutations of reduced amplitude zones and kurtosis that increase the rapidity and accuracy of cardiac diagnoses. New criteria for reduced amplitude zones are defined that enhance the sensitivity and specificity for detecting cardiac abnormalities.

Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); Arenare, Brian (Inventor)

2008-01-01

301

Cardiac disease in young adult patients with end-stage renal disease since childhood: A Dutch cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac disease in young adult patients with end-stage renal disease since childhood: A Dutch cohort study.BackgroundCardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in patients with pediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Yet, few data exist on cardiac function in these patients. We assessed the extent of cardiac abnormality and analyzed its association with potential determinants in young adult patients

Mariken P. Gruppen; Jaap W. Groothoff; Martin Prins; Poll Van Der Wouw; Martin Offringa; Willem Jan Bos; Jean Claude Davin; Hugo S. A. Heymans

2003-01-01

302

Syncope Resulting From Inherited Cardiac Ion Channel  

E-print Network

Syncope, a transient loss of consciousness, is a common clinical problem. The most common causes of syncope are cardiovascular in origin and are associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with underlying heart disease, transient myocardial ischemia, and other less common cardiac abnormalities.(1) The primary purpose of the evaluation of the patient with syncope is to determine whether the patient is at increased risk for death. This involves identifying patients with underlying heart disease, myocardial ischemia, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and potentially life-threatening genetic

Of Syncope; Bradley P. Knight

303

Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-? Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Aims It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. Methods and Results We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-? and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-?1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. Conclusion CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-? pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23227174

Jia, Chunshi; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Dahai

2012-01-01

304

The role of routine post-natal abdominal ultrasound for newborns in a resource-poor setting: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background-  Neonatal abdominal ultrasound is usually performed in Nigeria to investigate neonatal symptoms rather than as a follow up\\u000a to evaluate fetal abnormalities which were detected on prenatal ultrasound. The role of routine obstetric ultrasonography\\u000a in the monitoring of pregnancy and identification of fetal malformations has partly contributed to lowering of fetal mortality\\u000a rates. In Nigeria which has a high maternal

Atinuke M Agunloye; Adejumoke I Ayede; Samuel I Omokhodion

2011-01-01

305

[Usefulness, validity, and reliability of ultrasound in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis: a critical review of the literature].  

PubMed

Ultrasound is outstripping other diagnostic imaging techniques in the evaluation of osteoarthritis (OA). Due to its sub-millimetric resolution, ultrasound has the ability to detect minimal morphostructural abnormalities, even from preclinical or asymptomatic disease stages located in the main joint structures predominantly affected by OA: articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and subchondral bone. As of today, ultrasound has proven to be a useful tool for the detection of abnormalities occurring within soft tissues, including synovial hypertrophy, fluid accumulation, and synovial cysts, as well as bony abnormalities, such as osteophyte formation. Additionally, power Doppler signal correlated with histologic evidence of synovial membrane vascularization. In order to describe the ultrasonographic findings of OA, its utility, reliability, and validity as a diagnostic and monitoring tool, a critical review of the literature of hand, hip, and knee OA is provided. PMID:24108337

Guinsburg, Mara; Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Bernal, Araceli; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Pineda, Carlos

2013-01-01

306

The use of gated radionuclide angiography in the diagnosis of cardiac contusion  

SciTech Connect

No currently used diagnostic test is an accurate predictor of patients who will develop morbidity or mortality from cardiac contusion. In a prospective study we used gated cardiac radionuclide angiography to assess cardiac function in 30 patients with blunt chest trauma, and we compared the results of this test with those of other diagnostic studies for cardiac contusion to determine whether gated angiography is a more accurate predictor of serious cardiac injury. Diagnostic tests included the following: serial electrocardiograms (ECG), serial creatine phosphokinase muscle-brain isoenzyme (CPK-MB) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes, gated cardiac radionuclide angiography, and technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pyrophosphate scintigraphy. Abnormal studies were present in 26 patients; 22 showed abnormalities in CPK-MB, 19 on ECG, and five on gated scan. No patient demonstrated an abnormal Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan or abnormal elevation of LDH isoenzyme. Although no diagnostic test was predictive of morbidity and mortality, CPK-MB isoenzyme was the only test to correlate with morbidity and mortality. Morbidity and mortality correlated most closely with the number of associated major injuries and the presence of hypotension or hypoxia.

Fenner, J.E.; Knopp, R.; Lee, B.; dos Santos, P.A.; Wessel, R.J.; Dang, C.V.; Parks, S.N.

1984-09-01

307

First trimester fetal heart rate measurements by transvaginal ultrasound combined with pulsed Doppler: an evaluation of 1331 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to present the cardiac activity measurements obtained from 1331 embryos and first trimester fetuses in whom the crown-rump length (CRL) measurements were between 2 and 60 mm, and to correlate the pattern of changes according to growth in body length, with an objective and reliable technique; transvaginal ultrasound combined with pulsed Doppler. Sonographic examinations

Elif Gül Yapar; Eyüp Ekici; Oya Gökmen

1995-01-01

308

Cardiac disease after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease: analysis of 48 patients  

SciTech Connect

Occult or overt but delayed cardiac disease after thoracic radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease may be common. Detailed cardiac evaluations were performed in 48 patients with Hodgkin's disease at risk a mean of 97 months after radiotherapy. The study protocol included echocardiography, gated radionuclide ventriculography, and cardiac catheterization. Cardiac disease was found in 46 patients (96%) and included constrictive or occult constrictive pericarditis (24 patients), an abnormal hemodynamic response to a fluid challenge (14 patients), coronary artery disease (6 patients), and left ventricular dysfunction (2 patients). Most patients (53%) had normal echocardiograms. Gated blood pool radionuclide angiocardiography was performed in 42 patients. Excluding patients with occlusive coronary artery disease, the left ventricular ejection fraction at rest (mean 59%) and during exercise (mean 69%) was within normal limits. Thus (1) delayed cardiac disease after radiotherapy is common, (2) chronic pericardial disorders are the most frequent manifestations of this disease, and (3) the prognosis for patients who have radiation-induced cardiac disease is generally favorable.

Applefeld, M.M.; Wiernik, P.H.

1983-06-01

309

Cardiac dysfunction exacerbated by endocrinopathies in Friedreich ataxia: a case series.  

PubMed

Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes. Congestive heart failure was recently reported as the most frequent cause of Friedreich ataxia mortality. Cardiac dysfunction is suspected to result from a frataxin deficiency that leads to oxidative damage in cardiac tissues and possible metabolic syndrome characteristics. In this report, we describe 2 patient cases whose cardiac function worsened dramatically in the presence of underlying endocrinopathies. We report on one Friedreich ataxia teenager with previously undiagnosed diabetes that resulted in diabetic ketoacidosis and rapid progression to severe left ventricular dysfunction. We also describe a Friedreich ataxia teenager whose underlying Graves disease led to rapid worsening of known cardiomyopathy. Cardiac management and treatment for the endocrinopathies returned cardiac function to baseline. We conclude that screening for and awareness of underlying endocrinopathies in Friedreich ataxia may provide novel therapeutic targets for preventing Friedreich ataxia-associated cardiac dysfunction. PMID:22408141

Snyder, Madeline; Seyer, Lauren; Lynch, David R; Resnick, Andrew; Zesiewicz, Theresa A

2012-10-01

310

Ultrasound of nerve and muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, ultrasound has developed into a useful technology for the evaluation of diseases of nerve and muscle. Since it is currently not used at by the majority of clinicians involved in diagnosis or care of patients with neuromuscular disorders, this review briefly describes the technical aspects of ultrasound and its physical principles. It relates normal muscle

Francis O Walker; Michael S Cartwright; Ethan R Wiesler; James Caress

2004-01-01

311

Prenatal-postnatal correlations of brain abnormalities: how lesions and diagnoses change over time  

PubMed Central

A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities. PMID:24078783

Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah

2013-01-01

312

Modeling inherited cardiac disorders.  

PubMed

Advances in the understanding and treatment of cardiac disorders have been thwarted by the inability to study beating human cardiac cells in vitro. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bypass this hurdle by enabling the creation of patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). These cells provide a unique platform to study cardiac diseases in vitro, especially hereditary cardiac conditions. To date, iPSC-CMs have been used to successfully model arrhythmic disorders, showing excellent recapitulation of cardiac channel function and electrophysiologic features of long QT syndrome types 1, 2, 3, and 8, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Similarly, iPSC-CM models of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have shown robust correlation of predicted morphologic, contractile, and electrical phenotypes. In addition, iPSC-CMs have shown some features of the respective phenotypes for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), LEOPARD syndrome, Pompe's disease, and Friedriech's ataxia. In this review, we examine the progress of utilizing iPSC-CMs as a model for cardiac conditions and analyze the potential for the platform in furthering the biology and treatment of cardiac disorders.?? PMID:24632794

Sallam, Karim; Kodo, Kazuki; Wu, Joseph C

2014-01-01

313

Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum  

PubMed Central

Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

2013-01-01

314

Feasibility and Acceptability of a Structured Curriculum in Teaching Procedural and Basic Diagnostic Ultrasound Skills to Internal Medicine Residents  

PubMed Central

Background Point-of-care ultrasound has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool and is also being increasingly used by clinicians to guide procedures. Many current and future internists desire training, yet no formal, multiple-application, program-wide teaching interventions have been described. Intervention We describe a structured 30-hour ultrasound training course in diagnostic and procedural ultrasound implemented during intern orientation. Internal medicine interns learned basic ultrasound physics and machine skills; focused cardiac, great vessel, pulmonary, and abdominal ultrasound diagnostic examinations; and procedural applications. Results In postcourse testing, learners demonstrated the ability to acquire images, had significantly increased knowledge scores (P?ultrasound skills would be valuable during residency and in their careers. Conclusions A structured ultrasound course can increase knowledge and can result in learners who have skills in image acquisition, interpretation, and integration in management. Future work will focus on refining and improving these skills to allow these learners to be entrusted with the use of ultrasound independently for patient care decisions. PMID:24404316

Schnobrich, Daniel J.; Olson, Andrew P. J.; Broccard, Alain; Duran-Nelson, Alisa

2013-01-01

315

High frequency ultrasound torturer.  

PubMed

The discernible aim of torture as everyone believes--and rightly so--is to destroy the personality of an individual in a way that would render his compliance in future. But to destroy a personality is easier said than done. It requires long sessions of detention and torture. The torturers risk themselves getting exposed. The Human Rights groups are active all around the world. Ultimately the personality may not be destroyed much to the chagrin of the torturers, and an unexpected resilient rebounding may take place. Therefore, with the repertoire of modern knowledge, the strategy may well change in the 21st century. Discreet methods may be employed to selectively destroy areas in brain by high dosage and high frequency ultrasound. It is completely a non-invasive technique that does not leave its fingerprint for painful, later denials of subornation. Nevertheless the personality will change--from rightful aggression to slavish submission. The aim of this article is to put forward the theoretical perspective and cofounded projection of the darker and menacing side of ultrasound technology so that future generation could be saved from sin of omission. PMID:20509473

Husain, Munawwar; Rizvi, Shameem Jahan; Usmani, Javed Ahmad

2009-12-01

316

Cardiac involvement in Caucasian patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is a potentially life-threatening condition. At present, there is no consensus with regard to the optimal non-invasive clinical evaluation and diagnostic procedures of cardiac involvement in patients with sarcoidosis. The aim of this study in a large homogenous Scandinavian sarcoidosis cohort was therefore to identify risk factors of cardiac involvement in patients with sarcoidosis, and the value of initial routine investigation with ECG and cardiac related symptoms in screening for CS. Methods In this retrospective study a cohort of 1017 Caucasian patients with sarcoidosis were included. They were all screened with ECG at disease onset and investigated for CS according to clinical routine. Results An abnormal ECG was recorded in 166 (16.3%) of the 1017 patients and CS was later diagnosed in 22 (13.2%) of them, compared to in one (0.1%) of the 851 sarcoidosis patients with a normal ECG (p?cardiac related symptoms (11/40) (27.5%) compared to those with pathologic ECG changes without symptoms (11/126) (8.7%) (p?abnormal ECG and cardiac related symptoms at disease onset as powerful predictors of a later diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. In contrast, CS is very rare in subjects without symptoms and with a normal ECG. This knowledge is of importance, and may be used in a clinical algorithm, in identifying patients that should be followed and investigated extensively for the presence of CS. PMID:24506975

2014-01-01

317

Foetal cardiac function: assessing new technologies.  

