Sample records for abnormal cardiac ultrasound

  1. Automated identification of abnormal fetuses using fetal ECG and doppler ultrasound signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Khandoker; Y. Kimura; M. Palaniswami

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we propose an automated algorithm (support vector machines, SVM) to recognize the abnormal fetus using the timings of fetal cardiac events on the basis of analysis of simultaneously recorded fetal ECG (FECG) and Doppler ultrasound (DUS) signal. FECG and DUS signals from 29 fetuses [21 normal and 8 abnormal] were analyzed. Multiresolution wavelet analysis was used to

  2. Cardiac abnormalities and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Joanna; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many factors have been implicated in SIDS cases including environmental influences such as sleeping arrangements and smoking. Most recently, cardiac abnormalities have been hypothesised to play a role in some cases, particularly the primary genetic arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both post-mortem and clinical studies of SIDS cases have provided supporting evidence for the involvement of cardiac genetic disorders in SIDS. This review provides a summary of this evidence focussing particularly on the primary hypothesis related to underlying familial LQTS. In addition, the current literature relating to other cardiac genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS) and structural heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is briefly presented. Finally, the implications of a possible cardiac genetic cause of SIDS is discussed with reference to the need for genetic testing in SIDS cases and subsequent clinical and genetic testing in family members. PMID:25301030

  3. Ultrasound image guidance of cardiac interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Terry M.; Pace, Danielle F.; Lang, Pencilla; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Linte, Cristian A.

    2011-03-01

    Surgical procedures often have the unfortunate side-effect of causing the patient significant trauma while accessing the target site. Indeed, in some cases the trauma inflicted on the patient during access to the target greatly exceeds that caused by performing the therapy. Heart disease has traditionally been treated surgically using open chest techniques with the patient being placed "on pump" - i.e. their circulation being maintained by a cardio-pulmonary bypass or "heart-lung" machine. Recently, techniques have been developed for performing minimally invasive interventions on the heart, obviating the formerly invasive procedures. These new approaches rely on pre-operative images, combined with real-time images acquired during the procedure. Our approach is to register intra-operative images to the patient, and use a navigation system that combines intra-operative ultrasound with virtual models of instrumentation that has been introduced into the chamber through the heart wall. This paper illustrates the problems associated with traditional ultrasound guidance, and reviews the state of the art in real-time 3D cardiac ultrasound technology. In addition, it discusses the implementation of an image-guided intervention platform that integrates real-time ultrasound with a virtual reality environment, bringing together the pre-operative anatomy derived from MRI or CT, representations of tracked instrumentation inside the heart chamber, and the intra-operatively acquired ultrasound images.

  4. Ultrasound catheters for circumferential cardiac ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Nau, William H.; Taylor, Kevin; Maguire, Mark T.; Picazo, Guillermo; Gangu, Madhuri; Lesh, Michael D.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate performance characteristics of a catheter-based ultrasound applicator intended for circumferential ablation of cardiac tissue. The catheter design integrates a cylindrical ultrasound transducer within a distendable water filled balloon in order to produce circumferential lesions at sites in the atria (i.e., pulmonary vein ostia), intended for treatment of certain atrial arrhythmias. Biothermal simulations were used to investigate thermal lesion depths corresponding to variations in applied power, duration, balloon diameter, and acoustic efficiency. Prototype applicators of varying frequency (7 - 12 MHz) and balloon diameter were constructed and characterized using measurements of acoustic efficiency and rotational beam plots. In vitro studies were performed in freshly excised beef hearts to characterize the radial penetration, axial length, and angular uniformity of thermal lesions produced by these applicators. Selected applicators were tested in vivo within pulmonary veins, coronary sinus, and atrial appendage of canine and porcine hearts. These preliminary efforts have indicated that circumferential ablation of cardiac tissue using ultrasound balloon catheters is feasible, and devices between 7 - 12 MHz with balloon diameters of 1.5 - 2.0 cm are capable of producing uniform lesions between 1 - 5 mm depth or greater for treatment durations of 120 seconds or less.

  5. Extracting Cardiac Myofiber Orientations from High Frequency Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kishbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts. PMID:24392208

  6. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (<20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.

  7. A New Potential Marker for Abnormal Cardiac Physiology in Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant L. Iverson; Michael B. Gaetz; Edward J. Rzempoluck; Peter McLean; Wolfgang Linden; Ronald Remick

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a nonlinear estimate of dimensional complexity, Pointwise correlation dimension\\u000a (Pd2), could be used to identify abnormal cardiac physiology associated with depression in primary care outpatients. The subjects\\u000a were 22 medical controls and 30 general medical outpatients with depression who wore a cardiac monitor for 24 h. There was\\u000a a significant difference between

  8. Ultrasound screening for hip abnormalities: preliminary findings in 1001 neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, L; Klenerman, L

    1986-01-01

    Several studies have documented the failure of neonatal clinical screening to reduce the incidence of hip dislocation later in infancy. In addition, the practice of splinting unstable hips is said to result in the treatment of many infants who would have developed normally if left unsplinted. Ultrasound provides a detailed image of the bony and cartilaginous neonatal hip. The results of conventional testing for hip instability were compared with ultrasound screening in 1001 neonates. As a result of the ultrasonic image 14 of 17 infants with hip instability were not splinted and developed normally. Two babies without detectable clinical signs were shown to have severe hip abnormalities. It is suggested that clinically normal but dysplastic hips do exist and that ultrasound will detect them. In addition, the overtreatment that is current practice might be avoided. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:3094625

  9. Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

    2011-05-01

    Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

  10. Assessment of cardiac output by the Doppler ultrasound technique alone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N E Haites; F M McLennan; D H Mowat; J M Rawles

    1985-01-01

    The normal range of aortic blood velocity was established in 140 healthy adults, using a non-invasive Doppler ultrasound technique. Integration of the area under the velocity-time curve for each heart beat gave stroke distance, which, when multiplied by heart rate, gave minute distance. Stroke distance and minute distance are an indication of stroke volume and cardiac output respectively and both

  11. Simulated 3D Ultrasound LV Cardiac Images for Active Shape Model Training

    E-print Network

    Frangi, Alejandro

    Simulated 3D Ultrasound LV Cardiac Images for Active Shape Model Training Constantine Butakoff of 3D ultrasound cardiac segmentation using Active Shape Models (ASM) is presented. The proposed resolution MRI scans and the appearance model obtained from simulated 3D ultrasound images. Usually

  12. Cardiac repolarization abnormalities and increased sympathetic activity in scleroderma.

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Orcun; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Akdogan, Ali; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Sahiner, Levent; Deniz, Ali; Ureten, Kemal; Kizilca, Guler; Calguneri, Meral; Oto, Ali

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement in scleroderma is a poor prognostic sign and is usually underdiagnosed, particularly in asymptomatic patient. This paper focuses on QT dynamicity and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with scleroderma and controls in an attempt to investigate the cardiac autonomic system and ventricular repolarization. METHODS: Sixty patients with scleroderma and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had no cardiovascular risk factors were included in this study. All patients and the controls underwent a 24-hour holter recording as well as a transthoracic echocardiography. HRV and QT dynamicity parameters were calculated. RESULTS: In HRV analysis, autonomic balance was changed in favor of the sympathetic system in patients with diffuse scleroderma. In QT dynamicity analysis, QT/RR slopes were significantly steeper in patients with diffuse scleroderma compared to patients with limited scleroderma and controls (QTapex/RR: 0.24 +/- 0.16, 0.15 +/- 0.03, 0.14 +/- 0.03 respectively p < 0.001; QTend/RR: 0.26 +/- 0.17, 0.14 +/- 0.04, 0.13 +/- 0.05, respectively p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diffuse scleroderma may have asymptomatic cardiac repolarization abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction. Our results may indicate that QT dynamicity and HRV can be useful noninvasive methods that may detect impaired state of autonomic balance and cardiac repolarization in patients with diffuse scleroderma. PMID:17393947

  13. Echocardiography Objectives Every trainee should understand the basic aspects of cardiac ultrasound,

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    of cardiac ultrasound, including physical principles, instrumentation, cardiovascular anatomy, cardiovascular physiology, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. · The trainee will be exposed to and become familiar to integrate their understanding of 3-dimentional cardiac anatomy. · The trainee should understand how

  14. Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Griksaitis (Durham University Pediatric Cardiology)

    2011-11-08

    This article describes a study investigating the efficacy of two cardiac teaching modalities (ultrasound imaging and cadaver prosections) on learning cardiac gross anatomy. The methods and outcomes are discussed. A pre-post test was used in this study.

  15. Mapping Cardiac Fiber Orientations from High-Resolution DTI to High-Frequency 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient’s cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging. PMID:25328641

  16. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice

    E-print Network

    Kobilka, Brian

    Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity in mice PATRICIA Bernstein, and Brian Kobilka. Abnormal cardiac function associated with sympathetic nervous system hyper.1152/ ajpheart.01063.2001.-- 2A-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) in the midbrain regulate sympathetic nervous system

  17. 3D transvaginal ultrasound imaging for identification of endometrial abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olstad, Bjoern; Berg, Sevald; Torp, Anders H.; Schipper, Klaus P.; Eik-Nes, Sturla H.

    1995-05-01

    A multi-center study has previously evaluated the use of 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) to measure the thickness of the endometrium as a risk indicator for endometrial abnormality in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In this paper we present methods using 3-dimensional TVS in order to improve the measurement, shape analysis and visualization of the endometrium. Active contour techniques are applied to identify the endometrium in a 3D dataset. The shape of the endometrium is then visualized and utilized to do quantitative measurements of the thickness. The voxels inside the endometrium are volume rendered in order to emphasize inhomogeneities. Since these inhomogeneities can exist both on the outside and the inside of the endometrium, the rendering algorithm has a controllable opacity function. A 3-dimensional distance transform is performed on the data volume measuring the shortest distance to the detected endometrium border for each voxel. This distance is used as a basis for opacity computations which allows the user to emphasize different regions of the endometrium. In particular, the opacity function can be computed such that regions that violate the risk indicator for the endometrium thickness are highlighted.

  18. Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    de Simone, G.; Scalfi, L.; Galderisi, M.; Celentano, A.; Di Biase, G.; Tammaro, P.; Garofalo, M.; Mureddu, G. F.; de Divitiis, O.; Contaldo, F.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused demonstrable abnormalities of mitral valve motion and reduced left ventricular mass and filling associated with systolic dysfunction. PMID:8142200

  19. Cardiac output measurement in children: comparison of the Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor with thermodilution cardiac output measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Knirsch; Oliver Kretschmar; Maren Tomaske; Kathrina Stutz; Nicole Nagdyman; Christian Balmer; Achim Schmitz; Dominique Béttex; Felix Berger; Urs Bauersfeld; Markus Weiss

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To compare the assessment of cardiac output (CO) in children using the noninvasive Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM)\\u000a with the invasive pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) thermodilution cardiac output measurement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective observational study in a tertiary center for pediatric cardiology of a university children's hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  Twenty-four pediatric patients with congenital heart disease without shunt undergoing cardiac catheterization under general\\u000a anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements

  20. Cardiac Motion Analysis Based on Optical Flow on Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Data

    E-print Network

    Cardiac Motion Analysis Based on Optical Flow on Real-Time Three- Dimensional Ultrasound Data Qi rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four

  1. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging of the Cardiac Activation Wave Using a Clinical Cardiac Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yexian; Li, Qian; Ingram, Pier; Barber, Christy; Liu, Zhonglin

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), based on the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, is a noninvasive method for mapping electrical current in 4-D (space + time). This technique potentially overcomes limitations with conventional electrical mapping procedures typically used during treatment of sustained arrhythmias. However, the weak AE signal associated with the electrocardiogram is a major challenge for advancing this technology. In this study, we examined the effects of the electrode configuration and ultrasound frequency on the magnitude of the AE signal and quality of UCSDI using a rabbit Langendorff heart preparation. The AE signal was much stronger at 0.5 MHz (2.99 ?V/MPa) than 1.0 MHz (0.42 ?V/MPa). Also, a clinical lasso catheter placed on the epicardium exhibited excellent sensitivity without penetrating the tissue. We also present, for the first time, 3-D cardiac activation maps of the live rabbit heart using only one pair of recording electrodes. Activation maps were used to calculate the cardiac conduction velocity for atrial (1.31 m/s) and apical (0.67 m/s) pacing. This study demonstrated that UCSDI is potentially capable of real-time 3-D cardiac activation wave mapping, which would greatly facilitate ablation procedures for treatment of arrhythmias. PMID:25122512

  2. Cardiac Activation Mapping Using Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI)

    PubMed Central

    Olafsson, Ragnar; Witte, Russell S.; Jia, Congxian; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Kim, Kang; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first mapping of biological current in a live heart using ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI). Ablation procedures that treat severe heart arrhythmias require detailed maps of the cardiac activation wave. The conventional procedure is time-consuming and limited by its poor spatial resolution (5–10 mm). UCSDI can potentially improve on existing mapping procedures. It is based on a pressure-induced change in resistivity known as the acousto-electric (AE) effect, which is spatially confined to the ultrasound focus. Data from 2 experiments are presented. A 540 kHz ultrasonic transducer (f/# = 1, focal length = 90 mm, pulse repetition frequency = 1600 Hz) was scanned over an isolated rabbit heart perfused with an excitation-contraction decoupler to reduce motion significantly while retaining electric function. Tungsten electrodes inserted in the left ventricle recorded simultaneously the AE signal and the low-frequency electrocardiogram (ECG). UCSDI displayed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the spreading activation wave. The propagation velocity estimated from UCSDI was 0.25 ± 0.05 mm/ms, comparable to the values obtained with the ECG signals. The maximum AE signal-to-noise ratio after filtering was 18 dB, with an equivalent detection threshold of 0.1 mA/cm2. This study demonstrates that UCSDI is a potentially powerful technique for mapping current flow and biopotentials in the heart. PMID:19411215

  3. Entheseal ultrasound abnormalities in patients with SAPHO syndrome.

    PubMed

    Queiro, Rubén; Alonso, Sara; Alperi, Mercedes; Fernández, Mónica; Tejón, Patricia; Riestra, José L; Arboleya, Luis; Ballina, Javier

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the presence and characteristics of the ultrasound lesions that may be found in the entheses of patients with SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis) syndrome. This cross-sectional study included 15 patients with SAPHO syndrome and 30 healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index. Subjects with regular sport activities as well as those with other rheumatic conditions were excluded from the study. Ultrasonography was used in both groups to study 14 entheses of the upper and lower extremities. Different elementary lesions representative of enthesis damage were defined. A total of 210 entheses in the study group and 420 in the control group were evaluated. Only one patient presented clinical enthesitis. In the study group, seven of the 15 patients (47%) showed morpho-structural entheseal alterations, versus only four of the 30 controls (13.3%; p?ultrasound alterations in 32/210 entheses (15%), while the controls showed alterations in 20/420 entheses (4.8%), p?Ultrasound evidence of enthesopathy seems to be a common feature in this series of patients with SAPHO syndrome. PMID:22349879

  4. Feasibility of noninvasive transesophageal cardiac thermal ablation using an ultrasound phased array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangtao Yin; Laurence M. Epstein; Kullervo Hynynen

    2004-01-01

    Current, minimally invasive, treatments for cardiac arrhythmia use a transvenous radio-frequency (RF) catheter to ablate the malfunctioning cardiac muscle regions. The paper proposes a noninvasive transesophageal cardiac thermal ablation using focused ultrasound. A planar phased array (1 MHz, 60×10 mm2, 0.525 mm element center-to-center distance, 2280 elements) was put in the esophagus. Using electronic beam steering, a matrix of 5×3×5

  5. The Use of Bedside Ultrasound in Cardiac Arrest

    E-print Network

    Shoenberger, Jan M; Massopust, Kristy; Henderson, Sean O

    2007-01-01

    the value of ultrasound in shortening medical code times.with medical arrest cases randomized to ultrasound use or toultrasound training program at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical

  6. Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. de Simone; L. Scalfi; M. Galderisi; A. Celentano; G. Di Biase; P. Tammaro; M. Garofalo; G. F. Mureddu; O. de Divitiis; F. Contaldo

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and

  7. Formal Analysis of Abnormal Excitation in Cardiac Tissue

    E-print Network

    Grosu, Radu

    is to quantify (for the first time) the contribution of the overall sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ) and calcium life-threatening heart activation sequences, e.g. tachyarrhyth- mias, especially in patients with Long found that the reactivation of calcium (Ca2+ ) or sodium (Na+ ) channels or abnormally reduced potassium

  8. Early abnormalities of cardiac function in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Celentano; Olga Vaccaro; Paolo Tammaro; Maurizio Galderisi; Marina Crivaro; Michele Oliviero; Giuseppina Imperatore; Vittorio Palmieri; Vincenzo Iovino; Gabriele Riccardi; Oreste de Divitiis

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of diabetes and minor abnormalities of glucose homeostasis, such as impaired glucose tolerance, as determinants of cardiac function and structure in a working population. We studied a population-based sample of 64 telephone company employees (both sexes, mean age 58 years): 25 with normoglycemia, 15 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 24

  9. Ultrasound screening of periarticular soft tissue abnormality around metal-on-metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Although metal hypersensitivity or pseudotumors are concerns for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings, detailed pathologies of patterns, severity, and incidence of periprosthetic soft tissue lesions are incompletely understood. We examined the potential of ultrasound for screening of periarticular soft tissue lesions around MoM bearings. Ultrasound examinations were conducted in 88 hips (79 patients) with MoM hip resurfacings or MoM total hip arthroplasties with a large femoral head. Four qualitative ultrasound patterns were shown, including normal pattern in 69 hips, joint-expansion pattern in 11 hips, cystic pattern in 5 hips, and mass pattern in 3 hips. Hips with the latter 3 abnormal patterns showed significantly higher frequency of clinical symptoms, without significant differences of sex, duration of implantation, head sizes, and cup abduction/anteversion angles, compared with hips with normal pattern. Ultrasound examination provides sensitive screening of soft tissue reactions around MoM bearings and may be useful in monitoring progression and defining treatment for periarticular soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:22047978

  10. Noninvasive transesophageal cardiac thermal ablation using a 2-D focused, ultrasound phased array: a simulation study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangtao Yin; Laurence M. Epstein; Kullervo Hynynen

    2006-01-01

    This simulation study proposes a noninvasive, transesophageal cardiac-thermal ablation using a planar ultrasound phased array (1 MHz, 60 × 10 mm2, 0.525 mm interelement spacing, 114 × 20 elements). Thirty-nine foci in cardiac muscle were defined at 20, 40, and 60-mm distances and at various angles from the transducer surface to simulate the accessible posterior left atrial wall through the

  11. Cardiac Motion Analysis Based on Optical Flow on Real-Time Three Dimensional Ultrasound Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Duan; Elsa D. Angelini; Olivier Gerard; Kevin D. Costa; Jeffrey W. Holmes

    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the

  12. Doppler Ultrasound Determination of the Distribution of Human Cardiac Output: Effects of Age and Physical Stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Greene; R. C. Roach

    2004-01-01

    Due to its high spatial, temporal, and dynamic resolution, noninvasive Doppler ultrasound can be used to determine the distribution of phasic cardiac output in humans. The effects of ageing and various common physical stresses on combined human major central and regional blood flows have not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that there are no significant age-related differences in steady-state

  13. Serial changes in cardiac output during normal pregnancy: a Doppler ultrasound study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence G. Hennessy; Dermot MacDonald; Marie S. Hennessy; Margaret Maguire; Sean Blake; Hugh A. McCann; Declan D. Sugrue

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the direction and magnitude of change in cardiac output (CO) during pregnancy. Study design: We performed serial measurements of CO on five occasions from 24 weeks gestation to term and once during the puerperium in 26 normal pregnancies (156 measurements) using Doppler ultrasound measurement of flow velocity profiles and aortic root cross sectional area. Result: CO increased

  14. Ultrasound Bio-Microscopic Image Segmentation for Evaluation of Zebrafish Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Sun, Lei; Yu, Yanyan; Qiu, Weibao; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk; Yu, Weichuan

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish can fully regenerate their myocardium after ventricular resection without evidence of scars. This extraordinary regenerative ability provides an excellent model system to study the activation of the regenerative potential for human heart tissue. In addition to the morphology, it is vital to understand the cardiac function of zebrafish. To characterize adult zebrafish cardiac function, an ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was customized for real-time imaging of the zebrafish heart (about 1 mm in diameter) at a resolution of around 37 µm. Moreover, we developed an image segmentation algorithm to track the cardiac boundary and measure the dynamic size of the zebrafish heart for further quantification of zebrafish cardiac function. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed segmentation algorithm were verified on a tissue-mimicking phantom and in vivo zebrafish echocardiography. The quantitative evaluation demonstrated that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is comparable to the manual delineation by experts. PMID:23549532

  15. Noninvasive transesophageal cardiac thermal ablation using a 2-D focused, ultrasound phased array: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangtao; Epstein, Laurence M; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2006-06-01

    This simulation study proposes a noninvasive, transesophageal cardiac-thermal ablation using a planar ultrasound phased array (1 MHz, 60 x 10 mm2, 0.525 mm interelement spacing, 114 x 20 elements). Thirty-nine foci in cardiac muscle were defined at 20, 40, and 60-mm distances and at various angles from the transducer surface to simulate the accessible posterior left atrial wall through the esophageal wall window. The ultrasound pressure distribution and the resulting thermal effect in a volume of 60 x 80 x 80 mm3, including esophagus and cardiac muscle, were simulated for each focus. For 1, 10, and 20-s sonications with 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C peak temperatures in cardiac muscle and without thermal damage in esophageal wall, the transducer acoustic powers were 105-727, 28-117, 21-79 W and 151-1044, 40-167, 30-114 W, respectively. The simulated lesions (thermal dose in equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C > or = 240 minutes) at these foci had lengths of 1-6, 3-11, 3-13 mm and 3-15, 5-19, 6-23 mm, respectively, and widths of 1-4, 2-7, 3-9 mm and 3-9, 4-13, 4-17 mm, respectively. As a first step toward feasibility, controllable tissue coagulation in cardiac tissue without damage to the esophagus was demonstrated numerically. PMID:16846146

  16. Reproducibility of linear cardiac output measurement by Doppler ultrasound alone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F M McLennan; N E Haites; J D Mackenzie; M K Daniel; J M Rawles

    1986-01-01

    Inclusion of a pig aorta in an artificial circulation with pulsed blood flow allowed correlation of minute distance, measured in the aorta by Doppler ultrasound, and absolute blood flow, measured by timed blood-volume collection. The correlation coefficient was 0.99 with a standard error of prediction that was 5.4% of the minute distance predicted at a standard flow rate of 5

  17. Analysis of 2-d ultrasound cardiac strain imaging using joint probability density functions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasound frame rates play a key role for accurate cardiac deformation tracking. Insufficient frame rates lead to an increase in signal de-correlation artifacts resulting in erroneous displacement and strain estimation. Joint probability density distributions generated from estimated axial strain and its associated signal-to-noise ratio provide a useful approach to assess the minimum frame rate requirements. Previous reports have demonstrated that bi-modal distributions in the joint probability density indicate inaccurate strain estimation over a cardiac cycle. In this study, we utilize similar analysis to evaluate a 2-D multi-level displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithm for cardiac strain imaging. The effect of different frame rates, final kernel dimensions and a comparison of radio frequency and envelope based processing are evaluated using echo signals derived from a 3-D finite element cardiac model and five healthy volunteers. Cardiac simulation model analysis demonstrates that the minimum frame rates required to obtain accurate joint probability distributions for the signal-to-noise ratio and strain, for a final kernel dimension of 1 ? by 3 A-lines, was around 42 Hz for radio frequency signals. On the other hand, even a frame rate of 250 Hz with envelope signals did not replicate the ideal joint probability distribution. For the volunteer study, clinical data was acquired only at a 34 Hz frame rate, which appears to be sufficient for radio frequency analysis. We also show that an increase in the final kernel dimensions significantly affect the strain probability distribution and joint probability density function generated, with a smaller effect on the variation in the accumulated mean strain estimated over a cardiac cycle. Our results demonstrate that radio frequency frame rates currently achievable on clinical cardiac ultrasound systems are sufficient for accurate analysis of the strain probability distribution, when a multi-level 2-D algorithm and kernel dimensions on the order of 1 ? by 3 A-lines or smaller are utilized. PMID:24613642

  18. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Cardiac Strain Imaging using Joint Probability Density Functions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound frame rates play a key role for accurate cardiac deformation tracking. Insufficient frame rates lead to an increase in signal decorrelation artifacts; resulting in erroneous displacement and strain estimation. Joint probability density distributions generated from estimated axial strain and its associated signal-to-noise ratio provide a useful approach to assess the minimum frame rate requirements. Previous reports have demonstrated that bimodal distributions in the joint probability density indicate inaccurate strain estimation over a cardiac cycle. In this study, we utilize similar analysis to evaluate a two-dimensional multi-level displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithm for cardiac strain imaging. The impact of different frame rates, final kernel dimensions, and a comparison of radiofrequency and envelope based processing are evaluated using echo signals derived from a three-dimensional finite element cardiac model and 5 healthy volunteers. Cardiac simulation model analysis demonstrate that the minimum frame rates required to obtain accurate joint probability distributions for the signal to noise ratio and strain, for a final kernel dimension of 1 ? by 3 A-lines, was around 42 Hz for radiofrequency signals. On the other hand, even a frame rate of 250Hz with envelope signals did not replicate the ideal joint probability distribution. For the volunteer study, clinical data was acquired only at a 34 Hz frame rate which appears to be sufficient for radiofrequency analysis. We also show that an increase in the final kernel dimensions significantly impact the strain probability distribution and joint probability density function generated; with a smaller impact on the variation in the accumulated mean strain estimated over a cardiac cycle. Our results demonstrate that radiofrequency frame rates currently achievable on clinical cardiac ultrasound systems are sufficient for accurate analysis of the strain probability distribution, when a multi-level two-dimensional algorithm and kernel dimensions on the order of 1 ? by 3 A-lines or smaller are utilized. PMID:24613642

  19. Ultrafast cardiac ultrasound imaging: technical principles, applications, and clinical benefits.

    PubMed

    Cikes, Maja; Tong, Ling; Sutherland, George R; D'hooge, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several recent technical advances in cardiac ultrasound allow data to be acquired at a very high frame rate. Retrospective gating, plane/diverging wave imaging, and multiline transmit imaging all improve the temporal resolution of the conventional ultrasound system. The main drawback of such high frame rate data acquisition is that it typically has reduced image quality. However, for given clinical applications, the acquisition of temporally-resolved data might outweigh the reduction in image quality. It is the aim of this paper to provide an overview of the technical principles behind these new ultrasound imaging modalities, to review the current evidence of their potential clinical added value, and to forecast how they might influence daily clinical practice. PMID:25124014

  20. Cardiac Repolarization Abnormalities and Potential Evidence for Loss of Cardiac Sodium Currents on ECGs of Patients with Chagas' Heart Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Medina, R.; Jugo, D.; Nunez, T. J.; Borrego, A.; Arellano, E.; Arenare, B.; DePalma, J. L.; Greco, E. C.; Starc, V.

    2007-01-01

    Some individuals with Chagas disease develop right precordial lead ST segment elevation in response to an ajmaline challenge test, and the prevalence of right bundle branch block (RBBB) is also high in Chagas disease. Because these same electrocardiographic abnormalities occur in the Brugada syndrome, which involves genetically defective cardiac sodium channels, acquired damage to cardiac sodium channels may also occur in Chagas disease. We studied several conventional and advanced resting 12-lead/derived Frank-lead ECG parameters in 34 patients with Chagas -related heart disease (mean age 39 14 years) and in 34 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. All ECG recordings were of 5-10 min duration, obtained in the supine position using high fidelity hardware/software (CardioSoft, Houston, TX). Even after excluding those Chagas patients who had resting BBBs, tachycardia and/or pathologic arrhythmia (n=8), significant differences remained in multiple conventional and advanced ECG parameters between the Chagas and control groups (n=26/group), especially in their respective QT interval variability indices, maximal spatial QRS-T angles and low frequency HRV powers (p=0.0006, p=0.0015 and p=0.0314 respectively). In relation to the issue of potential damage to cardiac sodium channels, the Chagas patients had: 1) greater than or equal to twice the incidence of resting ST segment elevation in leads V1-V3 (n=10/26 vs. n=5/26) and of both leftward (n=5/26 versus n=0/26) and rightward (n=7/26 versus n=3/26) QRS axis deviation than controls; 2) significantly increased filtered (40-250 Hz) QRS interval durations (92.1 8.5 versus 85.3 plus or minus 9.0 ms, p=0.022) versus controls; and 3) significantly decreased QT and especially JT interval durations versus controls (QT interval: 387.5 plus or minus 26.4 versus 408.9 plus or minus 34.6 ms, p=0.013; JT interval: 290.5 plus or minus 26.3 versus 314.8 plus or minus 31.3 ms; p=0.0029). Heart rates and Bazett-corrected QTc/JTc intervals were not significantly different between groups. Patients with Chagas heart disease have increased cardiac repolarization abnormalities, especially by advanced ECG. Moreover, as a group, they have decreased uncorrected JT and QT interval durations and increased filtered QRS interval durations (versus age/gender-matched controls), all suggesting a potential loss of cardiac sodium channel function that might be mediated, in part, by cardiac autonomic damage. Overall findings support Brugada et al's recent hypothesis that the pathway leading to sudden death may often be similar in Chagas' disease and Brugada syndrome i.e., damage to the sodium channel (infectious/immunologic/autonomic in Chagas' genetic in Brugada) with consequent loss of sodium currents may facilitate a phase II-reentry based arrhythmic substrate for ventricular fibrillation in both conditions. In general, JT interval-related results have been underreported in the Chagas literature.

  1. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-19

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury.

  2. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W. (Reed Institute, Miami, FL (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms.

  3. Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Carss, Keren J.; Hillman, Sarah C.; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Kilby, Mark D.; Hurles, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

  4. An Experimental Model Using Cultured Cardiac Myocytes for a Study of the Generation of Premature Ventricular Contractions Under Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    It is known that use of a contrast agents in echocardiography increases the probability of generation of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). As a basic study to elucidate the mechanisms and to reduce adverse effects, the generation of PVCs was investigated using cultured cardiac myocytes instead of the intact heart in vivo. Cardiac myocytes were isolated from neonatal rats and cultured on a cover slip. The myocyte sample was exposed to pulsed ultrasound with microbubbles adjacent to the myocytes, and generation of PVCs was examined with ultrasound exposure at various delay times after onset of myocyte contraction. The experimental results showed that generation of PVCs had a stable threshold delay time and that PVCs were generated only when myocytes were exposed to ultrasound with delay times longer than the threshold. The results indicate that the model used in this study is useful for revealing the mechanisms by which PVCs are induced by ultrasound exposure.

  5. Spinal cord stimulation normalizes abnormal cortical pain processing in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Sestito, Alfonso; Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Le Pera, Domenica; De Armas, Liala; Sgueglia, Gregory Angelo; Infusino, Fabio; Miliucci, Roberto; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Crea, Filippo; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2008-09-30

    Cardiac syndrome X (CSX) is characterized by effort angina, ST-segment depression during stress tests and normal coronary arteries. Abnormal nociception was suggested in these patients by studies showing a reduced cardiac pain threshold; furthermore, we recently found a lack of habituation to pain stimuli using recording of laser evoked potentials (LEPs). In CSX patients with severe angina, spinal cord stimulation (SCS) was shown to improve symptoms. In this study we investigated whether, in these patients, SCS has any effects on the excitability of the nociceptive system, assessed by LEPs recording. We studied 16 CSX patients (61.6+/-7 years; 4 men) who underwent SCS for refractory angina. Cortical LEPs were recorded during stimulation of the chest and right-hand during active SCS (SCS-ON) and in the absence of SCS (SCS-OFF), using a randomized cross-over design. Three sequences of painful stimuli were applied at each site during each test. During the first sequence of chest stimuli, the N2/P2 LEP amplitude was higher during the SCS-ON, compared to the SCS-OFF phase (18.2+/-7.8 vs. 11.5+/-4.4 microV, P=0.006). The N2/P2 amplitude did not change significantly across the three stimulation sequences during the SCS-OFF phase (P=0.22), whereas it decreased progressively during the second and third sequence (to 87.1+/-29.5% and 76.4+/-24.1%, respectively) compared with the first sequence, during the SCS-ON phase (P=0.014). Similar results were observed during right-hand stimulation. Our study shows that in CSX patients SCS is able to restore habituation to peripheral pain stimuli. This effect might contribute to restore the ability of CSX patients to better tolerate cardiac pain. PMID:18440702

  6. Register cardiac fiber orientations from 3D DTI volume to 2D ultrasound image of rat hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or echocardiography is one of the most widely used examinations for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases. However, it only supplies the geometric and structural information of the myocardium. In order to supply more detailed microstructure information of the myocardium, this paper proposes a registration method to map cardiac fiber orientations from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) volume to the 2D ultrasound image. It utilizes a 2D/3D intensity based registration procedure including rigid, log-demons, and affine transformations to search the best similar slice from the template volume. After registration, the cardiac fiber orientations are mapped to the 2D ultrasound image via fiber relocations and reorientations. This method was validated by six images of rat hearts ex vivo. The evaluation results indicated that the final Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) achieved more than 90% after geometric registrations; and the inclination angle errors (IAE) between the mapped fiber orientations and the gold standards were less than 15 degree. This method may provide a practical tool for cardiologists to examine cardiac fiber orientations on ultrasound images and have the potential to supply additional information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases.

  7. Repolarization abnormalities and afterdepolarizations in a canine model of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Terentyev, Dmitry; Terentyeva, Radmila; Uelmen, Rebecca; Kukielka, Monica; Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Robertson, Gail A.; Györke, Sandor; Billman, George E.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias are the most common cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD); a healed myocardial infarction increases the risk of SCD. We determined the contribution of specific repolarization abnormalities to ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a postinfarction model of SCD. For our methods, we used a postinfarction canine model of SCD, where an exercise and ischemia test was used to stratify animals as either susceptible (VF+) or resistant (VF?) to sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Our results show no changes in global left ventricular contractility or volumes occurred after infarction. At 8–10 wk postmyocardial infarction, myocytes were isolated from the left ventricular midmyocardial wall and studied. In the VF+ animals, myocyte action potential (AP) prolongation occurred at 50 and 90% repolarization (P < 0.05) and was associated with increased variability of AP duration and afterdepolarizations. Multiple repolarizing K+ currents (IKr, Ito) and inward IK1 were also reduced (P < 0.05) in myocytes from VF+ animals compared with control, noninfarcted dogs. In contrast, only Ito was reduced in VF? myocytes compared with controls (P < 0.05). While afterdepolarizations were not elicited at baseline in myocytes from VF? animals, afterdepolarizations were consistently elicited after the addition of an IKr blocker. In conclusion, the loss of repolarization reserve via reductions in multiple repolarizing currents in the VF+ myocytes leads to AP prolongation, repolarization instability, and afterdepolarizations in myocytes from animals susceptible to SCD. These abnormalities may provide a substrate for initiation of postmyocardial infarction ventricular tachyarrhythmias. PMID:18768760

  8. Is it possible to identify infrahissian cardiac conduction abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy by non-invasive methods?

    PubMed Central

    Babuty, D; Fauchier, L; Tena-Carbi, D; Poret, P; Leche, J; Raynaud, M; Fauchier, J; Cosnay, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify intracardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy from their clinical, ECG, and genetic features.?METHODS—39 consecutive patients (mean (SD) age 42.9 (12.1) years; 16 female, 23 male) underwent clinical examination, genetic studies, resting and 24 hour ambulatory ECG, signal averaged ECG, and electrophysiological studies.?RESULTS—23 patients suffered from cardiac symptoms, 23 had one or more cardiac conduction abnormality on resting ECG, one had sinus deficiency, and 21 (53.8%) had prolonged HV intervals. No correlation was found between the severity of the neurological symptoms, onset of disease, cardiac conduction abnormalities on ECG, and the intracardiac conduction abnormalities on electrophysiological study. The size of the DNA mutation was longer in the abnormal HV interval group than in the normal HV interval group (3.5 (1.8) v 2.2 (1.0) kb, p < 0.02). Signal averaged ECG parameters (total QRS duration (QRSD) and duration of low amplitude signals ? 40 µV (LAS 40)) were greater in patients with an abnormal HV interval than in those with a normal HV interval (123.4 (24.6) v 102.8 (12.3) ms and 47.5 (12.8) v 35.3 (8.8) ms, respectively; p < 0.005). Only the association of QRSD ? 100 ms with LAS 40 ? 36 ms identified patients with an abnormal HV interval with good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (83.3%).?CONCLUSIONS—Infrahissian conduction abnormalities are common in myotonic dystrophy and can be identified using signal averaged electrocardiography.???Keywords: myotonic dystrophy; atrioventricular block; genetic factors; signal averaged ECG PMID:10525524

  9. Flow-regulated extracorporeal arteriovenous tubing loop for cardiac output measurements by ultrasound velocity dilution: validation in post-cardiac surgery intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Eremenko, Alexsandr A; Safarov, Perviz N

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of cardiac output (CO) is crucial in the management of the critically ill, especially in post cardiac surgery intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In this study, we validated CO measured by the novel ultrasound dilution (COUD) with those measured by pulmonary artery (PA) thermodilution (COTD) in 26 adult post cardiac surgery patients. For COUD, blood was circulated through an extracorporeal arteriovenous (AV) loop from the radial artery catheter to the introducer of PA catheter for 5-8 minutes. Three to four injections of 25 ml body temperature isotonic saline were performed into the venous limb of the AV loop. For COTD, five injections of 10 ml ice cold saline were performed. A total of 77 COUD and COTD measurement sets were compared. Cardiac output measured by thermodilution ranged from 3.28 to 9.4 L/min, whereas COUD ranged from 2.85 to 10.1 L/min. The correlation between the methods was found to be r = 0.91, COUD = 0.93(COTD) + 0.42 L/min. Bias and precision (mean difference ± 2SDs) was -0.004 ± 1.34 L/min between the two methods. The percentage error (2SD/mean) was 22.2%, which is below the clinically acceptable limit (<30%). Cardiac output measured by ultrasound dilution and thermodilution methods agreed well in post cardiac surgery ICU patients and hence can be interchangeably used. PMID:21245798

  10. Tumor Necrosis Factor Is a Therapeutic Target for Immunological Unbalance and Cardiac Abnormalities in Chronic Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Isabela Resende; Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Silva, Andrea Alice; Moreira, Otacilio Cruz; Britto, Constança; Sarmento, Ellen Diana Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chagas disease (CD) is characterized by parasite persistence and immunological unbalance favoring systemic inflammatory profile. Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, the main manifestation of CD, occurs in a TNF-enriched milieu and frequently progresses to heart failure. Aim of the Study. To challenge the hypothesis that TNF plays a key role in Trypanosoma cruzi-induced immune deregulation and cardiac abnormalities, we tested the effect of the anti-TNF antibody Infliximab in chronically T. cruzi-infected C57BL/6 mice, a model with immunological, electrical, and histopathological abnormalities resembling Chagas' heart disease. Results. Infliximab therapy did not reactivate parasite but reshaped the immune response as reduced TNF mRNA expression in the cardiac tissue and plasma TNF and IFN? levels; diminished the frequency of IL-17A+ but increased IL-10+ CD4+ T-cells; reduced TNF+ but augmented IL-10+ Ly6C+ and F4/80+ cells. Further, anti-TNF therapy decreased cytotoxic activity but preserved IFN?-producing VNHRFTLV-specific CD8+ T-cells in spleen and reduced the number of perforin+ cells infiltrating the myocardium. Importantly, Infliximab reduced the frequency of mice afflicted by arrhythmias and second degree atrioventricular blocks and decreased fibronectin deposition in the cardiac tissue. Conclusions. Our data support that TNF is a crucial player in the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease fueling immunological unbalance which contributes to cardiac abnormalities. PMID:25140115

  11. Insulin over expression induces heart abnormalities via reactive oxygen species regulation, might be step towards cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, S; Ali, T; Gul, M; Javed, Q; Emanueli, C; Murtaza, I

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is known to regulate blood—glucose level and promote its utilization as an energy source in cardiac tissues under normal physiological conditions as well as stimulates signaling pathways that involved cell growth and proliferation. Although recently insulin generated free radicals via NAD(P)H has been documented but the molecular mechanism is still under investigation. The aim of present study is to elucidate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent possible role of insulin in cardiac abnormalities, including hypertrophy by regulation of antioxidants enzyme (SOD) activity. In the current study, 60 cardiac patients and 50 healthy individuals as well as the rat model with insulin administration were under investigation. Oxidant, anti—oxidant biochemical assays, hypertrophic marker expression via immunobloting and histopathology were performed. We observed statistically significant elevation of the reactive oxygen species level in the serum of patients as well as in the insulin administrated rat model, a mild expression of cardiac marker in experimental models along with abnormal histopathology of hearts. However, super oxide dismutase free radical scavenger activity was down regulated upon insulin treatment compared to control rats. Conclusively, the present study showed that over expression of insulin might stimulate cardiac hypertrophic signal via up regulation of free radicals and down regulation of antioxidants enzymes including SOD activity. PMID:25817343

  12. How can the use of lung ultrasound in cardiac arrest make ultrasound a holistic discipline. The example of the SESAME-protocol.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Daniel A

    2014-09-01

    The most critical application of critical ultrasound - cardiac arrest - is the opportunity for technical considerations. The necessity to immediately detect reversible causes is integrated in the concept of holistic ultrasound. Holistic ultrasound is defined as a discipline where each element interacts with the others, and where the understanding of each of them allows understanding the whole. A narrow machine (not necessarily a laptop), a fast start-on time, a simple keyboard highlighting three useful buttons, a universal microconvex probe able to immediately detect pneumothorax, then deep venous thrombosis, then abdominal bleeding, then pericardial tamponade, then cardiac anomalies will allow a fast protocol. The concept of holistic ultrasound is particularly on focus in the first step done at the lung (search for pneumothorax and clearance for fluid therapy), since the best image is obtained with the simplest equipment devoid of traditional facilities (image filtering, harmonics, time lag, Doppler...). The same simple gray-scale equipment is used for the other steps, all what is needed is to see the real-time image of what is facing the probe: the very principle of visual medicine. The same approach can be used with no change, just more quietly, for many less urgent settings. PMID:25110767

  13. Breaking bad news to a pregnant woman with a fetal abnormality on ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Andrea L; Conklin, Jona

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is a common procedure performed in pregnancy. Most obstetric patients have an ultrasound between 18 and 20 weeks' gestation. While there is debate regarding the utility of this ultrasound, it has become a routine part of prenatal care. Discovery of a fetal anomaly on ultrasound is most commonly an unexpected, emotionally devastating event for pregnant women. Counseling these women about the ultrasound findings requires empathy and sensitivity. This task falls on the physicians caring for pregnant women: maternal-fetal medicine specialists, radiologists, generalist obstetricians, and family medicine physicians. Their training regarding breaking bad news is varied. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a framework to break bad news of an anomalous fetus for physicians caring for pregnant women using the SPIKES protocol. The SPIKES acronym stands for setting, perception, invitation, knowledge, empathize, summary, and strategy. PMID:25616346

  14. High-frequency ultrasound M-mode monitoring of HIFU ablation in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumon, R. E.; Gudur, M. S. R.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, C. X.

    2012-10-01

    Effective real-time HIFU lesion detection is important for expanded use of HIFU in interventional electrophysiology (e.g., epicardial ablation of cardiac arrhythmia). The goal of this study was to investigate rapid, high-frequency M-mode ultrasound imaging for monitoring spatiotemporal changes in tissue during HIFU application. The HIFU application (4.33 MHz, 1000 Hz PRF, 50% duty cycle, 1 s exposure, 6100 W/cm2) was perpendicularly applied to porcine cardiac tissue with a high-frequency imaging system (Visualsonics Vevo 770, 55 MHz, 4.5 mm focal distance) confocally aligned. Radiofrequency (RF) M-mode data (1 kHz PRF, 4 s × 7 mm) was acquired before, during, and after HIFU treatment. Gross lesions were compared with M-mode data to correlate lesion and cavity formation. Integrated backscatter, echo-decorrelation parameters, and their cumulative extrema over time were analyzed for automatically identifying lesion width and bubble formation. Cumulative maximum integrated backscatter showed the best results for identifying the final lesion width, and a criterion based on line-to-line decorrelation was proposed for identification of transient bubble activity.

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting symptom is related to multiple uterine leiomyoma: an ultrasound-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Moutinho, José Alberto; Barbosa, Lígia Silva; Torres, Daniel Gonçalves; Nunes, Sara Morgado

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of uterine leiomyomas, diagnosed by ultrasound, in a private health care setting located in the central eastern region of Portugal, and to explore the demographic and clinical factors related to diagnosis and symptomatology. Patients and methods The files of 624 patients attending a private clinic in Covilhã, Portugal, from January 2 to December 31, 2010 were retrieved for evaluation. Pelvic ultrasound record, age, weight, height, age at menarche, number of pregnancies and deliveries, marital status, menstrual cycles characteristic, and contraceptive method at consultation were included in the analysis. Results Uterine leiomyoma (UL) was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 161 (25.8%) patients. A single UL was diagnosed in 80 (49.7%) patients. In 79 (49.1%) patients, the largest leiomyoma had a dimension <20 mm. Prevalence of UL was age dependent: at 11.0% for women 20–39 years old; 45.4% for those aged 40–59 years; and 19.5% for women 60 years or older. Metrorrhagia was the most distressing presenting symptom. When menorrhagia was the presenting symptom, the probability of having an ultrasound diagnosis of UL was 73.3%. Metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, as presenting symptom, was significantly related to the ultrasound diagnosis of multiple ULs. Conclusion UL was especially prevalent in women aged between 40 and 59 years. Patients with multiple ULs had significantly more abnormal uterine bleeding. In patients with menorrhagia or metrorrhagia, special attention should be taken in searching for the presence of multiple ULs during ultrasound. PMID:24194648

  16. Transmural Ultrasound Imaging of Thermal Lesion and Action Potential Changes in Perfused Canine Cardiac Wedge Preparations by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziqi; Gudur, Madhu S. R.; Deng, Cheri X.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-procedural imaging is important for guiding cardiac arrhythmia ablation. It is difficult to obtain intra-procedural correlation of thermal lesion formation with action potential (AP) changes in the transmural plane during ablation. This study tested parametric ultrasound imaging for transmural imaging of lesion and AP changes in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation using coronary perfused canine ventricular wedge preparations (n?=?13). The preparations were paced from epi/endocardial surfaces and subjected to HIFU application (3.5 MHz, 11 Hz pulse-repetition-frequency, 70% duty cycle, duration 4 s, 3500 W/cm2), during which simultaneous optical mapping (1 kframes/s) using di-4-ANEPPS and ultrasound imaging (30 MHz) of the same transmural surface of the wedge were performed. Spatiotemporally correlated AP measurements and ultrasound imaging allowed quantification of the reduction of AP amplitude (APA), shortening of AP duration at 50% repolarization, AP triangulation, decrease of optical AP rise, and change of conduction velocity along tissue depth direction within and surrounding HIFU lesions. The threshold of irreversible change in APA correlating to lesions was determined to be 43±1% with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) of 0.96±0.01 (n?=?13). Ultrasound imaging parameters such as integrated backscatter, Rayleigh (?) and log-normal (?) parameters, cumulative extrema of ? were tested, with the cumulative extrema of ? performing the best in detecting lesion (ROC AUC 0.89±0.01, n?=?13) and change of APA (ROC AUC 0.79±0.03, n?=?13). In conclusion, characteristic tissue and AP changes in HIFU ablation were identified and spatiotemporally correlated using optical mapping and ultrasound imaging. Parametric ultrasound imaging using cumulative extrema of ? can detect HIFU lesion and APA reduction. PMID:24349337

  17. Non-invasive determination of electromechanical time intervals of cardiac cycle using abdominal ECG and Doppler ultrasound signals from fetal hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Khandoker; Y. Kimura; T. Ito; M. Palaniswami

    2007-01-01

    Fetal ECG and Doppler ultrasound signals provide clinically significant information concerning the physiological state of a fetus. In this study, we propose a non-invasive system to recognize the timings of fetal cardiac events on the basis of analysis of fetal ECG and Doppler ultrasound signal together. Fetal ECG was extracted from transabdominal ECG (10 normal subjects, 38-41 weeks of gestation)

  18. Non-Invasive Determination of Electromechanical Time Intervals of Cardiac Cycle Using Abdominal ECG and Doppler Ultrasound Signals from Fetal Hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AH Khandoker; Y Kimura; T Ito; M Palaniswami

    2009-01-01

    Fetal ECG and Doppler ultrasound signals provide clinically significant information concerning the physiological state of a fetus. In this study, we propose a non-invasive system to recognize the timings of fetal cardiac events on the basis of analysis of fetal ECG and Doppler ultrasound signal together. Fetal ECG was extracted from transabdominal ECG (10 normal subjects, 38-41 weeks of gestation)

  19. Possible structural abnormality of the brainstem in unipolar depressive illness: a transcranial ultrasound and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, J; Bastin, M; Wardlaw, J; Ebmeier, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Most empirically derived antidepressants increase monoamine levels. The nuclei of cells synthesising these monoamines are located in the brainstem, and projection tracts such as the medial forebrain bundle reach virtually all other brain areas. Two studies of unipolar depressive illness using transcranial ultrasound have reported reduced echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients. This may be consistent with disruption of white matter tracts, including the medial forebrain bundle, and it has been suggested that the effect of such disruption could be reversed by antidepressants. Objective: To replicate these findings in a group of unipolar depressed patients and controls. Methods: Fifteen unipolar depressed patients and 15 controls were studied using transcranial ultrasound imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI). Results: No difference in echogenicity of the brainstem midline of unipolar depressed patients was found. A possible trend (Cohen's d = 0.39) in the direction of previous studies was found. Although the echogenicity of the brainstem midline of the control group was found to be similar to previous reports, there was no reduction in the patient group. Additionally, no structural abnormality of the brainstem was identified using DT-MRI. Conclusions: While these data do not replicate the findings of previous studies reporting a significant reduction in the echogenicity of the brainstem midline in unipolar depressed patients, the ultrasound investigation indicated that there may be a trend in this direction. Given the importance of identifying the causes of depressive illness, it is important that other groups attempt similar studies. PMID:16227541

  20. Feasibility of Remote Real-Time Guidance of a Cardiac Examination Performed by Novices Using a Pocket-Sized Ultrasound Device

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Tuan V.; Ahn, David T.; Phillips, Colin T.; Agan, Donna L.; Kimura, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs) to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE) through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD), LA enlargement (LAE), ultrasound lung comets (ULC+), and elevated CVP (eCVP). Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc.) attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90%) versus 130/135 (96%) (P < 0.05). CLUE's combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (%) and accuracy for each abnormality (n) were LVSD (85%, 0.93, n = 5), LAE (89%, 0.74, n = 16), ULC+ (100%, 0.94, n = 5), and eCVP (78%, 0.91, n = 1). Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients. PMID:24024032

  1. Transmural Ultrasound-based Visualization of Patterns of Action Potential Wave Propagation in Cardiac Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Stefan; Singh, Rupinder; Gilmour, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The pattern of action potential propagation during various tachyarrhythmias is strongly suspected to be composed of multiple re-entrant waves, but has never been imaged in detail deep within myocardial tissue. An understanding of the nature and dynamics of these waves is important in the development of appropriate electrical or pharmacological treatments for these pathological conditions. We propose a new imaging modality that uses ultrasound to visualize the patterns of propagation of these waves through the mechanical deformations they induce. The new method would have the distinct advantage of being able to visualize these waves deep within cardiac tissue. In this article, we describe one step that would be necessary in this imaging process—the conversion of these deformations into the action potential induced active stresses that produced them. We demonstrate that, because the active stress induced by an action potential is, to a good approximation, only nonzero along the local fiber direction, the problem in our case is actually overdetermined, allowing us to obtain a complete solution. Use of two- rather than three-dimensional displacement data, noise in these displacements, and/or errors in the measurements of the fiber orientations all produce substantial but acceptable errors in the solution. We conclude that the reconstruction of action potential-induced active stress from the deformation it causes appears possible, and that, therefore, the path is open to the development of the new imaging modality. PMID:20499183

  2. Hybrid Pixel-Based Method for Cardiac Ultrasound Fusion Based on Integration of PCA and DWT

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Puteri Suhaiza; Wirza, Rahmita; Dimon, Mohd Zamrin; Khalid, Fatimah; Moosavi Tayebi, Rohollah

    2015-01-01

    Medical image fusion is the procedure of combining several images from one or multiple imaging modalities. In spite of numerous attempts in direction of automation ventricle segmentation and tracking in echocardiography, due to low quality images with missing anatomical details or speckle noises and restricted field of view, this problem is a challenging task. This paper presents a fusion method which particularly intends to increase the segment-ability of echocardiography features such as endocardial and improving the image contrast. In addition, it tries to expand the field of view, decreasing impact of noise and artifacts and enhancing the signal to noise ratio of the echo images. The proposed algorithm weights the image information regarding an integration feature between all the overlapping images, by using a combination of principal component analysis and discrete wavelet transform. For evaluation, a comparison has been done between results of some well-known techniques and the proposed method. Also, different metrics are implemented to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm. It has been concluded that the presented pixel-based method based on the integration of PCA and DWT has the best result for the segment-ability of cardiac ultrasound images and better performance in all metrics.

  3. Do Thallium Myocardial Perfusion Scan Abnormalities Predict Survival in Sarcoid Patients without Cardiac Symptoms?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evlin L. Kinney; John W. Caldwell

    1990-01-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found

  4. Cardiac Abnormalities After Aneurysmal Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage: Effects of ?-Blockers and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Elizabeth; Kerris, Kelly; Kuo, Chien-Wen J.; Sherwood, Paula; Hravnak, Marilyn; Crippen, David; Horowitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac abnormalities attributed to adrenergic surge are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prescribed medications that block adrenergic stimulation may suppress the onset of cardiopulmonary compromise in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Objectives To compare the incidence of early cardiac complications between patients who reported prescribed use of ?-blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and patients who did not. Methods A retrospective review of 254 adult patients after acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were enrolled in an existing R01 study. Demographic data and history were obtained from patients’/proxies’ reports and charts. Cardiac enzyme levels, 12-lead electrocardiograms, and chest radiographs were obtained on admission. Holter monitoring and echocardiograms were completed as a part of the R01 study. Results Patients reporting prescribed use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or ?-blockers before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage had more ventricular and supra-ventricular ectopy on a Holter report than did patients who did not (P < .05). When age, race, sex, and injury (Fisher grade) were controlled for, patients reporting use of ?-blockers were 8 times more likely than others to have occasional to frequent ventricular ectopy (P = .02). Conclusion No concrete evidence was found that exposure to adrenergic blockade before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage provides protection from neurocardiac injury. PMID:24382615

  5. Reversibility of cardiac wall-motion abnormalities predicted by positron tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tillisch; R. Brunken; R. Marshall; M. Schwaiger; M. Mandelkern; M. Phelps; H. Schelbert

    1986-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can be used with nitrogen-13-ammonia (13NH3) to estimate regional myocardial blood flow, and with fluorine-18-deoxyglucose (18FDG) to measure exogenous glucose uptake by the myocardium. We used PET to predict whether preoperative abnormalities in left ventricular wall motion in 17 patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass surgery were reversible. The abnormalities were quantified by radionuclide or contrast angiography

  6. The diagnosis of right heart thrombus by focused cardiac ultrasound in a critically ill patient in compensated shock.

    PubMed

    Jammal, Mansour; Milano, Peter; Cardenas, Renzo; Mailhot, Thomas; Mandavia, Diku; Perera, Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Right heart thrombus (RHT) is a life-threatening diagnosis that is rarely made in the emergency department (ED), but with the increasing use of focused cardiac ultrasound (FocUS), more of these cases may be identified in a timely fashion. We present a case of an ill-appearing patient who had an immediate change in management due to the visualization of RHT soon after arrival to the ED. The diagnosis was confirmed after a cardiology-performed ultrasound (US). This case illustrates the value of the recognition of RHT on FocUS and how US protocols designed for the evaluation of shock and shortness of breath may potentially be expanded to patients in a 'compensated' or 'pre-shock' state to expedite the correct diagnosis and to facilitate more timely management. PMID:25995832

  7. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... findings that might indicate an increased risk for Down syndrome A pregnancy ultrasound may also be done in ... weeks of pregnancy to look for signs of Down syndrome or other problems in the developing baby. This ...

  8. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  9. Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep Contribute to Further Cardiac Structure Abnormalities in Hemodialysis Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giannaki, Christoforos D.; Zigoulis, Paris; Karatzaferi, Christina; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; George, Keith P.; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) constitute common sleep disorders. Recent findings indicate a role for PLMS as a risk factor in the development of new or the aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of PLMS with indices of cardiac morphology and function in HD patients with RLS as a potential pathway by which PLMS could alter cardiovascular risk. Methods: Based on PLMS diagnosis by an overnight polysomnographic evaluation, 19 stable HD-RLS patients were divided into the PLMS group (n = 10) and the non-PLMS group (n = 9). During the overnight assessment, nocturnal blood pressure (BP) indices were also assessed. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions were examined by M-mode echocardiography, whereas LV diastolic function was evaluated by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging the following day. Results: LV internal diameter in diastole was significantly increased in the PLMS group (4.96 ± 0.61 vs 4.19 ± 0.48 cm, p = 0.007), leading to a significantly increase in LV mass (202 ± 52 vs 150 ± 37 g, p = 0.026). In contrast, no between group differences were observed in diastolic function indices (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These are the first data to associate severe PLMS with further LV structure abnormalities in HD patients with RLS. Citation: Giannaki CD; Zigoulis P; Karatzaferi C; Hadjigeorgiou GM; George KP; Gourgoulianis K; Koutedakis Y; Stefanidis I; Sakkas GK. Periodic limb movements in sleep contribute to further cardiac structure abnormalities in hemodialysis patients with restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):147–153. PMID:23372468

  10. Multimedia System Design Illustrating the Operation of Doppler Ultrasound Fetal Monitor in Extracting Cardiac Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mansor

    2009-01-01

    Doppler Ultrasound signal has been used widely in fetal monitor to detect the fetal health status and fetal well-being. A correct understanding of the operation of the monitor and the principles of Doppler ultrasound is essential to medical educator, medical students and clinician in examining the condition of the fetus. Currently, a system that can demonstrate the operation of fetal

  11. Object identification accuracy under ultrasound enhanced virtual reality for minimally invasive cardiac surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Linte, Cristian A.; Wedlake, Christopher; Ahmad, Anis; Peters, Terry M.

    2008-03-01

    A 2D ultrasound enhanced virtual reality surgical guidance system has been under development for some time in our lab. The new surgical guidance platform has been shown to be effective in both the laboratory and clinical settings, however, the accuracy of the tracked 2D ultrasound has not been investigated in detail in terms of the applications for which we intend to use it (i.e., mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure). This work focuses on the development of an accuracy assessment protocol specific to the assessment of the calibration methods used to determine the rigid transformation between the ultrasound image and the tracked sensor. Specifically, we test a Z-bar phantom calibration method and a phantomless calibration method and compared the accuracy of tracking ultrasound images from neuro, transesophageal, intracardiac and laparoscopic ultrasound transducers. This work provides a fundamental quantitative description of the image-guided accuracy that can be obtained with this new surgical guidance system.

  12. Mechanical and non-mechanical functions of Dystrophin can prevent cardiac abnormalities in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Jagla, Krzysztof; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Bodmer, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Dystrophin-deficiency causes cardiomyopathies and shortens the life expectancy of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Restoring Dystrophin expression in the heart by gene transfer is a promising avenue to explore as a therapy. Truncated Dystrophin gene constructs have been engineered and shown to alleviate dystrophic skeletal muscle disease, but their potential in preventing the development of cardiomyopathy is not fully understood. In the present study, we found that either the mechanical or the signaling functions of Dystrophin were able to reduce the dilated heart phenotype of Dystrophin mutants in a Drosophila model. Our data suggest that Dystrophin retains some function in fly cardiomyocytes in the absence of a predicted mechanical link to the cytoskeleton. Interestingly, cardiac-specific manipulation of nitric oxide synthase expression also modulates cardiac function, which can in part be reversed by loss of Dystrophin function, further implying a signaling role of Dystrophin in the heart. These findings suggest that the signaling functions of Dystrophin protein are able to ameliorate the dilated cardiomyopathy, and thus might help to improve heart muscle function in micro-Dystrophin-based gene therapy approaches. PMID:24231130

  13. Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

  14. Ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... couldn't see my baby at my 7 week ultrasound. Why? At the 7th week of pregnancy, your baby is about ½ an ... 1 in 120 pregnancies at 15 to 20 weeks gestation. Most disappear during pregnancy or within several ...

  15. Ultrasound calibration using intensity-based image registration: for application in cardiac catheterization procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. L.; Rhode, K. S.; Gao, G.; King, A. P.; Chinchapatnam, P.; Schaeffter, T.; Hawkes, D. J.; Razavi, R.; Penney, G. P.

    2008-03-01

    We present a novel method to calibrate a 3D ultrasound probe which has a 2D transducer array. By optically tracking a calibrated 3D probe we are able to produce extended field of view 3D ultrasound images. Tracking also enables us to register our ultrasound images to other tracked and calibrated surgical instruments or to other tracked and calibrated imaging devices. Our method applies rigid intensity-based image registration to three or more ultrasound images. These images can either be of a simple phantom, or could potentially be images of the patient. In this latter case we would have an automated calibration system which required no phantom, no image segmentation and was optimized to the patient's ultrasound characteristics i.e. speed of sound. We have carried out experiments using a simple calibration phantom and with ultrasound images of a volunteer's liver. Results are compared to an independent gold-standard. These showed our method to be accurate to 1.43mm using the phantom images and 1.56mm using the liver data, which is slightly better than the traditional point-based calibration method (1.7mm in our experiments).

  16. Endurance exercise training normalizes repolarization and calcium-handling abnormalities, preventing ventricular fibrillation in a model of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Belevych, Andriy E.; Sridhar, Arun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; He, Quanhua; Kukielka, Monica; Terentyev, Dmitry; Terentyeva, Radmila; Liu, Bin; Long, Victor P.; Györke, Sandor; Billman, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of sudden cardiac death is increased following myocardial infarction. Exercise training reduces arrhythmia susceptibility, but the mechanism is unknown. We used a canine model of sudden cardiac death (healed infarction, with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by an exercise plus ischemia test, VF+); we previously reported that endurance exercise training was antiarrhythmic in this model (Billman GE. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297: H1171–H1193, 2009). A total of 41 VF+ animals were studied, after random assignment to 10 wk of endurance exercise training (EET; n = 21) or a matched sedentary period (n = 20). Following (>1 wk) the final attempted arrhythmia induction, isolated myocytes were used to test the hypotheses that the endurance exercise-induced antiarrhythmic effects resulted from normalization of cellular electrophysiology and/or normalization of calcium handling. EET prevented VF and shortened in vivo repolarization (P < 0.05). EET normalized action potential duration and variability compared with the sedentary group. EET resulted in a further decrement in transient outward current compared with the sedentary VF+ group (P < 0.05). Sedentary VF+ dogs had a significant reduction in repolarizing K+ current, which was restored by exercise training (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, myocytes from the sedentary VF+ group displayed calcium alternans, increased calcium spark frequency, and increased phosphorylation of S2814 on ryanodine receptor 2. These abnormalities in intracellular calcium handling were attenuated by exercise training (P < 0.05). Exercise training prevented ischemically induced VF, in association with a combination of beneficial effects on cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling. PMID:23042911

  17. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  18. Technology insight: hand-carried ultrasound cardiac assessment--evolution, not revolution.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Bruce J; DeMaria, Anthony N

    2005-04-01

    Hand-carried ultrasound devices can enhance the art of bedside physical examination by increasing diagnostic accuracy, detecting disease at an earlier stage, and improving triage and referral of patients. Although limitations of device cost and portability can be overcome with technologic advances, the shortage of standardized imaging and training opportunities now needs to be addressed to move the technique forward. Cardiologists are the best-qualified subspecialists to design and teach a simplified training program for bedside use of hand-carried ultrasound devices to assess the cardiovascular system. PMID:16265486

  19. Ultrasound-induced modulation of cardiac rhythm in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Andrew; Vecchio, Christopher; Sunny, Youhan; Bawiec, Christopher R; Lewin, Peter A; Kresh, J Yasha; Kohut, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Isolated neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were used to study the influence of ultrasound on the chronotropic response in a tissue culture model. The beat frequency of the cells, varying from 40 to 90 beats/min, was measured based upon the translocation of the nuclear membrane captured by a high-speed camera. Ultrasound pulses (frequency = 2.5 MHz) were delivered at 300-ms intervals [3.33 Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF)], in turn corresponding to 200 pulses/min. The intensity of acoustic energy and pulse duration were made variable, 0.02-0.87 W/cm(2) and 1-5 ms, respectively. In 57 of 99 trials, there was a noted average increase in beat frequency of 25% with 8-s exposures to ultrasonic pulses. Applied ultrasound energy with a spatial peak time average acoustic intensity (Ispta) of 0.02 W/cm(2) and pulse duration of 1 ms effectively increased the contraction rate of cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05). Of the acoustic power tested, the lowest level of acoustic intensity and shortest pulse duration proved most effective at increasing the electrophysiological responsiveness and beat frequency of cardiomyocytes. Determining the optimal conditions for delivery of ultrasound will be essential to developing new models for understanding mechanoelectrical coupling (MEC) and understanding novel nonelectrical pacing modalities for clinical applications. PMID:25858493

  20. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-Binding Domain Deficient Mice Develop Normally but Have an Abnormal Response to ?-Adrenergic-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Matthew J.; Burmeister, Brian T.; Huang, Yu; Hsiao, Edward C.; Salomonis, Nathan; Scott, Mark J.; Srivastava, Deepak; Carnegie, Graeme K.; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA) and D (PKD) and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction. Conclusions These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of ?-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23658642

  1. 3-D Active Appearance Models: Segmentation of Cardiac MR and Ultrasound Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Mitchell; Johan G. Bosch; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt; Rob J. Van Der Geest; Johan H. C. Reiber; Milan Sonka

    2002-01-01

    A model-based method for three-dimensional image segmentation was developed and its performance assessed in segmentation of volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images and echocardiographic temporal image sequences. Comprehensive design of a three-dimensional (3-D) active appearance model (AAM) is reported for the first time as an involved extension of the AAM framework introduced by Cootes et al. The model's behavior is

  2. Ultrasound for the Anesthesiologists: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Elbarbary, Mahmoud; Blaivas, Michael; Durieux, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is a safe, portable, relatively inexpensive, and easily accessible imaging modality, making it a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool in medicine. Anesthesiologists encounter a variety of emergent situations and may benefit from the application of such a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in their routine practice. This paper reviews current and potential applications of ultrasound in anesthesiology in order to encourage anesthesiologists to learn and use this useful tool as an adjunct to physical examination. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade and vascular access represent the most popular ultrasound applications in anesthesiology. Ultrasound has recently started to substitute for CT scans and fluoroscopy in many pain treatment procedures. Although the application of airway ultrasound is still limited, it has a promising future. Lung ultrasound is a well-established field in point-of-care medicine, and it could have a great impact if utilized in our ORs, as it may help in rapid and accurate diagnosis in many emergent situations. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement and transcranial color coded duplex (TCCD) are relatively new neuroimaging modalities, which assess intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Gastric ultrasound can be used for assessment of gastric content and diagnosis of full stomach. Focused transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography facilitate the assessment of left and right ventricular function, cardiac valve abnormalities, and volume status as well as guiding cardiac resuscitation. Thus, there are multiple potential areas where ultrasound can play a significant role in guiding otherwise blind and invasive interventions, diagnosing critical conditions, and assessing for possible anatomic variations that may lead to plan modification. We suggest that ultrasound training should be part of any anesthesiology training program curriculum. PMID:24348179

  3. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    PubMed

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P < 0.0001), pictorial question scores (+22.9 ±18.0%, 19.7 ±19.3%, P < 0.001) and non-pictorial question scores (+16.7 ±18.2%, +13 ±15.4%, P = 0.002). The ultrasound simulator appears equivalent to human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. PMID:24706544

  4. Segmentation of left atrial intracardiac ultrasound images for image guided cardiac ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Stephens, T.; Holmes, D. R.; Linte, C.; Packer, D. L.; Robb, R. A.

    2013-03-01

    Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE), a technique in which structures of the heart are imaged using a catheter navigated inside the cardiac chambers, is an important imaging technique for guidance in cardiac ablation therapy. Automatic segmentation of these images is valuable for guidance and targeting of treatment sites. In this paper, we describe an approach to segment ICE images by generating an empirical model of blood pool and tissue intensities. Normal, Weibull, Gamma, and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions are fit to histograms of tissue and blood pool pixels from a series of ICE scans. A total of 40 images from 4 separate studies were evaluated. The model was trained and tested using two approaches. In the first approach, the model was trained on all images from 3 studies and subsequently tested on the 40 images from the 4th study. This procedure was repeated 4 times using a leave-one-out strategy. This is termed the between-subjects approach. In the second approach, the model was trained on 10 randomly selected images from a single study and tested on the remaining 30 images in that study. This is termed the within-subjects approach. For both approaches, the model was used to automatically segment ICE images into blood and tissue regions. Each pixel is classified using the Generalized Liklihood Ratio Test across neighborhood sizes ranging from 1 to 49. Automatic segmentation results were compared against manual segmentations for all images. In the between-subjects approach, the GEV distribution using a neighborhood size of 17 was found to be the most accurate with a misclassification rate of approximately 17%. In the within-subjects approach, the GEV distribution using a neighborhood size of 19 was found to be the most accurate with a misclassification rate of approximately 15%. As expected, the majority of misclassified pixels were located near the boundaries between tissue and blood pool regions for both methods.

  5. Detection and display of acoustic window for guiding and training cardiac ultrasound users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Radulescu, Emil; Wang, Shougang; Thiele, Karl; Prater, David; Maxwell, Douglas; Rafter, Patrick; Dupuy, Clement; Drysdale, Jeremy; Erkamp, Ramon

    2014-03-01

    Successful ultrasound data collection strongly relies on the skills of the operator. Among different scans, echocardiography is especially challenging as the heart is surrounded by ribs and lung tissue. Less experienced users might acquire compromised images because of suboptimal hand-eye coordination and less awareness of artifacts. Clearly, there is a need for a tool that can guide and train less experienced users to position the probe optimally. We propose to help users with hand-eye coordination by displaying lines overlaid on B-mode images. The lines indicate the edges of blockages (e.g., ribs) and are updated in real time according to movement of the probe relative to the blockages. They provide information about how probe positioning can be improved. To distinguish between blockage and acoustic window, we use coherence, an indicator of channel data similarity after applying focusing delays. Specialized beamforming was developed to estimate coherence. Image processing is applied to coherence maps to detect unblocked beams and the angle of the lines for display. We built a demonstrator based on a Philips iE33 scanner, from which beamsummed RF data and video output are transferred to a workstation for processing. The detected lines are overlaid on B-mode images and fed back to the scanner display to provide users real-time guidance. Using such information in addition to B-mode images, users will be able to quickly find a suitable acoustic window for optimal image quality, and improve their skill.