PubMed

Assessment of foetal cardiac function is more challenging than in the adult, in whom emerging technologies are tested. The postnatal cardio-respiratory interaction is replaced by the cardio-placental circulation and impedance of the brain, and distal vascular beds play an important role in modulating flow to enable its redistribution in the foetal body. Prenatal specialists, comprising obstetricians and cardiologists, have tested a variety of traditional methodologies, as well as non-Doppler offline ultrasound methods in the foetus. This article reviews the development of techniques, outlines their use, and draws attention to pitfalls in adapting technologies validated in the adult heart to the small, fast beating, remote, and largely ungated foetal heart. PMID:25266927

Gardiner, Helena M

2014-10-01

318

Fetal cardiac activity analysis during twin pregnancy using a multi-channel SQUID system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of SQUID magnetometers for non-invasive in utero assessment of cardiac electrical disturbances has already been shown to be a valuable clinical tool. In this way, its applicability also for the complicated case of twin pregnancy, in which the proximity of the cardiac magnetic source of each fetus can hamper the individual analysis of cardiac electrical activity, is of clinical interest. In this paper, we present fetal magnetocardiography performed on a mother pregnant of twins with 26 weeks gestational age, measured inside a magnetically shielded room, by using two identical 31-channel low- Tc SQUID magnetometer systems. Each sensor array has been positioned over one of the fetuses, according to its heart position previously assessed with the aid of ultrasound measurements. The raw data is initially averaged in time and, afterwards, analyzed by means of time plots and isofield maps. The time recordings allow the study of the morphology of each fetus’ cardiac signal and the cardiac time intervals. The resultant equivalent dipole obtained from the isofield maps indicates the position and orientation of each fetus heart. The results agree with the ultrasound analysis performed immediately before the measurements and used to obtain the approximate location of the fetuses’ hearts. Since a distinct analysis of the cardiac electrical activity of each fetus could be achieved, the results indicate the potential of the fetal magnetocardiography in the individual antenatal diagnosis of each one of the fetuses of a twin pregnancy.

Costa Monteiro, E.; Schleussner, E.; Kausch, S.; Grimm, B.; Schneider, A.; Hall Barbosa, C.; Haueisen, J.

2001-05-01

319

Cardiac muscle cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They work together to bring deoxygenated blood in and push oxygenated blood out into the body. Essentially, they keep your heart pumping and your body alive.

Nathanael Reveal (None;)

2007-07-02

320

Cardiac ablation procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... 4(6):816-61. Miller JM, Zipes DP. Therapy for cardiac arrhythmias. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

321

Integrative Cardiac Health Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...

A. H. Nixon, M. N. Vernalis

2013-01-01

322

Integrative Cardiac Health Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...

A. H. NIxon, M. N. Vernalis

2011-01-01

323

Integrative Cardiac Health Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Integrative Cardiac Health Project (ICHP) aims to lead the way in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Prevention by conducting novel research utilizing a Systems Biology / personalized medicine design to discover and develop practical, effective and preempti...

A. H. Nixon, M. N. Vernalis

2012-01-01

324

Cardiac thin filament regulation  

PubMed Central

Myocardial contraction is initiated upon the release of calcium into the cytosol from the sarcoplasmic reticulum following membrane depolarization. The fundamental physiological role of the heart is to pump an amount blood that is determined by the prevailing requirements of the body. The physiological control systems employed to accomplish this task include regulation of heart rate, the amount of calcium release, and the response of the cardiac myofilaments to activator calcium ions. Thin filament activation and relaxation dynamics has emerged as a pivotal regulatory system tuning myofilament function to the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac output. Maladaptation of thin filament dynamics, in addition to dysfunctional calcium cycling, is now recognized as an important cellular mechanism causing reduced cardiac pump function in a variety of cardiac diseases. Here, we review current knowledge regarding protein–protein interactions involved in the dynamics of thin filament activation and relaxation and the regulation of these processes by protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:18421471

Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi; Jin, Lei; de Tombe, Pieter P.

2010-01-01

325

Functional cardiac MR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undersampled projection reconstruction acquisitions are investigated for use in functional cardiac MR imaging. 256×256 resolution is obtainable using only 64 projections, with acceptable artifact level. Reduced FOV techniques decrease artifact. Variable angular sampling using projection reconstruction is investigated.

Peters, Dana C.; Epstein, Frederick H.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2000-10-01

326

Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are associated with bone structure. In an in vitro study on 20 cubes of trabecular bone, we measured broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and two newly defined parameters—ultrasound velocity through bone (UVB) and ultrasound attenuation in bone (UAB). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone structure was assessed

C. C. Gluer; C. Y. Wu; M. Jergas; S. A. Goldstein; H. K. Genant

1994-01-01

327

Determining Directions of Ultrasound in Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasound shadows cast by grooves. Improved method for determining direction of ultrasound in materials is shadow method using Scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Direction of ultrasound calculated from dimensions of groove and portion of surface groove shields from ultrasound. Method has variety of applications in nontraditional quality-control applications.

Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.

1987-01-01

328

Cardiac arrest during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Cardiac arrest is a rare event during pregnancy. The pregnant population represents a unique subset of cardiac arrest victims. Not only are there unique causes of circulatory collapse during the pregnant state, but the physiological modifications to the maternal physiology during pregnancy require specific modifications to the standard management of the arrest. Lastly, the pregnant victim presents herself with the challenges of a second patient who needs to be considered in the decision-making process. PMID:25314090

Montufar-Rueda, Carlos; Gei, Alfredo

2014-12-01

329

Overcoming Biological Barriers with Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D,L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study. PMID:24839333

Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

2011-01-01

330

Overcoming biological barriers with ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of ultrasound on the permeability of blood vessels and cell membranes to macromolecules and nanodroplets was investigated using mouse carotid arteries and tumor cells. Model macromolecular drug, FITC-dextran with molecular weight of 70,000 Da was used in experiments with carotid arteries. The effect of unfocused 1-MHz ultrasound and and perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether nanodroplets stabilized with the poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer shells was studied. In cell culture experiments, ovarian carcinoma cells and Doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polycaprolactone nanodroplets were used. The data showed that the application of ultrasound resulted in permeabilization of all biological barriers tested. Under the action of ultrasound, not only FITC-dextran but also nanodroplets effectively penetrated through the arterial wall; the effect of continuous wave ultrasound was stronger than that of pulsed ultrasound. In cell culture experiments, ultrasound triggered DOX penetration into cell nuclei, presumably due to releasing the drug from the carrier. Detailed mechanisms of the observed effects require further study.

Thakkar, Dhaval; Gupta, Roohi; Mohan, Praveena; Monson, Kenneth; Rapoport, Natalya

2012-10-01

331

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

332

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest individual waves in sea states which identify abnormal waves did not show any clear trend, and such waves occurred during the development stage and not when the significant wave height was the largest. It is argued that the present criteria of identification of abnormal waves are not satisfactory, as they do not take into account the nature of the sea states in which the waves occur.

Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; AntãO, E. M.

2004-08-01

333

Strategies to improve cardiac resynchronization therapy.  

PubMed

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) emerged 2 decades ago as a useful form of device therapy for heart failure associated with abnormal ventricular conduction, indicated by a wide QRS complex. In this Review, we present insights into how to achieve the greatest benefits with this pacemaker therapy. Outcomes from CRT can be improved by appropriate patient selection, careful positioning of right and left ventricular pacing electrodes, and optimal timing of electrode stimulation. Left bundle branch block (LBBB), which can be detected on an electrocardiogram, is the predominant substrate for CRT, and patients with this conduction abnormality yield the most benefit. However, other features, such as QRS morphology, mechanical dyssynchrony, myocardial scarring, and the aetiology of heart failure, might also determine the benefit of CRT. No single left ventricular pacing site suits all patients, but a late-activated site, during either the intrinsic LBBB rhythm or right ventricular pacing, should be selected. Positioning the lead inside a scarred region substantially impairs outcomes. Optimization of stimulation intervals improves cardiac pump function in the short term, but CRT procedures must become easier and more reliable, perhaps with the use of electrocardiographic measures, to improve long-term outcomes. PMID:24839977

Vernooy, Kevin; van Deursen, Caroline J M; Strik, Marc; Prinzen, Frits W

2014-08-01

334

Depression and Cardiac Disease: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression is common, persistent, and associated with worse health-related quality of life, recurrent cardiac events, and mortality. Both physiological and behavioral factors—including endothelial dysfunction, platelet abnormalities, inflammation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and reduced engagement in health-promoting activities—may link depression with adverse cardiac outcomes. Because of the potential impact of depression on quality of life and cardiac outcomes, the American Heart Association has recommended routine depression screening of all cardiac patients with the 2- and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaires. However, despite the availability of these easy-to-use screening tools and effective treatments, depression is underrecognized and undertreated in patients with CVD. In this paper, we review the literature on epidemiology, phenomenology, comorbid conditions, and risk factors for depression in cardiac disease. We outline the associations between depression and cardiac outcomes, as well as the mechanisms that may mediate these links. Finally, we discuss the evidence for and against routine depression screening in patients with CVD and make specific recommendations for when and how to assess for depression in this high-risk population. PMID:23653854

Huffman, Jeff C.; Celano, Christopher M.; Beach, Scott R.; Motiwala, Shweta R.; Januzzi, James L.

2013-01-01

335

Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death.  

PubMed

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe dominantly inherited form of CPVT-like arrhythmias, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 14q31-32. Sequencing CALM1 encoding calmodulin revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.161A>T [p.Asn53Ile]) segregating with the disease. A second, de novo, missense mutation (c.293A>G [p.Asn97Ser]) was subsequently identified in an individual of Iraqi origin; this individual was diagnosed with CPVT from a screening of 61 arrhythmia samples with no identified RYR2 mutations. Both CALM1 substitutions demonstrated compromised calcium binding, and p.Asn97Ser displayed an aberrant interaction with the RYR2 calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac death. PMID:23040497

Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael T; Søndergaard, Mads T; Vranas, Marta; Behr, Elijah R; Hildebrandt, Lasse L; Lund, Jacob; Hedley, Paula L; Camm, A John; Wettrell, Göran; Fosdal, Inger; Christiansen, Michael; Børglum, Anders D

2012-10-01

336

Periostin is essential for cardiac healing after acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and lethal heart disease, and the recruitment of fibroblastic cells to the infarct region is essential for the cardiac healing process. Although stiffness of the extracellular matrix in the infarct myocardium is associated with cardiac healing, the molecular mechanism of cardiac healing is not fully understood. We show that periostin, which is a matricellular protein, is important for the cardiac healing process after AMI. The expression of periostin protein was abundant in the infarct border of human and mouse hearts with AMI. We generated periostin(-/-) mice and found no morphologically abnormal cardiomyocyte phenotypes; however, after AMI, cardiac healing was impaired in these mice, resulting in cardiac rupture as a consequence of reduced myocardial stiffness caused by a reduced number of alpha smooth muscle actin-positive cells, impaired collagen fibril formation, and decreased phosphorylation of FAK. These phenotypes were rescued by gene transfer of a spliced form of periostin. Moreover, the inhibition of FAK or alphav-integrin, which blocked the periostin-promoted cell migration, revealed that alphav-integrin, FAK, and Akt are involved in periostin signaling. Our novel findings show the effects of periostin on recruitment of activated fibroblasts through FAK-integrin signaling and on their collagen fibril formation specific to healing after AMI. PMID:18208976

Shimazaki, Masashi; Nakamura, Kazuto; Kii, Isao; Kashima, Takeshi; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi; Saito, Mitsuru; Fukuda, Keiichi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Kitajima, Satoshi; Saga, Yumiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Sata, Masataka; Kudo, Akira

2008-02-18

337

Diagnostic accuracy of the vertebral heart score and other radiographic indices in the detection of cardiac enlargement in cats with different cardiac disorders.  

PubMed

A retrospective search was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the vertebral heart score (VHS) and other related radiographic indices in the detection of cardiac enlargement associated with different cardiac disorders in the cat. One hundred and five cats with a complete echocardiographic examination and radiographic examination of the thorax with at least two orthogonal views were enrolled. Eighty-three cats had different cardiac disorders, 72 with left-sided cardiac disorders (LSCD) and 11 with right-sided cardiac disorders; 22 cats were free of cardiovascular abnormalities. Measurements of VHS and cardiac long and short axes on lateral (L) and dorsoventral or ventrodorsal radiographs were obtained. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic index in differentiating between cats with cardiac disorders or cats with LSCD and cats without cardiac abnormalities and, among cats with LSCD, between those with no or mild left atrial enlargement (LAE) or those with moderate-to-severe LAE and healthy cats. The L-VHS at the cut-off of 7.9 had high diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing cats with LSCD and moderate-to-severe LAE from healthy cats, but all the other radiographic indices were moderately accurate in distinguishing between cats with overall cardiac disorders or LSCD, either with no or mild LAE and moderate-to-severe LAE, and healthy cats. The considered radiographic indices were also moderately accurate in predicting different degrees of LAE in cats with LSCD. Radiographic indices are reasonably specific, but less sensitive predictors of cardiac enlargement in cats with heart disorders. PMID:24518255

Guglielmini, Carlo; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Poser, Helen; Menciotti, Giulio; Cipone, Mario; Cordella, Alessia; Contiero, Barbara; Diana, Alessia

2014-10-01

338

[Hematological abnormalities in rheumatic diseases].  

PubMed

Haematological abnormalities are present in 25-50% patients with rheumatic diseases. The most common finding is anaemia of chronic disease which is driven by inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin plays key role in iron homeostasis. It reduces iron absorption from duodenum and iron release from reticuloendothelial cells. Anaemia of chronic disease could be successfully treated by recombinant erythropoietin in combination with iron supplementation. Various abnormalities can be observed in the leukocyte and platelets counts. Other haematological disturbances are considered as part of autoimmune disease. Prolonged antigen stimulation can induce lymphomagenesis and lymphoma incidence in patients with rheumatic diseases is 5 to 6-fold increased compared to normal population. PMID:17580549

Radman, Ivo

2006-01-01

339

Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the volumetric data sets, manual tracing of the endocardial border is tedious and impractical for clinical applications. Therefore the development of automatic methods for tracking three-dimensional endocardial motion is essential. In this study, we evaluate a four-dimensional optical flow motion tracking algorithm to determine its capability to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four-dimensional optical flow method was implemented using three-dimensional correlation. We tested the algorithm on an experimental open-chest dog data set and a clinical data set acquired with a Philips' iE33 three-dimensional ultrasound machine. Initialized with left ventricular endocardial data points obtained from manual tracing at end-diastole, the algorithm automatically tracked these points frame by frame through the whole cardiac cycle. A finite element surface was fitted through the data points obtained by both optical flow tracking and manual tracing by an experienced observer for quantitative comparison of the results. Parameterization of the finite element surfaces was performed and maps displaying relative differences between the manual and semi-automatic methods were compared. The results showed good consistency between manual tracing and optical flow estimation on 73% of the entire surface with fewer than 10% difference. In addition, the optical flow motion tracking algorithm greatly reduced processing time (about 94% reduction compared to human involvement per cardiac cycle) for analyzing cardiac function in three-dimensional ultrasound data sets.

Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Herz, Susan L.; Ingrassia, Christopher M.; Gerard, Olivier; Costa, Kevin D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Andrew F.

2005-04-01

340

Ultrasound Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Nerves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to treat neurological structures to achieve a desired therapeutic affect. Depending on the dosage of HIFU applied, it can have a reversible or irreversible effect on neural structures. For exampl...

J. L. Foley, S. Vaezy, J. W. Little

2004-01-01

341

Intra-beat Scaling Properties of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to characterize the intra-beat scaling dynamics of electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings from the PhysioNet Sudden Cardiac Death Holter Database. The main finding of this contribution is that, in such recordings involving different types of arrhythmias; the ECG waveform, besides showing a less-random intra-beat dynamics, becomes more regular during bigeminy, ventricular tachycardia (VT) or even atrial fibrillation (AFIB) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) despite the appearance of erratic traces. Thus, notwithstanding that these cardiac rhythm abnormalities are generally considered as irregular and some of them generated by random impulses or wavefronts, the intra-beat scaling properties suggest that regularity dominates the underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias. Among other explanations, this may result from shorted or restricted -less complex- pathways of conduction of the electrical activity within the ventricles.

Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

2008-02-01

342

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy  

DOEpatents

A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

343

Value of Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Diseases  

PubMed Central

The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology clinical practice has rapidly increased over the past decade. Ultrasound has enabled rheumatologists to diagnose, prognosticate and monitor disease outcome. Although international standardization remains a concern still, the use of ultrasound in rheumatology is expected to grow further as costs fall and the opportunity to train in the technique improves. We present a review of value of ultrasound, focusing on major applications of ultrasound in rheumatologic diseases. PMID:23580002

Kang, Taeyoung; Horton, Laura; Emery, Paul

2013-01-01

344

Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers  

PubMed Central

With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation) on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo), including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers. PMID:25202710

Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng

2014-01-01

345

[Cardiac disease at risk in the young athlete].  

PubMed

Physical training significantly reduces all cause mortality in the general population. Eligibility for competitive sport participation in athletes with cardiovascular diseases is based on recommendations. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is low (0.5 to 2/100,000 athletes/year). The most common cardiac diseases at risk are hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary arteries abnormalities, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and acute myocarditis. Pre-participation screening is based on the cardiovascular evaluation, including ECG (repeated every 3years since the age of 12 and every 5years since the age of 20 to the age of 35). Some events are unpredictable (idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, sudden death related to congenital coronary arteries abnormalities or commotio cordis). A better access to public defibrillation is needed. PMID:24856863

Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Camus, Olivier; Chenilleau, Marie-Caroline; Gil, Jean-Marie; Fourcade, Laurent

2014-01-01

346

Non-cardiac, non-oesophageal chest pain: the relevance of psychological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—No cause has been determined for chest pain that is neither cardiac nor oesophageal in origin.Aims—To compare the prevalence of lifetime psychiatric disorders and current psychological distress in three consecutive series of patients with chronic chest or abdominal pain.Patients—Thirty nine patients with non-cardiac chest pain and no abnormality on oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, oesophageal manometry, and 24 hour pH monitoring; 22 patients with

K Y Ho; J Y Kang; B Yeo; W L Ng

1998-01-01

347

Impact of obesity and weight loss on cardiac performance and morphology in adults.  

PubMed

Obesity, particularly severe obesity is capable of producing hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in cardiac morphology and ventricular function. These include increased cardiac output, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic and systolic dysfunction of both ventricles. Facilitated by co-morbidities such as hypertension, the sleep apnea/obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and possibly certain neurohormonal and metabolic alterations, these abnormalities may predispose to left and right heart failure, a disorder known as obesity cardiomyopathy. PMID:24438730

Alpert, Martin A; Omran, Jad; Mehra, Ankit; Ardhanari, Sivakumar

2014-01-01

348

The role of three-dimensional ultrasound in the diagnosis of fetal congenital anomalies: a review.  

PubMed

The objective of this review was to establish whether three-dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) ultrasonography adds diagnostic information to what is currently provided by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound in the diagnosis of the most frequent fetal structural defects: congenital heart disease and central nervous system congenital anomalies. There are evidences suggesting that 3D ultrasound allows to reduce the operator dependency in the visualization of standard diagnostic planes, thus reducing the examination time require for the obstetric ultrasound examination, with minimal impact on the visualization quality of the anatomic landmarks. Furthermore, operators with minimal experience may record cardiac or brain volumes that can be successfully analyzed off-line locally or sent by internet to experts for remote review. As a consequence 3D ultrasonography promises to become the method of choice for diagnosis congenital structural defects. PMID:21926949

Rizzo, G; Pietrolucci, M; Aiello, E; Mammarella, S; Bosi, C; Arduini, D

2011-10-01

349

An optical approach to validate ultrasound surface segmentation of the heart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patient specific geometry of the heart is of interest for a number of diagnostic methods, e.g., when modeling the inverse electrocardiography (ECG) problem. One approach to get images of the heart is three-dimensional ultrasound. However, segmentation of the surface is complicated and segmentation methods are typically validated against manually drawn contours. This requires considerable expert knowledge. Hence, we have developed a setup that allows studying the accuracy of image segmentation from cardiac ultrasound. Using an optical tracking system, we have measured the three-dimensional surface of an isolated porcine heart. We studied whether the actual geometry can be reconstructed from both optical and ultrasound images. We illustrate the use of our approach in quantifying the segmentation result for a three-dimensional region-based active contour algorithm.

Wang, Bo; Schlaefer, Alexander; Zhang, Zhenxi

2014-09-01

350

Three years' experience of focused cardiovascular ultrasound in the peri-operative period.  

PubMed

Ultrasound applications in peri-operative medicine have become common place in modern anaesthesia practice. Anaesthetists have performed transoesophageal echocardiography in cardiac and selected non-cardiac surgery for over two decades. We aimed to assess the indications, impact on clinical management and accuracy of focused cardiovascular ultrasound performed by anaesthetists in the peri-operative period. One hundred and seventy patients over a 3-year period had a focused transthoracic echocardiogram. Adequate images to answer the clinical question were obtained in 167 out of 170 patients (98%). The undifferentiated systolic murmur was the commonest indication (98 out of 170, 58%). Some degree of aortic stenosis was present in 47 out of 170 (26%) of patients; mitral valve disease (30 out of 170 (18%)) and pulmonary hypertension (25 out of 170 (14%)) were also common. Changes in peri-operative management occurred in 140 out of 170 (82%) patients and major findings correlated with a formal cardiology transthoracic echocardiogram in 52 out of 57 (92%) patients. Focused cardiovascular ultrasound performed by anaesthetists in the peri-operative period accurately detects major cardiac pathology and significantly alters peri-operative management. PMID:21401539

Cowie, B

2011-04-01

351

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

352

Recent advances in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia  

PubMed Central

Paediatric cardiac anaesthesia involves anaesthetizing very small children with complex congenital heart disease for major surgical procedures. The unique nature of this patient population requires considerable expertise and in-depth knowledge of the altered physiology. There have been several developments in the last decade in this subspecialty that has contributed to better care and improved outcome in this vulnerable group of patients. The purpose of this review is to present some of the recent advances in the anesthetic management of these children from preoperative evaluation to postoperative care. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in preoperative evaluation, the use of ultrasound to secure vascular access, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes, the optimal haematocrit and the role of blood products, including the use of recombinant factor VIIa. It also deals with the advances in technology that have led to improved monitoring, the newer developments in cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of centrifugal pumps and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the role of DHCA. The role of new drugs, especially the ?-2 agonists in paediatric cardiac anesthetic practice, fast tracking and effective postoperative pain management have also been reviewed. PMID:23293388

Vakamudi, Mahesh; Ravulapalli, Harish; Karthikeyan, Ranjith

2012-01-01

353

Abnormalities of human sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytogenetic and molecular studies in patients with abnormalities of sex determination have been the key to the isolation and investigation of candidates for the primary testis determining factor (TDF). A gene, SRY, isolated from the sex determining region of the Y chromosome within 5 kilobases of the pairing segment boundary, has been characterized recently which fulfils the expectations of

M. A. Ferguson-Smith

1992-01-01

354

Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

2003-01-01

355

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

356

Iatrogenic QT Abnormalities and Fatal Arrhythmias: Mechanisms and Clinical Significance.  