  6. Focused cardiac ultrasound: a training course for pediatric intensivists and emergency physicians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Focused echocardiographic examinations performed by intensivists and emergency room physicians can be a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing the hemodynamic status of critically ill children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve achieved using a theoretical and practical training program designed to enable pediatric intensivists and emergency physicians to conduct targeted echocardiograms. Methods Theoretical and practical training sessions were conducted with 16 pediatric intensivist/emergency room physicians. The program included qualitative analyses of the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) functions, evaluation of pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade and valvular regurgitation and measurements of the distensibility index of the inferior vena cava (dIVC), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac index (CI). The practical training sessions were conducted in the intensive care unit; each student performed 24 echocardiograms. The students in training were evaluated in a practical manner, and the results were compared with the corresponding examinations performed by experienced echocardiographers. The evaluations occurred after 8, 16 and 24 practical examinations. Results The concordance rates between the students and echocardiographers in the subjective analysis of the LV function were 81.3% at the first evaluation, 96.9% at the second evaluation and 100% at the third evaluation (p?

  7. Program Overview The Cardiac Sonography program prepares individuals to perform cardiac

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Mei-Fang

    and Physiology, Pathophysiology, Ultrasound Physics, Instrumentation and Applied Cardiac Sonography. ClinicalProgram Overview The Cardiac Sonography program prepares individuals to perform cardiac sonography hours. Program Description The Cardiac Sonography Program is located on the Scotch Plains campus

  8. Intima-media thickness evaluation by B-mode ultrasound. Correlation with blood pressure levels and cardiac structures.

    PubMed

    Plavnik, F L; Ajzen, S; Kohlmann, O; Tavares, A; Zanella, M T; Ribeiro, A B; Ramos, O L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the thickness of the intima-media complex (IMC) using a noninvasive method. The carotid and femoral common arteries were evaluated by noninvasive B-mode ultrasound in 63 normotensive and in 52 hypertensive subjects and the thickness of the IMC was tested for correlation with blood pressure, cardiac structures and several clinical and biological parameters. The IMC was thicker in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects (0.67 +/- 0.13 and 0.62 +/- 0.16 vs 0.54 +/- 0.09 and 0.52 +/- 0.11 mm, respectively, P<0.0001). In normotensive patients, the simple linear regression showed significant correlations between IMC and age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure for both the carotid and femoral arteries. In hypertensives the carotid IMC was correlated with age and 24-h systolic blood pressure while femoral IMC was correlated only with 24-h diastolic blood pressure. Forward stepwise regression showed that age, body mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure influenced the carotid IMC relationship (r2 = 0.39) in normotensives. On the other hand, the femoral IMC relationship was influenced by 24-h systolic blood pressure and age (r2 = 0.40). In hypertensives, age and 24-h systolic blood pressure were the most important determinants of carotid IMC (r2 = 0.37), while femoral IMC was influenced only by 24-h diastolic blood pressure (r2 = 0.10). There was an association between carotid IMC and echocardiographic findings in normotensives, while in hypertensives only the left posterior wall and interventricular septum were associated with femoral IMC. We conclude that age and blood pressure influence the intima-media thickness, while echocardiographic changes are associated with the IMC. PMID:10625875

  9. In emergently ventilated trauma patients, low end-tidal CO2 and low cardiac output are associated and correlate with hemodynamic instability, hemorrhage, abnormal pupils, and death

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a smaller experience, the authors previously demonstrated that end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and cardiac output (CO) had a positive association in emergently intubated trauma patients during Emergency Department resuscitation. The aim of this larger study was to reassess the relationship of PetCO2 with CO and identify patient risk-conditions influencing PetCO2 and CO values. Methods The investigation consists of acutely injured trauma patients requiring emergency tracheal intubation. The study focuses on the prospective collection of PetCO2 and noninvasive CO monitor (NICOM®) values in the Emergency Department. Results From the end of March through August 2011, 73 patients had 318 pairs of PetCO2 (mm Hg) and CO (L/min.) values. Mean data included Injury Severity Score (ISS) ?15 in 65.2%, Glasgow Coma Score of 6.4?±?4.6, hypotension in 19.0%, and death in 34.3%. With PetCO2???25 (15.9?±?8.0), systolic blood pressure was 77.0?±?69, CO was 3.2?±?3.0, cardiac arrest was 60.4%, and mortality was 84.9%. During hypotension, CO was lower with major blood loss (1.9), than without major loss (5.0; P?=?0.0008). Low PetCO2 was associated with low CO (P??20, hypotension, bradycardia, major blood loss, abnormal pupils, cardiac arrest, and death. Low CO was associated (P???0.0059) with ISS?>?20, hypotension, bradycardia, major blood loss, abnormal pupils, cardiac arrest, and death. Conclusions During emergency department resuscitation, a decline in PetCO2 correlates with decreases in noninvasive CO in emergently intubated trauma patients. Decreasing PetCO2 and declining NICOM CO are associated with hemodynamic instability, hemorrhage, abnormal pupils, and death. The study indicates that NICOM CO values are clinically discriminate and have physiologic validity. PMID:24020798

  10. Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Duncan, Michael; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Alferova, Irina V.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this joint U.S. - Russian project was the development and validation of an in-flight methodology to assess a number of cardiac and vascular parameters associated with circulating volume and its manipulation in long-duration space flight. Responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (US) before, during, and after temporary volume reduction by means of Braslet-M thigh occlusion cuffs (Russia). Materials and Methods: The study protocol was conducted in 14 sessions on 9 ISS crewmembers, with an average exposure to microgravity of 122 days. Baseline cardiovascular measurements were taken by echocardiography in multiple modes (including tissue Doppler of both ventricles) and femoral and jugular vein imaging on the International Space Station (ISS). The Braslet devices were then applied and measurements were repeated after >10 minutes. The cuffs were then released and the hemodynamic recovery process was monitored. Modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were used throughout the protocol. All US data were acquired by the HDI-5000 ultrasound system aboard the ISS (ATL/Philips, USA) during remotely guided sessions. The study protocol, including the use of Braslet-M for this purpose, was approved by the ISS Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB). Results: The effects of fluid sequestration on a number of echocardiographic and vascular parameters were readily detectable by in-flight US, as were responses to respiratory maneuvers. The overall volume status assessment methodology appears to be valid and practical, with a decrease in left heart lateral E (tissue Doppler) as one of the most reliable measures. Increase in the femoral vein cross-sectional areas was consistently observed with Braslet application. Other significant differences and trends within the extensive cardiovascular data were also observed. (Decreased - RV and LV preload indices, Cardiac Output, LV E all maneuvers, LV Stroke Volume). Conclusions: This Study: 1) Addressed specific aspects of operational space medicine and space physiology, including assessment of circulating volume disturbances 2) Expanded the applications of diagnostic ultrasound imaging and Doppler techniques in microgravity. 3) Used respiratory maneuvers against the background of acute circulating volume manipulations which appear to enhance our ability to noninvasively detect volume-dependency in a number of cardiac and vascular parameters. 4) Determined that Tei index is not clinically changed therefore contractility not altered in the face of reduced preload. 5) Determined that increased Femoral Vein Area indicating blood being sequestered in lower extremities correlates with reduced preload and cardiac output. 6) That Braslet may be the only feasible means of acutely treating high pressure pulmonary edema in reduced gravity environments.

  11. Abnormal splicing in the N-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T impairs systolic function of the heart with preserved Frank-Starling compensation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Guozhen; Nan, Changlong; Huang, Xupei; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal splice-out of the exon 7-encoded segment in the N-terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T (cTnT-?E7) was found in turkeys and, together with the inclusion of embryonic exon (eTnT), in adult dogs with a correlation with dilated cardiomyopathy. Overexpression of these cTnT variants in transgenic mouse hearts significantly decreased cardiac function. To further investigate the functional effect of cTnT-?E7 or ?E7+eTnT in vivo under systemic regulation, echocardiography was carried out in single and double-transgenic mice. No atrial enlargement, ventricular hypertrophy or dilation was detected in the hearts of 2-month-old cTnT-?E7 and ?E7+eTnT mice in comparison to wild-type controls, indicating a compensated state. However, left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were decreased in ?E7 and ?E7+eTnT mice, and the response to isoproterenol was lower in ?E7+eTnT mice. Left ventricular outflow tract velocity and gradient were decreased in the transgenic mouse hearts, indicating decreased systolic function. Ex vivo working heart function showed that high afterload or low preload resulted in more severe decreases in the systolic function and energetic efficiency of cTnT-?E7 and ?E7+eTnT hearts. On the other hand, increases in preload demonstrated preserved Frank-Starling responses and minimized the loss of cardiac function and efficiency. The data demonstrate that the N-terminal variable region of cardiac TnT regulates systolic function of the heart. PMID:25194024

  12. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  13. Point-of-care musculoskeletal ultrasound is critical for the diagnosis of hemarthroses, inflammation and soft tissue abnormalities in adult patients with painful haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Kidder, W; Nguyen, S; Larios, J; Bergstrom, J; Ceponis, A; von Drygalski, A

    2015-07-01

    We previously demonstrated in adult patients with haemophilia (PWH) that hemarthrosis is present in only ~1/3rd of acutely painful joints by using point-of-care-musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS). Therefore, other unrecognized tissue abnormalities must contribute to pain. Using high resolution MSKUS, employing grey scale and power Doppler, we sought to retrospectively (i) investigate soft tissue abnormalities in painful haemophilic joints and (ii) to determine to what extent MSKUS findings, functional or radiographic joint scores correlate with biomarkers of inflammation in PWH. Findings were correlated with Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (HJHS), Pettersson scores, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and von Willebrand factor activity and antigen levels. A total of 65 MSKUS examinations for acute and chronic joint pains were performed for 34 adult haemophilia patients, mostly for chronic joint pains (72.3%). The most prominent findings (66.5%) pertained to inflammatory soft tissue changes including synovitis, tendinitis, enthesitis, bursitis and fat pad inflammation. Effusions were present in 55.5% and 46.8% of MSKUS performed for acute and chronic pain, respectively. Of those, 90.0% were bloody during acute and 47.6% during persistent pains. While inflammatory biomarkers correlated well with overall HJHS and total Pettersson scores (P < 0.05), they did not differ between those patients with synovitis and those without. MSKUS is emerging as an important modality to diagnose treatable musculoskeletal abnormalities contributing to pain in haemophilic arthropathy, and therefore seems critical for a personalized approach to haemophilia care. The role of biomarkers in this setting remains less clear and requires further investigation. PMID:25623830

  14. Progression of cardiac allograft vascular disease as assessed by serial intravascular ultrasound: correlation to immunological and non-immunological risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Pethig, K; Klauss, V; Heublein, B; Mudra, H; Westphal, A; Weber, C; Theisen, K; Haverich, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise the severity and progression of cardiac allograft vascular disease (CAVD) in a large patient cohort, and to evaluate possible immunological and non-immunological risk factors for progression.?DESIGN—A prospective observational study using intravascular ultrasound.?SETTING—Two university hospitals.?PATIENTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Changes in focal plaque, lumen, and total vessel area (worst site method) were assessed at baseline and after 12.1 (2.8) months (mean (SD)) of follow up in a cohort of 96 patients (79 male, 17 female; mean age 48.7 (9.6) years; time post-transplant 26.0 (32.4) months).?RESULTS—Overall, the mean (SD) intimal index of worst sites increased by 6.7 (8.8)%. The increase in the first 12 months was 7.5 (9.4)%, v 5.9 (8.0)% after the first year (NS). Analysing immunological and non-immunological risk factors (age, underlying disease, sex, donor age, immunosuppression, cytomegalovirus, rejection episodes, cholesterol), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was found to be the most important predictor of severe progression (as defined by an increase in intimal index of ? 15% (p = 0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—Progression of CAVD is characterised by a continuing increase in intimal hyperplasia, especially within the first year after heart transplantation. LDL cholesterol is an important predictor of major progression.???Keywords: heart transplantation; cardiac allograft vasculopathy; intravascular ultrasound PMID:11040007

  15. Incidence and significance of primary abnormalities of cardiac rhythm in infants at high risk for sudden infant death syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Colan; Richard R. Liberthson; Lucienne Cahen; Daniel C. Shannon; Dorothy H. Kelly

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The exact relationship between cardiac arrhythmias and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is uncertain. Several reports have\\u000a implicated both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias in isolated cases, but there have been no studies of the incidence\\u000a or type of arrhythmias that occur in populations at risk for SIDS. Of 1699 infants at high risk for SIDS, 60 (4%) were found\\u000a to

  16. Linear regression analysis of ultrasound follicular growth series: evidence for an abnormality of follicular growth in endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Doody, M C; Gibbons, W E; Buttram, V C

    1988-01-01

    Follicular diameter growth is a highly linear function of time. Recently, the potential utility of linear regression-derived parameters for describing and comparing cycles of follicular growth was described. The linearity of growth, growth rate constant (K), calculated date of growth onset (Do), total growth period (TGP), menstrual age at apparent ovulation (MAov), and peak follicular diameter (PFD) have been calculated from the follicular growth series of a group of patients with laparoscopically diagnosed endometriosis (n = 46). These parameters were compared with those of a group of normal volunteers (n = 18). The authors found significant differences between endometriosis patients and controls in follicular growth rate and total growth period. The effect of patients' clomiphene citrate usage on growth parameters in these patients was examined. Abnormalities in interrelationships between the growth parameters were detected, suggesting the possibility of subtle defects in the regulation of follicular growth in these patients. PMID:3275551

  17. Effects of metabolic and myocardial microcirculatory abnormalities on the pathogenesis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A prospective study in Japanese patients*

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Background: In diabetic patients, cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an important factor affecting prognosis. Whether this condition in diabetic patients is caused directly by neurovisceral metabolic disorder and/or indirectly by micro circulation remains to be clarified. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction can be detected using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) testing, while also investigating the effects of metabolic and/or myocardial microcirculatory abnormalities on the pathogenesis of cardiac autonomic nerve dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) in Japan. Methods: This prospective study was performed at the Division of Diabetology Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University, Ohashi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged ? 18 years with DM-2 with no abnormalities on electrocardiography (ECG) or echocardiography were enrolled. An ATP thallium (Tl)-201 myocardial scintigraphy test (ATP test) and iodine (I)-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy were performed. ATP was administered by continuous IV infusion over 6 minutes at 0.16 mg/kg · min. Five minutes after the ATP infusion was started, T1-201 111 MBq IV was administered. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was begun immediately after the end of ATP infusion and was completed 3 hours after stress to show washout from stress to rest. I-123 MIBG 111 MBq IV was administered. A planar image from the front side and a SPECT image (early phase) was obtained 15 to 30 minutes later. After 3 hours, a planar image from the front side and a SPECT image (late phase) were obtained to show washout from stress to rest. The mean TI washout rate (ATP-WR) and heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio in the late-phase scintigraphic images and the washout rate of MIBG (MIBG-WR) in the left ventricle was determined. The correlations of these measurements with the mean values of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose obtained from monthly measurements over the previous 6 and 24 months were determined. Results: A total of 25 patients were enrolled (13 men, 12 women; mean [SD] age, 59.86 [8.28] years). Significant negative correlations between both ATP-WR and MIBG-WR and HbA1c were found (r = -0.52 [P = 0.02] and ?0.47 [P = 0.03], respectively). Although no correlation was found between ATP-WR values and the early phase H/M ratio, a significant positive correlation was observed between ATP-WR and H/M ratio (r = 0.54; P = 0.02). Conclusions: In the present study in Japanese diabetic patients without subjective signs of coronary artery disease and without abnormalities on ECG or echocardiography, ATP-WR, an indicator of myocardial blood flow, was correlated with myocardial sympathetic nerve dysfunction and 24-month glycemic control. However, sympathetic nerve dysfunction was not correlated with 24-month glycemic control. PMID:24678078

  18. [Cardiac manifestations of mitochondrial diseases].

    PubMed

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Luis, David; Hullin, Thomas; Fayssoil, Abdallah

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are multi-system disorders in relation with mitochondrial DNA and/or nuclear DNA abnormalities. Clinical pictures are heterogeneous, involving endocrine, cardiac, neurologic or sensory systems. Cardiac involvements are morphological and electrical disturbances. Prognosis is worsened in case of cardiac impairment. Treatments are related to the type of cardiac dysfunction including medication or pacemaker implantation. PMID:25890847

  19. Patients with Familial Partial Lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan Type Due to a LMNA R482W Mutation Show Muscular and Cardiac Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Vantyghem; P. PIGNY; C. A. MAURAGE; N. ROUAIX-EMERY; T. STOJKOVIC; J. M. CUISSET; A. MILLAIRE; O. LASCOLS; P. VERMERSCH; J. L. WEMEAU; J. CAPEAU; C. VIGOUROUX

    2004-01-01

    Diseases due to mutations in the lamin A\\/C gene (LMNA) are highly heterogeneous, including neuromuscular and cardiac dystrophies, lipodystrophies, and premature ageing syn- dromes. In this study we characterized the neuromuscular and cardiac phenotypes of patients bearing the heterozygous LMNA R482W mutation, which is the most frequent genotype associated with the familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dun- nigan type (FPLD).

  20. CONTOUR-BASED HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL TO SEGMENT 2D ULTRASOUND IMAGES Xiaoning Qian1

    E-print Network

    Qian, Xiaoning

    -axis cardiac ultrasound images successfully. The method can also be used for other image modalities for the analysis of cardiac function from medical images [8]. It is a challenging task with cardiac ultrasound proposed to segment car- diac ultrasound images [2, 8]. Many of them are based on the classical Maximum

  1. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in mouse cardiovascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2001-05-01

    The mouse is the preferred animal model for studying mammalian cardiovascular development and many human congenital heart diseases. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), utilizing high-frequency (40-50-MHz) ultrasound, is uniquely capable of providing in vivo, real-time microimaging and Doppler blood velocity measurements in mouse embryos and neonates. UBM analyses of normal and abnormal mouse cardiovascular function will be described to illustrate the power of this microimaging approach. In particular, real-time UBM images have been used to analyze dimensional changes in the mouse heart from embryonic to neonatal stages. UBM-Doppler has been used recently to examine the precise timing of onset of a functional circulation in early-stage mouse embryos, from the first detectable cardiac contractions. In other experiments, blood velocity waveforms have been analyzed to characterize the functional phenotype of mutant mouse embryos having defects in cardiac valve formation. Finally, UBM has been developed for real-time, in utero image-guided injection of mouse embryos, enabling cell transplantation and genetic gain-of-function experiments with transfected cells and retroviruses. In summary, UBM provides a unique and powerful approach for in vivo analysis and image-guided manipulation in normal and genetically engineered mice, over a wide range of embryonic to neonatal developmental stages.

  2. Ultrasound in critical care.

    PubMed

    Andruszkiewicz, Pawe?; Sobczyk, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has been revolutionising our specialty. The introduction of new, portable machines and goal-directed protocols has led many anaesthetists to use this diagnostic tool in their daily practice. Immediate, bedside ultrasound diagnosis of many life-threatening emergencies (pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, or internal haemorrhage) enables not only the institution of proper treatment, but also the monitoring of its effectiveness. Ultrasound guided invasive procedures (such as vascular cannulations, toraco- and pericardiocentesis) have superseded the old anatomical landmarks-based techniques due to a greater safety margin. In order to perform a credible ultrasound examination, a proper level of competence is required. In this review article, the authors present various critical ultrasound applications. PMID:24092516

  3. Ultrasound in perinatology

    SciTech Connect

    Maklad, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    This 19th volume in the series Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound provides an overview and update of some of the recent applications of ultrasound (US) in the pernatal period. Prenatal topics include estimation of gestational age; evaluation of intrauterine growth retardation, non-immune hydrops, and fetal urinary abnormalities; fetal echocardiography; and biophysical scoring. The discussion of postnatal topics includes US studies of the head and abdomen, echocardiography, and interventional procedures.

  4. Duplex ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and veins. Related topics include: Carotid duplex ultrasound Doppler ultrasound of the arms or the legs ... A duplex ultrasound combines traditional ultrasound with Doppler ... records sound waves reflecting off moving objects, such ...

  5. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality. PMID:24374013

  6. Transgenic Mice with Cardiac-Specific Expression of Activating Transcription Factor 3, a Stress-Inducible Gene, Have Conduction Abnormalities and Contractile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yoshichika; Chaves, Alysia; Chen, Jingchun; Kelley, Robert; Jones, Keith; Weed, Harrison G.; Gardner, Kevin L.; Gangi, Lisa; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Klomkleaw, Wuthichai; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hamlin, Robert L.; Carnes, Cynthia; Altschuld, Ruth; Bauer, John; Hai, Tsonwin

    2001-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. Previously, we demonstrated that the expression of the ATF3 gene is induced by many stress signals. In this report, we demonstrate that expression of ATF3 is induced by cardiac ischemia coupled with reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion) in both cultured cells and an animal model. Transgenic mice expressing ATF3 under the control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter have atrial enlargement, and atrial and ventricular hypertrophy. Microscopic examination showed myocyte degeneration and fibrosis. Functionally, the transgenic heart has reduced contractility and aberrant conduction. Interestingly, expression of sorcin, a gene whose product inhibits the release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum, is increased in these transgenic hearts. Taken together, our results indicate that expression of ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, in the heart leads to altered gene expression and impaired cardiac function. PMID:11485922

  7. Automated Detection of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Based on a Statistical Model Applied to Multislice Short-Axis Cardiac MR Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avan Suinesiaputra; Alejandro F. Frangi; Theodorus A. M. Kaandorp; Hildo J. Lamb; Jeroen J. Bax; Johan H. C. Reiber; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical shape analysis method for myocardial contraction is presented that was built to detect and locate regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). For each slice level (base, middle, and apex), 44 short-axis magnetic resonance images were selected from healthy volunteers to train a statistical model of normal myocardial contraction using independent component analysis (ICA). A classification algorithm

  8. Sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Kuriachan, Vikas P; Sumner, Glen L; Mitchell, L Brent

    2015-04-01

    Sudden death accounts for 300,000-400,000 deaths annually in the United States. Most sudden deaths are cardiac, and most sudden cardiac deaths are related to arrhythmias secondary to structural heart disease or primary electrical abnormalities of the heart. The most common structural disease leading to sudden death is ischemic heart disease. Nonischemic cardiomyopathy and other structural abnormalities such as arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may also be causative. Patients without structural disease have a primary electrical abnormality, such as long-QT syndrome or Brugada syndrome. Severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction is the main marker for sudden death in patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. In other conditions, other markers for structural heart disease and electrical abnormalities need to be considered. It is seen that ?-blocker therapy is associated with a reduction in sudden cardiac death across a broad range of disorders. Nevertheless, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator remains the most effective treatment strategy in selected patients. PMID:25813838

  9. Advanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    E-print Network

    Zanibbi, Richard

    D ultrasound, and electron paramagnetic imaging. His research includes the development of novelAdvanced Imaging Applications to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Justin D. Pearlman Professor of the Center for Imaging Science For Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy the goal is to identify where cardiac

  10. Serum Levels of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 2 in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis With Duration More Than 2 Years: Correlation With Cardiac and Pulmonary Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Amira; Elsawaf, Amani; Ramadan, Shahira; Shaker, Olfat; Amin, Mona; Taha, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measured the serum concentration of TIMP-2 in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and explored its possible correlation with cardiac and pulmonary lesions. We studied 42 patients with SSc, with duration equal to or more than 2 years. CT chest, ECG, echocardiography, and serum TIMP-2 concentration measurement using ELISA technique were performed in all patients and in 25 normal controls. The mean serum levels of TIMP-2 in patients was higher than in controls (P = .005). The mean CT score of dSSc patients with elevated TIMP-2 levels was significantly higher than dSSc patients with normal levels (P = .013). Four patients out of five with elevated TIMP-2 levels showed diastolic dysfunction (80%), compared to 2 out of 15 lSSc patients with normal levels (13.3%), with P = .014. Our research, though involving a small group of patients, points to the probable role of TIMP-2 in the development of pulmonary lesions in dSSc patients and cardiac lesions in lSSc patients with duration equal to or more than 2 years. PMID:17392585

  11. A knock-in mouse model of N-terminal R420W mutation of cardiac ryanodine receptor exhibits arrhythmogenesis with abnormal calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, Noriyuki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Hirata, Yutaka; Oku, Yoshitaka; Nishio, Hajime

    2014-09-26

    Cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RyR2) mutations cause fatal arrhythmogenic diseases such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. The N-terminal region of RyR2 is one of the hot spots for mutations. In this study, we investigated cardiac phenotypes of a knock-in mouse model carrying R420W mutation of RyR2. The N-terminal R420W mutation has already been found in juvenile sudden death cadavers of unrelated families. The depolarization-induced Ca(2+) transient amplitude was significantly lower in cardiomyocytes from RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice compared with wild-type mice. The time to peak of the Ca(2+) transient was significantly increased in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice. Furthermore, the prolonged decay time from the peak of the Ca(2+) transient was detected in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice. ECG telemetry revealed that various types of arrhythmias were induced in RyR2(R420W/R420W) mice in response to administration of caffeine and adrenaline. The mutant mice showed high occurrences of arrhythmias in response to heart stimulants compared with wild-type mice. These findings suggest that R420W mutation impairs depolarization-induced Ca(2+) oscillation in cardiomyocytes, which possibly results in sudden death due to stress-induced arrhythmias. PMID:25193700

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...

  13. Sonographically detected abnormalities of the umbilical cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Shipp; B. Bromley; B. R. Benacerraf

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken as a retrospective chart review to evaluate the range of umbilical cord abnormalities detected by prenatal sonography, as well as the outcome and pathologic correlation. Methods: We identified 13 cases of umbilical cord abnormalities detected sonographically over a 46-month period. We evaluated the ultrasound appearance, size, location, and color Doppler characteristic in each case. Results:

  14. Ultrasound imaging during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gold, R B

    1984-01-01

    Review by a panel of experts convened by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) resulted in a recommendation for diagnostic ultrasound imaging in about 1/3 of pregnancies only when medically indicated but not routinely. Ultrasound technology, 1st developed for use in submarine warfare sonar devices, is widely used by physicians because of its clinical significance and because it allows seeing intrauterine structures without exposing the fetus to dangerous radiation. Its most important uses include estimating the gestational age for patients with uncertain clinical dates, evaluating fetal growth, determining the cause of vaginal bleeding, determining fetal presentation, identifying multiple gestation, supplementing amniocentesis or other special procedures, diagnosing, confirming fetal death and locating intrauterine devices. Recently, many physicians have been advocating routine ultrasound screening of all pregnancies but this is an issue of concern among leading physicians and the NIH. The panel stressed the urgent need for additional research on the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Many studies that found adverse reactions associated with ultrasound use in humans suffer from sever methodological flaws. The panel recommended ultrasound not to be used for routine screening. Some studies indicate that no clear benefit from routine screening results. The panel's recommendations were criticized for unnecessarily restricting ultrasound use and for inappropriately sanctioning widespread use of the technology. Human Life International, an anti-abortion organization, opposed using ultrasound to detect fetal abnormalities, contending that this would promote abortion. Some abortion opponents, however, believe ultrasound would cause bonding between the mother and the fetus and discourage abortion. The panel underscored the importance of the skill and training of ultrasound examiners. In regard to informed consent, the panel recommended that it be obtained. Further intensive research on the use of ultrasound was highly recommended. PMID:6389174

  15. Cardiac Rehabilitation After Acute Myocardial Infarction Resuscitated From Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Kang, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the safety and effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. Methods The study included 23 subjects, including 8 with history of cardiac arrest and 15 without history of cardiac arrest. Both groups underwent initial graded exercise test (GXT) and subsequent cardiac rehabilitation for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, both groups received follow-up GXT. Results Statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of VO2peak and maximal MVO2 but significant (p<0.05) decrease of submaximal MVO2 and resting heart rate were observed in both groups after 6 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation. An increasing trend of maximal heart rates was observed in both groups. However, the increase was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant change of resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal MVO2, or submaximal MVO2 in both groups after cardiac rehabilitation. Fatal cardiac complications, such as abnormal ECG, cardiac arrest, death or myocardial infarction, were not observed. All subjects finished the cardiac rehabilitation program. Conclusion Improvement was observed in the exercise capacity of patients after aerobic exercise throughout the cardiac rehabilitation program. Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation can be safely administered for high-risk patients with history of cardiac arrest. Similar improvement in exercise capacity can be expected in patients without cardiac arrest experience. PMID:25566479

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  17. Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and "Braslet-M" Occlusion Cuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogomolov, V. V.; Duncan, J. M.; Alferova, I. V.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Ebert, D.; Hamilton, D. R.; Matveev, V. P.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in remotely guided imaging techniques on ISS allow the acquisition of high quality ultrasound data using crewmember operators with no medical background and minimal training. However, ongoing efforts are required to develop and validate methodology for complex imaging protocols to ensure their repeatability, efficiency, and suitability for use aboard the ISS. This Station Developmental Test Objective (SDTO) tests a cardiovascular evaluation methodology that takes advantage of the ISS Ultrasound capability, the Braslet-M device, and modified respiratory maneuvers (Valsalva and Mueller), to broaden the spectrum of anatomical and functional information on human cardiovascular system during long-duration space missions. The proposed methodology optimizes and combines new and previously demonstrated methods, and is expected to benefit medically indicated assessments, operational research protocols, and data collections for science. Braslet-M is a current Russian operational countermeasure that compresses the upper thigh to impede the venous return from lower extremities. The goal of the SDTO is to establish and validate a repeatable ultrasound-based methodology for the assessment of a number of cardiovascular criteria in microgravity. Braslet-M device is used as a means to acutely alter volume distribution while focused ultrasound measurements are performed. Modified respiratory maneuvers are done upon volume manipulations to record commensurate changes in anatomical and functional parameters. The overall cardiovascular effects of the Braslet-M device are not completely understood, and although not a primary objective of this SDTO, this effort will provide pilot data regarding the suitability of Braslet-M for its intended purpose, effects, and the indications for its use.

  18. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program ... be designed to meet your needs. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Team Cardiac rehab involves a long-term commitment ...

  19. Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Ryan; Endo, Masayuki; La Gerche, Andre; Eixarch, Elisenda; DeKoninck, Philip; Ferferieva, Vessilina; D'hooge, Jan; Wallace, Euan M.; Deprest, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in abnormal cardiac function that is apparent antenatally due to advances in fetoplacental Doppler ultrasound and fetal echocardiography. Increasingly, these imaging modalities are being employed clinically to examine cardiac function and assess wellbeing in utero, thereby guiding timing of birth decisions. Here, we used a rabbit model of IUGR that allows analysis of cardiac function in a clinically relevant way. Using isoflurane induced anesthesia, IUGR is surgically created at gestational age day 25 by performing a laparotomy, exposing the bicornuate uterus and then ligating 40-50% of uteroplacental vessels supplying each gestational sac in a single uterine horn. The other horn in the rabbit bicornuate uterus serves as internal control fetuses. Then, after recovery at gestational age day 30 (full term), the same rabbit undergoes examination of fetal cardiac function. Anesthesia is induced with ketamine and xylazine intramuscularly, then maintained by a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine and xylazine to minimize iatrogenic effects on fetal cardiac function. A repeat laparotomy is performed to expose each gestational sac and a microultrasound examination (VisualSonics VEVO 2100) of fetal cardiac function is performed. Placental insufficiency is evident by a raised pulsatility index or an absent or reversed end diastolic flow of the umbilical artery Doppler waveform. The ductus venosus and middle cerebral artery Doppler is then examined. Fetal echocardiography is performed by recording B mode, M mode and flow velocity waveforms in lateral and apical views. Offline calculations determine standard M-mode cardiac variables, tricuspid and mitral annular plane systolic excursion, speckle tracking and strain analysis, modified myocardial performance index and vascular flow velocity waveforms of interest. This small animal model of IUGR therefore affords examination of in utero cardiac function that is consistent with current clinical practice and is therefore useful in a translational research setting. PMID:23852345

  20. Bifid cardiac apex in a 25-year-old male with sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Wu, Annie; Kay, Deborah; Fishbein, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Although a bifid cardiac apex is common in certain marine animals, it is an uncommon finding in humans. When present, bifid cardiac apex is usually associated with other congenital heart anomalies. We present a case of bifid cardiac apex that was an incidental finding in a 25-year-old male with sudden cardiac death from combined drug toxicity. On gross examination, there was a bifid cardiac apex with a 2-cm long cleft. There were no other significant gross or microscopic abnormalities. This case represents the very rare occurrence of a bifid cardiac apex as an isolated cardiac anomaly. PMID:23928367

  1. Fetal Arrhythmias Associated with Cardiac Rhabdomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Strasburger, Janette F; Cuneo, Bettina; Wiggins, Delonia; Gotteiner, Nina; Wakai, Ronald T

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary heart tumors in fetuses are rare and mainly represent rhabdomyomas. The tumors have a variable expression and can be associated with arrhythmias, including both wide and narrow QRS tachycardia. Although multiple Doppler techniques exist to assess fetal heart rhythm, it can be difficult to record precise electrophysiological pathologies in fetal life. Objective Investigations defining precise electrophysiological diagnosis were performed using fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Methods In addition to routine fetal echocardiography, fMCG was used to investigate electrophysiologic rhythm patterns in a series of 10 fetuses with cardiac rhabdomyomas. Results The mean gestational age of the fetuses was 28.6 weeks (SD ± 4.7 weeks). The multiple rhabdomyomas were mainly located in the right and left ventricles as well as around the AV groove. Arrhythmias or conduction abnormalities were diagnosed in all 10 patients, although only six of them were referred due to that indication. Remarkably, 80% (8/10) had associated Wolff-Parkinson-White pre-excitation. In addition, we found prominent p waves in four fetuses. Conclusion In fetuses with rhabdomyomas, a disease where rhythm pathology is common, precise electrophysiological diagnosis can now be made by fMCG. fMCG is complimentary to echocardiography for rhythm assessment, and can detect conduction abnormalities that are not possible to diagnose prenatally with M-mode or pulsed Doppler ultrasound. Risk factor assessment using fMCG can support pregnancy management and post-natal treatment and follow-up. PMID:24333285

  2. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  3. Trends in ultrasound examination in family practice

    PubMed Central

    Alamri, Ali F.; Khan, Israr; Baig, Mirza I. A.; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound examination is very frequently used for the evaluation of abnormalities in various organs of the body. Our aim was to determine whether the requests by family physicians (FPs) for ultrasound examinations were appropriate. Our secondary objective was to enumerate positive and negative ultrasound reports for various diagnostic indications. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of month between June and August 2010, at the Family Medicine Department of North West Armed Forces Prince Salman Hospital, Tabuk. We reviewed the ultrasound requests of all patients included in this study and the findings of the procedure. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), version 16.0. Results: The requests and reports of 815 patients for ultrasound were reviewed. Females comprised 58.7% of the referred cases. The mean age of the sample at referral was 30 ± 18.5 for females and 34 ± 20.7 for males. Only 46% of the request forms contained conclusive information and instructions. Abdominal/pelvic ultrasounds were the most frequently requested; Nearly 71.2% of the ultrasound scans were normal. Abdominal/pelvis ultrasound was more likely to be reported as normal than ultrasound scans of other regions (P = 0.007). Patients aged 41-60 years were more likely to have an abnormal ultrasound (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that FPs have to be educated about imaging referral protocols in order to achieve better outcomes. PMID:24987279

  4. Cardiac abnormalities in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M McComish; A Compston; D Jewitt

    1976-01-01

    This report describes heart disease in a 32-year-old man with the syndrome of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). The surface electrocardiogram showed first degree AV block and left bundle-branch block and there was HV prolongation on the His bundle electrogram. Endomyocardial biopsy showed the changes of hypertrophy on light microscopy, and on electron microscopy there were increased numbers of mitochondria

  5. Structural and Functional Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Patients With Vasospastic Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Prescott, Eva; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2015-06-25

    Coronary spasm is involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and syncope. In recent years, imaging tools such as computerized tomographic angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography have been applied to study the coronary pathology in patients with vasospastic angina. Patients with vasospastic angina represent a heterogeneous cohort of patients with regard to the extent of concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. They share the common pathophysiological phenomenon of vascular smooth muscle hyperreactivity leading to spasm caused by various factors that may also overlap. Focal coronary spasm is related to epicardial atherosclerosis and in the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease it may be useful to treat the lesion to prevent further spasm. The aim of this article is to review structural and functional coronary artery abnormalities in patients with vasospastic angina. (Circ J 2015; 79: 1431-1438). PMID:26084380

  6. Real-Time Processing of Three Dimensional Ultrasound for Intracardiac Surgery

    E-print Network

    techniques in cardiac surgery. Ultrasound permits visualization through the opaque blood pool in the heartReal-Time Processing of Three Dimensional Ultrasound for Intracardiac Surgery A dissertation for Intracardiac Surgery Abstract Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound has been demonstrated as a viable tool

  7. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  8. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  9. [Obesity and cardiac failure].

    PubMed

    Galinier, M; Pathak, A; Roncalli, J; Massabuau, P

    2005-01-01

    Obesity alone is the cause of 11% of cases of cardiac failure in men and 14% of cases in women in the United States. The frequency of obesity continues to rise in our country, 41% of our compatriots being obese or overweight. It is expected that obesity will become an important cause of cardiac failure in the coming years. The Framingham study showed that, after correction for other risk factors, for every point increase in body mass index, the increase in risk of developing cardiac failure was 5% in men and 7% in women. There are three physiopathological mechanisms to explain the adverse effects of obesity on left ventricular function: an increase in ventricular preload secondary to increased plasma volume induced by the high fatty mass; an increase in left ventricular afterload due to the common association of hypertension generated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system by hyperinsulinism; and systolic and diastolic dysfunction due to changes in the myocardial genome and coronary artery disease induced by risk factors of atherosclerosis aggravated by obesity. The adipocyte also secretes a number of hormones which act directly or indirectly on the myocardium: angiotensin II, leptin, resistin, adrenomedulin, cytokines. These haemodynamic and hormonal changes profoundly modify the genetic expression of the myocardium in obesity, favourising hypertrophy of the myocyte and the development of interstitial fibrosis. Whether it be eccentric in the absence of hypertension or concentric when hypertension is associated with obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, although normalising left ventricular wall stress, has adverse consequences causing abnormal relaxation and decreased left ventricular compliance. Therefore, in obese patients, two forms of cardiac failure may be observed. The more common is due to diastolic dysfunction, obesity being one of the principal causes of cardiac failure with preserved systolic function. Cardiac failure due to systolic dysfunction is less common and may be observed in cases with inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy which does not normalise abnormal left ventricular wall stress leading to cardiomyopathy, and in cases with associated coronary artery disease. Whatever the underlying mechanism, the diagnosis of cardiac failure is made more difficult by obesity. From the prognostic point of view, in the global population of patients with cardiac failure, obesity improves survival because it counteracts the adverse effect of cachexia; however, obesity increases the risk of sudden death. In fact, obesity is associated with dynamic change in QT interval. In cases of cardiac failure secondary to obesity-related cardiomyopathy, loss of weight leads to an improved functional status and a reduction of left ventricular remodelling and an increase of the ejection fraction. PMID:15724418

  10. Abdominal ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    An ultrasound machine makes images of organs and structures inside the body. The machine sends out high-frequency sound waves that reflect off body structures. A computer receives these waves and uses them ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ... the standard speculum used when performing a Pap test . A protective cover is placed over the transducer, ...

  12. Using ultrasound to determine external pacer capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Ettin; Thomas Cook

    1999-01-01

    Transcutaneous cardiac pacing is a temporary treatment of hemodynamically unstable bradycardias. However, the rhythmic skeletal muscle contractions that occur during external pacing can make it difficult to assess the hemodynamic status of the patient. We report a case of using bedside ultrasound to assess the effectiveness of transcutaneous pacer capture.

  13. Doppler ultrasound observation of pathological heart valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Padmanabhan; S. Dhanasekaran; S. Ananthi; D. Nedumaran

    2000-01-01

    A simple, noninvasive technique based on Hilbert transform (HT) time-signal displays is described. The authors discuss methods of showing forward- and reverse-flow Doppler echocardiograph signals as a time course of events relating to valve stenosis and regurgitation for providing additional cardiac insonation diagnostic information. The Doppler ultrasound demodulated signals are separated using the HT technique and then shown as segments

  14. [Renal ultrasound. Urologic and nephrologic viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Heynemann, H; Tuma, J

    2006-05-01

    Renal ultrasound examination is an integral part of urologic and nephrologic clinical examination. It brings very useful information about kidney morphology (B-mode) and haemoperfusion (renal color coded duplex ultrasonography). Standard examination technique is required for recognition of normal findings, urinary transport disturbances of diverse causes (stones, intrinsic or extrinsic compression), kidney tumours and kidney injury. Typical ultrasound findings of these abnormalities were demonstrated. Renal ultrasound with new techniques (sono-CT, harmonic tissue imaging, power mode etc.) is for urology and nephrology an indispensable diagnostic method. In combination with patient history, clinical and laboratory examination takes important part in accomplishing the diagnosis. PMID:16722403

  15. Technological Solutions for Cardiac Surgery in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Rony-Reuven; Bolotin, Gil

    2013-01-01

    The current review addresses contemporary technological advances in cardiac surgery performed on octogenarian patients, namely off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), proximal anastomosis device, routine use of intraoperative epiaortic ultrasound, proximal anastomosis without clamping, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and brain protection during cardiac surgery. PMID:23908870

  16. Technological solutions for cardiac surgery in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Nir, Rony-Reuven; Bolotin, Gil

    2013-07-01

    The current review addresses contemporary technological advances in cardiac surgery performed on octogenarian patients, namely off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), proximal anastomosis device, routine use of intraoperative epiaortic ultrasound, proximal anastomosis without clamping, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), and brain protection during cardiac surgery. PMID:23908870

  17. A Computer Based Simulator for Ultrasound Guided Needle Insertion Procedures

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    sensors allow the generation of `virtual ultrasound' images based on the position of a mock ultrasound, these are insufficient as it is necessary to train on a range of abnormalities and anatomy, even for simple procedures is computer based simulations. These fall into two general categories; i) Virtual reality simulators, in which

  18. Computer Assisted Detection of Polycystic Ovary Morphology in Ultrasound Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryruth J. Lawrence; Mark G. Eramian; Roger A. Pierson; Eric Neufeld

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine abnormality with multiple diagnostic criteria due to its heterogenic manifestations. One of the diagnostic criteria includes analysis of ultrasound images of ovaries for the detection of number, size, and distribution of follicles within the ovary. This involves manual tracing and counting of follicles on the ultrasound images to determine the presence of a

  19. An introduction to fetal neurosonography using three-dimensional ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taddei F; Fratelli N; Prefumo F; Franceshetti L; Signorelli M; Frusca T

    Transabdominal 2D ultrasound based on axial planes has, so far, been the standard approach for the imaging of fetal central nervous system abnormalities. In recent years three-dimensional ultrasound has shown to be a potentially useful tool both in basic and detailed examination of the fetal brain. The aim of this paper is to describe the possible applications of this technique.

  20. The ultrasound challenge 2.0: introducing interinstitutional competition in medical student ultrasound education.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Eric J; Boulger, Creagh T; Eastin, Travis; Adkins, Eric J; Granitto, Emily; Pollard, Katherine; Bahner, David P

    2014-12-01

    The Ultrasound Challenge was developed at The Ohio State University College of Medicine to introduce focused ultrasound to medical students. The goal was to develop experience in ultrasound through practice and competition. Initially this competition was held between Ohio State University College of Medicine students from years 1 through 4. The Ultrasound Challenge 2.0 was held in 2013. The event expanded on the previous structure by including students from the Wayne State University College of Medicine. The goal of this article is to describe our experiences with expansion of our interinstitutional ultrasound event. The challenge consisted of 6 stations: focused assessment with sonography for trauma, aortic ultrasound, cardiac ultrasound, pelvic ultrasound, musculoskeletal ultrasound, and vascular access. The participants were given a handbook outlining the expectations for each station ahead of time. Vascular access was graded in real time using the Brightness Mode Quality Ultrasound Imaging Examination Technique (B-QUIET) method. The remainder were timed, saved, and graded after the event by 3 independent faculty members using the B-QUIET method. The highest score with the fastest time was the winner. The Ultrasound Challenge 2.0 included 40 participants: 31 from The Ohio State University College of Medicine and 9 from the Wayne State University College of Medicine. The makeup of the winners in all categories consisted of 1 first-year medical student, 7 second-year medical students, 3 third-year medical students, and 10 fourth-year medical students. The Ultrasound Challenge 2.0 was a success for those who participated. It provided the first known interinstitutional medical student ultrasound competition. Students from both institutions were able to practice their image acquisition skills, demonstrate abilities in a competitive environment, and develop collegiality and teamwork. PMID:25425378

  1. Reproductive outcomes in women with congenital uterine anomalies detected by three-dimensional ultrasound screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Woelfer; Rehan Salim; Saikat Banerjee; Janine Elson; Lesley Regan; Davor Jurkovic

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To determine reproductive outcomes in women with congenital uterine anomalies detected incidentally by three-dimensional ultrasound.METHODS:We studied 1089 women with no history of infertility or recurrent miscarriage who were seen for a transvaginal ultrasound scan. They were screened for uterine abnormalities using three-dimensional ultrasound. We determined prevalence of miscarriage and preterm labor in women with normal and abnormal uterine morphology.RESULTS:We found

  2. Abnormalities of the foetal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Toi, Ants; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has concentrated on readily visible cerebral structures including head size, shape, ventricles, CSP (cavum septi pellucidi), cerebellar size/vermian presence and cisterna magna. However, apart from these easily visible structures it is important to evaluate the brain itself. Patients who initially appear to have mild isolated findings such as borderline ventriculomegaly in fact can have many more subtle findings that significantly alter prognosis and management that can be detected on detailed examination of the brain. There has been rapid evolution in imaging these foetuses, especially with neurosonography and MRI, and a revolution in understanding the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. There is increasing emphasis to detect cortical abnormalities as early as possible. This article reviews development of the cerebral cortex, the classification, aetiologies and clinical manifestations of cortical disorders, normal and abnormal appearances at ultrasound and MRI, and approaches to investigation. PMID:19235759

  3. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Yasser Mahrous; Yehia, Reem

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases PMID:24653793

  4. Cardiac Mechanics Evaluated by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Abduch, Maria Cristina Donadio; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Mathias, Wilson; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz de Campos

    2014-01-01

    Natural myocardial markers, or speckles, originated from constructive and destructive interference of ultrasound in the tissues may provide early diagnosis of myocardial changes and be used in the prediction of some cardiac events. Due to its relatively temporal stability, speckles can be tracked by dedicated software along the cardiac cycle, enabling the analysis of the systolic and diastolic function. They are identified by either conventional 2D grey scale and by 3D echo, conferring independence of the insonation angle, thus allowing assessment of cardiac mechanics in the three spatial planes: longitudinal, circumferential, and radial. The purposes of the present paper are: to discuss the role and the meaning of cardiac strain obtained by speckle tracking during the evaluation of cardiac physiology and to discuss clinical applications of this novel echocardiographic technology. PMID:24844877

  5. Fetal Calcifications Are Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Ellika; Sirotkina, Meeli; Marnerides, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver) at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far. Methods One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection. Results Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001). The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%), trisomy 18 (22%), and monosomy X (18%). A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004). Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer special attention towards co-existence of malformations, as this would be a strong indicator for a chromosomal abnormality. PMID:25923652

  6. Cardiac catheterization and angiography, 3d Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, W.

    1986-01-01

    This textbook was first published in 1974 and subsequently revised in 1980. The current edition, in seven parts and 33 chapters, has been extensively rewritten, and new chapters have been added that present recently developed techniques. The references have been updated to 1985. The purpose of this work is to provide a concise description of the major techniques employed in cardiac catheterization and angiography. Part 1 deals with the history, general principles, and practice of cardiac catheterization and angiography. In part 2, various techniques of cardiac catheterization are discussed and compared. In part 3, techniques for the determination of cardiac output, pressure, resistance, valve area, and shunt flow are described. Part 4 deals briefly with coronary angiography, cardiac ventriculography, pulmonary angiography, and aortography. In part 5, techniques for evaluating cardiac function and intracardiac electrophysiology are presented. The characteristic hemodynamic and angiographic abnormalities in specific disorders are described in part 6. Part 7 deals with special catheter techniques.

  7. Doppler ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Routh

    1996-01-01

    The use of Doppler today ranges from assessing blood flow in the fetus and umbilical cord, to flow patterns through valves in the heart or monitoring of blood flow to the brain. This article looks at how the Doppler effect is applied in commercial systems, its clinical uses, and research developments. It is concluded that Doppler ultrasound has progressed over

  8. Novel flow quantification of the carotid bulb and the common carotid artery with vector flow ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Lange, Theis; Lönn, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-11-01

    Abnormal blood flow is usually assessed using spectral Doppler estimation of the peak systolic velocity. The technique, however, only estimates the axial velocity component, and therefore the complexity of blood flow remains hidden in conventional ultrasound examinations. With the vector ultrasound technique transverse oscillation the blood velocities of both the axial and the transverse directions are obtained and the complexity of blood flow can be visualized. The aim of the study was to determine the technical performance and interpretation of vector concentration as a tool for estimation of flow complexity. A secondary aim was to establish accuracy parameters to detect flow changes/patterns in the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bulb (CB). The right carotid bifurcation including the CCA and CB of eight healthy volunteers were scanned in a longitudinal plane with vector flow ultrasound (US) using a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus, BK Medical, Denmark) with a linear 5 MHz transducer transverse oscillation vector flow software. CCA and CB areas were marked in one cardiac cycle from each volunteer. The complex flow was assessed by medical expert evaluation and by vector concentration calculation. A vortex with complex flow was found in all carotid bulbs, whereas the CCA had mainly laminar flow. The medical experts evaluated the flow to be mainly laminar in the CCA (0.82 ± 0.14) and mainly complex (0.23 ± 0.22) in the CB. Likewise, the estimated vector concentrations in CCA (0.96 ± 0.16) indicated mainly laminar flow and in CB (0.83 ± 0.07) indicated mainly turbulence. Both methods were thus able to clearly distinguish the flow patterns of CCA and CB in systole. Vector concentration from angle-independent vector velocity estimates is a quantitative index, which is simple to calculate and can differentiate between laminar and complex flow. PMID:25218449

  9. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may order this test if you have: A breast lump found during a breast exam An abnormal mammogram ... up tests to determine treatment may be needed: Breast lump removal (lumpectomy) Open (surgical) breast biopsy Stereotactic breast ...

  10. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  11. Cardiac Syndrome X: update 2014.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shilpa; Mehta, Puja K; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2014-08-01

    Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX), characterized by angina-like chest discomfort, ST segment depression during exercise, and normal epicardial coronary arteries at angiography, is highly prevalent in women. CSX is not benign, and linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes and a poor quality of life. Coronary microvascular and endothelial dysfunction and abnormal cardiac nociception have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CSX. Treatment includes life-style modification, anti-anginal, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-ischemic medications. Non-pharmacological options include cognitive behavioral therapy, enhanced external counterpulsation, neurostimulation, and stellate ganglionectomy. Studies have shown the efficacy of individual treatments but guidelines outlining the best course of therapy are lacking. PMID:25091971

  12. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

  13. Simulation of the Generation and Processing of Doppler Ultrasound Fetal Heart Signals to obtain Directional Motion Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mansor; J. A. Crowe; M. Woolfson; B. R. Hayes-Gill; P. Blanchfield; M. Bister

    2006-01-01

    In fetal heart monitoring using Doppler ultrasound signals the cardiac information is commonly extracted from non-directional signals. As a consequence often some of the cardiac events cannot be observed clearly which may lead to the incorrect detection of the valve and wall motions. Here, directional signals were simulated to investigate their enhancement of cardiac events, and hence provide clearer information

  14. Ultrasound Annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.C.; Hill, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The 1984 edition of Ultrasound Annual explores new applications of ultrasound in speech and swallowing and offers guidelines on the use of ultrasound and nuclear medicine in thyroid and biliary tract disease. Other areas covered include Doppler sonography of the abdomen, intraoperative abdominal ultrasound, sonography of the placenta, ultrasound of the neonatal head and abdomen, and sonographic echo patterns created by fat.

  15. Ultrasound in twins: dichorionic and monochorionic.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Lynn L

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the evidence that supports the use of ultrasound in twin pregnancies. Although many of the indications for obstetric ultrasound are the same in both singleton and multiple gestations, there are special considerations as well as unique conditions in twins that require additional imaging studies. The reasons for ultrasound in twins include pregnancy dating, determination of chorionicity, nuchal translucency assessment, anatomical survey, placental evaluation, cervical length assessment, routine fetal growth, and serial surveillance of pregnancies complicated by anomalies, cervical shortening, fetal growth disturbances, and amniotic fluid abnormalities. Twins with monochorionic placentation require heightened scrutiny for monoamnionicity, conjoined twins, twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) syndrome, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, unequal placental sharing with discordant twin growth or selective intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR), twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS), and single fetal demise. Ultrasound is essential for the detection and management of conditions that can complicate dichorionic and monochorionic twin pregnancies. PMID:24176159

  16. Temperature estimation with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Matthew

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. In addition, the survival rate after one year is approximately zero without treatment. In many instances, patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma may not be suitable candidates for the primary treatment options, i.e. surgical resection or liver transplantation. This has led to the development of minimally invasive therapies focused on destroying hepatocelluar by thermal or chemical methods. The focus of this dissertation is on the development of ultrasound-based image-guided monitoring options for minimally invasive therapies such as radiofrequency ablation. Ultrasound-based temperature imaging relies on relating the gradient of locally estimated tissue displacements to a temperature change. First, a realistic Finite Element Analysis/ultrasound simulation of ablation was developed. This allowed evaluation of the ability of ultrasound-based temperature estimation algorithms to track temperatures for three different ablation scenarios in the liver. It was found that 2-Dimensional block matching and a 6 second time step was able to accurately track the temperature over a 12 minute ablation procedure. Next, a tissue-mimicking phantom was constructed to determine the accuracy of the temperature estimation method by comparing estimated temperatures to that measured using invasive fiber-optic temperature probes. The 2-Dimensional block matching was able to track the temperature accurately over the entire 8 minute heating procedure in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Finally, two separate in-vivo experiments were performed. The first experiment examined the ability of our algorithm to track frame-to-frame displacements when external motion due to respiration and the cardiac cycle were considered. It was determined that a frame rate between 13 frames per second and 33 frames per second was sufficient to track frame-to-frame displacements between respiratory cycles. The second experiment examined the ability of a novel dynamic frame selection based temperature algorithm to track temperatures during ablation of porcine kidney tissue. Here a novel multi-level 2-Dimensional cross-correlation algorithm was required to accurately track the temperature over an 8 minute ablation procedure.

  17. Breast biopsy - ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound ... following: Fine needle aspiration Hollow needle (called a core needle) Vacuum-powered device Both a hollow needle ...

  18. Drosophila Models of Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Nicole; Wessells, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a useful model for cardiac diseases, both developmental abnormalities and adult functional impairment. Using the tools of both classical and molecular genetics, the study of the developing fly heart has been instrumental in identifying the major signaling events of cardiac field formation, cardiomyocyte specification, and the formation of the functioning heart tube. The larval stage of fly cardiac development has become an important model system for testing isolated preparations of living hearts for the effects of biological and pharmacological compounds on cardiac activity. Meanwhile, the recent development of effective techniques to study adult cardiac performance in the fly has opened new uses for the Drosophila model system. The fly system is now being used to study long-term alterations in adult performance caused by factors such as diet, exercise, and normal aging. The fly is a unique and valuable system for the study of such complex, long-term interactions, as it is the only invertebrate genetic model system with a working heart developmentally homologous to the vertebrate heart. Thus, the fly model combines the advantages of invertebrate genetics (such as large populations, facile molecular genetic techniques, and short lifespan) with physiological measurement techniques that allow meaningful comparisons with data from vertebrate model systems. As such, the fly model is well situated to make important contributions to the understanding of complicated interactions between environmental factors and genetics in the long-term regulation of cardiac performance. PMID:21377627

  19. Cardiac CT Angiography in Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Levine, Avi; Hecht, Harvey S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac CT angiography has become an important tool for the diagnosis and treatment of congestive heart failure. Differentiation of ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy; evaluation of myocardial perfusion; characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia; and delineation of congenital heart defects and valvular abnormalities are the primary diagnostic applications. Therapeutic use includes visualization of the coronary venous anatomy for optimal implementation of cardiac resynchronization therapy and evaluation of left ventricular assist devices and transplant vasculopathy. PMID:26033904

  20. Facts about Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mission: To save the lives and support the families of children & young adults who are genetically predisposed to sudden death due to heart rhythm abnormalities. Facts About Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young • ...

  1. Intracardiac ultrasound scanner using a micromachine (MEMS) actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Zara; Stephen M. Bobbio; Scott Goodwin-Johansson; Stephen W. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Catheter-based intracardiac ultrasound offers the potential for improved guidance of interventional cardiac procedures. The objective of this research is the development of catheter-based mechanical sector scanners incorporating high frequency ultrasound transducers operating at frequencies up to 20 MHz. The authors' current transducer assembly consists of a single 1.75 mm by 1.75 mm, 20 MHz, PZT element mounted on a 2

  2. Cardiac Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes inside the heart repairing leaky or narrow heart ... bandage. It's normal for the site to be black and blue, red, or slightly swollen for a ...

  3. Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do at National Jewish Health? We provide comprehensive cardiology evaluation and consultation and non-invasive cardiac testing. ... the whole person, not just the disease. Our cardiology team works with healthcare providers from all areas ...

  4. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePLUS

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  5. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  6. A novel algorithm for sudden cardiac death risk estimation using Lab VIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Santhosha Priya; Ranjith Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    The need for quick diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities cannot be underestimated. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one such disease that needs immediate attention as it is fatal and is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. Most of the cardiovascular aberrations are due to irregular heart rhythm resulting in abnormal PQRST values which can be traced from the patient's ECG. ECG

  7. Stochastic Aspects of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerma, Claudia; Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Guevara, Michael; Glass, Leon

    2007-07-01

    Abnormal cardiac rhythms (cardiac arrhythmias) often display complex changes over time that can have a random or haphazard appearance. Mathematically, these changes can on occasion be identified with bifurcations in difference or differential equation models of the arrhythmias. One source for the variability of these rhythms is the fluctuating environment. However, in the neighborhood of bifurcation points, the fluctuations induced by the stochastic opening and closing of individual ion channels in the cell membrane, which results in membrane noise, may lead to randomness in the observed dynamics. To illustrate this, we consider the effects of stochastic properties of ion channels on the resetting of pacemaker oscillations and on the generation of early afterdepolarizations. The comparison of the statistical properties of long records showing arrhythmias with the predictions from theoretical models should help in the identification of different mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias.

  8. [Ultrasound markers of the genetic pathology and early hemodynamic changes in human embryo].

    PubMed

    Tsyv'ian, P B; Kovalev, V V; Kosovtsova, N V

    2014-01-01

    First trimester nuchal translucency (NT) and ductus venosus reverse blood flow (DVRBF) are used as ultrasound markers (UM) to determine the risk of fetal aneuploidy, heart defects and subsequent maternal preeclampsia. One pathophysiological explanation for these UM, encompassing both normal and pathological outcomes, is the development of transient heart failure due to increased vascular resistance (afterload). Left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (LV IRT) was demonstrated as sensitive index of afterload increase in the second and third trimester fetus. The objective of study was to determine LV IRT in normally developing embryos and embryos with early UM of chromosomal and cardiac abnormalities and to test the hypothesis of embryonic hypertension as a cause of transient heart failure. An ultrasound study in 122 normally developing and 27 human embryos with increased NT (>3 mm) and DVRBF at gestational ages 11-14 weeks was perfomed. Mean LV IRT (41 +/- 3 ms) was 36.6 percent longer in embryos with UM as compared to the normal subset (30 +/- 2 ms) (p < 0.001). PMID:25702467

  9. Coronary Occlusion Detection with 4D Optical Flow Based Strain Estimation on 4D Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    in echocardiography has been and continues to be an active area of research. Doppler ultrasound has become widespreadCoronary Occlusion Detection with 4D Optical Flow Based Strain Estimation on 4D Ultrasound Qi Duan1 (RT3DE) offers an efficient way to obtain complete 3D images of the heart over an entire cardiac cycle

  10. Hyperinsulinism in a child presenting with cardiac ischemia and bradycardia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fayyadh, Majid; Bulbul, Ziad; Al Maneea, Waleed; Abbas, Bassam Bin

    2014-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy referred to our service with suspected sinus node dysfunction. In addition to the arrhythmia, he had moderate mitral valve regurgitation and depressed ventricular function during a hypoglycemic episode. Cardiac abnormalities resolved with glucose infusion. We believe that hypoglycemia was responsible for the cardiac manifestations and it should be considered in unexplained rhythm disturbances or ischemia. PMID:25544821

  11. Cardiac Manifestations in Thiamine-Responsive Megaloblastic Anemia Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lorber; A. Z. Gazit; A. Khoury; Y. Schwartz; H. Mandel

    2003-01-01

    Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment. Other features of this syndrome gradually develop. We describe three TRMA patients with heart rhythm abnormalities and structural cardiac anomalies. Eight other reported TRMA patients also had cardiac anomalies. Recently,

  12. Brain embolism monitoring with transcranial Doppler ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viken L. Babikian; Christine A. Wijman

    2003-01-01

    Opinion statement  Embolism is considered to be the main mechanism leading to brain infarction today; with the introduction of sophisticated\\u000a neuroimaging tools, its impact is increasingly appreciated. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound allows noninvasive monitoring\\u000a of in vivo embolism. Acute stroke, internal carotid artery stenosis, several cardiac conditions, internal carotid endarterectomy,\\u000a and coronary artery bypass graft surgery have been extensively monitored. These investigations

  13. Real time volumetric ultrasound imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf T. von Ramm; Stephen W. Smith

    1990-01-01

    A real time volumetric ultrasound imaging system has been developed for medical diagnosis. The scanner produces images analogous\\u000a to an optical camera and supplies more information than conventional sonograms. Potential medical applications include improved\\u000a anatomic visualization, tumor localization, and better assessment of cardiac function. The system uses pulse-echo phased array\\u000a principles to steer a two-dimensional array transducer of 289 elements

  14. StonyCam: A Formal Framework for Modeling, Analyzing and Regulating Cardiac Myocytes

    E-print Network

    Grosu, Radu

    StonyCam: A Formal Framework for Modeling, Analyzing and Regulating Cardiac Myocytes Ezio Bartocci1, analyzing and regulating the behavior of cardiac tissues. Based on the theory of hybrid automata, we aim of treatment of cardiac electrical disturbances. 1 Introduction Atrial fibrillation (Afib) is an abnormal

  15. of Ultrasound to Materials

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    plications of Ultrasound to Materials Chemistry Kenneth S. Suslick This article willbegin of ultrasound. Some re- cent applications of sonochemistry to the synthesis of nanophase and amorphous metals of ultrasound on metal polvders in liquid-solid slurries. Cavitation The chemical effects of ultrasound do

  16. Ultrasound imaging of renal vaso-occlusive events in transgenic sickle mice exposed to hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Sabaa, Nathalie; Flamant, Martin; Debbabi, Haythem; Tharaux, Pierre Louis

    2008-07-01

    One of the major clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) is vaso-occlusive crisis in response to hypoxic exposure, leading to acute and chronic organ damages, especially in kidneys. In a SCD transgenic murine model, ultrasound imaging allowed us to characterize the circulatory changes in renal arteries during vaso-occlusive crisis. Cardiac output, heart rate and renal blood flow velocities (BFV) were measured in 10 male transgenic and 10 male wild-type (WT) mice with a conventional echograph (Vivid 7, GE Medical), before and after hypoxic exposure (8%O(2), 18h). To assess entrapment of red cells, histologic study of the kidneys was performed in both groups. Hypoxic exposure decreased heart rates in both groups (-17%, p < 0.001). Cardiac output remained stable in WT, and decreased in transgenic (-26%, p < 0.01). Peak systolic BFV in the renal artery was not modified in both groups. End-diastolic and mean BFV remained stable in WT, but decreased in sickle transgenic (-56%, p < 0.01 and -47%, p < 0.001, respectively). Transgenic mice displayed marked congestion in peritubular capillaries and glomerular abnormalities with trapped sickle red cells, whereas WT did not present any histologic injury. Five hours after hypoxic exposure, blood flow velocities returned to basal values in both groups. Decrease in end-diastolic and mean BFV in absence of peak systolic BFV after hypoxic exposure strongly indicated that the increase in vascular resistance in kidneys related to sickling of red cells. Thus, ultrasound imaging of the renal artery in mouse is a powerful, noninvasive, easy-to-repeat method to evidence circulatory changes in murine models of vascular renal human diseases. PMID:18258352

  17. Segmentation of the Left Heart Ventricle in Ultrasound Images Using a Region Based Snake

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet

    Segmentation of the Left Heart Ventricle in Ultrasound Images Using a Region Based Snake Matilda that uses a region based snake. To avoid any unwanted concavities in the segmentations due to the cardiac valve we use two anchor points in the snake that are located to the left and to the right of the cardiac

  18. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Yulia; Chan, Jacqueline; Iskandir, Marina; Gulkarov, Iosif; Tortolani, Anthony; Brener, Sorin J.; Sacchi, Terrence J.; Heitner, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery. Methods From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female) were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered <35% and <45%, respectively. Elective primary procedures include CABG (56%) and valve (44%). Thirty-day outcomes were perioperative complications, length of stay, cardiac re-hospitalizations and early mortaility; long-term (> 30 days) outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months. Findings Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25%) and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50%) (p<0.001). Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30%) and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59%) (p<0.001). Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05). Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03). Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization. Conclusion Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures. PMID:26197273

  19. Cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kingman, A; Pereira, N L

    2001-05-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis should be considered in a patient with heart failure, who is normotensive with decreased left ventricular systolic function and marked left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiogram and has decreased voltage by ECG. Furthermore, when the diagnosis of cardiac amyloid is made, it is important to classify the subtype of disease to be able to offer appropriate treatment. Contrary to traditional belief that the prognosis for patients with amyloidosis is dismal, some forms of this disease are curable and other forms are characterized by slow progression of disease. PMID:11381776

  20. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Smedema, J.P.; Zondervan, P.E.; van Hagen, P.; ten Cate, F.J.; Bresser, P.; Doubell, A.F.; Pattynama, P.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Symptomatic cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 5% of patients. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the Netherlands is unknown, but estimated to be approximately 20 per 100,000 population (3200 patients). We report on five patients who presented with different manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis, and give a brief review on the current management of this condition. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be of great help in diagnosing this condition as well as in the follow-up of the response to therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696121

  1. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems. Ultrasound parameters are optimized to achieve maximum cell internalization of molecules and increased nanoparticle delivery to a cell layer on a coverslip. In-vivo studies demonstrate the possibility of using a lower dose of paclitaxel to slow tumor growth rates, increase doxorubicin concentration in tumor tissue, and enhance tumor delivery of fluorescent molecules through treatments that combine nanoparticles with ultrasound and microbubbles.

  2. New concepts in cardiac imaging 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Pohost, G.M.; Higgins, C.B.; Morganroth, J.; Ritchie, J.L.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents 5 specialists work on reviewing and editing the area of applications for cardiac imaging: Contents: Ultrasound Methods; 1. Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease, 2. Echocardiography in Ischemic Heart Disease, 3. Current Status of Doppler Ultrasound for Assessing Regurgitant Valvular Lesions, Radionuclide Methods; 4. Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, 5. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Validation and Application for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, 6. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Perfusion with Positron Emission Tomography, 7. Assessment of Regional Myocardial Substrate Metabolism with Positron Emission Tomography, X-Ray Imaging Techniques; 8. The Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function in Ischemic Heart Disease by Digital Subtraction Angigraphy, 9. Digital Angiography in the Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease, 10. Cardiac Computed Tomography: Its Potential Use in Evaluation of Ischemic Heart Disease, Magnetic Methods; 11. NMR Evaluation of the Cardiovascular System, 12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart.

  3. 12-lead ECG in the athlete: physiological versus pathological abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Corrado; A Biffi; C Basso; A Pelliccia; G Thiene

    2009-01-01

    Participation in sports activity and regular physical training is associated with physiological structural and electrical changes in the heart (athlete’s heart) that enable sustained increases in cardiac output for prolonged periods. Cardiovascular remodelling in the conditioned athlete is often associated with ECG changes. In rare cases, abnormalities of an athlete’s ECG may reflect an underlying heart disease which puts the

  4. Timing events in Doppler ultrasound signal of fetal heart activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kupka; J. Jezewski; A. Matonia; K. Horoba; J. Wrobel

    2004-01-01

    Among various methods of monitoring fetal heart activity a Doppler ultrasound technique is the most often used. Complexity and variability of Doppler signal make difficult the precise measurement of timing dependences defining individual phases of cardiac cycle. Aim of the work was to carry out detailed comparative analysis of Doppler echo coming from movement of two different objects within fetal

  5. Pediatric imaging/doppler ultrasound of the chest: Extracardiac diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Huhta, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author spells out new diagnostic applications in pediatrics for high resolution cross-sectional ultrasonography, and demonstrates the ways in which Doppler techniques complement the cross-sectional method. This reference presents practical, step-by-step methods for non-invasive ultrasound examination of extra-cardiac anatomy and assessment of vascular blood flow.

  6. Breast ultrasound tomography with total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Cuiping [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT.; Duric, Neb [KARMANOS CANCER INSTIT

    2009-01-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. A new ultrasound breast imaging device (CURE) with a ring array of transducers has been designed and built at Karmanos Cancer Institute, which acquires both reflection and transmission ultrasound signals. To extract the sound-speed information from the breast data acquired by CURE, we have developed an iterative sound-speed image reconstruction algorithm for breast ultrasound transmission tomography based on total-variation (TV) minimization. We investigate applicability of the TV tomography algorithm using in vivo ultrasound breast data from 61 patients, and compare the results with those obtained using the Tikhonov regularization method. We demonstrate that, compared to the Tikhonov regularization scheme, the TV regularization method significantly improves image quality, resulting in sound-speed tomography images with sharp (preserved) edges of abnormalities and few artifacts.

  7. Uses, limitations, and complications of endobronchial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Bilal A; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Khan, Amir Maqbul

    2015-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) plays a pivotal role in the minimally invasive staging of non-small cell lung cancer. The role of EBUS is progressively expanding to include the evaluation of peribronchial lesions, pulmonary nodules, and other mediastinal abnormalities. Recently, EBUS has assisted in the diagnosis of many other disease entities, including malignancies and various infections such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. This article reviews the indications and contraindications of EBUS, with emphasis on the technique and complications encountered during the procedure. PMID:26130878

  8. Uses, limitations, and complications of endobronchial ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Jalil, Bilal A.; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) plays a pivotal role in the minimally invasive staging of non–small cell lung cancer. The role of EBUS is progressively expanding to include the evaluation of peribronchial lesions, pulmonary nodules, and other mediastinal abnormalities. Recently, EBUS has assisted in the diagnosis of many other disease entities, including malignancies and various infections such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. This article reviews the indications and contraindications of EBUS, with emphasis on the technique and complications encountered during the procedure. PMID:26130878

  9. [Ultrasound imaging of normal fetal central nervous system at 8 to 12 weeks of gestation].