PubMed

Severe and occasionally fatal arrhythmias, commonly presenting as Torsade de Pointes [TdP] have been reported with Class III-antiarrhythmics, but also with non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Most cases result from an action on K(+) channels encoded by the HERG gene responsible for the IKr repolarizing current, leading to a long QT and repolarization abnormalities. The hydrophobic central cavity of the HERG-K+ channels, allows a large number of structurally unrelated drugs to bind and cause direct channel inhibition. Some examples are dofetilide, quinidine, sotalol, erythromycin, grepafloxacin, cisapride, dolasetron, thioridazine, haloperidol, droperidol and pimozide. Other drugs achieve channel inhibition indirectly by impairing channel traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell membrane, decreasing channel membrane density (pentamidine, geldalamicin, arsenic trioxide, digoxin, and probucol). Whereas, ketoconazole, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine induce both direct channel inhibition and impaired channel trafficking. Congenital long QT syndrome, subclinical ion-channel mutations, subjects and relatives of subjects with previous history of drug-induced long QT or TdP, dual drug effects on cardiac repolarization [long QT plus increased QT dispersion], increased transmural dispersion of repolarization and T wave abnormalities, use of high doses, metabolism inhibitors and/or combinations of QT prolonging drugs, hypokalemia, structural cardiac disease, sympathomimetics, bradycardia, women and older age, have been shown to increase the risk for developing drug-induced TdP. Because most of these reactions are preventable, careful evaluation of risk factors and increased knowledge of drugs use associated with repolarization abnormalities is strongly recommended. Future genetic testing and development of practical and simple provocation tests are in route to prevent iatrogenic TdP. PMID:20676275

Cubeddu, Luigi X

2009-08-01

357

Radiographical resolution of renal lymphangiomatosis following cardiac transplantation.  

PubMed

Renal lymphangiomatosis is a disease characterized by abnormal formation of perirenal lymphatic vessels that fail to communicate with other retroperitoneal lymphatics; as a result, perirenal lymphatics dilate and form cysts. While typically an asymptomatic incidental finding, renal lymphangiomatosis rarely presents as flank or abdominal pain, ascites, impaired renal function, hypertension, hematuria, or proteinuria. Here we present the first known case of renal lymphangiomatosis found to spontaneously resolve following cardiac transplantation. PMID:24775581

Slater, Rick C; Iheagwara, Uzoma; Chen, Mang L

2014-04-01

358

Cardiac and vascular adaptation to 0g with and without thigh cuffs (Antares 14 and Altair 21 day Mir spaceflights)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular Actaptation was evaluated on 2 astronauts: one wearing thigh cuffs from flight day 1 to 8 (14d flight), the second without cuffs (21d flight). Ultrasound investigations were performed at rest and during LBNP. Results: Without thigh cuffs the cardiovascular Actaptation consists in (1) the development of a hypovolemia with an increase of the heart rate and the cardiac output,

Ph. Arbeille; G. Fomina; F. Achaibou; J. Pottier; A. Kotovskaya

1995-01-01

359

Exercise, the athlete's heart, and sudden cardiac death.  

PubMed

Physical activity is a potent therapy for both the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Exercise appears to most benefit people who are the least active. There is some evidence to suggest that a curvilinear relationship exists between exercise and survival, whereby beyond an optimal level of fitness, the principle of diminishing returns applies. Indeed, some go further in suggesting that there is evidence that extreme athletic training may be harmful in some individuals. The incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes is greater than in matched, nonathletic counterparts, and this finding is driven by the provocation of an underlying cardiac abnormality by strenuous exertion. The task of detecting pathological myocardial substrate in athletes is made difficult by physiological adaptations to exercise that can mimic the appearance of cardiomyopathies and ion channelopathies in some individuals. This article details the clinical evaluation of the athlete with reference limits for cardiac physiological remodeling and discusses the diagnostic dilemmas that arise. PMID:24875977

D'Silva, Andrew; Sharma, Sanjay

2014-05-01

360

Navigation accuracy for an intracardiac procedure using ultrasound enhanced virtual reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimally invasive techniques for use inside the beating heart, such as mitral valve replacement and septal defect repair, are the focus of this work. Traditional techniques for these procedures require an open chest approach and a cardiopulmonary bypass machine. New techniques using port access and a combined surgical guidance tool that includes an overlaid two-dimensional ultrasound image in a virtual reality environment are being developed. To test this technique, a cardiac phantom was developed to simulate the anatomy. The phantom consists of an acrylic box filled with a 7% glycerol solution with ultrasound properties similar to human tissue. Plate inserts mounted in the box simulate the physical anatomy. An accuracy assessment was completed to evaluate the performance of the system. Using the cardiac phantom, a 2mm diameter glass toroid was attached to a vertical plate as the target location. An elastic material was placed between the target and plate to simulate the target lying on a soft tissue structure. The target was measured using an independent measurement system and was represented as a sphere in the virtual reality system. The goal was to test the ability of a user to probe the target using three guidance methods: (i) 2D ultrasound only, (ii) virtual reality only and (iii) ultrasound enhanced virtual reality. Three users attempted the task three times each for each method. An independent measurement system was used to validate the measurement. The ultrasound imaging alone was poor in locating the target (5.42 mm RMS) while the other methods proved to be significantly better (1.02 mm RMS and 1.47 mm RMS respectively). The ultrasound enhancement is expected to be more useful in a dynamic environment where the system registration may be disturbed.

Wiles, Andrew D.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Christopher; Linte, Cristian A.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry M.

2007-03-01

361

Changes of cardiac and respiratory rhythm in non- and tracheostomized rats exposed to nitrogen dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Cardiac and respiratory changes in non- and tracheostomized rats were examined during exposure to 20 ppm of NO/sub 2/ for 150 min. The abnormal respiratory pattern consisted of rapid shallow breathing, deep breathing, and apnea, and the bradyarrhythmias were observed in the tracheostomized rats during exposure. Also, similar changes were seen in the nontracheostomized rats. The decrease in HR was depressed by atropine injection, and the abnormal respiratory patterns were almost abolished by this drug. It was suggested, from these results, that the cardiac and respiratory abnormalities could be induced without the irritation to upper respiratory tracts, and that the vagal efferent pathway had an important role in the appearance of the abnormalities during exposure.

Tsubone, H.; Suzuki, A.K.; Sagai, M.; Sugano, S.

1984-10-01

362

Ultra-high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy and high throughput cardiovascular phenotyping in a large scale mouse mutagenesis screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is ideally suited for phenotyping fetal mice for congenital heart disease (CHD), as imaging can be carried out noninvasively to provide both hemodynamic and structural information essential for CHD diagnosis. Using the UBM (Vevo 2100; 40Hz) in conjunction with the clinical ultrasound system (Acuson Sequioa C512; 15Hz), we developed a two-step screening protocol to scan thousands fetuses derived from ENU mutagenized pedigrees. A wide spectrum of CHD was detected by the UBM, which were subsequently confirmed with follow-up necropsy and histopathology examination with episcopic fluorescence image capture. CHD observed included outflow anomalies, left/right heart obstructive lesions, septal/valvular defects and cardiac situs anomalies. Meanwhile, various extracardiac defects were found, such as polydactyly, craniofacial defects, exencephaly, omphalocele-cleft palate, most of which were associated with cardiac defects. Our analyses showed the UBM was better at assessing cardiac structure and blood flow profiles, while conventional ultrasound allowed higher throughput low-resolution screening. Our study showed the integration of conventional clinical ultrasound imaging with the UBM for fetal mouse cardiovascular phenotyping can maximize the detection and recovery of CHD mutants.

Liu, Xiaoqin; Francis, Richard; Tobita, Kimimasa; Kim, Andy; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

2013-02-01

363

Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.  

PubMed

The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids. PMID:25366803

Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

2014-01-01

364

Pediatric sudden cardiac arrest.  

PubMed

Pediatric sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), which can cause sudden cardiac death if not treated within minutes, has a profound effect on everyone: children, parents, family members, communities, and health care providers. Preventing the tragedy of pediatric SCA, defined as the abrupt and unexpected loss of heart function, remains a concern to all. The goal of this statement is to increase the knowledge of pediatricians (including primary care providers and specialists) of the incidence of pediatric SCA, the spectrum of causes of pediatric SCA, disease-specific presentations, the role of patient and family screening, the rapidly evolving role of genetic testing, and finally, important aspects of secondary SCA prevention. This statement is not intended to address sudden infant death syndrome or sudden unexplained death syndrome, nor will specific treatment of individual cardiac conditions be discussed. This statement has been endorsed by the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society. PMID:22451713

2012-04-01

365

Fourier-domain beamforming: the path to compressed ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

Sonography techniques use multiple transducer elements for tissue visualization. Signals received at each element are sampled before digital beamforming. The sampling rates required to perform high-resolution digital beamforming are significantly higher than the Nyquist rate of the signal and result in considerable amount of data that must be stored and processed. A recently developed technique, compressed beamforming, based on the finite rate of innovation model, compressed sensing (CS), and Xampling ideas, allows a reduction in the number of samples needed to reconstruct an image comprised of strong reflectors. A drawback of this method is its inability to treat speckle, which is of significant importance in medical imaging. Here, we build on previous work and extend it to a general concept of beamforming in frequency. This allows exploitation of the low bandwidth of the ultrasound signal and bypassing of the oversampling dictated by digital implementation of beamforming in time. By using beamforming in frequency, the same image quality is obtained from far fewer samples. We next present a CS technique that allows for further rate reduction, using only a portion of the beamformed signal's bandwidth. We demonstrate our methods on in vivo cardiac data and show that reductions up to 1/28 of the standard beamforming rates are possible. Finally, we present an implementation on an ultrasound machine using sub-Nyquist sampling and processing. Our results prove that the concept of sub-Nyquist processing is feasible for medical ultrasound, leading to the potential of considerable reduction in future ultrasound machines' size, power consumption, and cost. PMID:25073133

Chernyakova, Tanya; Eldar, Yonina

2014-08-01

366

Cardiac overexpression of Mammalian enabled (Mena) exacerbates heart failure in mice  

PubMed Central

Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a key regulator of cytoskeletal actin dynamics, which has been implicated in heart failure (HF). We have previously demonstrated that cardiac Mena deletion produced cardiac dysfunction with conduction abnormalities and hypertrophy. Moreover, elevated Mena expression correlates with HF in human and animal models, yet the precise role of Mena in cardiac pathophysiology is unclear. In these studies, we evaluated mice with cardiac myocyte-specific Mena overexpression (TTA/TgTetMena) comparable to that observed in cardiac pathology. We found that the hearts of TTA/TgTetMena mice were functionally and morphologically comparable to wild-type littermates, except for mildly increased heart mass in the transgenic mice. Interestingly, TTA/TgTetMena mice were particularly susceptible to cardiac injury, as these animals experienced pronounced decreases in ejection fraction and fractional shortening as well as heart dilatation and hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction (TAC). By “turning off” Mena overexpression in TTA/TgTetMena mice either immediately prior to or immediately after TAC surgery, we discovered that normalizing Mena levels eliminated cardiac hypertrophy in TTA/TgTetMena animals but did not preclude post-TAC cardiac functional deterioration. These findings indicate that hearts with increased levels of Mena fare worse when subjected to cardiac injury and suggest that Mena contributes to HF pathophysiology. PMID:23832697

Belmonte, Stephen L.; Ram, Rashmi; Mickelsen, Deanne M.; Gertler, Frank B.

2013-01-01

367

Dynamic Control of Cardiac Alternans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic control technique was used to suppress a cardiac arrhythmia called an alternans rhythm in a piece of dissected rabbit heart. Our control algorithm adapted to drifting system parameters, making it well suited for the control of physiological rhythms. Control of cardiac alternans rhythms may have important clinical implications since they often precede serious cardiac arrhythmias and are a harbinger of sudden cardiac death.

Hall, Kevin; Christini, David J.; Tremblay, Maurice; Collins, James J.; Glass, Leon; Billette, Jacques

1997-06-01

368

Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-?B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant

Jyotirmoy Ghosh; Joydeep Das; Prasenjit Manna; Parames C. Sil

2009-01-01

369

[Predictors of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with arterial hypertension during exercise stress testing].  