    PubMed

    Vojtech, J; Krofta, L; Urbánková, I; Dlouhá, K; Haaková, L; Feyereisl, J

    2011-12-01

    With ongoing evolution of advanced ultrasound diagnostic in prenatal care the trend is to detect potential fetal anomalies in the first trimester if possible. Complex knowledge of normal fetal anatomy, embryology and ultrasound anatomy is important to be able to identify subtle abnormalities. In this review we demonstrate the possibilities of ultrasound imaging of fetal brain at late first trimester and describe normal central nervous system development week by week. Original images are presented. PMID:22312839

  10. 5D interactive real time Doppler ultrasound visualization of the heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Heid; Harald Evers; Chris Henn; Gerald Glombitza; Hans-Peter Meinzer

    2000-01-01

    Heart valve insufficiencies can optimally be assessed using transesophageal, triggered, three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. The dynamic ultrasound data contain morphological as well as functional components which are recorded and displayed simultaneously. It allows the visualization of intracardiac motion which is an important parameter to detect abnormal flow caused by defect valves. A realtime reconstruction is desired to get a spatial impression

  11. Ultrasound characterization of the infertile male testis with rf power spectrum analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Coleman; Ronald H. Silverman; Mark Rondeau; D. J. Coleman; Peter Schlegel

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and diagnose testicular pathology in patients with testicular dysfunction using the technique of ultrasound power spectrum analysis. Methods: Testicular ultrasound studies with power spectrum tissue characterization analysis were performed on men with testicular abnormalities as well as normal controls. Semen analysis, biopsy data, microscopic intra-operative findings and data pertaining to testicular function were collected for each surgically

  12. Mechanisms of sudden cardiac death: oxidants and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai-Chien; Kyle, John W; Makielski, Jonathan C; Dudley, Samuel C

    2015-06-01

    Ventricular arrhythmia is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Deranged cardiac metabolism and abnormal redox state during cardiac diseases foment arrhythmogenic substrates through direct or indirect modulation of cardiac ion channel/transporter function. This review presents current evidence on the mechanisms linking metabolic derangement and excessive oxidative stress to ion channel/transporter dysfunction that predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias and SCD. Because conventional antiarrhythmic agents aiming at ion channels have proven challenging to use, targeting arrhythmogenic metabolic changes and redox imbalance may provide novel therapeutics to treat or prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and SCD. PMID:26044249

  13. Molecular basis of hereditary cardiomyopathy: abnormalities in calcium sensitivity, stretch response, stress response and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Kimura

    2010-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is caused by functional abnormality of cardiac muscle. The functional abnormality involved in its etiology includes both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and cardiomyopathy caused by the intrinsic factors is called as idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathy. There are several clinical types of primary cardiomyopathy including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Linkage studies and candidate gene approaches have explored

  14. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

  15. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug

    2009-01-01

    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  16. Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Bonney; Ra-id Abdulla

    \\u000a An initial and crucial step in managing any child with a cardiac arrhythmia is to determine the hemodynamic stability of the\\u000a child. A healthy pink color of skin\\/mucosa, brisk capillary refill, good peripheral pulses, normal blood pressure, and absence\\u000a of respiratory distress are all reassuring signs that the hemodynamic status of the child is normal or near normal. Stable\\u000a hemodynamics

  17. Three Dimension Filamentous Human Cardiac Tissue Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhen; Koo, Sangmo; Finnegan, Micaela A.; Loskill, Peter; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Marks, Natalie C.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2013-01-01

    A human in vitro cardiac tissue model would be a significant advancement for understanding, studying, and developing new strategies for treating cardiac arrhythmias and related cardiovascular diseases. We developed an in vitro model of three-dimensional (3D) human cardiac tissue by populating synthetic filamentous matrices with cardiomyocytes derived from healthy wild-type volunteer (WT) and patient-specific long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-CMs) to mimic the condensed and aligned human ventricular myocardium. Using such a highly controllable cardiac model, we studied the contractility malfunctions associated with the electrophysiological consequences of LQT3 and their response to a panel of drugs. By varying the stiffness of filamentous matrices, LQT3 iPS-CMs exhibited different level of contractility abnormality and susceptibility to drug-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24268663

  18. Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Explains the basic principles of ultrasound using everyday physics. Topics include the generation of ultrasound, basic interactions with material, and the measurement of blood flow using the Doppler effect. (Author/MM)

  19. Guide to the ultrasound examination of the abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnick, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written to assist the operator when performing an organized and directed ultrasound examination. It provides, in outline form, a sequential approach to the scanning of abdominal organs and regions by; indicating the structures within the organ or region that should be scanned; suggesting other regions for examination if abnormalities within the initially imaged structures are detected and; suggesting differential diagnostic possibilities when abnormalities are seen.

  20. Ultrasound Imaging System Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Peggy Whitson uses the Human Research Facility (HRF) Ultrasound Imaging System in the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) to image her own heart. The Ultrasound Imaging System provides three-dimension image enlargement of the heart and other organs, muscles, and blood vessels. It is capable of high resolution imaging in a wide range of applications, both research and diagnostic, such as Echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart), abdominal, vascular, gynecological, muscle, tendon, and transcranial ultrasound.

  1. LEVEL SET-BASED TRACKING OF THE ENDOCARDIUM WITHOUT A SHAPE PRIOR FROM 3D ULTRASOUND IMAGES

    E-print Network

    LEVEL SET-BASED TRACKING OF THE ENDOCARDIUM WITHOUT A SHAPE PRIOR FROM 3D ULTRASOUND IMAGES Yrj¨o H ultrasound images is presented. The tracking pro- cess is initialized by a manual delineation and performed the mainstay of clini- cal diagnosis of various cardiac diseases including heart fail- ure [1], coronary vessel

  2. Medical ultrasound imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Arendt Jensen

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives an introduction to current medical ultrasound imaging systems. The basics of anatomic and blood flow imaging are described. The properties of medical ultrasound and its focusing are described, and the various methods for two- and three-dimensional imaging of the human anatomy are shown. Systems using both linear and non-linear propagation of ultrasound are described. The blood velocity

  3. Transthoracic Cardiac Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradway, David Pierson

    This dissertation investigates the feasibility of a real-time transthoracic Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging system to measure myocardial function non-invasively in clinical setting. Heart failure is an important cardiovascular disease and contributes to the leading cause of death for developed countries. Patients exhibiting heart failure with a low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can often be identified by clinicians, but patients with preserved LVEF might be undetected if they do not exhibit other signs and symptoms of heart failure. These cases motivate development of transthoracic ARFI imaging to aid the early diagnosis of the structural and functional heart abnormalities leading to heart failure. M-Mode ARFI imaging utilizes ultrasonic radiation force to displace tissue several micrometers in the direction of wave propagation. Conventional ultrasound tracks the response of the tissue to the force. This measurement is repeated rapidly at a location through the cardiac cycle, measuring timing and relative changes in myocardial stiffness. ARFI imaging was previously shown capable of measuring myocardial properties and function via invasive open-chest and intracardiac approaches. The prototype imaging system described in this dissertation is capable of rapid acquisition, processing, and display of ARFI images and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) movies. Also presented is a rigorous safety analysis, including finite element method (FEM) simulations of tissue heating, hydrophone intensity and mechanical index (MI) measurements, and thermocouple transducer face heating measurements. For the pulse sequences used in later animal and clinical studies, results from the safety analysis indicates that transthoracic ARFI imaging can be safely applied at rates and levels realizable on the prototype ARFI imaging system. Preliminary data are presented from in vivo trials studying changes in myocardial stiffness occurring under normal and abnormal heart function. Presented is the first use of transthoracic ARFI imaging in a serial study of heart failure in a porcine model. Results demonstrate the ability of transthoracic ARFI to image cyclically-varying stiffness changes in healthy and infarcted myocardium under good B-mode imaging conditions at depths in the range of 3-5 cm. Challenging imaging scenarios such as deep regions of interest, vigorous lateral motion and stable, reverberant clutter are analyzed and discussed. Results are then presented from the first study of clinical feasibility of transthoracic cardiac ARFI imaging. At the Duke University Medical Center, healthy volunteers and patients having magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed apical infarcts were enrolled for the study. The number of patients who met the inclusion criteria in this preliminary clinical trial was low, but results showed that the limitations seen in animal studies were not overcome by allowing transmit power levels to exceed the FDA mechanical index (MI) limit. The results suggested the primary source of image degradation was clutter rather than lack of radiation force. Additionally, the transthoracic method applied in its present form was not shown capable of tracking propagating ARFI-induced shear waves in the myocardium. Under current instrumentation and processing methods, results of these studies support feasibility for transthoracic ARFI in high-quality B-Mode imaging conditions. Transthoracic ARFI was not shown sensitive to infarct or to tracking heart failure in the presence of clutter and signal decorrelation. This work does provide evidence that transthoracic ARFI imaging is a safe non-invasive tool, but clinical efficacy as a diagnostic tool will need to be addressed by further development to overcome current challenges and increase robustness to sources of image degradation.

  4. Feasibility of preclinical cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in HEMS in thoracic pain—the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Knobloch; V. Hubrich; P. Rohmann; M. Lupkemann; T. Gerich; C. Krettek; R. Phillips

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundCardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) are important hemodynamic parameters in emergency patients and for clinical early goal-directed therapy. This study evaluated the feasibility of CO and SVR determination using preclinical continuous wave Doppler ultrasound in a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) on emergency patients presenting with or without thoracic pain as a pilot observational study.

  5. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The physical principles and current applications of echocardiography in assessment of heart diseases are reviewed. Technical considerations and unresolved points relative to the use of echocardiography in various disease states are stressed. The discussion covers normal mitral valve motion, mitral stenosis, aortic regurgitation, atrial masses, mitral valve prolapse, and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Other topics concern tricuspic valve abnormalities, aortic valve disease, pulmonic valve, pericardial effusion, intraventricular septal motion, and left ventricular function. The application of echocardiography to congenital heart disease diagnosis is discussed along with promising ultrasonic imaging systems. The utility of echocardiography in quantitative evaluation of cardiac disease is demonstrated.

  6. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Assessment by echocardiographic and Doppler ultrasound techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D R Boughner; R L Schuld; J A Persaud

    1975-01-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is a disease of the myocardium that can be assessed echocardiographic and transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound techniques. Four patients are presented with various patterns of the disease, and the frequently familial incidence is illustrated. The importance of ultrasonic evidence for asymmetric septal hypertrophy in all stages is emphasized and evidence of reduced septal contractility demonstrated. Abnormalities of mitral

  7. Hepatic and splenic sarcoidosis: Ultrasound and MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ada Kessler; Donald G. Mitchell; Harold L. Israel; Barry B. Goldberg

    1993-01-01

    Abdominal imaging studies may be performed for various indications in patients known to have sarcoidosis. To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sonographic ability to detect abnormalities in sarcoidosis patients with abdominal involvement, a prospective study on 18 selected patients was performed. Besides organomegaly, when present, ultrasound demonstrated normal or increased hepatic parenchymal echogenicity, coarsening of the liver parenchyma with

  8. Hospitalist use of hand-carried ultrasound: preparing for battle.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Bruce J; Amundson, Stan A; Shaw, David J

    2010-03-01

    Hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) is a burgeoning technology at a critical point in its development as a general diagnostic technique. Despite the known safety and accuracy of ultrasound in radiology and echocardiography, the use of HCU to augment physical diagnosis by all physicians has yet unrealized potential. In order to incorporate ultrasound into a diagnostic model of routine bedside application, simple imaging and training protocols must first be derived and validated. Simplified cardiac ultrasound exams have already been validated to detect evidence-based targets such as subclinical atherosclerosis, heart failure, and elevated central venous pressures. However, for general examination of the acutely ill patient, it is the internist-hospitalist who should derive a full-body ultrasound examination, balancing training requirements with the numerous clinical applications potentially available. As the hospital's leading diagnostician with ultrasound expertise available in-house, the hospitalist could develop HCU so as to triage and refer more appropriately and limit unnecessary testing and hospital stays. Active involvement by hospitalists now in the planning of outcome, validation, and training studies, will be invaluable in the formation of an "ultrasound-assisted" physical examination in the future and will promote competent, cost-effective applications of HCU within general medical practice. PMID:20235285

  9. Model-based multichannel diagnosis of cardiac conduction abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Roman; Dennis W. Davis; James H Michels; V. G. Davila-Roman

    1996-01-01

    A model-based method for real-time ECG diagnosis has been formulated in which information from multiple leads is processed simultaneously with a set of multivariable, linear, time-invariant filters in parallel. A diagnosis is reached by examining the filter outputs (residuals) using statistical criteria. Individual criteria diagnostics are fused into a single, final diagnostic. The methodology is applied to the discrimination of

  10. Cardiac aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Valen, Guro; Vaage, Jarle

    2013-11-01

    Aquaporins are a group of proteins with high-selective permeability for water. A subgroup called aquaglyceroporins is also permeable to glycerol, urea and a few other solutes. Aquaporin function has mainly been studied in the brain, kidney, glands and skeletal muscle, while the information about aquaporins in the heart is still scarce. The current review explores the recent advances in this field, bringing aquaporins into focus in the context of myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and blood osmolarity disturbances. Since the amount of data on aquaporins in the heart is still limited, examples and comparisons from better-studied areas of aquaporin biology have been used. The human heart expresses aquaporin-1, -3, -4 and -7 at the protein level. The potential roles of aquaporins in the heart are discussed, and some general phenomena that the myocardial aquaporins share with aquaporins in other organs are elaborated. Cardiac aquaporin-1 is mostly distributed in the microvasculature. Its main role is transcellular water flux across the endothelial membranes. Aquaporin-4 is expressed in myocytes, both in cardiac and in skeletal muscle. In addition to water flux, its function is connected to the calcium signaling machinery. It may play a role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Aquaglyceroporins, especially aquaporin-7, may serve as a novel pathway for nutrient delivery into the heart. They also mediate toxicity of various poisons. Aquaporins cannot influence permeability by gating, therefore, their function is regulated by changes of expression-on the levels of transcription, translation (by microRNAs), post-translational modification, membrane trafficking, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Studies using mice genetically deficient for aquaporins have shown rather modest changes in the heart. However, they might still prove to be attractive targets for therapy directed to reduce myocardial edema and injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:24158693

  11. Evaluation of obstructive characteristics of mitral disc valve implants with ultrasound doppler techniques.

    PubMed

    Holen, J; Nitter-Hauge, S

    1977-01-01

    Ten adult patients with mitral disc valve implants have been examined on the catheterization table. Non-invasive ultrasound Doppler data, pulmonary artery wedge pressure and left ventricular pressure were recorded simultaneously. The cardiac output was determined with the direct Fick method. The effective valve area was taken as a measure of the flow obstruction in the disc valve implants. This area was calculated from the ultrasound data and the cardiac output as well as from the manometric data and the cardiac output. The resulting two sets of areas demonstrated a linear correlation coefficient of 0.86. The effective valve areas calculated from the ultrasound data were reasonable when compared with the results of in vitro studies of disc valve performance and demonstrated good agreement with the findings of other investigators. PMID:561517

  12. Renal abnormalities in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988

  13. Myocardial fatty acid metabolism and cardiac performance in heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Tuunanen; Heikki Ukkonen; Juhani Knuuti

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that cardiac metabolism is abnormal in heart failure (HF). Experimental studies suggest that in severe\\u000a HF, cardiac metabolism reverts to a more fetal-like substrate use characterized by enhanced glucose and downregulated free\\u000a fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. Correspondingly, in humans, when FFA levels are similar, myocardial glucose metabolism is increased,\\u000a and FFA metabolism is decreased. However, depression

  14. Journal of Fish Biology (1998) 52, 11541164 Cardiac conduction times in Sparus auratus at different

    E-print Network

    Altimiras, Jordi

    1998-01-01

    the effect of different pathologies such as cardiac abnormalities due to different toxic substances (Endo et intervals in humans because the Q­T interval is used as a prognostic index of neuropathies and imbalance

  15. Ultrasound Microscope: Quantative Backscatter Imaging

    E-print Network

    Greenaway, Alan

    Ultrasound Microscope: Quantative Backscatter Imaging Srikanta Sharma Academic supervisor: Sandy Cochran Industrial supervisor: Jim McAneny #12;Hypothesis of Intra-membrane Cavitation: Ultrasound Induced and cellular membranes that could explain cavitational and non- cavitational ultrasound induced bio

  16. Physostigmine for cardiac and neurologic manifestations of phenothiazine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weisdorf, D; Kramer, J; Goldbarg, A; Klawans, H L

    1978-12-01

    Psychotropic drugs such as the phenothiazine neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants are known to cause electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as a central anticholinergic syndrome. Physostigmine is known to reverse the central muscarinic anticholinergic manifestations by inhibition of the enzyme cholinesterase. An unusual case of trifluoperazine overdose, in which the patient presented with cardiac arrhythmias and a central anticholinergic syndrome, is presented. Treatment with physostigmine reversed the central anticholinergic syndrome as well as the electrocardiographic abnormalities. Effects of phenothiazines on altering cardiac status are also discussed. PMID:30564

  17. Immunological evaluation of the new stable ultrasound contrast agent LK565: a phase one clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Funke, B; Maerz, HK; Okorokow, S; Polata, S; Lehmann, I; Sack, U; Wild, P; Geisler, T; Zotz, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) allow the enhancement of vascular definition, thereby providing more diagnostic information. LK565 is a new second-generation UCA based on synthetic polymers of aspartic acid which is eliminated from the blood stream via phagocytosis. LK565 forms very stable air-filled microspheres and is capable of repeated passage through the pulmonary capillary bed after peripheral intravenous injection. This characteristic allows examination of the cardiac function or extracardiac vessel abnormalities up to 15 minutes. Methods A phase one clinical study was conducted on 15 healthy volunteers to identify the development of an undesirable immune response. Phagocytosis capacity, TNF-? secretion, and MHC class II upregulation of monocytes was monitored, as well as microsphere specific antibody development (IgM, IgG). Furthermore, the kinetics of the activation surface markers CD69, CD25, CD71, and CD11b on leukocytes were analyzed. Results Due to LK565-metabolism the administration of the UCA led to saturation of phagocytes which was reversible after 24 hrs. Compared to positive controls neither significant TNF-? elevation, neither MHC class II and activation surface markers upregulation, nor specific antibody development was detectable. Conclusion The administration of LK565 provides a comfortable duration of signal enhancement, esp. in echocardiography, without causing a major activation cascade or triggering an adaptive immune response. To minimize the risk of undesirable adverse events such as anaphylactoid reactions, immunological studies should be included in clinical trials for new UCAs. The use of LK565 as another new ultrasound contrast agent should be encouraged as a safe means to provide additional diagnostic information. PMID:15357870

  18. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    PubMed

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. PMID:24267423

  19. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  20. Real-time segmentation of 4D ultrasound by Active Geometric Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Duan; Elsa D. Angelini; Shunichi Homma; Andrew F. Laine

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional ultrasound based on matrix phased array transducers can capture the complex 4D cardiac motion in a complete and real-time fashion. However, the large amount of information residing in 4D ultrasound scans and novel applications under interventional settings pose a big challenge in efficiency for workflow and computer-aided diagnostic algorithms such as segmentation. In this context, a novel formulation framework

  1. Doppler ultrasound in vitro modeling of turbulence in carotid vascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Meghan L.; Poepping, Tamie L.; Rankin, Richard N.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2004-04-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous to many systems in nature, except the human vasculature. Development of turbulence in the human vasculature is an indication of abnormalities and disease. A severely stenosed vessel is one such example. In vitro modeling of common vascular diseases, such as a stenosis, is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fluid dynamics for a characteristic geometry. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is the only available non-invasive technique for in vivo applications. Using Doppler velocity-derived data, turbulence intensity (TI) can be calculated. We investigate a realistic 70% stenosed bifurcation model in pulsatile flow and the performance of this model for turbulent flow. Blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) was pumped through the model using a flow simulator, which generated pulsatile flow with a mean flow rate of 6 ml/s. Twenty-five cycles of gated DUS data were acquired within regions of laminar and turbulent flow. The data was digitized at 44.1 kHz and analyzed at 79 time-points/cardiac cycle with a 1024-point FFT, producing a 1.33 cm/s velocity resolution. We found BMF to exhibit DUS characteristics similar to blood. We demonstrated the capabilities to generate velocities comparable to that found in the human carotid artery and calculated TI in the case of repetitive pulsatile flow.

  2. [Laryngeal ultrasound studies: potential, prospects, limitations].

    PubMed

    Ol'khova, E B; Soldatski?, Iu L; Onufrieva, E K; Shchepin, N V

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, laryngeal ultrasound has been finding increasingly wide application due to the growing availability of relevant up-to-date equipment, apparent technical simplicity and non-invasive character of the study. However, poor knowledge of the physical basis of this method coupled to ungrounded self-confidence of the operators and uncritical treatment of the obtained findings may lead to the overestimation of the diagnostic potential of this sonographic technique. This paper is focused on disadvantages of ultrasound examination of the larynx and associated acoustic artefacts that can be taken for true abnormal structures. Attempts at qualitative and quantitative interpretation of such images are fraught with wrong conclusions. PMID:20037547

  3. The Role of Lung Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Cao, Hai-Ying; Wang, Hua-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in newborn infants. Methods From March 2012 to May 2013, 100 newborn infants were divided into two groups: RDS group (50 cases) and control group (50 cases). According to the findings of chest x-ray, there were 10 cases of grade II RDS, 15 grade III cases, and 25 grade IV cases in RDS group. Lung ultrasound was performed at bedside by a single expert. The ultrasound indexes observed in this study included pleural line, A-line, B-line, lung consolidation, air bronchograms, bilateral white lung, interstitial syndrome, lung sliding, lung pulse etc. Findings In all of the infants with RDS, lung ultrasound consistently showed generalized consolidation with air bronchograms, bilateral white lung or interstitial syndrome, pleural line abnormalities, A-line disappearance, pleural effusion, lung pulse, etc. The simultaneous demonstration of lung consolidation, pleural line abnormalities and bilateral white lung, or lung consolidation, pleural line abnormalities and A-line disappearance co-exists with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of neonatal RDS. Conclusion This study indicates that using an ultrasound to diagnose neonatal RDS is accurate and reliable tool. A lung ultrasound has many advantages over other techniques. Ultrasound is non-ionizing, low-cost, easy to operate, and can be performed at bedside, making this technique ideal for use in NICU. PMID:25535532

  4. Ultrasound Simulators In Obstetrics And Gynecology : State Of The Art.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, G E; Bernardi, V; Ville, Y

    2014-10-27

    Simulation and virtual reality have spread in various field of medicine, from anesthesiology to surgery and emergency care. In all medical fields, simulation offers the possibility of making errors without experiencing negative patient outcomes. Additionally, the negative emotions generated by failures or errors are critical to the medical learning process but are experienced more constructively in the context of simulation than in real life. Ultrasound is the primary method of imaging in obstetrics and gynecology and has become an essential part of practice. To date, ultrasound simulators have been mainly used to teach basic skills in cardiac ultrasound within emergency and internal care units. In the field of obstetrics and gynecology ultrasound, simulators have appeared at the beginning of this century and have led to only few studies. This field is developing and could bring several benefits into teaching, training and evaluation of ultrasound competency. We reviewed the existing literature to provide with an overview of the state of the art in the use of simulation in ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. PMID:25346451

  5. Exploiting Ultrasound Harmonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Matte

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is an inexpensive method which provides an accurate diagnosis tool. \\u000aThis thesis provides elements to characterise the acoustic pressure generated by ultrasound transducers as well as signal processing method that could improve modern echography. The first measurement method to assess transducers characteristics consists in deducing the absolute amplitude of the acoustic pressure from a distortion measurement. Using this

  6. The 'cardiac-lung mass' artifact: an echocardiographic sign of lung atelectasis and/or pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Karabinis, Andreas; Saranteas, Theodosios; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Lichtenstein, Daniel; Poularas, John; Yang, Clifford; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction We conducted an ultrasound study to investigate echocardiographic artifacts in mechanically ventilated patients with lung pathology. Methods A total of 205 mechanically ventilated patients who exhibited lung atelectasis and/or pleural effusion were included in this 36-month study. The patients underwent lung echography and transthoracic echocardiography, with a linear 5 to 10 MHz and with a 1.5 to 3.6 MHz wide-angle phased-array transducer, respectively. Patients were examined by two experienced observers who were blinded to each other's interpretation. Results A total of 124 patients (60,48%) were hospitalized because of multiple trauma; 60 patients (29,26%) because of respiratory insufficiency, and 21 (10,24%) because of recent postoperative surgery. The mean duration ( ± standard deviation) of hospitalization was 35 ± 27 days. An intracardiac artifact was documented in 17 out of 205 patients (8.29%) by echocardiography. It was visible only in the apical views, whereas subsequent transesophageal echocardiography revealed no abnormalities. The artifact consisted of a mobile component that exhibited, on M-mode, a pattern of respiratory variation similar to the lung 'sinusoid sign'. Lung echography revealed lung atelectasis and/or pleural effusion adjacent to the heart, and a similar M-mode pattern was observed. The artifact was recorded within the left cardiac chambers in 11 cases and within the right cardiac chambers in six. Conclusions Lung atelectasis and/or pleural effusion may create a mirror image, intracardiac artifact in mechanically ventilated patients. The latter was named the 'cardiac-lung mass' artifact to underline the important diagnostic role of both echocardiography and lung echography in these patients. Trial registration This trial is ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN 49216096. PMID:18826590

  7. Classification of rotator cuff tendinopathy using high definition ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Hinsley, Hannah; Nicholls, Alex; Daines, Michael; Wallace, Gemma; Arden, Nigel; Carr, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: ultrasound is a valid cost effective tool in screening for rotator cuff pathology with high levels of accuracy in detecting full-thickness tears. To date there is no rotator cuff tendinopathy classification using ultrasound. The aims of this study are to define a valid high-definition ultrasound rotator cuff tendinopathy classification, which has discriminate validity between groups based upon anatomical principles. Methods: 464 women, aged 65–87, from an established general population cohort underwent bilateral shoulder ultrasound and musculoskeletal assessment. Sonographer accuracy was established in a separate study by comparing ultrasound findings to the gold standard intra-operative findings. Results: there were 510 normal tendons, 217 abnormal tendons, 77 partial tears, and 124 full-thickness tears. There was no statistical difference in age or the proportion with pain between the abnormal enthesis and partial tear groups, however both groups were statistically older (p<0.001) and had a greater proportion with pain (p<0.001 & p=0.050) than normal tendons. The full-thickness tears were statistically older than normal tendons (p<0.001), but not abnormal/partially torn tendons. The proportion with pain was significantly greater than both groups (p<0.001 & p=0.006). Symptomatic shoulders had a larger median tear size than asymptomatic shoulders (p=0.006). Using tear size as a predictor of pain likelihood, optimum sensitivity and specificity occurred when dividing tears into groups up to 2.5cm and >2.5cm, which corresponds with anatomical descriptions of the width of the supraspinatus tendon. Conclusion: the classification system is as follows: Normal Tendons; Abnormal enthesis/Partial-thickness tear; Single tendon full-thickness tears (0–2.5cm); Multi-tendon full-thickness tears (>2.5cm). PMID:25489559

  8. Ultrasound in vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Wolfgang A

    2014-01-01

    Colour Doppler ultrasound displays a pathognomonic circumferential wall thickening in large-vessel vasculitis. Even rather small arteries like the temporal arteries can be easily examined with modern ultrasound equipment. In addition, ultrasound can detect stenoses and acute arterial occlusions. In large-vessel giant cell arteritis, the axillary arteries are most commonly involved. Takayasu arteritis affects particularly the left subclavian and the left common carotid arteries. As ultrasound diagnosis at the temporal arteries becomes more difficult already after a few days of glucocorticoid treatment in some patients, institutions are implementing fast-track clinics for which patients receive an appointment within 24 hours. An experienced rheumatologist is able to establish a definite diagnosis in most cases with standardised history, clinical examination and ultrasound of temporal and axillary arteries. Furthermore, early diagnosis and treatment may prevent blindness. PMID:24529335

  9. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Structure Learning in Random Fields for Heart Motion Abnormality Detection Mark Schmidt, Kevin Murphy

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Kevin Patrick

    Structure Learning in Random Fields for Heart Motion Abnormality Detection Mark Schmidt, Kevin Heart Disease can be diagnosed by assessing the regional motion of the heart walls in ultrasound images the different heart re- gions and their overall influence on the clinical condition of the heart need

  12. Risk of Chromosome Abnormalities in the Presence of Bilateral or Unilateral Choroid Plexus Cysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artúr Beke; Emese Barakonyi; Zorán Belics; József G. Joó; Ákos Csaba; Csaba Papp; Zoltán Papp

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the rate of chromosome abnormalities in cases of uni- and bilateral choroid plexus cysts (CPCs). Methods: A total of 10,875 ultrasound (US) examinations were performed in the second trimester, and 435 cases with CPC (4%) were found. After genetic counseling, 45 patients decided not to undergo karyotyping. The authors performed a chromosome analysis in 390 cases of

  13. Role of cardiac imaging in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Todiere, G; Marzilli, M

    2012-08-01

    Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and rehospitalization in Western countries. With the development of new technologies applied to medical diagnostic pathways, cardiovascular imaging has rapidly gained ground. Therefore, the clinical cardiologist has to keep updated on the management of such innovative diagnostic tools which were once the exclusive domain of radiologists. The need to understand a new language is fundamental for the selection of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in patients with heart failure, which is often the final destination for many cardiovascular diseases. Alongside standard diagnostic techniques such as chest radiography two-dimensional ultrasound and cardiac color Doppler, all of which are indispensable in daily practice, innovative tools have been defining their incremental role in cardiovascular imaging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), cardiac computed tomography (CT), speckle tracking, 3D echocardiography, new applications in nuclear medicine (SPECT MIBG), and "cardiac hybrid imaging" are emerging for research and are also playing a pivotal role in the clinical scenario. These techniques are useful the for non-invasive acquisition of diagnostic and prognostic information in heart failure. Whether the radiological and economic impact of these new technologies is sustainable is a question the clinical cardiologist will need to answer when considering the cost/benefit of the diagnostic tool selected among these methods. PMID:22858913

  14. Cardiac arrest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard V. Aghababian; Gregory Mears; Joseph P. Ornato; Peter J. Kudenchuk

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 1,000 people in the United States suffer cardiac arrest each day, most often as a complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with accompanying ventricular fibrillation or unstable ventricular tachycardia. Increasing the number of patients who survive cardiac arrest and minimizing the clinical sequelae associated with cardiac arrest in those who do survive are the objectives of emergency medical personnel.

  15. Survey of cardiac pathologies in captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Benato, Livia; Wack, Allison; Cerveny, Shannon N S; Rosenthal, Steven L; Bronson, Ellen

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac disease is a common finding in small mammals but it is rarely reported in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The aim of this survey was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac disease in striped skunks and to characterize the types of cardiac disease that might be present. In April 2010, a questionnaire was sent to veterinarians in zoologic collections with membership in the International Species Inventory System. Surveys were distributed to 55 institutions in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Twenty collections with a total of 95 skunks replied to the questionnaire. Of these, five collections reported at least one skunk with cardiac conditions for a total of 11 cases. In these 11 animals, the following conditions were diagnosed: myocardial fibrosis (n = 4), myxomatous valve degeneration (n = 4), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 1), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 1), and valvular endocarditis (n = 1). Based on these findings, cardiac diseases should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in captive striped skunks presenting with weakness, lethargy, and decreased appetite. Cardiac ultrasound also should be considered at the time of annual health examinations to evaluate for possible cardiac conditions at an early stage. PMID:25000693

  16. Multiple organ pathology, metabolic abnormalities and impaired homeostasis of reactive oxygen species in Epas1?\\/? mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzia Scortegagna; Kan Ding; Yavuz Oktay; Arti Gaur; Frederick Thurmond; Liang-Jun Yan; Brett T Marck; Alvin M Matsumoto; John M Shelton; James A Richardson; Michael J Bennett; Joseph A Garcia

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors respond to multiple environmental stressors, including hypoxia and hypoglycemia. We report that mice lacking the HIF family member HIF-2? (encoded by Epas1) have a syndrome of multiple-organ pathology, biochemical abnormalities and altered gene expression patterns. Histological and ultrastructural analyses showed retinopathy, hepatic steatosis, cardiac hypertrophy, skeletal myopathy, hypocellular bone marrow, azoospermia and mitochondrial abnormalities in

  17. Ultrasound—biophysics mechanisms†

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonic biophysics is the study of mechanisms responsible for how ultrasound and biological materials interact. Ultrasound-induced bioeffect or risk studies focus on issues related to the effects of ultrasound on biological materials. On the other hand, when biological materials affect the ultrasonic wave, this can be viewed as the basis for diagnostic ultrasound. Thus, an understanding of the interaction of ultrasound with tissue provides the scientific basis for image production and risk assessment. Relative to the bioeffect or risk studies, that is, the biophysical mechanisms by which ultrasound affects biological materials, ultrasound-induced bioeffects are generally separated into thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. Ultrasonic dosimetry is concerned with the quantitative determination of ultrasonic energy interaction with biological materials. Whenever ultrasonic energy is propagated into an attenuating material such as tissue, the amplitude of the wave decreases with distance. This attenuation is due to either absorption or scattering. Absorption is a mechanism that represents that portion of ultrasonic wave that is converted into heat, and scattering can be thought of as that portion of the wave, which changes direction. Because the medium can absorb energy to produce heat, a temperature rise may occur as long as the rate of heat production is greater than the rate of heat removal. Current interest with thermally mediated ultrasound-induced bioeffects has focused on the thermal isoeffect concept. The non-thermal mechanism that has received the most attention is acoustically generated cavitation wherein ultrasonic energy by cavitation bubbles is concentrated. Acoustic cavitation, in a broad sense, refers to ultrasonically induced bubble activity occurring in a biological material that contains pre-existing gaseous inclusions. Cavitation-related mechanisms include radiation force, microstreaming, shock waves, free radicals, microjets and strain. It is more challenging to deduce the causes of mechanical effects in tissues that do not contain gas bodies. These ultrasonic biophysics mechanisms will be discussed in the context of diagnostic ultrasound exposure risk concerns. PMID:16934858

  18. Benefit of neurophysiologic monitoring for pediatric cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erle H. Austin; Harvey L. Edmonds; Steven M. Auden; Vedad Seremet; Greg Niznik; Aida Sehic; Michael K. Sowell; Caryn D. Cheppo; Karen M. Corlett

    1997-01-01

    Background. Pediatric patients undergoing repair of congenital cardiac abnormalities have a significant risk of an adverse neurologic event. Therefore this retrospective cohort study examined the potential benefit of interventions based on intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in decreasing both postoperative neurologic sequelae and length of hospital stay as a cost proxy. Methods: With informed parental consent approved by the institutional review board,

  19. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  20. Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adré; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O’Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

    2009-01-01

    Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

  1. Transvaginal 3D Image-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Held; Thuc Nghi Nguyen; Shahram Vaezy

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a transvaginal image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) device using piezocomposite HIFU array technology, and commercially-available ultrasound imaging. Potential applications include treatment of uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. The HIFU transducer was an annular phased array, with a focal length range of 30-60 mm, an elliptically-shaped aperture of 35×60 mm, and

  2. Controlled Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenglin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ge

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has been a hot topic for years because of the clinical importance of cardiac diseases and the rapid evolution of CT systems. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for controlled cardiac CT that may effectively reduce image artifacts due to cardiac and respiratory motions. Our approach is radically different from existing ones and is based on controlling the X-ray source rotation velocity and powering status in reference to the cardiac motion. We theoretically show that by such a control-based intervention the data acquisition process can be optimized for cardiac CT in the cases of periodic and quasiperiodic cardiac motions. Specifically, we formulate the corresponding coordination/control schemes for either exact or approximate matches between the ideal and actual source positions, and report representative simulation results that support our analytic findings. PMID:23165017

  3. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pelvic area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  4. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  5. Ultrasound comparison (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inside. Solid structures, such as bones and muscles, reflect sound waves from the ultrasound transducer and show ... areas, like chambers of the heart, do not reflect sound waves and appear as black. The white ...