PubMed

Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. 203 male patients were examined in order to identify predictors of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with arterial hypertension during exercise stress testing. All participants were studied by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, an ultrasound scan of the carotid arteries and treadmill test. 47,3% of patients presented cardiac arrhythmias during exercise stress testing. The left ventricular mass, diastolic function and carotid intima-media thickness were found to be independent predictors of exercise-induced arrhythmias. The use of the exercise stress testing may be reasonable for additional risk stratification in hypertensive patients. PMID:24632645

2014-02-01

370

Accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound in diagnosing endometrial pathology in women with post-menopausal bleeding on tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of endometrial pathology is increased in women with tamoxifen-induced post- menopausal bleeding (PMB). The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in diagnosing endometrial pathology in symptomatic women taking tamoxifen, using endometrial thickness measurements (5 mm and 10 mm cut-offs) and morphological changes within the uterine cavity to define abnormality. The sensitivity

J Weaver; JMM CHUGO; T J CLARK

2005-01-01

371

Penetrating Cardiac Injury: A Review  

PubMed Central

Cardiac injury presents a great challenge to the emergency resident because these injuries require urgent intervention to prevent death. Sometimes serious cardiac injury may manifest only subtle or occult symptoms or signs. As there is an epidemic of cardiac injuries in Kashmir valley due to problems of law and order, we herein present a review on management of such injuries. PMID:24829887

Lateef Wani, Mohd; Ahangar, Ab Gani; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Irshad, Ifat; Ul-Hassan, Nayeem

2012-01-01

372

Cardiac Response and Personality Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the level and variability of cardiac response during complex problem-solving and interposed rest periods and their differing relationships to estimates of personality integration on the Rorschach. Findings suggest cardiac variability may be a more differentiated measure than level of cardiac response. (Author)

Blatt, Sidney J.; Feirstein, Alan

1977-01-01

373

Bench-to-bedside review: Mechanisms of critical illness – classifying microcirculatory flow abnormalities in distributive shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 30 years ago Weil and Shubin proposed a re-classification of shock states and identified hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive\\u000a and distributive shock. The first three categories have in common that they are associated with a fall in cardiac output.\\u000a Distributive shock, such as occurs during sepsis and septic shock, however, is associated with an abnormal distribution of\\u000a microvascular blood flow and

Paul WG Elbers; Can Ince

2006-01-01

374

GPU based real-time instrument tracking with three-dimensional ultrasound.  

PubMed

Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound enables new intracardiac surgical procedures, but the distorted appearance of instruments in ultrasound poses a challenge to surgeons. This paper presents a detection technique that identifies the position of the instrument within the ultrasound volume. The algorithm uses a form of the generalized Radon transform to search for long straight objects in the ultrasound image, a feature characteristic of instruments and not found in cardiac tissue. When combined with passive markers placed on the instrument shaft, the full position and orientation of the instrument is found in 3D space. This detection technique is amenable to rapid execution on the current generation of personal computer graphics processor units (GPU). Our GPU implementation detected a surgical instrument in 31 ms, sufficient for real-time tracking at the 25 volumes per second rate of the ultrasound machine. A water tank experiment found instrument orientation errors of 1.1 degrees and tip position errors of less than 1.8mm. Finally, an in vivo study demonstrated successful instrument tracking inside a beating porcine heart. PMID:17681483

Novotny, Paul M; Stoll, Jeff A; Vasilyev, Nikolay V; del Nido, Pedro J; Dupont, Pierre E; Zickler, Todd E; Howe, Robert D

2007-10-01

375

THE MECHANISM OF LESION FORMATION BY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION CATHETER FOR TREATMENT OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION  

PubMed Central

The application of therapeutic ultrasound for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) is investigated. The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of ultrasound ablation catheter are presented. The major components of the catheter are the high power cylindrical piezoelectric element and parabolic balloon reflector. Thermal elevation in the ostia of pulmonary veins is achieved by focusing the ultrasound beam in shape of a torus that transverses the myocardial tissue. High intensity ultrasound heating in the focal zone results in a lesion surrounding the pulmonary veins that creates an electrical conduction blocks and relief from AF symptoms. The success of the ablation procedure largely depends on the correct choice of reflector geometry and ultrasonic power. We present a theoretical model of the catheter’s acoustic field and bioheat transfer modeling of cardiac lesions. The application of an empirically derived relation between lesion formation and acoustic power is shown to correlate with the experimental data. Developed control methods combine the knowledge of theoretical acoustics and the thermal lesion formation simulations with experiment and thereby establish rigorous dosimetry that contributes to a safe and effective ultrasound ablation procedure. PMID:20161431

Sinelnikov, Y.D.; Fjield, T.; Sapozhnikov, O.A.

2009-01-01

376

Advanced Cardiac Life Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

377

Nonexercise cardiac stress testing  

SciTech Connect

Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references.

Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

1989-09-15

378

Cardiac disease in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Cardiac disease complicates approximately 1% to 3% of pregnancies and is responsible for 10% to 15% of maternal mortality. The number of women of childbearing age with congenital disease is increasing as advances in diagnosis and treatment improve survival rates and overall health, allowing successful pregnancy. Pregnant women with severe cardiac disease or women who experience a cardiac event during pregnancy will require admission and stabilization in an adult critical care unit. This group of patients can prove challenging for the obstetrical staff and the critical care staff because they require blending of the knowledge and skills of 2 highly specialized areas of healthcare. The key component to a comprehensive and organized approach to management that ensures the best possible outcome for the woman is a multidisciplinary team that devises a plan on the basis of the most current information, communicates with each other and the patient effectively, and assumes responsibility for implementation of the plan. The purpose of this article is to review management of the woman with cardiac disease throughout pregnancy. PMID:16456361

Arafeh, Julie M R; Baird, Suzanne McMurtry

2006-01-01

379

Cardiac and Pulmonary Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac and pulmonary injuries present major chal- lenges in diagnosis and treatment. Distinct differences between penetrating and blunt trauma of these or- gans exist. Outcomes for severe injuries are still grave. Organized trauma systems can provide optimal care by minimizing prehospital time, allowing easy access to imaging modalities, and offering state-of-the-art treatment strategies. A multidisciplinary approach, including surgeons, intensivists, and

George C. Velmahos; Muhammad U. Butt

2008-01-01

380

The cardiac malpositions.  

PubMed

Dextrocardia was known in the 17th century and was 1 of the first congenital malformations of the heart to be recognized. Fifty years elapsed before Matthew Baillie published his account of complete transposition in a human of the thoracic and abdominal viscera to the opposite side from what is natural. In 1858, Thomas Peacock stated that "the heart may be congenitally misplaced in various ways, occupying either an unusual position within the thorax, or being situated external to that cavity." In 1915, Maude Abbott described ectopia cordis, and Richard Paltauf's remarkable illustrations distinguished the various types of dextrocardia. In 1928, the first useful classification of the cardiac malpositions was proposed, and in 1966, Elliott et al's radiologic classification set the stage for clinical recognition. The first section of this review deals with the 3 basic cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral asymmetry. The second section deals with cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral left-sidedness or right-sidedness. Previous publications on cardiac malpositions are replete with an arcane vocabulary that confounds rather than clarifies. Even if the terms themselves are understood, inherent complexity weighs against clarity. This review was designed as a guided tour of an unfamiliar subject. PMID:21861958

Perloff, Joseph K

2011-11-01

381

Impairment of cardiac function and energetics in experimental renal failure.  

PubMed Central

Cardiac function and energetics in experimental renal failure in the rat (5/6 nephrectomy) have been investigated by means of an isolated perfused working heart preparation and an isometric Langendorff preparation using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR). 4 wk after nephrectomy cardiac output of isolated hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at all levels of preload and afterload in the renal failure groups than in the pair-fed sham operated control group. In control hearts, cardiac output increased with increases in perfusate calcium from 0.73 to 5.61 mmol/liter whereas uremic hearts failed in high calcium perfusate. Collection of 31P NMR spectra from hearts of renal failure and control animals during 30 min normoxic Langendorff perfusion showed that basal phosphocreatine was reduced by 32% to 4.7 mumol/g wet wt (P < 0.01) and the phosphocreatine to ATP ratio was reduced by 32% (P < 0.01) in uremic hearts. During low flow ischemia, there was a substantial decrease in phosphocreatine in the uremic hearts and an accompanying marked increase in release of inosine into the coronary effluent (14.9 vs 6.1 microM, P < 0.01). We conclude that cardiac function is impaired in experimental renal failure, in association with abnormal cardiac energetics and increased susceptibility to ischemic damage. Disordered myocardial calcium utilization may contribute to these derangements. PMID:8254048

Raine, A E; Seymour, A M; Roberts, A F; Radda, G K; Ledingham, J G

1993-01-01

382

Modeling and imaging cardiac sympathetic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently recognized as a multisystem disorder affecting several components of the central and peripheral nervous system. This new understanding of PD helps explain the complexity of the patients’ symptoms while challenges researchers to identify new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Cardiac neurodegeneration and dysautonomia affect PD patients and are associated with orthostatic hypotension, fatigue, and abnormal control of electrical heart activity. They can seriously impact daily life of PD patients, as these symptoms do not respond to classical anti-parkinsonian medications and can be worsened by them. New diagnostic tools and therapies aiming to prevent cardiac neurodegeneration and dysautonomia are needed. In this manuscript we critically review the relationship between the cardiovascular and nervous system in normal and PD conditions, current animal models of cardiac dysautonomia and the application of molecular imaging methods to visualize cardiac neurodegeneration. Our goal is to highlight current progress in the development of tools to understand cardiac neurodegeneration and dysautonomia and monitor the effects of novel therapies aiming for global neuroprotection. PMID:24753981

Joers, Valerie; Emborg, Marina E

2014-01-01

383

Ultrasound echoes as biometric navigators.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a new method of using ultrasound data to achieve prospective motion compensation in MRI, especially for respiratory motion during interventional MRI procedures in moving organs such as the liver. The method relies on fingerprint-like biometrically distinct ultrasound echo patterns produced by different locations in tissue, which are collated with geometrical information from MRI during a training stage to form a mapping table that relates ultrasound measurements to positions. During prospective correction, the system makes frequent ultrasound measurements and uses the map to determine the corresponding position. Results in motorized linear motion phantoms and freely breathing animals indicate that the system performs well. Apparent motion is reduced by up to 97.8%, and motion artifacts are reduced or eliminated in two-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo images. The motion compensation is sufficient to permit MRI thermometry of focused ultrasound heating during respiratory-like motion, with results similar to those obtained in the absence of motion. This new technique may have applications for MRI thermometry and other dynamic imaging in the abdomen during free breathing. PMID:22648783

Schwartz, Benjamin M; McDannold, Nathan J

2013-04-01

384

Ultrasound Echoes as Biometric Navigators  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a new method of using ultrasound data to achieve prospective motion compensation in MRI, especially for respiratory motion during interventional MRI procedures in moving organs such as the liver. The method relies on fingerprint-like biometrically distinct ultra-sound echo patterns produced by different locations in tissue, which are collated with geometrical information from MRI during a training stage to form a mapping table that relates ultrasound measurements to positions. During prospective correction, the system makes frequent ultrasound measurements and uses the map to determine the corresponding position. Results in motorized linear motion phantoms and freely breathing animals indicate that the system performs well. Apparent motion is reduced by up to 97.8%, and motion artifacts are reduced or eliminated in 2D Spoiled Gradient-Echo images. The motion compensation is sufficient to permit MRI thermometry of focused ultrasound heating during respiratory-like motion, with results similar to those obtained in the absence of motion. This new technique may have applications for MRI thermometry and other dynamic imaging in the abdomen during free breathing. PMID:22648783

Schwartz, Benjamin M.; McDannold, Nathan J.