  6. Implementing volume ultrasound workflow.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound departments are consistently challenged with increasing patient loads, backlog/access, repetitive stress injuries, operator dependent technology, and the recruitment and retention of qualified sonographers. The value of the volume ultrasound workflow will dramatically enhance the operations of any ultrasound department. Although change is always a stressful transition for everyone involved, perserverance will lead to great rewards and will benefit all personnel involved. Sonographers currently using this new workflow model state they will never turn back to the traditional 2D stillframe repetitive imaging from the ability to reconstruct volumes and visualize in the 3 orthogonal planes. Together, volume imaging workflow and structured reporting will shift work from the scan rooms and radiologist reading rooms to a central workstation. This technology is truly changing the traditional and less efficient workflow of the ultrasound department to a more consistent and easier way of working. PMID:19115713

  7. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    E-print Network

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  8. Measurements in ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.B.; Kurtz, A.B.; Goldberg, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book gathers all published and original data pertaining to anatomical measurements as projected on ultrasound scans. It covers all major anatomic regions and organ systems, including abdomen, pelvic, obstetrical, head and neck, and heart.

  9. A novel software-based technique for quantifying placental calcifications and infarctions from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, John T.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Higgins, Mary; Stanton, Marie; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    In obstetrics, antenatal ultrasound assessment of placental morphology comprises an important part of the estimation of fetal health. Ultrasound analysis of the placenta may reveal abnormalities such as placental calcification and infarcts. Current methods of quantification of these abnormalities are subjective and involve a grading system of Grannum stages I-III. The aim of this project is to develop a software tool that quantifies semi-automatically placental ultrasound images and facilitates the assessment of placental morphology. We have developed a 2D ultrasound imaging software tool that allows the obstetrician or sonographer to define the placental region of interest. A secondary reference map is created for use in our quantification algorithm. Using a slider technique the user can easily define an upper threshold based on high intensity for calcification classification and a lower threshold to define infarction regions based on low intensity within the defined region of interest. The percentage of the placental area that is calcified and also the percentage of infarction is calculated and this is the basis of our new metric. Ultrasound images of abnormal and normal placentas have been acquired to aid our software development. A full clinical prospective evaluation is currently being performed and we are currently applying this technology to the three-dimensional ultrasound domain. We have developed a novel software-based technique for calculating the extent of placental calcification and infarction, providing a new metric in this field. Our new metric may provide a more accurate measurement of placental calcification and infarction than current techniques.

  10. Evaluation of Optical Flow Algorithms for Tracking Endocardial Surfaces on Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Duan; Elsa D. Angelini; Susan L. Herz; Christopher M. Ingrassia; Olivier Gerard; Kevin D. Costa; Jeffrey W. Holmes; Andrew F. Laine

    ABSTRACT With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Suchanalyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the

  11. Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi Duan; Elsa D. Angelini; Susan L. Herz; Christopher M. Ingrassia; Olivier Gerard; Kevin D. Costa; Jeffrey W. Holmes; Andrew F. Laine

    2005-01-01

    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the

  12. Improvement in Doppler ultrasound human foetal heart rate records by signal correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Tuck

    1982-01-01

    An improved method for the determination of foetal heart rate from Doppler ultrasound signals is described and evaluated.\\u000a It determines the most probable pulse interval from the recurrence times of multiple echoes generated by each cardiac pulse.\\u000a The method, when optimised, is shown to offer an improvement over current systems, especially in reduced signal loss.

  13. Manifold Learning for Image-Based Gating of Intravascular Ultrasound(IVUS) Pullback

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    by the cardiac cycle is the change of the vessel morphology due to the varying blood pressure during the cycle Ultrasound is a unique invasive catheter-based imaging technol- ogy, which yields a high resolution, real-time cross-sectional view of the blood vessels from the inside-out. The cross-sectional images are acquired

  14. Abdominal Problems in Children with Congenital Cardiovascular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Güney, Lütfi Hakan; Araz, Co?kun; Beyazp?nar, Deniz Sarp; Arda, ?rfan Serdar; Arslan, Esra Elif; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital cardiovascular abnormality is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Both the type of congenital cardiovascular abnormality and cardiopulmonary bypass are responsible for gastrointestinal system problems. Aims: Intra-abdominal problems, such as paralytic ileus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intestinal perforation, are common in patients who have been operated or who are being followed for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Besides the primary congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, ischemia secondary to cardiac catheterization or surgery contributes to the incidence of these problems. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In this study, we aimed to screen the intra-abdominal problems seen in patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had undergone surgical or angiographical intervention(s). Patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had been treated medically or surgically between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of intra-abdominal problems. The patients’ demographic data, type of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, the intervention applied (surgical, angiographic), the incidence of intra-abdominal problem(s), the interventions applied for the intra-abdominal problems, and the results were evaluated. Results: Fourteen (Group I) of the 76 patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities diagnosis were operated due to intra-abdominal problems, and 62 (Group II) were followed-up clinically for intra-abdominal problems. In Group I (10 boys and 4 girls), 11 patients were aged between 0 and 12 months, and three patients were older than 12 months. Group II included 52 patients aged between 0 and 12 months and 10 patients older than 12 months. Cardiovascular surgical interventions had been applied to six patients in Group I and 40 patients in Group II. The most frequent intra-abdominal problems were necrotizing enterocolitis and intestinal perforation in Group I, and paralytic ileus in Group II. Seven of the Group I patients and 22 of the Group II patients died. The patients who died in both groups had more than three congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in the same patient, and 80% of these patients had been operated for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Conclusion: The gastrointestinal system is involved in important complications experienced by patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. The mortality rate was higher in operated patients due to gastrointestinal complications. Gastrointestinal complications are more frequent in patients with cyanotic anomalies. The presence of more than one congenital cardiovascular abnormality in a patient increased the mortality rate. PMID:26185717

  15. [Contrast enhanced ultrasound can show symptomatic carotid lesions not visualized with magnetic resonance angiography].

    PubMed

    Baud, J-M; Becker, F; Maurizot, A; Pico, F

    2013-12-01

    We report the cases of two patients who presented symptoms focused on a wall of the common carotid: carotidodynia in one patient and a transient ischemic attack in the other. The B-mode ultrasound showed an enlarged thickened medio-adventitial echostructure with a slightly heterogeneous and iso or hypoechoic appearance. There was no narrowing. Injection of ultrasound contrast led to significant enhancement in the wall reflecting neovascularization secondary to inflammation. Other imaging methods (MR and CT angiography) found no abnormality. At the 3-month follow-up visit, the surface area of the lesions was greatly decreased and the ultrasound contrast enhancement had disappeared. These two cases illustrate how focal lesions of the carotid wall missed on MR and CT angiography can be detected and visualized with B-mode ultrasound contrast enhancement. Contrast enhanced ultrasound leads to the concept of "active lesions" resulting from inflammatory processes that can be readily monitored without radiation. PMID:24210748

  16. The use of ultrasound to identify milk ejection in women – tips and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, Donna T

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound imaging of the breast has been limited principally to the abnormal, non-lactating breast. Due to the rapid improvement of imaging technology, high-resolution ultrasound images can now be obtained of the lactating breast. Ultrasound scanning techniques, however, require modifications to accommodate the breast changes that occur in lactation. Furthermore, the function of the breast with regard to milk ejection can be assessed with ultrasound by identification of milk duct dilation and milk flow. At milk ejection, the echogenic duct walls expand as milk flows forward towards the nipple. Milk flow appears as echogenic foci rapidly moving within the milk duct. This paper provides a detailed description of the ultrasound technique used for the detection and reviews nuances associated with the procedure. PMID:19486512

  17. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  18. The abnormal fontanel.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick

    2003-06-15

    The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844

  19. Cardiac innervation and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-06-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy, and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem, and higher centers), which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes to hours), and long term (days to years). This important neurovisceral/autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death. Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extracardiac neural remodeling has also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provide a rational mechanistic basis for the development of neuraxial therapies for preventing sudden cardiac death and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  20. Imaging in adults with congenital cardiac disease (ACCD).

    PubMed

    Kaemmerer, H; Stern, H; Fratz, S; Prokop, M; Schwaiger, M; Hess, J

    2000-12-01

    Management of patients with congenital heart disease requires detailed information on cardiac and great vessel morphology. In previous years, the diagnosis and the treatment of congenital malformations has often depended on cardiac catherization, and in many institutions, cardiac catherization still remains the gold standard against which other modalities are measured. In the past decade, however, imaging methodologies have increasingly shifted toward the use of less invasive and noninvasive techniques. Currently, echocardiography is the initial method of choice in evaluating the anatomy, especially in younger patients. Meanwhile, several newer imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spiral or multislice computed tomography (CT) are in use. They offer extremely useful information about abnormalities of the heart and great vessels as well as the assessment of cardiac anatomy and function. Echo, angiography, MRI and CT should be seen as complimentary investigations in adult congenital heart disease. PMID:11145399

  1. Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Paolo; Vidovich, Mladen I.; Lawless, Christine E.; Elayda, MacArthur A.; Lopez, J. Alberto; Wolf, Dwayne; Willerson, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death in athletes is a recurrent phenomenon at sporting events and during training. Recent studies have associated sudden cardiac death with such cardiovascular conditions as coronary artery anomalies, cardiomyopathies, and electrocardiographic abnormalities, most of which are screenable with modern imaging techniques. We recently inaugurated the Center for Coronary Artery Anomalies at the Texas Heart Institute, which is dedicated to preventing sudden cardiac death in the young and investigating coronary artery anomalies. There, we are conducting 2 cross-sectional studies intended to firmly establish and quantify, in a large group of individuals from a general population, risk factors for sudden cardiac death that arise from specific cardiovascular conditions. In a pilot screening study, we are using a brief, focused clinical questionnaire, electrocardiography, and a simplified novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance screening protocol in approximately 10,000 unselected 11- to 15-year-old children. Concurrently, we are prospectively studying the prevalence of these same conditions, their severity, and their relation to exercise and mode of death in approximately 6,500 consecutive necropsy cases referred to a large forensic center. Eventually, we hope to use our findings to develop a more efficient method of preventing sudden cardiac death in athletes. We believe that these studies will help quantify sudden cardiac death risk factors and the relevance of associated physical activities—crucial information in evaluating the feasibility and affordability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance-based screening. We discuss the rationale for and methods of this long-term endeavor, in advance of reporting the results. PMID:23678212

  2. Validation of four-dimensional ultrasound for targeting in minimally-invasive beating-heart surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Danielle F.; Wiles, Andrew D.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Chris; Gobbi, David G.; Peters, Terry M.

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasound is garnering significant interest as an imaging modality for surgical guidance, due to its affordability, real-time temporal resolution and ease of integration into the operating room. Minimally-invasive intracardiac surgery performed on the beating-heart prevents direct vision of the surgical target, and procedures such as mitral valve replacement and atrial septal defect closure would benefit from intraoperative ultrasound imaging. We propose that placing 4D ultrasound within an augmented reality environment, along with a patient-specific cardiac model and virtual representations of tracked surgical tools, will create a visually intuitive platform with sufficient image information to safely and accurately repair tissue within the beating heart. However, the quality of the imaging parameters, spatial calibration, temporal calibration and ECG-gating must be well characterized before any 4D ultrasound system can be used clinically to guide the treatment of moving structures. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive accuracy assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the performance of 4D ultrasound systems while imaging moving targets. We image a dynamic phantom that is comprised of a simple robot and a tracked phantom to which point-source, distance and spherical objects of known construction can be attached. We also follow our protocol to evaluate 4D ultrasound images generated in real-time by reconstructing ECG-gated 2D ultrasound images acquired from a tracked multiplanar transesophageal probe. Likewise, our evaluation framework allows any type of 4D ultrasound to be quantitatively assessed.

  3. Thermal dilution and ultrasound: alternative techniques for measuring cardiac output.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated 5 TD CO units, 4 modules and 1 stand-alone, from 5 manufacturers. All units are rated Acceptable. Most of the test results met our accuracy and precision criteria; other results that demonstrated a small margin of error were still clinically useful. The utility of the TD method depends largely on proper technique, as well as the volume and temperature of the injection, number of injections, and the type of probe used. Purchasing decisions should be based primarily on the compatibility of the proposed TD units with existing physiologic monitors and whether a module or a stand-alone unit is more appropriate. PMID:3078918

  4. Hyperplastic cardiac sarcoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Masood A; Abreu, Juan A; Durrani, Farida; Daniele, Eddie; Bowman, Kimberly C; Sadel, Scott; Asgarian, Kourosh T; McGinn, Joseph T; Nabagiez, John P

    2015-01-01

    Primary cardiac sarcomas are rare tumors with a median survival of 6-12 months. Data suggest that an aggressive multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome. We present the case of a male who underwent resection of cardiac sarcoma three times from the age of 32 to 34. This report discusses the malignant nature of cardiac sarcoma and the importance of postoperative multidisciplinary care. PMID:25861508

  5. Phospholemman: A Novel Cardiac Stress Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Joseph Y.; Wang, JuFang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Koch, Walter J.; Rabinowitz, Joseph E.; Chan, Tung O.; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and L-type Ca2+ channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine68, PLM stimulates Na+-K+-ATPase but inhibits Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in cardiac myocytes. In heterologous expression systems, PLM modulates the gating of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Therefore, PLM occupies a key modulatory role in intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis and is intimately involved in regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Genetic ablation of PLM results in a slight increase in baseline cardiac contractility and prolongation of action potential duration. When hearts are subjected to catecholamine stress, PLM minimizes the risks of arrhythmogenesis by reducing Na+ overload and simultaneously preserves inotropy by inhibiting Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. In heart failure, both expression and phosphorylation state of PLM are altered and may partly account for abnormalities in EC coupling. The unique role of PLM in regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and potentially L-type Ca2+ channel in the heart, together with the changes in its expression and phosphorylation in heart failure, make PLM a rational and novel target for development of drugs in our armamentarium against heart failure. PMID:20718822

  6. Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidoses in Older North Americans

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2011-01-01

    The amyloidoses are a group of hereditary or acquired disorders caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils that impair tissue structure and function. All amyloidoses result from protein misfolding, a common mechanism for disorders in older persons including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Cardiac amyloidoses in the elderly are most often caused by abnormalities in the protein transthyretin (TTR), a serum transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Mutations in TTR can result in familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, and wild-type TTR can result in senile cardiac amyloidosis. These underdiagnosed disorders are much more common than previously thought. The resulting restrictive cardiomyopathy can cause congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and advanced conduction system disease. Although historically difficult to make, the diagnosis of TTR cardiac amyloidosis has become easier in recent years with advances in cardiac imaging and more widespread use of genetic analysis. While therapy to this point has largely involved supportive medical care, avoidance of potentially toxic agents, and rarely organ transplantation, the near future brings the possibility of targeted pharmacotherapies designed to prevent TTR misfolding and amyloid deposition. As these disease modifying agents are designed to prevent disease progression, it has become increasingly important that older persons with TTR amyloidosis be expeditiously identified and considered for enrollment in clinical registries and trials. PMID:22329529

  7. Mechanotransduction in cardiac hypertrophy and failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Robert C; Zanella, Fabian; Omens, Jeffrey H; Sheikh, Farah

    2015-04-10

    Cardiac muscle cells have an intrinsic ability to sense and respond to mechanical load through a process known as mechanotransduction. In the heart, this process involves the conversion of mechanical stimuli into biochemical events that induce changes in myocardial structure and function. Mechanotransduction and its downstream effects function initially as adaptive responses that serve as compensatory mechanisms during adaptation to the initial load. However, under prolonged and abnormal loading conditions, the remodeling processes can become maladaptive, leading to altered physiological function and the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Although the mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction are far from being fully elucidated, human and mouse genetic studies have highlighted various cytoskeletal and sarcolemmal structures in cardiac myocytes as the likely candidates for load transducers, based on their link to signaling molecules and architectural components important in disease pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent developments that have uncovered specific protein complexes linked to mechanotransduction and mechanotransmission within the sarcomere, the intercalated disc, and at the sarcolemma. The protein structures acting as mechanotransducers are the first step in the process that drives physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, as well as the transition to heart failure, and may provide better insights into mechanisms driving mechanotransduction-based diseases. PMID:25858069

  8. 3D and 4D sonography and magnetic resonance in the assessment of normal and abnormal CNS development: alternative or complementary.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K; Kurjak, Asim

    2011-01-01

    Advanced transvaginal neurosonography has revealed normal and abnormal intracranial morphology. Transvaginal three-dimensional (3D) sonography demonstrates bony structure, multiplanar analysis of inside detailed morphology, tomographic ultrasound imaging in any cutting sections, 3D sonoangiography and volume calculation of ventricles and/or intracranial lesions. Longitudinal assessment of normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) development is done by serial scanning. However, the transvaginal high-frequency approach has several limitations due to lack of penetration and cranial bone ossification with advanced gestational age. Magnetic resonance neuroimaging enabled observation of the whole intracranial cavity, brainstem and cortical gyral/sulcal development. On the other hand, neuro-sonography has advantages in detecting intracranial calcification, vascular abnormalities, intratumoral vascularity and bone dysplasia. Moreover, 3D ultrasound demonstrates extra CNS abnormalities, strongly associated with CNS abnormalities. Any less-invasive modalities can be used for a CNS anomaly screening scan and ultrasound is no doubt the first choice. Once CNS abnormality is suspected, it is suggested to use the different technologies according to what is looked for in each abnormal CNS case. Of course, MR and 3D ultrasound imaging should be complementary as well as alternative. PMID:20979445

  9. System for the diagnosis and monitoring of coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, cardiomyopathy and other cardiac conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); Arenare, Brian (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed and stored in a useful form using a computer. The computer monitor displays various useful information, and in particular graphically displays various permutations of reduced amplitude zones and kurtosis that increase the rapidity and accuracy of cardiac diagnoses. New criteria for reduced amplitude zones are defined that enhance the sensitivity and specificity for detecting cardiac abnormalities.

  10. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). PMID:26072438

  11. Mapping of cardiac electrical activation with electromechanical wave imaging: An in silicoin vivo reciprocity study

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Mapping of cardiac electrical activation with electromechanical wave imaging: An in silico­in vivo Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is an en- tirely noninvasive, ultrasound-based imaging method capable for the 3-dimensional electrical activation. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this report is to reproduce the elec

  12. CARDIAC WALL TRACKING USING DOPPLER TISSUE IMAGING (DTI). Laurent D. COHEN, Floris PAJANY

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Laurent

    ­Mode Ultrasound image : above, grey­scale image, below, color Doppler Tissue Image finding for each pixelCARDIAC WALL TRACKING USING DOPPLER TISSUE IMAGING (DTI). Laurent D. COHEN, Floris PAJANY CEREMADE, France ABSTRACT Doppler Tissue Imaging (DTI) is a new technique that provides an image information

  13. Despeckle Filtering of Ultrasound Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos P. Loizou; Constantinos S. Pattichis

    \\u000a It is well known that speckle is a multiplicative noise that degrades the visual evaluation in ultrasound imaging. This necessitates\\u000a the need for robust despeckling techniques for both routine clinical practice and tele-consultation. The recent advancements\\u000a in ultrasound instrumentation and portable ultrasound devices necessitate the need of more robust despeckling techniques for\\u000a enhanced ultrasound medical imaging for both routine clinical

  14. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy: diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Skori?, Boško; ?ikeš, Maja; Ma?ek, Jana Ljubas; Bari?evi?, Željko; Škorak, Ivan; Gašparovi?, Hrvoje; Bio?ina, Bojan; Mili?i?, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy represents the major determinant of long-term survival in patients after heart transplantation. Due to graft denervation, these patients seldom present with classic symptoms of angina pectoris, and the first clinical presentations are progressive heart failure or sudden cardiac death. Although coronary angiography remains the routine technique for coronary artery disease detection, it is not sensitive enough for screening purposes. This is especially the case in the first year after transplantation when diffuse and concentric vascular changes can be easily detected only by intravascular ultrasound. The treatment of the established vasculopathy is disappointing, so the primary effort should be directed toward early prevention and diagnosis. Due to diffuse vascular changes, revascularization procedures are restricted only to a relatively small proportion of patients with favorable coronary anatomy. Percutaneous coronary intervention is preferred over surgical revascularization since it leads to better acute results and patient survival. Although there is no proven long-term advantage of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of in-stent restenosis, they are preferred over bare-metal stents. Severe vasculopathy has a poor prognosis and the only definitive treatment is retransplantation. This article reviews the present knowledge on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25559827

  15. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  16. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  17. Ultrasound internal tattooing Olivier Couturea

    E-print Network

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    Ultrasound internal tattooing Olivier Couturea and Magalie Faivre ESPCI, Paris 75005, France ultrasound-inducible droplets carrying large payloads of fluorescent markers and the in vivo proof of concept of their remote and controlled deposition via focused ultrasound. The droplets are monodispersed multiple

  18. The RUSH Exam: Rapid Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    The RUSH Exam: Rapid Ultrasound in SHock in the Evaluation of the Critically lll Phillips Perera-risk situations. Ultrasound technology has been rapidly integrated into Emergency Department care in the last-directed ultrasound, and this training is now included in all United States Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical

  19. The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    The Chemical Effects of Ultrasound Intense ultrasonic waves traveling through liquids generate generators of high-intensity ultrasound (sound pitched above human hearing at fre quencies greater than 16 kilohertz, or 16,000 cycles per second). Today ultrasound is applied in hos pitals for medical imaging

  20. Midline electrographic abnormalities and cerebral lesions in the newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Scher, M S

    1988-04-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities arising from the midline region were identified in 154 of 1008 (15.2%) consecutive neonatal EEGs during a 24-month period. These records were obtained on 97 neonates with a variety of clinical diagnoses. Premature infants made up 79% (77/97) of this group. All patients received at least one cranial ultrasound at 7 to 10 days of life. Sixty-two percent (60/97) of the patients had radiographic and/or neuropathological documentation of cerebral lesions: intraventricular hemorrhage (25), periventricular leukomalacia (18), cerebral infarction (10), cerebral malformation (4), and miscellaneous lesions (3). Six types of midline EEG abnormalities are described: negative sharp waves, positive sharp waves, electrographic discharges associated with myoclonus, electrographic seizures, attenuation of background, and rhythmic monofrequencies. Approximately 90% of the patients with background attenuation, discharges with myoclonus, and positive sharp waves and 72% of patients with EEG seizures had cerebral lesions. Midline positive sharp waves were associated with periventricular leukomalacia as well as intraventricular hemorrhage. No midline positive sharp waves, attenuation, EEG seizures or discharges with myoclonus were found in 25 healthy, asymptomatic neonates. Besides positive sharp waves, other specific midline EEG abnormalities can be associated with cerebral lesions in the neonate. The rapid identification of midline EEG abnormalities in neonatal recordings can enhance the accuracy of both electrographic diagnosis and anatomic localization of associated cerebral lesions. PMID:3286747

  1. Robotically assisted ultrasound interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jienan; Swerdlow, Dan; Wang, Shuxin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Tang, Jonathan; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a robotic system to assist the physician in minimally invasive ultrasound interventions. In current practice, the physician must manually hold the ultrasound probe in one hand and manipulate the needle with the other hand, which can be challenging, particularly when trying to target small lesions. To assist the physician, the robot should not only be capable of providing the spatial movement needed, but also be able to control the contact force between the ultrasound probe and patient. To meet these requirements, we are developing a prototype system based on a six degree of freedom parallel robot. The system will provide high bandwidth, precision motion, and force control. In this paper we report on our progress to date, including the development of a PC-based control system and the results of our initial experiments.

  2. Bursting in Cellular Automata and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Gil; Shrier, Alvin; Glass, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the initiation and continuation of abnormal cardiac arrhythmias are incompletely understood. In this chapter, we summarize work that shows how simple cellular automata models of excitable media can display a range of interesting dynamical behavior including spontaneous bursts of reentrant spiral activity. Since the model incorporates basic physiological properties of excitability, heterogeneity, localized pacemakers, and fatigue in a schematic way, the model captures generic physiological dynamics that should be broadly observed in experimental and clinical settings as well as in more realistic mathematical models.

  3. Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-? Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunshi; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Youyi; Zhu, Dahai

    2012-01-01

    Aims It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. Methods and Results We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-? and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-?1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. Conclusion CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-? pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23227174

  4. Cardiac structure and function in female carriers of a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kane, A M; DeFrancesco, T C; Boyle, M C; Malarkey, D E; Ritchey, J W; Atkins, C E; Cullen, J M; Kornegay, J N; Keene, B W

    2013-06-01

    This investigation tested the hypothesis that carriers of golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD), a genetically homologous condition of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), have quantifiable abnormalities in myocardial function, structure, or cardiac rhythm. Eleven GRMD carriers and four matched controls had cardiac evaluations and postmortem examinations. 24-h ECG Holter monitoring disclosed ventricular ectopy in 10 of 11 carriers and 2 of 4 controls. Conventional echocardiography failed to demonstrate significant differences between carriers and controls in systolic function. All carriers had multifocal, minimal to marked myofiber necrosis, fibrosis, mineralization, inflammation, and/or fatty change in their hearts. Immunohistochemistry revealed a mosaic dystrophin deficiency in scattered cardiac myofibers in all carriers. No controls had cardiac histologic lesions; all had uniform dystrophin staining. Despite cardiac mosaic dystrophin expression and degenerative cardiac lesions, GRMD carriers at up to 3 years of age could not be distinguished statistically from normal controls by echocardiography or 24-h Holter monitoring. PMID:23231955

  5. Cardiac risk telemonitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hutten; M. Hribernigg; G. Rauchegger

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of advanced information, telecommunication and implant technology for cardiac risk stratification and management is one of the greatest challenges for modern health care provision. Sudden cardiac death is the major contributor to overall cardiovascular mortality with approximately 60% of all coronary heart disease fatalities occurring annually. Although some high-risk patient groups have been identified with reasonable sensitivity and specificity

  6. Garfinkel Cardiac Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan Garfinkel (University of California Los Angeles; Physiological Sci/Med-Cardio)

    2009-01-10

    Cardiac data on multiple variables for a selected population of 220 men and 338 women participating in a drug treatment study of dobutamine for heart attack prevention. Garfinkel, Alan, et. al. "Prognostic Value of Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Predicting Cardiac Events in Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 33.3 (1999) 708-16.

  7. International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation of a standardized nomenclature for cardiac allograft vasculopathy-2010.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Dipchand, Anne; Ensminger, Stephan M; Hiemann, Nicola E; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Madsen, Joren; Parameshwar, Jayan; Starling, Randall C; Uber, Patricia A

    2010-07-01

    The development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains the Achilles heel of cardiac transplantation. Unfortunately, the definitions of cardiac allograft vasculopathy are diverse, and there are no uniform international standards for the nomenclature of this entity. This consensus document, commissioned by the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation Board, is based on best evidence and clinical consensus derived from critical analysis of available information pertaining to angiography, intravascular ultrasound imaging, microvascular function, cardiac allograft histology, circulating immune markers, non-invasive imaging tests, and gene-based and protein-based biomarkers. This document represents a working formulation for an international nomenclature of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, similar to the development of the system for adjudication of cardiac allograft rejection by histology. PMID:20620917

  8. Sudden cardiac death in infiltrative cardiomyopathies: sarcoidosis, scleroderma, amyloidosis, hemachromatosis.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Steven A; Goldbarg, Seth H; Mehta, Davendra

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, scleroderma, amyloidosis, and hemachromatosis are systemic infiltrative disorders that commonly affect the heart. Owing to their potential for diffuse organ involvement, these diseases may present with myriad clinical manifestations. Conduction system abnormalities are common, and each of these disorders has been associated with sudden cardiac death. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of each of these entities. We place special emphasis on existing literature as it pertains to risk stratification and therapy aimed at the prevention of sudden cardiac death in these infiltrative cardiomyopathies. PMID:18634918

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  10. Biopsym: a Learning Environment for Trans-Rectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    environment for image-guided prostate biopsies in cancer diagnosis; it is based on an ultrasound probe. Introduction Prostate cancer is the most widespread cancer for men and the second cause of death after lung cancer in many countries. It can be suspected from a blood analysis with an abnormal rate of Prostate

  11. Medical ultrasound with microbubbles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoichiro Matsumoto; John S. Allen; Shin Yoshizawa; Teiichiro Ikeda; Yukio Kaneko

    2005-01-01

    In the medical ultrasound applications, microbubbles are closely tied to the diagnostic\\/therapeutic uses. For diagnostic applications, their sound scattering properties yield improved imaging, when the microbubbles are used as contrast agents. The harmonics and subharmonics responses from the bubbles assist in distinguishing the acoustic scattering of blood from that of the surrounding tissue. The therapeutic use of microbubbles has recently

  12. Bragg waveguide ultrasound detectors.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Vishnupriya; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2012-10-01

    Polymer Bragg grating waveguides (BGWs) are demonstrated as ultrasound detectors. The device is fabricated by a direct electron beam lithography technique using an epoxy-based photoresist as the core material, with grating features fabricated on the side walls of the rib waveguide. The main motivation for this design is the linear geometry of the device, which can be used in a linear array, facilitating high-frequency ultrasound imaging. The fabricated BGW device has a cross-sectional area of 1.5 × 1.5 ?m and the grating length is 500 ?m. The optical resonance spectrum is measured and compared with a theoretical model. The BGW device is experimentally demonstrated for the detection of ultrasound waves emitted by a 25-MHz transducer. Detection sensitivity depends on optimal grating design for a steep resonance. The extension of a single-element BGW device to a linear array using optical wavelength division multiplexing is presented. The results demonstrate the potential use of BGW devices in highly compact array of optoacoustic detectors for high-sensitivity ultrasound detection and photoacoustic imaging. PMID:23143579

  13. Analysis of left atrial respiratory and cardiac motion for cardiac ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Holmes, D. R.; Johnson, S. B.; Lehmann, H. I.; Robb, R. A.; Packer, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ablation therapy is often guided by models built from preoperative computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. One of the challenges in guiding a procedure from a preoperative model is properly synching the preoperative models with cardiac and respiratory motion through computational motion models. In this paper, we describe a methodology for evaluating cardiac and respiratory motion in the left atrium and pulmonary veins of a beating canine heart. Cardiac catheters were used to place metal clips within and near the pulmonary veins and left atrial appendage under fluoroscopic and ultrasound guidance and a contrast-enhanced, 64-slice multidetector CT scan was collected with the clips in place. Each clip was segmented from the CT scan at each of the five phases of the cardiac cycle at both end-inspiration and end-expiration. The centroid of each segmented clip was computed and used to evaluate both cardiac and respiratory motion of the left atrium. A total of three canine studies were completed, with 4 clips analyzed in the first study, 5 clips in the second study, and 2 clips in the third study. Mean respiratory displacement was 0.2+/-1.8 mm in the medial/lateral direction, 4.7+/-4.4 mm in the anterior/posterior direction (moving anterior on inspiration), and 9.0+/-5.0 mm superior/inferior (moving inferior with inspiration). At end inspiration, the mean left atrial cardiac motion at the clip locations was 1.5+/-1.3 mm in the medial/lateral direction, and 2.1+/-2.0 mm in the anterior/posterior and 1.3+/-1.2 mm superior/inferior directions. At end expiration, the mean left atrial cardiac motion at the clip locations was 2.0+/-1.5mm in the medial/lateral direction, 3.0+/-1.8mm in the anterior/posterior direction, and 1.5+/-1.5 mm in the superior/inferior directions.

  14. Magnetic resonance assessment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction for detecting cardiac allograft vasculopathy in recipients of heart transplants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Machida; Shinichi Nunoda; Kiyotaka Okajima; Kazunobu Shitakura; Akihiko Sekikawa; Yutaka Kubo; Kuniaki Otsuka; Masami Hirata; Shinya Kojima; Eiko Ueno

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major late complication in heart transplant recipients, graded based on intravascular\\u000a ultrasound (IVUS), and accelerates left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. We investigated the clinical feasibility of\\u000a using magnetic resonance (MR) to assess LV diastolic dysfunction noninvasively in transplant recipients. Thirty-eight asymptomatic\\u000a recipients (25 men, 37.2 ± 14.9 years) underwent both IVUS and cardiac MR. Based on IVUS,

  15. HIC #1303011662 Free Free Ultrasound Ultrasound Visual FVisual Feedback eedback Lessons Lessons

    E-print Network

    HIC #1303011662 Free Free Ultrasound Ultrasound Visual FVisual Feedback in which ultrasound is used to provide a visual display of the tongue. Finally. Speech lessons involve using ultrasound to provide a video image

  16. Functional imaging as an indicator of diagnostic information in cardiac magnetic-resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Joseph W.; Andrews, Lee T.; Begeman, Michael S.; Zeiss, Jacob; Leighton, Richard F.

    1990-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of the human heart provide three dimensional geometric information about the location of cardiac structures throughout the cardiac cycle. Analysis of this four dimensional data set allows detection of abnormal cardiac function related to the presence of coronary artery disease. To assist in this analysis, quantitative measurements of cardiac performance are made from the MR data including ejection fractions, regional wall motion and myocardial wall thickening. Analysis of cardiac performance provided by quantitative analysis of MR data can be aided by computer graphics presentation techniques. Two and three dimensional functional images are computed to indicate regions of abnormality based on the previous methods. The two dimensional images are created using color graphics overlays on the original MR image to represent performance. Polygon surface modeling techniques are used to represent data which is three dimensional, such as blood pool volumes. The surface of these images are color encoded by regional ejection fraction, wall motion or wall thickening. A functional image sequence is constructed at each phase of the cardiac cycle and displayed as a movie loop for review by the physician. Selection of a region on the functional image allows visual interpretation of the original MR images, graphical plots of cardiac function and tabular results. Color encoding is based on absolute measurements and comparison to standard normal templates of cardiac performance.

  17. Ultrasound strain imaging for quantification of tissue function: cardiovascular applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Chris L.; Lopata, Richard G. P.; Hansen, Hendrik H. G.

    2013-03-01

    With ultrasound imaging, the motion and deformation of tissue can be measured. Tissue can be deformed by applying a force on it and the resulting deformation is a function of its mechanical properties. Quantification of this resulting tissue deformation to assess the mechanical properties of tissue is called elastography. If the tissue under interrogation is actively deforming, the deformation is directly related to its function and quantification of this deformation is normally referred as `strain imaging'. Elastography can be used for atherosclerotic plaques characterization, while the contractility of the heart or skeletal muscles can be assessed with strain imaging. We developed radio frequency (RF) based ultrasound methods to assess the deformation at higher resolution and with higher accuracy than commercial methods using conventional image data (Tissue Doppler Imaging and 2D speckle tracking methods). However, the improvement in accuracy is mainly achieved when measuring strain along the ultrasound beam direction, so 1D. We further extended this method to multiple directions and further improved precision by using compounding of data acquired at multiple beam steered angles. In arteries, the presence of vulnerable plaques may lead to acute events like stroke and myocardial infarction. Consequently, timely detection of these plaques is of great diagnostic value. Non-invasive ultrasound strain compounding is currently being evaluated as a diagnostic tool to identify the vulnerability of plaques. In the heart, we determined the strain locally and at high resolution resulting in a local assessment in contrary to conventional global functional parameters like cardiac output or shortening fraction.