2014-01-01

385

Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development  

PubMed Central

Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

2012-01-01

386

Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much uncertainty about what the future holds for cardiac surgical practice, research, and culture, and we discuss the background of ethical issues to serve as a platform for envisioning what is to come. PMID:22642634

Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

2012-01-01

387

Broadband miniature fiber optic ultrasound generator.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a broadband miniature fiber optic ultrasound generator based on photoacoustic (PA) ultrasound generation principle for biomedical ultrasound imaging and ultrasound non-destructive test (NDT) applications. A novel PA generation material, gold nanocomposite, was synthesized by directly reducing gold nanoparticles within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through a one-pot protocol. The fiber optic ultrasound generator was fabricated by coating the gold nanocomposite on the tip of the optical fiber. The efficiency of the PA generation using gold nanocomposite was increased 10(5) compared to using aluminum thin film and 10(3) compared to using graphite mixed within epoxy. The ultrasound profile and the acoustic distribution have been characterized. The amplitude of the generated ultrasound signal was as high as 0.64 MPa and the bandwidth was more than 20 MHz. This paper also demonstrated its capability for ultrasound imaging of a tissue specimen. PMID:25089431

Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xingwei

2014-07-28

388

Ultrasound : an alternative solution for removing tattoos  

E-print Network

The recent influx of tattoos has been accompanied by a rise in demand for tattoo removals. Due to the recent success of ultrasound as a noninvasive alternative for multiple medical therapies, the feasibility of ultrasound-mediated ...

Teng, Jennifer

2005-01-01

389

Cardiac surgery outcomes.  

PubMed

Accrediting organizations and payers are demanding valid and reliable data that demonstrate the value of services. Federal agencies, healthcare industry groups, and healthcare watchdog groups are increasing the demand for public access to outcomes data. A new and growing outcomes dynamic is the information requested by prospective patients in an increasingly consumer-oriented business. Patients demand outcomes, and resources are developing to meet these demands. Physicians are increasingly confronted with requests for information about their mortality and morbidity rates, malpractice suits, and disciplinary actions received. For example, in Virginia, prospective patients have access to data provided by the nonprofit group Virginia Health Information. After numerous resolutions by the Virginia Senate since 1999, the prospective Virginia medical consumer now has access to several annual publications: Virginia Hospitals: A Consumer's Guide, 1999 Annual Report and Strategic Plan Update, and the 1999 Industry Report: Virginia Hospitals and Nursing Facilities. Consumers have access to cardiac outcomes data stratified by hospital, gender, and cardiac service line (cardiac surgery, noninvasive cardiology, and invasive cardiology). This is particularly relevant to IHI because Virginia Health Information specifically targets cardiac care. IHI has a sizable investment in cardiovascular outcomes and has found outcomes measurement and research are key to providing quality care. IHI's goal is to move from an outcomes management model to a disease management model. The hope is to incorporate all aspects of the patient's continuum of care, from preoperative and diagnostic services through cardiac interventions to postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, every step along the way will be supported with functional status and quality of life assessments. Although these goals are ambitious and expensive, the return on investment is high. PMID:14618772

Halpin, Linda S; Barnett, Scott D; Beachy, Jim

2003-01-01

390

[Absent intracranial translucency--new ultrasound marker for spina bifida at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation].  

PubMed

Spina bifida is the most common abnormality of the fetal central nervous system. Prenatal diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. However, first trimester detection of spina bifida is still a challenge. A new indirect ultrasound sign of open spina bifida between 11-13 6 weeks of gestation (w.g.) has been recently described. The marker is associated with an absence of intracranial translucency (IT) in the mid-sagittal plane. We present a case report of an open spina bifida detected at 13+2 weeks of gestation with an absent IT. The main ultrasound characteristics of normal and absent IT are described. In addition, the diagnostic role of three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasound is also discussed. PMID:21427878

Markov, D; Pavlova, E; Atanasova, D; Markov, P; Ivanov, St

2010-01-01

391

Ultrasound-guided procedures around the wrist and hand: how to do.  

PubMed

Ultrasound has emerged as a low-cost, radiation-free and effective imaging technique to detect joint abnormalities and to guide percutaneous procedures. Being superficial, wrist and hand tendons and joints represent a good target to perform such procedures using ultrasound guidance. This kind of approach allows for a clear and real-time visualization of the needles during their whole path. In this setting, the knowledge of technical aspects and tips is essential to act in the most accurate way on target tissues that can be as small as a few millimetres. The aim of this review is to summarize the local treatments of inflammatory and degenerative disease described in literature (such as treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis, trigger finger, trapezio-metacarpal joint osteoarthritis, etc.), emphasizing precautions and tricks based on day-by-day experience that may help to improve the outcome of percutaneous ultrasound-guided procedures around the wrist and hand. PMID:24813531

Orlandi, Davide; Corazza, Angelo; Silvestri, Enzo; Serafini, Giovanni; Savarino, Edoardo Vincenzo; Garlaschi, Giacomo; Mauri, Giovanni; Cimmino, Marco Amedeo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

2014-07-01

392

Implementation of a Successful Incentive-Based Ultrasound Credentialing Program for Emergency Physicians  

PubMed Central

Introducion: With the rapid expansion of emergency ultrasound, resident education in ultrasound has become more clearly developed and broadly integrated. However, there still exists a lack of guidance in the training of physicians already in practice to become competent in this valuable skill. We sought to employ a step-wise, goal-directed, incentive-based credentialing program to educate emergency physicians in the use of emergency ultrasound. Successful completion of this program was the primary outcome. Methods: The goal was for the physicians to gain competency in 8 basic ultrasound examinations types: aorta, focused assessment with sonography in trauma, cardiac, renal, biliary, transabdominal pelvic, transvaginal pelvic, and deep venous thrombosis. We separated the 2.5 year training program into 4 distinct blocks, with each block focusing on 2 of the ultrasound examination types. Each block consisted of didactic and hands-on sessions with the goal of the physician completing 25 technically-adequate studies of each examination type. There was a financial incentive associated with completion of these requirements. Results: A total of 31 physicians participated in the training program. Only one physician, who retired prior to the end of the 2.5 year period, did not successfully complete the program. All have applied for and received hospital privileging in emergency ultrasound and incorporated it into their daily practice. Conclusion: We found that a step-wise, incentive-based ultrasound training program with a combination of didactics and ample hands-on teaching was successful in the training of physicians already in practice. PMID:24381680

Budhram, Gavin; Elia, Tala; Rathlev, Niels

2013-01-01

393

Symphalangism with metacarpophalangeal fusions and elbow abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three generations of a family manifest similar skeletal abnormalities: proximal symphalangism with several unusual features, metacarpophalangeal synostoses, massive tarsal and carpal fusions and abnormalities of the elbows (radial head dislocation, radiohumetal synosfosis).

E. G. Kassner; I. Katz; Q. H. Qazi

1976-01-01

394

[A case of progressive hemifacial atrophy associated with immunological abnormalities].  

PubMed

We reported a case of progressive hemifacial atrophy associated with immunological abnormalities. This patient, a 35-year-old woman, had a history of high fever of unknown etiology associated with anemia and leukocytopenia at the age of 19. Eight months later, right hemifacial atrophy, alopecia and partial lipodystrophy of the right upper arm were developed. And the progression had stopped in the latter twenties. At the age of 35, she visited our hospital because of the hemifacial atrophy. Physical examination revealed right hemifacial atrophy, large alopecia at parietal and right temporal region, and partial lipodystrophy of the right upper arm. CT, MRI and ultrasound tomography of the head and the arm showed skin and scalp atrophy, temporal muscle atrophy and decrease of subcutaneous soft tissues. There was no autonomic dysfunction. Serum IgG was increased, and RA factor, anti-nuclear antibody, anti-DNA antibody and LE cell were positive. In this case, immunological abnormalities were considered to be related to the pathogenesis of hemifacial atrophy. PMID:7834954

Kayanuma, K; Oguchi, K

1994-10-01

395

Transrectal ultrasound in patients with hematospermia  

PubMed Central

Introduction To illustrate the lesions detected with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in patients with hematospermia. Material and methods This study included 74 male patients (25–73 years old) affected by hematospermia. Clinical history was obtained and all patients underwent rectal examination as well as TRUS examination in both axial and coronal planes to evaluate the prostate, ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles. Biopsy was performed in 10 patients. Results Abnormalities were detected in 59 patients. Calculi (n = 20) were seen within the prostate, seminal vesicles and along the course of the ejaculatory ducts. Chronic prostatitis (n = 14) appeared as hyperechoic and hypoechoic areas within the prostate with capsule thickening suggesting seminal vesiculitis (n = 8). Granulomatous prostatitis (n = 3) appeared as hyperechoic and calcified areas scattered within the prostate and the seminal vesicles. Hypoechoic focal lesions and heterogeneous texture were seen in prostate cancer (n = 5). Utricular cysts (n = 3) appeared as small midline lesions, and Mullerian duct cysts (n = 8) appeared as larger midline cysts protruding above the prostate. Ejaculatory duct cysts (n = 4) appeared as thick walled cystic lesions along the course of the ejaculatory duct. Seminal vesicle cysts were detected in 2 patients. Conclusion Our conclusion is that TRUS is a safe, non-invasive technique which can be used to detect lesions of the prostate, seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory ducts in patients with hematospermia. PMID:23396895

Razek, A.A.K.A.; Elhanbly, S.; Eldeak, A.

2009-01-01

396

Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

1962-01-01

397

Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

Gosling, R.

1989-01-01

398

Ultrasound Characteristics of Thyroglossal Duct Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the value of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of thyroglossal duct anomalies. The ultrasound and palpation findings in 24 patients with a thyroglossal duct anomaly were reviewed. Cysts, tracts and ectopic thyroid tissue appeared to produce a characteristic ultrasound pattern in most cases. This study includes 5 patients with non-symptomatic lesions which

Robert J. Baatenburg de Jong; Robert J. Rongen; Johan S. Laméris; Paul Knegt; Carel D. A. Verwoerd

1993-01-01

399

Dynamic cardiac mapping on patient-specific cardiac models.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive techniques for electrophysiological cardiac data mapping and catheter ablation therapy have been driven through advancements in computer-aided technologies, including magnetic tracking systems, and virtual and augmented-reality environments. The objective of this work is to extend current cardiac mapping techniques to collect and display data in the temporal domain, while mapping on patient-specific cardiac models. This paper details novel approaches to collecting spatially tracked cardiac electrograms, registering the data with a patient-specific cardiac model, and interpreting the data directly on the model surface, with the goal of giving a more comprehensive cardiac mapping system in comparison to current systems. To validate the system, laboratory studies were conducted to assess the accuracy of navigating to both physical and virtual landmarks. Subsequent to the laboratory studies, an in-vivo porcine experiment was conducted to assess the systems overall ability to collect spatial tracked electrophysiological data, and map directly onto a cardiac model. The results from these experiments show the new dynamic cardiac mapping system was able to maintain high accuracy of locating physical and virtual landmarks, while creating a dynamic cardiac map displayed on a dynamic cardiac surface model. PMID:18979839

Wilson, Kevin; Guiraudon, Gerard; Jones, Doug; Linte, Cristian A; Wedlake, Chris; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M

2008-01-01

400

A novel technique for fetal heart rate estimation from Doppler ultrasound signal  

PubMed Central

Background The currently used fetal monitoring instrumentation that is based on Doppler ultrasound technique provides the fetal heart rate (FHR) signal with limited accuracy. It is particularly noticeable as significant decrease of clinically important feature - the variability of FHR signal. The aim of our work was to develop a novel efficient technique for processing of the ultrasound signal, which could estimate the cardiac cycle duration with accuracy comparable to a direct electrocardiography. Methods We have proposed a new technique which provides the true beat-to-beat values of the FHR signal through multiple measurement of a given cardiac cycle in the ultrasound signal. The method consists in three steps: the dynamic adjustment of autocorrelation window, the adaptive autocorrelation peak detection and determination of beat-to-beat intervals. The estimated fetal heart rate values and calculated indices describing variability of FHR, were compared to the reference data obtained from the direct fetal electrocardiogram, as well as to another method for FHR estimation. Results The results revealed that our method increases the accuracy in comparison to currently used fetal monitoring instrumentation, and thus enables to calculate reliable parameters describing the variability of FHR. Relating these results to the other method for FHR estimation we showed that in our approach a much lower number of measured cardiac cycles was rejected as being invalid. Conclusions The proposed method for fetal heart rate determination on a beat-to-beat basis offers a high accuracy of the heart interval measurement enabling reliable quantitative assessment of the FHR variability, at the same time reducing the number of invalid cardiac cycle measurements. PMID:21999764

2011-01-01

401

ECG abnormalities and stroke incidence.  

PubMed

In this review, the authors discuss the role of ECG in prediction of stroke. ECG plays an important role in detection of several stroke risk factors/predictors including atrial fibrillation and left ventricular hypertrophy; both are components of the Framingham Stroke Risk Score. Multiple other ECG traits have also emerged as potential predictors of stroke, namely cardiac electrical/structural remodeling--Q wave, QRS/QT duration, bundle blocks, P wave duration/amplitude/dispersion, other waveform angles and slopes; higher automaticity--ectopic beats; and re-entry--atrial tachyarrhythmia; and higher vulnerability to arrhythmia--heart rate and its variability. Most of these predictors are not ready for prime time yet; however, further research focusing on their role in risk stratification and prevention of stroke may be useful. In this article, the authors discuss the prevalence, mechanisms and clinical applications of traditional and novel ECG markers in the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23895029

Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z

2013-07-01

402

A model of abnormal gastric electrical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of abnormal gastric electrical activity is presented and used to investigate the accuracy of surface EGGs in the detection of gastric electrical abnormalities. The results show that current surface electrode configurations, cannot detect abnormalities that are not widespread. Substantial improvements can be obtained by using electrode arrays. Surface maps of the slow waves and the signal-to-noise ratio

B. O. Familoni; T. L. Abell; R. Praturu; S. Katragadda; P. Sabourin

1989-01-01

403

The profile of body abnormalities of bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational abnormalities usually occur due to the non-standard use of body which leads in the deformity of body and has lost of side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the type and incidence of skeletal abnormalities in bodybuilders. Situational abnormality of 118 bodybuilders were assessed via posture screen and inserted in examination form. ?2 Test was used

Mahdi Rostami Haji-Abadi; Nader Rahnama

2010-01-01

404

Enzyme activity determination using ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here are presented the results of a novel approach to the measurement of enzyme reaction rates in which ultrasound velocity measurement is used. Our results show enzyme activity is observable, in the acoustic context, and that furthermore this offers the potential to estimate the rate of reaction over different substrate concentrations and temperatures. Findings are corroborated with optical microscopy and rheological measurements. Ultrasound velocity measurement can be performed without the need for aliquot extraction and offers an efficient, non-invasive and dynamic method to monitor enzyme activity.

Holmes, M. J.; Southworth, T.; Watson, N. G.; Povey, M. J. W.

2014-04-01

405

Clinical controversies in endoscopic ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The field of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is growing rapidly. Although EUS has enhanced our ability to diagnose and treat a wide variety of GI conditions, there are many controversial issues regarding the appropriate application of EUS techniques. In this review we discuss five controversial topics in EUS: the utility of EUS in staging of esophageal and gastric cancer; selection of appropriate needle gauge for fine needle aspiration (FNA); use of the stylet in FNA; and the emerging role of contrast agents in endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:24759665

Trindade, Arvind J.; Berzin, Tyler M.

2013-01-01

406

Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

2005-04-01

407

Long-term cardiac sequelae after treatment of malignant tumors with radiotherapy or cytostatics in childhood  

SciTech Connect

A series of 41 individuals were restudied after childhood cancer with a median follow-up time of 17 years after chest irradiation or treatment with cyclophosphamide or Adriamycin (doxorubicin). Radiotherapy of the chest had been used in 21 patients, and in 13 of these irradiation was also directed at the heart. Thirty-five patients received cyclophosphamide and five received Adriamycin therapy. All patients were investigated by a pediatric cardiologist. Investigations included an electrocardiogram (ECG), a chest radiographic film, an echocardiogram, an exercise test, and a 24-hour ECG. Altogether 20 patients (49%) showed some abnormality in cardiac tests. Each additional year of follow-up was associated with a 1.3-fold (95% confidence limits, 1.04-1.66; P less than 0.05) increase in the risk for pathologic cardiac findings. The risk for an abnormal cardiac test result in the 13 patients who had received cardiac irradiation was 12.8-fold (95% confidence limits, 1.8-90.8; P less than 0.02) that of the other patients. However, abnormalities in cardiac function were mild.

Maekinen, L.M.; Maekipernaa, A.R.; Rautonen, J.; Heino, M.; Pyrhoenen, S.L.; Laitinen, L.A.; Siimes, M.A. (Univ. of Helsinki Medical School (Finland))

1990-05-01

408

Impact of ultrasound video transfer on the practice of ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonography can be highly dependent on real-time imaging and as such is highly physician intensive. Such situations arise mostly during complicated ultrasound radiology studies or echocardiology examinations. Under those circumstances it would be of benefit to transmit real-time images beyond the immediate area of the ultrasound laboratory when a physician is not on location. We undertook this study to determine if both static and dynamic image transfer to remote locations might be accomplished using an ultrafast ATM network and PACS. Image management of the local image files was performed by a commercial PACS from AGFA corporation. The local network was Ethernet based, and the global network was based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM, rates up to 100 Mbits/sec). Real-time image transfer involved two teaching hospitals, one of which had 2 separate ultrasound facilities. Radiologists consulted with technologists via telephone while the examinations were being performed. The applications of ATM network providing real time video for ultrasound imaging in a clinical environment and its potential impact on health delivery and clinical teaching. This technology increased technologist and physician productivity due to the elimination of commute time for physicians and waiting time for technologists and patients. Physician confidence in diagnosis increased compared to reviewing static images alone. This system provided instant access for radiologists to real-time scans from remote sites. Image quality and frame rate were equivalent to the original. The system increased productivity by allowing physicians to monitor studies at multiple sites simultaneously.

Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Grant, Edward G.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh

1996-05-01

409

Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS): a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus). Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane

Olive Lennon; Catherine Blake

2009-01-01

410

Clinical review: Thyroid hormone replacement in children after cardiac surgery – is it worth a try?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass produces a generalized systemic inflammatory response, resulting in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Under these circumstances, a typical pattern of thyroid abnormalities is seen in the absence of primary disease, defined as sick euthyroid syndrome (SES). The presence of postoperative SES mainly in small children and neonates exposed to long bypass times and the pharmacological

Nikolaus A Haas; Christoph K Camphausen; Deniz Kececioglu

2006-01-01

411

Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes: Controversies and Conundrums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for preventing sudden cardiac death in young athletes are predicated on the assumption that: (1) these events reflect pre-existing, clinically silent heart disease, and (2) means for detecting these abnormalities on the pre-participation evaluation are both feasible and accurate. Recent controversy has surrounded both of these presumptions. Some evidence suggests that the myocardial hypertrophy accompanying sports training itself might

Thomas Rowland

2011-01-01

412

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

413

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

414

Keloids and Ultrasound Detected Fibroids in Young African American Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. Study Design The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Results Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Conclusion Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population. PMID:24386410

Harmon, Quaker E.; Laughlin, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

2013-01-01

415

A stand-alone ECG abnormality detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the ECG (Electrocardiogram) of patients with cardiac disorder is of paramount importance since they may undergo cardiac arrhythmias even without noticing it. Majority of existing devices for this purpose are only capable of recording ECG of patients which are analyzed later on by cardiologists. This paper presents a new system developed to continuously monitor the ECG of patients and

H. M. K. G. S. Jayasumana; T. M. U. A. S. Thennakoon; C. M. R. B. Chandrasekara; M. T. Sandaruwan; A. A. Pasqual; N. D. Nanayakkara

2010-01-01

416

Cardiac nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

Gerson, M.C.

1987-01-01

417

Cardiac assist device infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiac assist devices have emerged as an increasingly important option for circulatory support in patients with advanced\\u000a congestive heart failure. Infection has been the leading cause of death with use of ventricular assist devices for the past\\u000a 25 years, and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Infections may involve the internal\\u000a (blood-containing) components,

Shmuel Shoham; Leslie W. Miller

2009-01-01

418

Oxytocin in cardiac ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Previous studies demonstrated the presence of oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the heart. The present work provides results supporting a potential role of OT in cardiomyogenesis. Here, we show a maximal OT and OTR protein level in the developing rat heart at day 21 of gestation and postnatal days 1-4, when cardiac myocytes are at a stage of intense hyperplasia. Between postnatal days 1 and 66, OT decreased linearly in all heart chambers (4.1- to 6.6-fold). Correspondingly, immunocytochemistry demonstrated that OTRs, which were eminent in postnatal cardiomyocytes, declined with age to low levels in adults. Interestingly, in coronary vasculature, OTRs developed in endothelial cells at postnatal days 12 and 22 and achieved a plateau in adult rats. These findings suggest that OT can be involved in developmental formation of the coronary vessels. In vivo, the OT/OTR system in the fetal heart was sensitive to the actions of retinoic acid (RA), recognized as a major cardiac morphogen. RA treatment produced a significant increase (2- to 3-fold) both in the OT concentration and in the OT mRNA levels. Ex vivo, an OT antagonist inhibited RA-mediated cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells. The decline of cardiac OT expression from infancy to adulthood of the rat and changes in cell types expressing OTR indicate a dynamic regulation of the OT system in the heart rather than constitutive expression. The results support the hypothesis that RA induces cardiomyogenesis by activation of the cardiac OT system. PMID:15316117

Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan; Wang, Donghao; Bhat, Pangala; Hajjar, Fadi; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Paquin, Joanne; McCann, Samuel M.; Gutkowska, Jolanta

2004-01-01

419

Oxytocin in cardiac ontogeny.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated the presence of oxytocin (OT) and oxytocin receptors (OTRs) in the heart. The present work provides results supporting a potential role of OT in cardiomyogenesis. Here, we show a maximal OT and OTR protein level in the developing rat heart at day 21 of gestation and postnatal days 1-4, when cardiac myocytes are at a stage of intense hyperplasia. Between postnatal days 1 and 66, OT decreased linearly in all heart chambers (4.1- to 6.6-fold). Correspondingly, immunocytochemistry demonstrated that OTRs, which were eminent in postnatal cardiomyocytes, declined with age to low levels in adults. Interestingly, in coronary vasculature, OTRs developed in endothelial cells at postnatal days 12 and 22 and achieved a plateau in adult rats. These findings suggest that OT can be involved in developmental formation of the coronary vessels. In vivo, the OT/OTR system in the fetal heart was sensitive to the actions of retinoic acid (RA), recognized as a major cardiac morphogen. RA treatment produced a significant increase (2- to 3-fold) both in the OT concentration and in the OT mRNA levels. Ex vivo, an OT antagonist inhibited RA-mediated cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19 embryonic stem cells. The decline of cardiac OT expression from infancy to adulthood of the rat and changes in cell types expressing OTR indicate a dynamic regulation of the OT system in the heart rather than constitutive expression. The results support the hypothesis that RA induces cardiomyogenesis by activation of the cardiac OT system. PMID:15316117

Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan; Wang, Donghao; Bhat, Pangala; Hajjar, Fadi; Marcinkiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Paquin, Joanne; McCann, Samuel M; Gutkowska, Jolanta

2004-08-31

420

Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening  

SciTech Connect

Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1989-05-01

421

Cardiac involvement in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.  