  18. Modeling inherited cardiac disorders.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Karim; Kodo, Kazuki; Wu, Joseph C

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the understanding and treatment of cardiac disorders have been thwarted by the inability to study beating human cardiac cells in vitro. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bypass this hurdle by enabling the creation of patient-specific iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs). These cells provide a unique platform to study cardiac diseases in vitro, especially hereditary cardiac conditions. To date, iPSC-CMs have been used to successfully model arrhythmic disorders, showing excellent recapitulation of cardiac channel function and electrophysiologic features of long QT syndrome types 1, 2, 3, and 8, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Similarly, iPSC-CM models of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have shown robust correlation of predicted morphologic, contractile, and electrical phenotypes. In addition, iPSC-CMs have shown some features of the respective phenotypes for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), LEOPARD syndrome, Pompe's disease, and Friedriech's ataxia. In this review, we examine the progress of utilizing iPSC-CMs as a model for cardiac conditions and analyze the potential for the platform in furthering the biology and treatment of cardiac disorders.?? PMID:24632794

  19. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project

    E-print Network

    --------------------------------------------------------Context Dependent Manufacturers Regulatory Agencies Company (Management, Dispatch, Maintenance) Flight and Cabin Crews ATC #12;Economic and Regulatory Pressures Philosophies Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Taxonomy of the Domain Economic and Regulatory Pressures Pertaining to Dealing with and Training

  20. Routine Doppler ultrasound for the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kok; M. J. H. Slooff; C. J. P. Thijn; P. M. J. G. Peeters; R. Verwer; C. M. A. Bijleveld; A. P. van den Berg; E. B. Haagsma; I. J. Klompmaker

    1998-01-01

    To assess the role of routine Doppler ultrasound in the detection of clinically unsuspected vascular complications in the\\u000a early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the findings of 858 routinely performed Doppler ultrasound\\u000a examinations were analyzed in 268 transplants. At various time intervals after OLT, we encountered 46 abnormal Doppler findings:\\u000a hepatic artery (thrombosis), portal vein [anastomotic stenosis, (non)occlusive

  1. Cardiac imaging and stress testing asymptomatic athletes to identify those at risk of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    La Gerche, Andre; Baggish, Aaron L; Knuuti, Juhani; Prior, David L; Sharma, Sanjay; Heidbuchel, Hein; Thompson, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Sudden cardiac death in young athletes is rare but tragic. The cardiology community is faced with the challenge of providing a sensible strategy for the prevention of SCD while simultaneously reaffirming that the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh potential risks. At present, there is a broad range of screening recommendations dependent upon country, sporting discipline, and competition level. While much recent debate has focused on the efficacy of screening with electrocardiography, a number of sporting bodies also mandate the inclusion of exercise testing and echocardiography in screening protocols. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, coronary calcium scoring and computed tomography coronary angiography have also been promoted as potentially valuable screening tools for competitive athletes. This review will examine the controversial topic of utilizing cardiac imaging for athlete pre-participation screening. Specifically, the limitations of screening for relatively rare disorders using imaging tools with uncertain or imperfect accuracy will be addressed. Current evidence suggests that the accuracy of all cardiac imaging modalities is insufficient to justify their use as primary screening modalities in athletes. Atypical findings such as marked cardiac dilation, reduced deformation, or small patches of delayed gadolinium enhancement may be commonly encountered in well-trained athletes, but, at present, the prognostic significance of such findings is unknown. Resulting uncertainty for the clinician and athlete has the potential for psychological stress, further testing, and unnecessary exclusions from competition. However, these concerns must not be confused with the extremely useful applications of cardiac imaging for the assessment of athletes with symptoms, an abnormal electrocardiogram or a positive family history. As modern imaging further enhances our understanding of the spectrum of athlete's heart, its role may expand from the assessment of athletes with suspected disease to being part of comprehensive pre-participation screening in apparently healthy athletes. PMID:24029371

  2. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis. PMID:24447924

  3. Genetic basis for the origin of cardiac arrhythmias: Implications for therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mackenzi Mbai; Sridharan Rajamani; Brian P. Delisle; Blake D. Anson; Corey Anderson; Jonathan C. Makielski; Craig T. January

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of the role that genetic abnormalities play in the generation of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death\\u000a has evolved enormously over the past decade. One result is new insight into underlying physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms.\\u000a New therapies based on this evolving insight are being developed. This review summarizes recent discoveries with a focus on\\u000a the genetic basis of

  4. Transthyretin Ile 122 and cardiac amyloidosis in African-Americans. 2 case reports.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, D R; Ittmann, M; Buxbaum, J N; Wieczorek, R; Gorevic, P D

    1997-01-01

    Two cases of cardiac amyloidosis resulting from deposition of the Ile 122 variant of transthyretin in African-Americans are presented. These cases illustrate several typical features of this disorder, including electrocardiographic abnormalities and digoxin toxicity. Transthyretin Ile 122 is a common amyloidogenic variant in African-Americans (present as a heterozygous variant in 4% of this population); therefore, the diagnosis of transthyretin Ile 122 cardiac amyloidosis should be considered in African-Americans with unexplained restrictive cardiomyopathy or arrhythmias. Images PMID:9068139

  5. [Cardiac disease at risk in the young athlete].

    PubMed

    Massoure, Pierre-Laurent; Camus, Olivier; Chenilleau, Marie-Caroline; Gil, Jean-Marie; Fourcade, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Physical training significantly reduces all cause mortality in the general population. Eligibility for competitive sport participation in athletes with cardiovascular diseases is based on recommendations. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is low (0.5 to 2/100,000 athletes/year). The most common cardiac diseases at risk are hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary arteries abnormalities, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and acute myocarditis. Pre-participation screening is based on the cardiovascular evaluation, including ECG (repeated every 3years since the age of 12 and every 5years since the age of 20 to the age of 35). Some events are unpredictable (idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, sudden death related to congenital coronary arteries abnormalities or commotio cordis). A better access to public defibrillation is needed. PMID:24856863

  6. Cardiac muscle cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nathanael Reveal (None; )

    2007-07-02

    Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They work together to bring deoxygenated blood in and push oxygenated blood out into the body. Essentially, they keep your heart pumping and your body alive.

  7. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ... rate, blood pressure and EKG monitored. A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ...

  8. Breast ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Elastography is a newly emerging study of interest that can be especially helpful when used as an adjunct to conventional B-mode ultrasound in evaluating breast lesions. It is estimated that 80% of breast lesions currently biopsied prove to be benign. Reducing that percentage is advantageous to both patients and the imaging community. The specificity of conventional ultrasound when added to a mammography work-up needs improvement. Adding elastography may improve specificity. This Directed Reading describes different acoustic techniques used to obtain an elastogram and evaluation of scoring procedures. Major technique differences exist in imaging the elastic properties of tissue. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your continuing education preference. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. PMID:21406711

  9. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique. PMID:25636803

  10. Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in heart failure: pathophysiology and implications.

    PubMed

    Urso, Caterina; Brucculeri, Salvatore; Caimi, Gregorio

    2015-07-01

    Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities are a frequent and potentially dangerous complication in subjects with congestive heart failure. This may be due either to the pathophysiological alterations present in the heart failure state leading to neurohumoral activation (stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathoadrenergic stimulation), or to the adverse events of therapy with diuretics, cardiac glycosides, and ACE inhibitors. Subjects with heart failure may show hyponatremia, magnesium, and potassium deficiencies; the latter two play a pivotal role in the development of cardiac arrhythmias. The early identification of these alterations and the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms are very useful for the management of these patients. PMID:25820346

  11. Hereditary evaluation of multiple developmental abnormalities in the Havanese dog breed.

    PubMed

    Starr, Alison N; Famula, Thomas R; Markward, Nathan J; Baldwin, Joanne V; Fowler, Karon D; Klumb, Diane E; Simpson, Nancy L; Murphy, Keith E

    2007-01-01

    The Havanese is a toy breed that presents with a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Skeletal defects, particularly osteochondrodysplasia (OCD), are the most frequently observed anomalies. Cataracts, liver shunts, heart murmurs, and missing incisors are also common in this breed. Estimates of heritability and complex segregation analyses were carried out to evaluate modes of transmission for these abnormalities. A moderate heritability was identified and evidence for a single major locus was found. Novel statistical analysis methods were used to identify four traits that co-segregate: cataracts, hepatic abnormalities, OCD, and cardiac abnormalities. A canine-specific microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression in the liver that accompany the aforementioned developmental problems. One hundred and thirteen genes were found to be differentially regulated in the Havanese. PMID:17621585

  12. Ultrasound tomography techniques and application to thermometry

    E-print Network

    Nebeker, Jakob; Nebeker, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    developments in medical ultrasound beamforming includingsignals. In the case of medical ultrasound, B-Mode images (ultrasound breast imaging,” in 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and

  13. Ultrasound mammography with a mirror Frank Natterer

    E-print Network

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    1 Ultrasound mammography with a mirror Frank Natterer Department of Mathematics and Computer decisively improves ultrasound mammography. A suitable reconstruction algorithm is described. A numerical example based on computer simulations is given. I. INTRODUCTION In present day's ultrasound mammography

  14. Ultrasound in Combat Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Harrison

    \\u000a Ultrasound is an important part of the initial trauma workup, no matter the setting. Most surgeons will be practicing at a\\u000a Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in theatre; however, as a part of a FST you might not have a CT scanner available. In austere\\u000a scenarios, US can be invaluable in directing resuscitative and operative management, but US should also be

  15. Tissue identification by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.; Gammell, P. M.; Wilson, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic properties of animal and human soft tissue were measured over the frequency range of 1.5 to 10.0 MHz. The method employed a swept-frequency, coherent technique known as time delay spectrometry. Measurements of attenuation versus frequency on liver, backfat, kidney, pancreas, spleen, breast, and other tissue were made. Considerable attention was paid to tissue handling and in determining the effects of fixing on the attenuation of ultrasound in the tissue.

  16. Clinical ophthalmic ultrasound improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. B.; Piro, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital synthetic aperture techniques to obtain high resolution ultrasound images of eye and orbit was proposed. The parameters of the switched array configuration to reduce data collection time to a few milliseconds to avoid eye motion problems in the eye itself were established. An assessment of the effects of eye motion on the performance of the system was obtained. The principles of synthetic techniques are discussed. Likely applications are considered.

  17. All-optical ultrasound transducer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hou; J. S. Kim; S. Ashkenazi; S. W. Huang; M. O'Donnell; L. J. Guo

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in fabrication techniques have accelerated development of optical generation and detection of ultrasound, a promising technology to construct high-frequency arrays for high resolution ultrasound imaging. A two-dimensional (2-D) gold nanostructure has been fabricated to optically generate high frequency ultrasound. The structure consists of 2-D arrangements of gold nanoparticles, sandwiched between a transparent substrate and a 4.5 mum thick

  18. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Rene G.; Apfel, Robert E.; Brandsma, Janet L.

    2002-05-01

    Gene therapy is a promising modality for the treatment of a variety of human diseases both inherited and acquired, such as cystic fibrosis and cancer. The lack of an effective, safe method for the delivery of foreign genes into the cells, a process known as transfection, limits this effort. Ultrasound mediated gene transfection is an attractive method for gene delivery since it is a noninvasive technique, does not introduce any viral particles into the host and can offer very good temporal and spatial control. Previous investigators have shown that sonication increases transfection efficiency with and without ultrasound contrast agents. The mechanism is believed to be via a cavitation process where collapsing bubble nuclei permeabilize the cell membrane leading to increased DNA transfer. The research is focused on the use of pulsed wave high frequency focused ultrasound to transfect DNA into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. A better understanding of the mechanism behind the transfection process is also sought. A summary of some in vitro results to date will be presented, which includes the design of a sonication chamber that allows us to model the in vivo case more accurately.

  19. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  20. Direct Cardiac Reprogramming: Advances in Cardiac Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Olivia; Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Heart disease is one of the lead causes of death worldwide. Many forms of heart disease, including myocardial infarction and pressure-loading cardiomyopathies, result in irreversible cardiomyocyte death. Activated fibroblasts respond to cardiac injury by forming scar tissue, but ultimately this response fails to restore cardiac function. Unfortunately, the human heart has little regenerative ability and long-term outcomes following acute coronary events often include chronic and end-stage heart failure. Building upon years of research aimed at restoring functional cardiomyocytes, recent advances have been made in the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts toward a cardiomyocyte cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. Several experiments show functional improvements in mouse models of myocardial infarction following in situ generation of cardiomyocyte-like cells from endogenous fibroblasts. Though many of these studies are in an early stage, this nascent technology holds promise for future applications in regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the history, progress, methods, challenges, and future directions of direct cardiac reprogramming.

  1. Noninvasive Cardiac Screening in Young Athletes With Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Steriotis, Alexandros Klavdios; Nava, Andrea; Rigato, Ilaria; Mazzotti, Elisa; Daliento, Luciano; Thiene, Gaetano; Basso, Cristina; Corrado, Domenico; Bauce, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze using noninvasive cardiac examinations a series of young athletes discovered to have ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) during the preparticipation screening program for competitive sports. One hundred forty-five athletes (mean age 17 ± 5 years) were evaluated. The study protocol included electrocardiography (ECG), exercise testing, 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, signal-averaged ECG, and in selected cases contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results of ECG were normal in most athletes (85%). VAs were initially detected prevalently during exercise testing (85%) and in the remaining cases on ECG and Holter monitoring. Premature ventricular complexes disappeared during exercise in 56% of subjects. Premature ventricular complexes during Holter monitoring averaged 4,700 per day, predominantly monomorphic (88%), single, and/or in couplets (79%). The most important echocardiographic findings were mitral valve prolapse in 29 patients (20%), congenital heart disease in 4 (3%), and right ventricular regional kinetic abnormalities in 5 (3.5%). On cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, right ventricular regional kinetic abnormalities were detected in 9 of 30 athletes and were diagnostic of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in only 1 athlete. Overall, 30% of athletes were judged to have potentially dangerous VAs. In asymptomatic athletes with prevalently normal ECG, most VAs can be identified by adding an exercise test during preparticipation screening. In conclusion, cardiac screening with noninvasive examinations remains a fundamental tool for the identification of a possible pathologic substrate and for the characterization of electrical instability. PMID:23219000

  2. Microwave Treatment for Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez-Moya, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    NASA seeks to transfer the NASA developed microwave ablation technology, designed for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (irregular heart beat), to industry. After a heart attack, many cells surrounding the resulting scar continue to live but are abnormal electrically; they may conduct impulses unusually slowly or fire when they would typically be silent. These diseased areas might disturb smooth signaling by forming a reentrant circuit in the muscle. The objective of microwave ablation is to heat and kill these diseased cells to restore appropriate electrical activity in the heart. This technology is a method and apparatus that provides for propagating microwave energy into heart tissues to produce a desired temperature profile therein at tissue depths sufficient for thermally ablating arrhythmogenic cardiac tissue while preventing excessive heating of surrounding tissues, organs, and blood. A wide bandwidth double-disk antenna is effective for this purpose over a bandwidth of about six gigahertz. A computer simulation provides initial screening capabilities for an antenna such as antenna, frequency, power level, and power application duration. The simulation also allows optimization of techniques for specific patients or conditions. In comparison with other methods that involve direct-current pulses or radio frequencies below 1 GHz, this method may prove more effective in treating ventricular tachycardia. This is because the present method provides for greater control of the location, cross-sectional area, and depth of a lesion via selection of the location and design of the antenna and the choice of microwave power and frequency.

  3. Clinical utility of a magnetic resonance-conditional pacemaker in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Takeda, Mitsuo; Yamahara, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We herein present a case of cardiac sarcoidosis with atrioventricular (AV) block that was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after pacemaker implantation. An echocardiogram showed wall thinning in the basal septum. MRI showed late gadolinium enhancement in the interventricular septum and right ventricle. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated abnormal uptake in the same area. An MR-conditional pacemaker was implanted to treat AV block. Steroid treatment resulted in the remission of the cardiac lesions and AV block, as confirmed by PET and MRI. MR-conditional pacemakers are thus considered to have great advantages in treating cardiac sarcoidosis with AV block. PMID:23774544

  4. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Renew | Join About Us Leadership History Awards Committees Mission & Constitution Join/Renew Communities Basic Science and Instrumentation Cardiovascular Ultrasound Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Elastography ...

  5. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-?B, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyotirmoy Ghosh; Joydeep Das; Prasenjit Manna; Parames C. Sil

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant

  6. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces cardiac fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liou, Cher-Ming; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Williams, Timothy; Ting, Hua; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-06-01

    Very limited information regarding the influence of chronic methamphetamine exposure on cardiac apoptosis is available. In this study, we evaluate whether chronic methamphetamine exposure will increase cardiac Fas-dependent (type I) and mitochondria-dependent (type II) apoptotic pathways. Thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 0.5 ml SQ per day] and a methamphetamine-treated group (MA 10 mg/kg SQ per day) for 3 months. We report that after 3 months of exposure, abnormal myocardial architecture, more minor cardiac fibrosis and cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed at greater frequency in the MA group than in the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-?, Fas ligand, Fas receptor, Fas-associated death domain, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts were significantly increased in the MA group, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bak, t-Bid, Bak to Bcl-xL ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the MA group, compared with the PBS group. The results from this study reveal that chronic methamphetamine exposure will activate cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, which may indicate a possible mechanism for developing cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic methamphetamine abuse. PMID:24307234

  7. Recent advances in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Vakamudi, Mahesh; Ravulapalli, Harish; Karthikeyan, Ranjith

    2012-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac anaesthesia involves anaesthetizing very small children with complex congenital heart disease for major surgical procedures. The unique nature of this patient population requires considerable expertise and in-depth knowledge of the altered physiology. There have been several developments in the last decade in this subspecialty that has contributed to better care and improved outcome in this vulnerable group of patients. The purpose of this review is to present some of the recent advances in the anesthetic management of these children from preoperative evaluation to postoperative care. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in preoperative evaluation, the use of ultrasound to secure vascular access, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes, the optimal haematocrit and the role of blood products, including the use of recombinant factor VIIa. It also deals with the advances in technology that have led to improved monitoring, the newer developments in cardiopulmonary bypass, the use of centrifugal pumps and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the role of DHCA. The role of new drugs, especially the ?-2 agonists in paediatric cardiac anesthetic practice, fast tracking and effective postoperative pain management have also been reviewed. PMID:23293388

  8. Cardiac and vascular adaptation to 0g with and without thigh cuffs (Antares 14 and Altair 21 day Mir spaceflights)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ph. Arbeille; G. Fomina; F. Achaibou; J. Pottier; A. Kotovskaya

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular Actaptation was evaluated on 2 astronauts: one wearing thigh cuffs from flight day 1 to 8 (14d flight), the second without cuffs (21d flight). Ultrasound investigations were performed at rest and during LBNP. Results: Without thigh cuffs the cardiovascular Actaptation consists in (1) the development of a hypovolemia with an increase of the heart rate and the cardiac output,

  9. Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping-Chun; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Yueh-Min; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Pai, Peiying; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Chuan; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2012-01-01

    We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE) and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02?g/kg B.W. or 0.04?g/kg B.W.) or silymarin (0.2?g/kg B.W.). Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23243427

  10. Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

  11. Clinical significance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yuichi; Kubo, Toru; Yamanaka, Shigeo; Hirota, Takayoshi; Tanioka, Katsutoshi; Yamasaki, Naohito; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Kitaoka, Hiroaki

    2015-05-13

    Although conventional cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) markers have been reported to predict adverse outcome in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the usefulness of a new-generation high-sensitivity assay of cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) compared with these conventional biomarkers is unclear.We performed clinical evaluation including measurements of troponin markers in 54 patients with DCM under a clinically stable condition. At baseline, the serum concentration of hs-cTnT was 0.014 ± 0.016 ng/mL and 17 (31%) of the patients showed abnormal hs-cTnT values (> 0.014 ng/mL). During a mean follow-up period of 5.1 ± 1.6 years, there were 16 cardiac events: heart failure death in 6 patients, sudden cardiac death in 2 patients, and hospitalization for heart failure in 8 patients. Patients with abnormal hs-cTnT or abnormal cTnT (> 0.01 ng/mL) values had significantly more frequent cardiac events than did those with normal hs-cTnT or cTnT values. On the other hand, abnormal cTnI (> 0.03 ng/mL) value did not reach statistical significance for these adverse events. Multivariate analysis showed that only an abnormal hs-cTnT value was an independent predictor of all cardiac events (HR: 5.68, P = 0.003). When the patients were divided into 4 groups according to the degree of hs-cTnT levels, the clinical course was significantly worse in patients with higher hs-cTnT values.These results suggest that the serum concentration of hs-cTnT provides better risk stratification in DCM patients. PMID:25912901

  12. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  13. Despeckling of medical ultrasound images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg V. Michailovich; Allen Tannenbaum

    2006-01-01

    Speckle noise is an inherent property of medical ultrasound imaging, and it generally tends to reduce the image resolution and contrast, thereby reducing the diagnostic value of this imaging modality. As a result, speckle noise reduction is an important prerequisite, whenever ultrasound imaging is used for tissue characterization. Among the many methods that have been proposed to perform this task,

  14. Nonlinear acoustics in diagnostic ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis A Duck

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of ultrasonic waves is nonlinear. Phenomena associated with the propagation of diagnostic ultrasound pulses cannot be predicted using linear assumptions alone. These include a progressive distortion in waveform, the generation of frequency harmonics and acoustic shocks, excess deposition of energy and acoustic saturation. These effects occur most strongly when ultrasound propagates within liquids with comparatively low acoustic attenuation,

  15. Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids. PMID:25366803

  16. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  17. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  18. Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

    2003-01-01

    A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

  19. 7C-6 Motion Artifact Reduction by ECG Gating in Ultrasound Induced Thermal Strain Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kim; S.-W. Huang; R. Olafsson; C. Jia; R. S. Witte; M. O'Donnell

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac motion related artifact in ultrasound induced thermal strain imaging (TSI) was reduced in-vitro and in-vivo using ECG gating. Tissue motion due to the heart beat is a major challenge for in-vivo TSI application, especially for cardiovascular systems. Temporal variation of the relative position between the transducer and the artery will induce decorrelation in speckle tracking. Tissue deformation produces mechanical

  20. Integrated medical school ultrasound: development of an ultrasound vertical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physician-performed focused ultrasonography is a rapidly growing field with numerous clinical applications. Focused ultrasound is a clinically useful tool with relevant applications across most specialties. Ultrasound technology has outpaced the education, necessitating an early introduction to the technology within the medical education system. There are many challenges to integrating ultrasound into medical education including identifying appropriately trained faculty, access to adequate resources, and appropriate integration into existing medical education curricula. As focused ultrasonography increasingly penetrates academic and community practices, access to ultrasound equipment and trained faculty is improving. However, there has remained the major challenge of determining at which level is integrating ultrasound training within the medical training paradigm most appropriate. Methods The Ohio State University College of Medicine has developed a novel vertical curriculum for focused ultrasonography which is concordant with the 4-year medical school curriculum. Given current evidenced-based practices, a curriculum was developed which provides medical students an exposure in focused ultrasonography. The curriculum utilizes focused ultrasonography as a teaching aid for students to gain a more thorough understanding of basic and clinical science within the medical school curriculum. The objectives of the course are to develop student understanding in indications for use, acquisition of images, interpretation of an ultrasound examination, and appropriate decision-making of ultrasound findings. Results Preliminary data indicate that a vertical ultrasound curriculum is a feasible and effective means of teaching focused ultrasonography. The foreseeable limitations include faculty skill level and training, initial cost of equipment, and incorporating additional information into an already saturated medical school curriculum. Conclusions Focused ultrasonography is an evolving concept in medicine. It has been shown to improve education and patient care. The indications for and implementation of focused ultrasound is rapidly expanding in all levels of medicine. The ideal method for teaching ultrasound has yet to be established. The vertical curriculum in ultrasound at The Ohio State University College of Medicine is a novel evidenced-based training regimen at the medical school level which integrates ultrasound training into medical education and serves as a model for future integrated ultrasound curricula. PMID:23819896

  1. What's new in urologic ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Anupam; Naranje, Priyanka; Pavunesan, Santhosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is an imaging technology that has evolved swiftly and has come a long way since its beginnings. It is a commonly used initial diagnostic imaging modality as it is rapid, effective, portable, relatively inexpensive, and causes no harm to human health. In the last few decades, there have been significant technological improvements in the equipment as well as the development of contrast agents that allowed ultrasound to be even more widely adopted for urologic imaging. Ultrasound is an excellent guidance tool for an array of urologic interventional procedures and also has therapeutic application in the form of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for tumor ablation. This article focuses on the recent advances in ultrasound technology and its emerging clinical applications in urology.

  2. Drug Treatment of Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Achong, M. R.; Kumana, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of cardiac failure should first be aimed at reversing or ameliorating the underlying pathological processes. This review highlights the common problems and pitfalls in the use of digoxin, diuretics and vasodilators in patients with cardiac failure. PMID:21289849

  3. Drug treatment of cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Achong, M R; Kumana, C R

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of cardiac failure should first be aimed at reversing or ameliorating the underlying pathological processes. This review highlights the common problems and pitfalls in the use of digoxin, diuretics and vasodilators in patients with cardiac failure. PMID:21289849

  4. Primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, N A

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6. PMID:7362282

  5. Bench-to-bedside review: Mechanisms of critical illness – classifying microcirculatory flow abnormalities in distributive shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul WG Elbers; Can Ince

    2006-01-01

    Over 30 years ago Weil and Shubin proposed a re-classification of shock states and identified hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive\\u000a and distributive shock. The first three categories have in common that they are associated with a fall in cardiac output.\\u000a Distributive shock, such as occurs during sepsis and septic shock, however, is associated with an abnormal distribution of\\u000a microvascular blood flow and

  6. Impairment of cardiac function and energetics in experimental renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Raine, A E; Seymour, A M; Roberts, A F; Radda, G K; Ledingham, J G

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac function and energetics in experimental renal failure in the rat (5/6 nephrectomy) have been investigated by means of an isolated perfused working heart preparation and an isometric Langendorff preparation using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR). 4 wk after nephrectomy cardiac output of isolated hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) at all levels of preload and afterload in the renal failure groups than in the pair-fed sham operated control group. In control hearts, cardiac output increased with increases in perfusate calcium from 0.73 to 5.61 mmol/liter whereas uremic hearts failed in high calcium perfusate. Collection of 31P NMR spectra from hearts of renal failure and control animals during 30 min normoxic Langendorff perfusion showed that basal phosphocreatine was reduced by 32% to 4.7 mumol/g wet wt (P < 0.01) and the phosphocreatine to ATP ratio was reduced by 32% (P < 0.01) in uremic hearts. During low flow ischemia, there was a substantial decrease in phosphocreatine in the uremic hearts and an accompanying marked increase in release of inosine into the coronary effluent (14.9 vs 6.1 microM, P < 0.01). We conclude that cardiac function is impaired in experimental renal failure, in association with abnormal cardiac energetics and increased susceptibility to ischemic damage. Disordered myocardial calcium utilization may contribute to these derangements. PMID:8254048

  7. Cardiac size, autonomic function, and 5-year follow-up of chronic heart failure patients with severe prolongation of ventricular activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark T. Kearney; Azfar Zaman; Dwain L. Eckberg; Amanda J. Lee; Keith A. A. Fox; Ajay M. Shah; Robin J. Prescott; William E. Shell; Elizabeth Charuvastra; Timothy S. Callahan; W. Paul Brooksby; D. Justin Wright; Nicholas P. Gall; James Nolan

    2003-01-01

    Background: Chronic heart failure is characterized by left ventricular dilation and abnormalities of cardiac autonomic function. Up to 20% of patients with chronic heyart failure have QRS prolongation, which can lead to asynchronous left ventricular contraction. We tested the hypotheses that in patients with chronic heart failure, QRS > 150 ms is a risk factor for additional abnormalities of ventricular

  8. Bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys -- an unusual case diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sumer Kumar; Jagmohan, Pooja; Solanki, R S; Sangwan, Sunita; Toppo, Suresh

    2011-07-01

    While it is true that unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney is commonly associated with abnormalities in the contralateral kidney, it is not widely known that the condition may be bilateral. The recognition of the bilaterality of the multicystic dysplastic kidney by ultrasound has grave prognostic implications as this condition is uniformly fatal. High resolution ultrasound examination of the foetus enables early detection of congenital malformations of the urinary tract. This information is of value in determining foetalprognosis, in deciding the method of delivery, and in alerting the paediatricians to supportive and corrective measures which may need to be taken in postnatal period. PMID:22315850

  9. Cardiac Bioelectricity and Arrhythmias

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Flavio Fenton (Cornell University; )

    2006-09-22

    Deep inside a human heart, its pacemaker sends out bursts of electrical signals that keep the heart pumping rhythmically, supplying life-giving oxygen to the body. When these electrical waves become disorganized, the heart starts beating irregularly or arrhythmically. Flavio Fenton and Elizabeth Cherry of Cornell University made this interactive program to provide education on arrhythmias. It presents detailed information on cardiac anatomy, normal cardiac electrophysiology, and different kinds of arrhythmias using a combination of words, pictures, and interactive, computer simulations and animations.

  10. A Case of Pulmonary Artery Hydatid Cyst Observed on Endobronchial Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Senturk, Aysegul; Er, Mukremin; Karalezli, Aysegul; Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Soyturk, Ayse Nur; Cetin, Huseyin; Canan Hasanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (HC) is a parasitic disease that may involve many organs, especially the lung and the liver. Pulmonary artery location of the hydatid cyst is extremely rare, but it may cause life-threatening complications. We report a case of a hydatid cyst that completely filled the left main pulmonary artery and its distal part without cardiac involvement. Thoracic computed tomography showed filling defects in the pulmonary arteries. Endobronchial ultrasound was performed for differential diagnosis and it showed a cystic lesion. Hydatid cyst-specific IgE and hem agglutination test results were positive. In the literature, cases like this in which the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid cyst is made by endobronchial ultrasound are not usually seen. Although many imaging modalities such as plain chest radiography, cross-sectional imaging (MDCT and MRI), echocardiography and conventional pulmonary angiography have been used in the diagnostic approach, we recommend endobronchial ultrasound for the differential diagnosis of cases with cystic formation. PMID:25793087

  11. Haemodynamic effects of precordial or carotid ultrasound application on the dog.

    PubMed

    Timisjärvi, J; Huttu-Hiltunen, E; Kettunen, R; Hirvonen, L; Kinnunen, P

    1984-02-01

    Ultrasound (1.09 MHz, 1 to 2 W/cm2) was applied on the thoracic wall or on the neck of the anaesthetized, artificially ventilated dog. The heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output remained almost unchanged during both applications. The aortic and pulmonary arterial pressures increased by 7 to 9 mmHg. Pulmonary arterial wedge pressure increased. The right atrial mean and aortic and pulmonary arterial pulse pressures did not change. The observed changes except the rise of wedge pressure returned to the control values within 5 min after the application. The present findings suggest an increase in systemic vascular and pulmonary arterial resistances in connection with both methods of ultrasound application. The precordial application was associated with pooling of blood in the pulmonary circuit. Since the ultrasound non-selectively affects several receptors and structures the final role of the sympathetic nervous system can be evaluated after experiments with isolated targets and selected denervations. PMID:6701453

  12. An optical approach to validate ultrasound surface segmentation of the heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Schlaefer, Alexander; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2014-09-01

    The patient specific geometry of the heart is of interest for a number of diagnostic methods, e.g., when modeling the inverse electrocardiography (ECG) problem. One approach to get images of the heart is three-dimensional ultrasound. However, segmentation of the surface is complicated and segmentation methods are typically validated against manually drawn contours. This requires considerable expert knowledge. Hence, we have developed a setup that allows studying the accuracy of image segmentation from cardiac ultrasound. Using an optical tracking system, we have measured the three-dimensional surface of an isolated porcine heart. We studied whether the actual geometry can be reconstructed from both optical and ultrasound images. We illustrate the use of our approach in quantifying the segmentation result for a three-dimensional region-based active contour algorithm.

  13. Cardiac Response and Personality Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Sidney J.; Feirstein, Alan

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the level and variability of cardiac response during complex problem-solving and interposed rest periods and their differing relationships to estimates of personality integration on the Rorschach. Findings suggest cardiac variability may be a more differentiated measure than level of cardiac response. (Author)

  14. Cardiac Xenotransplantation: Future and Limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Ogata; Jeffrey L. Platt

    2004-01-01

    Despite improvements in pharmacological therapies, the outlook for patients with severe cardiac disease remains poor. At present, only transplantation can ‘cure’ end-stage cardiac failure. However, fewer than 5% of those who need a cardiac transplant receive one in the United States each year. To address this problem, some propose using animals as a source of organs for transplantation, that is,

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for assessment of hemophilic arthropathy: MRI correlation.

    PubMed

    Doria, Andrea S; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Mohanta, Arun; Jarrin, Jose; Blanchette, Victor; Srivastava, Alok; Moineddin, Rahim; Kavitha, M L; Hilliard, Pamela; Poonnoose, Pradeep; Gibikote, Sridhar

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability of interpretation of ultrasound findings according to data blinding in maturing hemophilic joints and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound compared with MRI for assessing joint components. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Ankles (n = 34) or knees (n = 25) of boys with hemophilia or von Willebrand disease (median age, 13 years; range, 5-17 years) were imaged by ultrasound, MRI, and radiography in two centers (Toronto, Canada, and Vellore, India). Ultrasound scans were performed by two operators (one blinded and one unblinded to MRI data) and were reviewed by four reviewers who were unblinded to corresponding MRI findings according to a proposed 0- to 14-item scale that matches 14 of 17 items of the corresponding MRI scale. MRI examinations were independently reviewed by two readers. RESULTS. When data were acquired by radiologists, ultrasound was highly reliable for assessing soft-tissue changes (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.98 for ankles and 0.97 for knees) and substantially to highly reliable for assessing osteochondral changes (ICC, 0.61 for ankles and 0.89 for knees). Ultrasound was highly sensitive (> 92%) for assessing synovial hypertrophy and hemosiderin in both ankles and knees but had borderline sensitivity for detecting small amounts of fluid in ankles (70%) in contrast to knees (93%) and variable sensitivity for evaluating osteochondral abnormalities (sensitivity range, 86-100% for ankles and 12-100% for knees). CONCLUSION. If it is performed by experienced radiologists using a standardized protocol, ultrasound is highly reliable for assessing soft-tissue abnormalities of ankles and knees and substantially to highly reliable for assessing osteochondral changes in these joints. PMID:25714320

  16. Principles of Cerebral Ultrasound Contrast Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Powers; Michalakis Averkiou; Matthew Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast is gaining acceptance worldwide as an adjunct to conventional ultrasound imaging. It has clinical applications as diverse as liver disease detection and characterization, myocardial perfusion and wall motion studies, and cerebral vascularity and perfusion imaging. This paper will focus on imaging techniques used for transcranial ultrasound contrast imaging. The interaction of ultrasound with the microbubbles in the contrast

  17. Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Gluer; C. Y. Wu; M. Jergas; S. A. Goldstein; H. K. Genant

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters are associated with bone structure. In an in vitro study on 20 cubes of trabecular bone, we measured broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and two newly defined parameters—ultrasound velocity through bone (UVB) and ultrasound attenuation in bone (UAB). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone structure was assessed

  18. Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) System: Development of Combined Transmission and Reflection Ultrasound with New Reconstruction Algorithms for Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Littrup, P J; Duric, N; Azevedo, S; Chambers, D; Candy, J V; Johnson, S; Auner, G; Rather, J; Holsapple, E T

    2001-09-07

    Our Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system has been developed to the engineering prototype stage and generated unique data sets of both transmission and reflection ultrasound (US). This paper will help define the clinical underpinnings of the developmental process and interpret the imaging results from a similar perspective. The CURE project was designed to incorporate numerous diagnostic parameters to improve upon two major areas of early breast cancer detection. CURE may provide improved tissue characterization of breast masses and reliable detection of abnormal microcalcifications found in some breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Current breast US is limited to mass evaluation, whereas mammography also detects and guides biopsy of malignant calcifications. Screening with CURE remains a distant goal, but improved follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may represent a feasible breakthrough. Improved tissue characterization could result in reduction of the estimated one million benign biopsies each year in the United States, costing up to several billion dollars. Most breast calcifications are benign and comprise-80% of stereotactic biopsies guided by mammography. Ultrasound has the capability of finding some groups of calcifications, but further improvements in resolution should also address tissue characterization to define the soft tissue filling of ducts by DCIS. In this manner, CURE may be able to more accurately identify the malignant calcifications associated with progression of DCIS or early cancers. Currently, high-resolution US images of the breast are performed in the reflection mode at higher frequencies, which also limits depth of penetration. Reconstruction of reflection ultrasound images relies upon acoustic impedance differences in the tissue and includes only direct backscatter of the ultrasound signal. Resolution and tissue contrast of current US continues to improve with denser transducer arrays and image processing, but the operator dependent nature of using a moveable transducer head remains a significant problem for thorough coverage of the entire breast. We have therefore undertaken the development of a whole breast (i.e., including auxiliary tail) system, with improved resolution and tissue characterization abilities. The extensive ultrasound physics considerations, engineering, materials process development and subsequent algorithm reconstruction are beyond the scope of this initial paper. The proprietary nature of these processes will be forthcoming as the intellectual property is fully secured. We will focus here on the imaging outcomes as they apply to eventual expansion into clinical use.