PubMed

Myocardial involvement has not been extensively investigated in mitochondrial myopathies. The aim of the study was to assess the myocardial morpho-functional changes in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). Twenty patients with PEO and 20 controls underwent standard echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and integrated backscatter (IBS) analyses. These techniques are capable of providing non-invasively the early, subtle structural and functional changes of the myocardium. TDI myocardial systolic (Sm) and early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities of left ventricular walls were determined. The systo-diastolic variation of IBS was also determined. Patients with PEO exhibited lower Sm, lower Em, and higher Am, and a reduced Em/Am ratio than controls (p<0.001 for all) at interventricular septum and lateral wall levels. In PEO patients, septal and posterior wall cyclic variations of IBS were significantly lower than those in controls (p<0.001). Patients with PEO showed myocardial wall remodeling characterized by increased fibrosis and early left ventricular systo-diastolic function abnormalities. Although cardiac involvement in PEO is generally considered to be limited to the cardiac conduction system, left ventricular dysfunction may be present and should receive more attention in the management of these patients. PMID:25139213

Galetta, Fabio; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Orsucci, Daniele; Tocchini, Leonardo; Papi, Riccardo; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo; Siciliano, Gabriele; Santoro, Gino

2014-10-15

422

Abnormal myocardial perfusion and risk of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart failure (HF), although the pathophysiological processes have not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HF and of abnormal myocardial perfusion in diabetic patients evaluated using technetium (99m) sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted that included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent echocardiography to diagnose HF and a pharmacological stress test with intravenous dipyridamole to examine cardiac scintigraphic perfusion abnormalities. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. RESULTS: Of the 160 diabetic patients included, 92 (57.6%) were in HF and 68 (42.5%) were not. When patients were stratified according to the presence of abnormal myocardial perfusion, those with abnormal perfusion had a higher prevalence of HF (93%) than those with normal perfusion (44.4%) (P<0.0001). Patients with HF weighed more (P=0.03), used insulin less frequently (P=0.01), had lower total cholesterol (P=0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P=0.002), and a greater number of their myocardial segments showed abnormal perfusion (P?0.001). More HF patients had a history of myocardial infarction (P<0.001) compared with those without HF. In a logistic regression analysis, the number of segments exhibiting abnormal myocardial perfusion was an independent risk factor for HF. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HF in diabetic patients was high and HF predominantly occured in association with myocardial ischemia. PMID:24294048

Utrera-Lagunas, Marcelo; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Castillo-Martinez, Lilia; Balderas-Munoz, Karla; Keirns-Davis, Candace; Espinoza-Rosas, Sarahi; Sanchez-Ortiz, Nestor Alonso; Olvera-Mayorga, Gabriela

2013-01-01

423

Cardiac Signatures of Personality  

PubMed Central

Background There are well-established relations between personality and the heart, as evidenced by associations between negative emotions on the one hand, and coronary heart disease or chronic heart failure on the other. However, there are substantial gaps in our knowledge about relations between the heart and personality in healthy individuals. Here, we investigated whether amplitude patterns of the electrocardiogram (ECG) correlate with neurotisicm, extraversion, agreeableness, warmth, positive emotion, and tender-mindedness as measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness (NEO) personality inventory. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether a cardiac amplitude measure that was previously reported to be related to flattened affectivity (referred to as values) would explain variance of NEO scores, and (b) whether correlations can be found between NEO scores and amplitudes of the ECG. Methodology/Principal Findings NEO scores and rest ECGs were obtained from 425 healthy individuals. Neuroticism and positive emotion significantly differed between individuals with high and low values. In addition, stepwise cross-validated regressions indicated correlations between ECG amplitudes and (a) agreeableness, as well as (b) positive emotion. Conclusions/Significance These results are the first to demonstrate that ECG amplitude patterns provide information about the personality of an individual as measured with NEO personality scales and facets. These findings open new perspectives for a more efficient personality assessment using cardiac measures, as well as for more efficient risk-stratification and pre-clinical diagnosis of individuals at risk for cardiac, affective and psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22363649

Koelsch, Stefan; Enge, Juliane; Jentschke, Sebastian

2012-01-01

424

Cardiac outflow tract anomalies  

PubMed Central

The mature outflow tract (OFT) is, in basic terms, a short conduit. It is a simple, although vital, connection situated between contracting muscular heart chambers and a vast embryonic vascular network. Unfortunately, it is also a focal point underlying many multifactorial congenital heart defects (CHDs). Through the use of various animal models combined with human genetic investigations, we are beginning to comprehend the molecular and cellular framework that controls OFT morphogenesis. Clear roles of neural crest cells (NCC) and second heart field (SHF) derivatives have been established during OFT formation and remodeling. The challenge now is to determine how the SHF and cardiac NCC interact, the complex reciprocal signaling that appears to be occurring at various stages of OFT morphogenesis, and finally how endocardial progenitors and primary heart field (PHF) communicate with both these colonizing extra-cardiac lineages. Although we are beginning to understand that this dance of progenitor populations is wonderfully intricate, the underlying pathogenesis and the spatiotemporal cell lineage interactions remain to be fully elucidated. What is now clear is that OFT alignment and septation are independent processes, invested via separate SHF and cardiac neural crest (CNC) lineages. This review will focus on our current understanding of the respective contributions of the SHF and CNC lineage during OFT development and pathogenesis. PMID:24014420

Neeb, Zachary; Lajiness, Jacquelyn D.; Bolanis, Esther; Conway, Simon J

2014-01-01

425

Segmentation of ultrasound fetal images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Segmentation of ultrasound images is challenging because of the noisy nature and subtle boundaries of objects in ultrasound images. This paper discusses object segmentation and identification for ultrasound fetal images. The feature space for segmentation consists of information extracted from three sources: gray level, texture, and wavelet-based decomposition. Several texture features, including Laws' texture-energy measures and features based on local gray level run-length, were found useful for segmentation. An unsupervised clustering procedure was used to classify each pixel into its most probable class. Morphological operations were used to remove noisy structures from the original gray level images and to improve the boundaries of the segmented objects. An algorithm was developed to locate objects of interest based on a multiscale implementation of an image transform. Fetal heads were identified and their corresponding measurements are made automatically. The method was tested with a set of clinical images. The resulting images showed clearly the segmented objects. The measurements agreed closely with a sonographer's measurements. The purposed method holds promise for processing and analyzing ultrasound fetal images.

Lu, Wei; Tan, Jinglu

2000-12-01

426

Ultrasound and transdermal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transdermal drug delivery offers an attractive alternative to the conventional drug delivery methods of oral administration and injection. However, the stratum corneum acts as a barrier that limits the penetration of substances through the skin. Application of ultrasound to the skin increases its permeability (sonophoresis) and enables the delivery of various substances into and through the skin. This review presents

Ilana Lavon; Joseph Kost

2004-01-01

427

Ultrasound internal tattooing Olivier Couturea  

E-print Network

peak-negative pressure and eject their content. After several seconds, a brightly fluorescent spot 0 agents, chemotherapy, and genetic materials in vivo using a conventional ultrasound scanner. © 2011 and impal- pable during surgery. Furthermore, the very success of pre- operative chemotherapy often reduces

Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

428

Abnormal tenocyte morphology is more prevalent than collagen disruption in asymptomatic athletes' patellar tendons.  

PubMed

This study investigated the prevalence of each of the four features of patellar tendinosis in asymptomatic athletic subjects undergoing patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty subjects (39 males and 11 females) undergoing ACL reconstruction using a patellar tendon graft were screened for previous tendon symptoms, training and playing history and had their patellar tendons examined with ultrasound prior to surgery. During surgery, a small piece of proximal posterocentral tendon was harvested, fixed and examined under light microscopy. Histopathological changes were graded for severity. Results demonstrate that 18 tendons were abnormal on light microscopy and 32 were normal. There were no differences between subjects with and without pathology in respect of training, recovery after surgery and basic anthropometric measures. Three tendons were abnormal on ultrasound but only one had proximal and central changes. Tendons showed a consistent series of changes. Tenocyte changes were found in all but one of the abnormal tendons. In all but one of the tendons with increased ground substance there were tenocyte changes, and collagen separation was always associated with both tenocyte changes and increased ground substance. No tendons demonstrated neovascularization. It appears that cellular changes must be present if there is an increase in ground substance, or collagen and vascular changes. Further research is required to confirm these findings. PMID:15013093

Cook, J L; Feller, J A; Bonar, S F; Khan, K M

2004-03-01

429

Image-to-physical registration for image-guided interventions using 3-D ultrasound and an ultrasound imaging model.  

PubMed

We present a technique for automatic intensity-based image-to-physical registration of a 3-D segmentation for image-guided interventions. The registration aligns the segmentation with tracked and calibrated 3-D ultrasound (US) images of the target region. The technique uses a probabilistic framework and explicitly incorporates a model of the US image acquisition process. The rigid body registration parameters are varied to maximise the likelihood that the real US image(s) were formed using the US imaging model from the probe transducer position. The proposed technique is validated on images segmented from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and 3-D US images acquired from 3 volunteers and 1 patient. We show that the accuracy of the algorithm is 2.6-4.2mm and the capture range is 9-18mm. The proposed technique has the potential to provide accurate image-to-physical registrations for a range of image guidance applications. PMID:19694263

King, Andrew P; Ma, Ying-Liang; Yao, Cheng; Jansen, Christian; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S; Penney, Graeme P

2009-01-01

430

Coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound correlation and imaging.  

PubMed

Both photoacoustics and ultrasound have been researched extensively but separately. In this letter, we report an initial study on the coherent correlation between pulsed photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave. By illuminating an object with a pulsed laser and external ultrasound sequentially, both the endogenous photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave are received and coherently correlated, demonstrating enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Image contrast of the proposed coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging is also demonstrated to be improved significantly on vessel-mimicking phantom, due to fusion of the optical absorption and ultrasound reflection contrasts by coherent correlation of either conventional laser-induced photoacoustic imaging or pulse-echo ultrasound imaging separately. PMID:24801584

Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

2014-09-01

431

A viscoelastic model of arterial wall motion in pulsatile flow: implications for Doppler ultrasound clutter assessment.  

PubMed

The existing computational model studies of pulsatile blood flow in arteries have assumed either rigid wall characteristics or elastic arterial wall behavior with wall movement limited to the radial direction. Recent in vivo studies have identified significant viscoelastic wall properties and longitudinal wall displacements over the cardiac cycle. Determining the nature of these movements is important for predicting the effects of ultrasound clutter in Doppler ultrasound measurements. It is also important for developing an improved understanding of the physiology of vessel wall motion. We present an analytically-based computational model based on the Womersley equations for pulsatile blood flow within elastic and viscoelastic arteries. By comparison with published in vivo data of the human common carotid artery as well as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, it is found that the predicted waveforms are in reasonable quantitative agreement. Either a pressure, pressure gradient or volumetric flow rate waveform over a single cardiac cycle is used as an input. Outputs include the pressure, pressure gradient, radial and longitudinal fluid velocities and arterial wall displacements, volumetric flow rate and average longitudinal velocity. It is concluded that longitudinal wall displacements comparable to the radial displacements can be present and should be considered when studying the effects of tissue movement on Doppler ultrasound clutter. PMID:18256449

Warriner, Renée K; Johnston, K Wayne; Cobbold, Richard S C

2008-02-01

432

Cardiac function and rejection following transplantation of the heart  

SciTech Connect

It was the purpose of the study to evaluate the noninvasive detection of rejection following cardiac transplantation. Multigated cardiac blood pool imaging (MUGA) at rest with assessment of ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall motion was determined prospectively in 14 patients with 180 studies (follow up 5.1 +- 3.2 months) following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The results were compared with histological examination of a percutaneous endocardial biopsy specimen (EMB) from the right ventricle. Diagnosis of rejection by EF measurement was defined by a decrease of 10% if EF < 70%, and 15% if EF > 70%. In 152 studies a normal MUGA study correlated with none rejection as defined by EMB. In 14 of 22 studies with moderate or severe rejection decrease of EF followed the rejection with a delay of 5 days. Septal wall motion abnormalities were typical. In 6 studies an abnormal temporal course of EF was not related to a similar finding in EMB. A sensitivity of 69% and a specifity of 96% can be estimated in the investigated group, in which all patients survived during the period of the study. It is concluded that rejection can be excluded by noninvasive MUGA (specifity 96%) and that MUGA is predictive of rejection (sensitivity 67%) mostly with a delay of 5 days.

Schober, O.; Schuler, S.; Gratz, K.; Warnecke, H.; Lang, W.; Hetzer, R.; Creutzig, H.

1985-05-01