  19. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

    2014-11-01

    Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  20. Accelerated Focused Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    White, P. Jason; Thomenius, Kai; Clement, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most, basic trade-offs in ultrasound imaging involves frame rate, depth, and number of lines. Achieving good spatial resolution and coverage requires a large number of lines, leading to decreases in frame rate. An even more serious imaging challenge occurs with imaging modes involving spatial compounding and 3-D/4-D imaging, which are severely limited by the slow speed of sound in tissue. The present work can overcome these traditional limitations, making ultrasound imaging many-fold faster. By emitting several beams at once, and by separating the resulting overlapped signals through spatial and temporal processing, spatial resolution and/or coverage can be increased by many-fold while leaving frame rates unaffected. The proposed approach can also be extended to imaging strategies that do not involve transmit beamforming, such as synthetic aperture imaging. Simulated and experimental results are presented where imaging speed is improved by up to 32-fold, with little impact on image quality. Object complexity has little impact on the method’s performance, and data from biological systems can readily be handled. The present work may open the door to novel multiplexed and/or multidimensional protocols considered impractical today. PMID:20040398

  1. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  2. High frequency ultrasound torturer.

    PubMed

    Husain, Munawwar; Rizvi, Shameem Jahan; Usmani, Javed Ahmad

    2009-12-01

    The discernible aim of torture as everyone believes--and rightly so--is to destroy the personality of an individual in a way that would render his compliance in future. But to destroy a personality is easier said than done. It requires long sessions of detention and torture. The torturers risk themselves getting exposed. The Human Rights groups are active all around the world. Ultimately the personality may not be destroyed much to the chagrin of the torturers, and an unexpected resilient rebounding may take place. Therefore, with the repertoire of modern knowledge, the strategy may well change in the 21st century. Discreet methods may be employed to selectively destroy areas in brain by high dosage and high frequency ultrasound. It is completely a non-invasive technique that does not leave its fingerprint for painful, later denials of subornation. Nevertheless the personality will change--from rightful aggression to slavish submission. The aim of this article is to put forward the theoretical perspective and cofounded projection of the darker and menacing side of ultrasound technology so that future generation could be saved from sin of omission. PMID:20509473

  3. Clinical review: Thyroid hormone replacement in children after cardiac surgery – is it worth a try?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus A Haas; Christoph K Camphausen; Deniz Kececioglu

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass produces a generalized systemic inflammatory response, resulting in increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Under these circumstances, a typical pattern of thyroid abnormalities is seen in the absence of primary disease, defined as sick euthyroid syndrome (SES). The presence of postoperative SES mainly in small children and neonates exposed to long bypass times and the pharmacological

  4. Radiofrequency modified maze in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hauw T. Sie; Willem P. Beukema; Anand R. Ramdat Misier; Arif Elvan; Jacob J. Ennema; Max M. P. Haalebos; Hein J. J. Wellens

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In the majority of patients with chronic atrial fibrillation the arrhythmia will persist after correction of the underlying structural abnormality. The maze procedure is an effective surgical method to eliminate atrial fibrillation and to restore atrial contractility. Methods: In this study we used radiofrequency energy to create lines of conduction block in both atria during cardiac surgery as a

  5. Hepatitis C virus-related fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis after cardiac transplantation: is azathioprine a contributory factor?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Delgado; E. Muñoz de Bustillo; C. Ibarrola; F. Colina; J. M. Morales; E. Rodriguez; J. M. Aguado; A. Fuertes; M. A. Gomez

    1999-01-01

    We report a patient who acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at cardiac transplantation, developing fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH) with early liver failure and a fatal outcome. FCH is a recently described clinicopathological entity characterized by a cholestatic pattern of serum liver enzyme abnormalities, a progressive course leading to liver failure, and a pathological picture defined by periportal fibrosis, neutrophilic

  6. Human embryonic stem cells as a model for cardiac gene discovery : from chip to chap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Beqqali

    2008-01-01

    Here we described the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model to obtain insights into commitment to the mesoderm and endoderm lineages and the early steps in human cardiac cell differentiation by means of whole-genome temporal expression profiling. Furthermore, we used it as an approach to identify new genes that may be associated with (abnormal) human heart

  7. Deferoxamine Improves Early Postresuscitation Reperfusion After Prolonged Cardiac Arrest in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serguei Liachenko; Pei Tang; Yan Xu

    Summary: The no-reflow phenomenon and delayed hypoper- fusion after transient cardiac arrest (CA) impede postischemic recovery. Activation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) after ischemia and reperfusion is considered one of the mechanisms respon- sible for such abnormalities. The present study investigates the influence of iron-dependent LPO inhibitor deferoxamine (DFO) on the cerebral perfusion after prolonged CA and re- suscitation. Fourteen male

  8. Cardiac rehabilitation adapted to transient ischaemic attack and stroke (CRAFTS): a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olive Lennon; Catherine Blake

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease and Cerebrovascular Disease share many predisposing, modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and diabetes mellitus). Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy are recognised as the cornerstones of secondary prevention. Cochrane review has proven the benefits of programmes incorporating exercise and lifestyle counselling in the cardiac disease population. A Cochrane

  9. Navigation accuracy for an intracardiac procedure using ultrasound enhanced virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Andrew D.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Moore, John; Wedlake, Christopher; Linte, Cristian A.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry M.

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive techniques for use inside the beating heart, such as mitral valve replacement and septal defect repair, are the focus of this work. Traditional techniques for these procedures require an open chest approach and a cardiopulmonary bypass machine. New techniques using port access and a combined surgical guidance tool that includes an overlaid two-dimensional ultrasound image in a virtual reality environment are being developed. To test this technique, a cardiac phantom was developed to simulate the anatomy. The phantom consists of an acrylic box filled with a 7% glycerol solution with ultrasound properties similar to human tissue. Plate inserts mounted in the box simulate the physical anatomy. An accuracy assessment was completed to evaluate the performance of the system. Using the cardiac phantom, a 2mm diameter glass toroid was attached to a vertical plate as the target location. An elastic material was placed between the target and plate to simulate the target lying on a soft tissue structure. The target was measured using an independent measurement system and was represented as a sphere in the virtual reality system. The goal was to test the ability of a user to probe the target using three guidance methods: (i) 2D ultrasound only, (ii) virtual reality only and (iii) ultrasound enhanced virtual reality. Three users attempted the task three times each for each method. An independent measurement system was used to validate the measurement. The ultrasound imaging alone was poor in locating the target (5.42 mm RMS) while the other methods proved to be significantly better (1.02 mm RMS and 1.47 mm RMS respectively). The ultrasound enhancement is expected to be more useful in a dynamic environment where the system registration may be disturbed.

  10. Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of severity of coarctation of the aorta and interruption of the aortic arch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A B Houston; I A Simpson; J C Pollock; M P Jamieson; W B Doig; E N Coleman

    1987-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound was used to investigate 48 infants and children (age 2 days-16 years, weight 1.0-58 kg) with aortic arch abnormalities. In only 38 of the 42 with an important coarctation was an increased blood flow velocity from the distal arch demonstrated. In three with interruption of the aortic arch an increased velocity recorded from the region of the distal

  11. TWO CONSECUTIVE SETS OF TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND GUIDED SEXTANT BIOPSIES OF THE PROSTATE FOR THE DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Levine; Michael Ittman; Jonathan Melamed; Herbert Lepor

    1998-01-01

    PurposeWe investigated the role of performing 2 consecutive sets of transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsies of the prostate in a single office visit as the protocol for detecting prostate cancer in men presenting for the first time with an abnormal digital rectal examination and\\/or elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  12. Early diagnosis of perinatal cerebral lesions in apparently normal full-term newborns by ultrasound of the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Heibel; R. Heber; D. Bechinger; H. H. Kornhuber

    1993-01-01

    The brains of 1000 consecutive, clinically normal, full-term neonate without signs of perinatal distress were examined by ultrasound 3 days postpartum. We found 35 cases of intracranial haemorrhage (periventricular, choroid plexus and intraventricular); 34 possible sequelae of bleeding (subependymal and choroid plexus pseudocysts; local dilatation of the lateral ventricles) and 21 morphological aberrations. Most of these 90 abnormalities were checked

  13. The cardiac muscle cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Severs

    2000-01-01

    Summary The cardiac myocyte is the most physically energetic cell in the body, contracting constantly, without tiring, 3 billion times or more in an average human lifespan. By coordinating its beating activity with that of its 3 billion neighbours in the main pump of the human heart, over 7,000 litres of blood are pumped per day, without con- scious effort,

  14. Cardiac and Pulmonary Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George C. Velmahos; Muhammad U. Butt

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac and pulmonary injuries present major chal- lenges in diagnosis and treatment. Distinct differences between penetrating and blunt trauma of these or- gans exist. Outcomes for severe injuries are still grave. Organized trauma systems can provide optimal care by minimizing prehospital time, allowing easy access to imaging modalities, and offering state-of-the-art treatment strategies. A multidisciplinary approach, including surgeons, intensivists, and

  15. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    May, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Although the physiology of the heart and vascular system has not changed, there are many things we have learned and are still learning today. Research related to heart adaptations during pregnancy has been performed since the 1930s. Since the mid-1950s, researchers began to look at changes in the maternal cardiovascular system during exercise while pregnant. Research related to exercise during pregnancy and offspring heart development began and has continued since the 1970s. We will review the normal female cardiovascular system adaptations to pregnancy in general. Additionally, topics related to maternal cardiac adaptations to pregnancy during acute exercise, as well as the chronic conditioning response from exercise training will be explored. Since physical activity during pregnancy influences fetal development, the fetal cardiac development will be discussed in regards to acute and chronic maternal exercise. Similarly, the influence of various types of maternal exercise on acute and chronic fetal heart responses will be described. Briefly, the topics related to how and if there is maternal-fetal synchrony will be explained. Lastly, the developmental changes of the fetal cardiovascular system that persist after birth will be explored. Overall, the article will discuss maternal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal pregnancy, and exercise during pregnancy, as well as fetal cardiac physiology related to changes with normal development, and exercise during pregnancy as well as developmental changes in offspring after birth. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1325-1344, 2015. PMID:26140720

  16. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  17. Mastoid abnormalities in down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important

  18. Infertile mares with chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Stewart-Scott

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in

  19. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  20. Ovarian Steroidogenic Abnormalities in PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica K. Wickenheisser; Jan M. McAllister

    Androgen excess, theca, granulosa, polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, estrogen, insulin sensitivity,\\u000a signaling defect. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately\\u000a 6–10% of premenopausal women [1, 2]. Hyperandrogenemia is the biochemical hallmark of PCOS. Reproductive and endocrine abnormalities\\u000a include disordered gonadotropin secretion, oligomenorrhea and anovulatory infertility, and endometrial hyperplasia. Obesity,\\u000a hirsutism, acne, and alopecia

  1. Dyskinesis in chagasic myocardium: centerline analysis of wall motion using cardiac-gated magnetic resonance images of mice?

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jorge L.; Tang, Baiyu; Gutstein, David E.; Petkova, Stefka; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Jelicks, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the use of centerline analysis of cardiac-gated magnetic resonance images to measure wall motion abnormalities in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. To our knowledge, this is the first report of segmental wall motion abnormalities in an animal model of Chagas’ disease. Chagas’ disease patients with severe cardiac involvement exhibit mild hypokinesis in an extensive region of the left ventricle and dyskinesis in the apical region. We observed dyskinetic segments in a similar region of the hearts of infected wild-type mice. Dyskinesis was not observed in infected mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, a chemokine that may play an important role in the cardiac remodeling that is normally observed in mouse models of Chagas’ disease and in human patients. This study aimed to demonstrate the utility of cardiac-gated magnetic resonance imaging and centerline analysis as a straightforward method for monitoring regional left ventricular wall motion in transgenic and/or diseased mice. PMID:16997075

  2. [Numerical modeling of ultrasound thermotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ginter, S; Liebler, M; Dreyer, T; Riedlinger, R E

    2002-01-01

    In ultrasound thermotherapy (USTT) high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is used for noninvasive thermal treatment of human tissue deep inside the body. In this paper a FDTD-model is presented to simulate USTT. It combines nonlinear ultrasound propagation and broadband tissue attenuation together with the bio-heat transfer equation for calculation of temperature distribution in tissue. The temperature dependence of parameters is integrated in the complete model. Simulation results demonstrate the potentialities of this simulation tool to analyze and optimize thermotherapy. PMID:12451833

  3. Clinical course and medical management of neonates with severe cardiac failure related to vein of Galen malformation

    PubMed Central

    Frawley, G; Dargaville, P; Mitchell, P; Tress, B; Loughnan, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Neonatal presentation of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) with intractable cardiac failure is considered a poor prognostic sign. Interventional neuroradiology with embolisation has been shown to control cardiac failure, but there is a perception that neurological outcome in survivors is poor. Objective: To determine if aggressive intensive care and anaesthetic management of cardiac failure before urgent embolisation can influence morbidity and mortality. Patients: Nine newborns (four boys, five girls) were diagnosed with symptomatic vein of Galen malformations in the neonatal period during the period 1996–2001. Eight developed intractable high output cardiac failure requiring initial endovascular treatment in the first week of life. Results: The immediate outcome after a series of endovascular procedures was control of cardiac failure and normal neurological function in six (66%) patients, one death from intractable cardiac failure in the neonatal period, and two late deaths with severe hypoxic-ischaemic neurological injury (33% mortality). Clinical review at 6 months to 4 years of age showed five infants with no evidence of neurological abnormality or cardiac failure and one child with mild developmental delay (11%). Conclusions: Aggressive medical treatment of cardiac failure and early neurointervention combined with modern neuroanaesthetic care results in good survival rates with low morbidity even in cases of high risk VGAM presenting in the immediate perinatal period with cardiac failure. Systemic arterial vasodilators improve outcome in neonates with cardiac failure secondary to VGAM. Excessive ß adrenergic stimulation induced by conventional inotropic agents may exacerbate systemic hypoperfusion. PMID:12193525

  4. The Pathogenesis of Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ping; Christia, Panagiota; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and contributes to both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in many cardiac pathophysiologic conditions. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Although activated myofibroblasts are the main effector cells in the fibrotic heart, monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, mast cells, vascular cells and cardiomyocytes may also contribute to the fibrotic response by secreting key fibrogenic mediators. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reactive oxygen species, mast cell-derived proteases, endothelin-1, the renin/angiotensin/aldosterone system, matricellular proteins and growth factors (such as TGF-? and PDGF) are some of the best-studied mediators implicated in cardiac fibrosis. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests that cardiac fibrotic alterations may be reversible. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for initiation, progression and resolution of cardiac fibrosis is crucial to design anti-fibrotic treatment strategies for patients with heart disease. PMID:23649149

  5. Genetics of sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Bezzina, Connie R; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac death. Here, we review the genetic basis of sudden cardiac death with a focus on the current knowledge on the genetics of the primary electric disorders caused primarily by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, and the cardiomyopathies, which have been attributed to mutations in genes encoding a broader category of proteins, including those of the sarcomere, the cytoskeleton, and desmosomes. We discuss the challenges currently faced in unraveling genetic factors that predispose to sudden cardiac death in the setting of sequela of coronary artery disease and present the genome-wide association studies conducted in recent years on electrocardiographic parameters, highlighting their potential in uncovering new biological insights into cardiac electric function. PMID:26044248

  6. Fetal and umbilical Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Alfirevic, Zarko; Stampalija, Tamara; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could encourage inappropriate early delivery. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of Doppler ultrasound for the investigation of umbilical and fetal vessels waveforms in high-risk pregnancies compared to no Doppler ultrasound. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Eighteen completed studies involving just over 10,000 women were included. The trials were generally of unclear quality with some evidence of possible publication bias. The use of Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancy was associated a reduction in perinatal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52 to 0.98, 16 studies, 10,225 babies, 1.2% versus 1.7 %, numbers needed to treat = 203; 95%CI 103 to 4352). There were also fewer inductions of labour (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99, 10 studies, 5633 women, random effects) and fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97, 14 studies, 7918 women). No difference was found in operative vaginal births (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.14, four studies, 2813 women) nor in Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.24, seven studies, 6321 babies). Authors’ conclusions Current evidence suggests that the use of Doppler ultrasound in high-risk pregnancies reduced the risk of perinatal deaths and resulted in less obstetric interventions. The quality of the current evidence was not of high quality, therefore, the results should be interpreted with some caution. Studies of high quality with follow-up studies on neurological development are needed. PMID:20091637

  7. Arginyltransferase regulates alpha cardiac actin, myofibril formation and contractility during heart development

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Xu, Tao; Leu, N. Adrian; Dong, Dawei W.; Guo, Caiying; McLaughlin, K. John; Yates, John R.; Kashina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Summary Posttranslational arginylation mediated by arginyltransferase (Ate1) is essential for cardiovascular development and angiogenesis in mammals and directly affects the myocardium structure in the developing heart. We recently showed that arginylation exerts a number of intracellular effects by modifying proteins involved in the functioning of actin cytoskeleton and the events of cell motility. Here we investigate the role of arginylation in the development and function of cardiac myocytes and their actin-containing structures during embryogenesis. Biochemical and mass spectrometry analysis shows that alpha cardiac actin undergoes arginylation on multiple sites during development. Ultrastructural analysis of the myofibrils in wild type and Ate1 knockout mouse hearts shows that the absence of arginylation results in defects in myofibril structure that delay their development and affect the continuity of myofibrils throughout the heart, predicting defects in cardiac contractility. Comparison of cardiac myocytes derived from wild type and Ate1 knockout mouse embryos show that the absence of arginylation results in abnormal beating patterns. Our results demonstrate cell-autonomous cardiac myocyte defects in arginylation knockout mice that lead to severe congenital abnormalities similar to those observed in human disease, and outline a new function of arginylation in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton in cardiac myocytes. PMID:18948421

  8. Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography

    E-print Network

    Desolneux, Agnès

    Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography Mohamed Hachama, Agn`es Desolneux (e.g. lesions) in mammography are solved separately, although the solutions of these problems 2006 #12;Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography 179 The definition

  9. Cerebellar hemorrhage on MRI in preterm newborns associated with abnormal neurological outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Rosenbluth, Glenn; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Glidden, David; Goldstein, Ruth B.; Glass, Hannah C.; Piecuch, Robert E.; Barkovich, A. James

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cerebellar hemorrhage in preterm infants seen on MRI but not ultrasound and neurodevelopmental outcome. Study design MR images from a cohort study of MRI in preterm newborns were reviewed for cerebellar hemorrhage. Children were assessed at mean 4.8 years with neurological examination and developmental testing using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III). Results Of 131 preterm newborns, cerebellar hemorrhage was seen on both ultrasound and MRI in 3 newborns; smaller hemorrhages seen only on MRI in 10 (total of incidence of 10%). Adjusting for gestational age at birth, intraventricular hemorrhage, and white matter injury, cerebellar hemorrhage detectable only by MRI was associated with 5.0-fold increased odds of abnormal neurological examination compared with those without hemorrhage (outcome data in 74%). No association was found with scores on WPPSI-III testing. Conclusions Cerebellar hemorrhage is not uncommon in preterm newborns. Although associated with neurologic abnormalities, hemorrhage seen only on MRI is associated with much more optimistic outcomes than that visible by ultrasound. PMID:20833401

  10. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  11. Ultrasound-induced heart rate decrease: role of the vagus nerve.

    PubMed

    Coiado, Olivia; Buiochi, Elaine; O'Brien, William

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the role of the vagus nerve (VN) in the ultrasound (US)-induced negative chronotropic effect (deceased heart rate). One of the functions of the VN is to mediate lowering of the heart rate. A previous study showed a decrease of ~20% in the heart rate but the mechanism of the effect was not investigated. Sprague Dawley rats (n = 20) were exposed transthoracically to ultrasonic pulses at an approximate duty factor of 1% with sequentially 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MPa peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPAs). The ultrasonic exposure parameters herein were chosen to match those of the previous study to have confidence that an ultrasound-induced negative chronotropic effect would occur. For each of the three PRPA sequences, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) started slightly greater than the rat's heart rate and then was decreased sequentially in 1-Hz steps every 10 s (i.e., 6, 5, and 4 Hz for a total duration of 30 s). The experiments were organized in a standard (2 × 2) factorial design with VN (cut versus intact) as one factor and US (on versus off) as another factor. VN (intact/cut) and US (on/off) groups were divided into four groups each consisting of 5 animals: 1) VN intact-US off, 2) VN intact-US on, 3) VN cut-US off, and 4) VN cut-US on. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare heart rate, cardiac output, systolic volume, ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, respiratory rate, and arterial pressure before and after ultrasound stimulation. In this study, the heart rate decreased ~4% for the non-vagotomy and vagotomy groups. The ultrasound effect was significant for heart rate (p = 0.02) and cardiac output (p = 0.005) at 3 min post US exposure; the vagotomy effect was not significant. For heart rate, the Bonferroni test showed no differences between the four groups. The vagotomy group showed similar ultrasound-induced cardiac effects compared with the non-vagotomy group, suggesting that the vagus nerve is not influenced by the ultrasound exposure procedures. The US application caused a negative chronotropic effect of the rat heart without affecting the hemodynamic conditions. The results at this point are suggestive for an alternative cardiac pacing capability. PMID:25643082

  12. Calcium channel blockade limits transcriptional, translational and functional up-regulation of the cardiac calpain system after myocardial infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Sandmann; Johannes Spormann; Freerk Prenzel; Lee Shaw; Thomas Unger

    2002-01-01

    Abnormal Ca2+ inward current through cardiac Ca2+ channels during ischemia has been shown to be an initial signal for activation of myocardial Ca2+-dependent enzymes. This study investigated the contribution of cardiac L- and T-type Ca2+ channels in the calpain-mediated myocardial damage following myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Infarcted rats were orally

  13. Abnormal Supranuclear Eye Movements in the Child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Cassidy; David Taylor; Christopher Harris

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal eye movements in the infant or young child can be congenital or acquired. They may be a result of abnormal early visual development or a sign of underlying neurologic or neuromuscular disease. It is important to be able to detect these abnormalities and to distinguish them from normal but immature eye movements. The spectrum of disease in children differs

  14. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography 

    E-print Network

    Nam, Haewon

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography is modeled by a linear integral equation and an inverse problem involving a diffusion equation in n spatial dimensions, n=2, 3. Based on measured data, the optical absorption coefficient ?...

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames ... as still images. Small loops of the moving “real time” images may also be saved. Using an ultrasound ...

  16. Forty years of nonlinear ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bjørnø, Leif

    2002-05-01

    Nonlinear ultrasound forms an integrated discipline of nonlinear acoustics founded in 1755. A short outline of the state-of-the-art in nonlinear ultrasound in 1960 forms the introduction to this paper. Some of the most important contributions to the development in the theoretical, analytical and numerical basis of nonlinear ultrasound and in experimental investigations of nonlinear ultrasonic processes published during the period of 1960 through 2000 are discussed and their successes and failures in practical exploitation are illuminated. A more detailed treatment is given of research achievements in nonlinearity of fluids, in focused ultrasonic field, in parametric acoustic arrays and in thermoacoustics. An attempt is made to point out some fields of research in nonlinear ultrasound where future efforts should be concentrated. PMID:12159916

  17. Cardiac involvement in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Galetta, Fabio; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Orsucci, Daniele; Tocchini, Leonardo; Papi, Riccardo; Speziale, Giuseppe; Gaudio, Carlo; Siciliano, Gabriele; Santoro, Gino

    2014-10-15

    Myocardial involvement has not been extensively investigated in mitochondrial myopathies. The aim of the study was to assess the myocardial morpho-functional changes in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). Twenty patients with PEO and 20 controls underwent standard echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and integrated backscatter (IBS) analyses. These techniques are capable of providing non-invasively the early, subtle structural and functional changes of the myocardium. TDI myocardial systolic (Sm) and early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities of left ventricular walls were determined. The systo-diastolic variation of IBS was also determined. Patients with PEO exhibited lower Sm, lower Em, and higher Am, and a reduced Em/Am ratio than controls (p<0.001 for all) at interventricular septum and lateral wall levels. In PEO patients, septal and posterior wall cyclic variations of IBS were significantly lower than those in controls (p<0.001). Patients with PEO showed myocardial wall remodeling characterized by increased fibrosis and early left ventricular systo-diastolic function abnormalities. Although cardiac involvement in PEO is generally considered to be limited to the cardiac conduction system, left ventricular dysfunction may be present and should receive more attention in the management of these patients. PMID:25139213

  18. Cardiac Transplantation in a Jehovah's Witness

    PubMed Central

    Lammermeier, David E.; Duncan, J. Michael; Kuykendall, R. Craig; Macris, Michael P.; Frazier, O. Howard

    1988-01-01

    Between July 1982 and October 1987, surgeons at our institution performed 215 cardiac transplantation procedures, 1 of which was in a 46-year-old Jehovah's Witness with congestive cardiomyopathy, who required preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump support. At surgery, the cardiopulmonary bypass system was primed with 1600 ml of Ringer's lactate solution and dextrose. In the 57 minutes during which the patient was on cardiopulmonary bypass, the intra-aortic balloon was removed and successful orthotopic heart transplantation was performed. No supplemental blood or blood product was used, either during or after the procedure. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was 300 ml, and the postoperative chest tube drainage amounted to 1495 ml. Postoperative hematologic abnormalities (mild hypoprothrombinemia, mild thrombocytopenia, mild platelet dysfunction, and moderate hypochromic microcytic anemia) were corrected with Imferon, vitamin K, and desmopressin acetate administered intravenously, and with ferrous sulfate administered orally. This case, which to our knowledge is only the 2nd cardiac transplant in a Jehovah's Witness, further establishes that these patients can undergo even the most major of open-heart procedures without supplemental blood. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988;15:189-191) PMID:15227251

  19. Cardiac function and rejection following transplantation of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schober, O.; Schuler, S.; Gratz, K.; Warnecke, H.; Lang, W.; Hetzer, R.; Creutzig, H.

    1985-05-01

    It was the purpose of the study to evaluate the noninvasive detection of rejection following cardiac transplantation. Multigated cardiac blood pool imaging (MUGA) at rest with assessment of ejection fraction (EF) and regional wall motion was determined prospectively in 14 patients with 180 studies (follow up 5.1 +- 3.2 months) following orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The results were compared with histological examination of a percutaneous endocardial biopsy specimen (EMB) from the right ventricle. Diagnosis of rejection by EF measurement was defined by a decrease of 10% if EF < 70%, and 15% if EF > 70%. In 152 studies a normal MUGA study correlated with none rejection as defined by EMB. In 14 of 22 studies with moderate or severe rejection decrease of EF followed the rejection with a delay of 5 days. Septal wall motion abnormalities were typical. In 6 studies an abnormal temporal course of EF was not related to a similar finding in EMB. A sensitivity of 69% and a specifity of 96% can be estimated in the investigated group, in which all patients survived during the period of the study. It is concluded that rejection can be excluded by noninvasive MUGA (specifity 96%) and that MUGA is predictive of rejection (sensitivity 67%) mostly with a delay of 5 days.

  20. Regional Pericarditis Status Post Cardiac Ablation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Joseph; Eddin, Moneer; Loli, Akil

    2014-01-01

    Context: Regional pericarditis is elusive and difficult to diagnosis. Healthcare providers should be familiar with post-cardiac ablation complications as this procedure is now widespread and frequently performed. The management of regional pericarditis differs greatly from that of acute myocardial infarction. Case report: A 52 year-old male underwent atrial fibrillation ablation and developed severe mid-sternal chest pain the following day with electrocardiographic findings suggestive of acute myocardial infarction, and underwent coronary angiography, a left ventriculogram, and 2D transthoracic echocardiogram, all of which were unremarkable without evidence of obstructive coronary disease, wall motion abnormalities, or pericardial effusions. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with regional pericarditis. After diagnosis, the patient's presenting symptoms resolved with treatment including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and colchicine. Conclusion: This is the first reported case study of regional pericarditis status post cardiac ablation. Electrocardiographic findings were classic for an acute myocardial infarction; however, coronary angiography and left ventriculogram demonstrated no acute coronary occlusion or ventricular wall motion abnormalities. Healthcare professionals must remember that the electrocardiographic findings in pericarditis are not always classic and that pericarditis can occur status post cardiac ablation. PMID:25317395

  1. The role of cross sectional echocardiography and pulsed Doppler ultrasound in the management of neonates in whom congenital heart disease is suspected. A prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M P Leung; C K Mok; K C Lau; R Lo; C Y Yeung

    1986-01-01

    The application of cross sectional echocardiography and pulsed Doppler ultrasound to the management of symptomatic neonates with suspected congenital heart disease was studied in 96 consecutive cases. The ability of echocardiography to establish a complete and accurate diagnosis and a correct management plan was evaluated. Sequential segmental analysis of data from cardiac catheterisation and necropsy identified 536 cardiovascular anomalies. Of

  2. 64-channel ultrasound transducer amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Morizio; S. Guhados; J. Castellucci; O. von Ramm

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a 64-channel ultrasound preamplifier device that is used to amplify and filter pulsed echo transducer signals sourced from a real time three dimensional (RT3DU) non-invasive ultrasound system. Schematics, simulation data, and layout for each of the broadband sub-circuit macros are described which include a high gain preamplifier, a linear output buffer, and bias circuits. This

  3. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Fenster; Donal B. Downey

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Ultrasound is an inexpensive and widely,used imaging,modality,for the diagnosis and staging of a number of diseases. In the past two decades, it has benefited from major advances in technology and has become,an indispensable imaging modality, due to its flexibility and non-invasive character. In the last decade, research investigators and commercial companies have further advanced,ultrasound imaging with the development,of 3D

  4. Reconciling Q waves and late gadolinium enhancement with no angiographic evidence of coronary disease: cardiac sarcoidosis presenting as decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, R P; Philip, K J; Schwarz, E R

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is rare and subclinical involvement is four to five times more common than clinical involvement. Cardiac sarcoidosis is associated with a poor prognosis. ECG abnormalities are the most common presentation. However, as this case illustrates, it can also present as acute decompensated heart failure. Screening with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly suggested in patients with suspected disease. Diagnosis allows for early initiation of corticosteroids. Cardiac sarcoidosis is more common than previously thought. However, with treatment, survival may also be better than previously reported. PMID:20532456

  5. The cystic duct knot sign: case report with description of a new ultrasound sign of gallbladder torsion.

    PubMed

    Dasyam, Anil K; Koo, Julie; Stahlfeld Miller, Margaret; Sell, Harry W; Tublin, Mitchell E

    2015-08-01

    Gallbladder torsion or volvulus is a rare but potentially lethal entity. We report the imaging findings of gallbladder torsion and describe a potentially novel ultrasound sign for the preoperative diagnosis of torsion. An 87-year-old woman presented with a 4-day history of right upper quadrant pain. An initial right upper quadrant ultrasound exam demonstrated cholelithiasis and findings of acute cholecystitis which included gallbladder distension, wall thickening, trace pericholecystic fluid, and a positive sonographic Murphy's sign. Gallbladder torsion was prospectively diagnosed on the subsequent contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen based upon the abnormal transverse orientation of the gallbladder with the neck directed laterally. Ultrasound images were reviewed and a "knot"-like hyperechoic nodular appearance of the torsed cystic duct close to the gallbladder neck was clearly apparent. Prospective identification of the torsed cystic duct may prompt the ultrasound diagnosis of gallbladder torsion. PMID:26134915

  6. RECONSTRUCTION OF COMPRESSIVELY SAMPLED ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING DUAL PRIOR INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    distributions, medical ultrasound 1. INTRODUCTION Recent developments in medical ultrasound (US) imaging haveRECONSTRUCTION OF COMPRESSIVELY SAMPLED ULTRASOUND IMAGES USING DUAL PRIOR INFORMATION Alin Achim a new technique for compressive sampling reconstruction of biomedical ultrasound images that exploits

  7. Nonosseous abnormalities on bone scans.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M

    2003-09-01

    Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045

  8. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  9. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  10. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  11. Cardiac arrest in children

    PubMed Central

    Tress, Erika E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Saladino, Richard A; Manole, Mioara D

    2010-01-01

    Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term “post-cardiac arrest syndrome” has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners. PMID:20930971

  12. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Joseph S.; Khatib, Sammy; Morin, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Systolic heart failure is a major problem for Americans today, with 550,000 new cases diagnosed per year, and ultimately contributes to 287,000 deaths annually. While pharmacologic therapy has drastically improved outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure, hospitalizations from systolic heart failure continue to increase and remain a major cost burden. In response to this unmet need, recent years have seen dramatic improvements in device-based therapy targeting one cause of systolic dysfunction: dyssynchronous ventricular contraction. Cardiac resynchronization therapy aims to restore mechanical synchrony by electrically activating the heart in a synchronized manner. This review summarizes the rationale for cardiac resynchronization therapy, evidence for its use, current guidelines, and ongoing and future directions for research. PMID:21603451

  13. Cardiac muscle tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Papadaki

    2003-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach for replacing heart muscle, which is known not to regenerate after injury such as that caused by infarction or reconstructive surgery. Two types of cell-based therapies have been employed: injection of isolated cells or the implantation of in-vitro-grown cardiac muscle tissue equivalents In the first case, several cell types - including skeletal

  14. Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison A. Rodriguez; Gary A. Dildy

    Cardiac arrest (CA) in pregnancy is an uncommon occurrence with an incidence of about 1 in every 30,000 deliveries (1). The causes are quite numerous, but the management is essentially the same with the exception of a few modifications regarding\\u000a the fetus. In this chapter, causes of maternal mortality are reviewed along with potential interventions to decrease its incidence.\\u000a A

  15. Delirium After Cardiac Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Rudolph

    \\u000a Delirium is an acute change in cognitive functioning, characterized by inattention and associated with disorganized thinking\\u000a or altered level of consciousness, which preferentially affects the older patients (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental\\u000a disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2000). After cardiac surgery, the\\u000a incidence of delirium has been reported between 2 and 73%, depending on the

  16. Inflammation and Cardiac Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hohensinner, P.J.; Niessner, A.; Huber, K.; Weyand, C.M.; Wojta, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Inflammation is a key component in cardiovascular disease. Controlling inflammatory events and their subsequent processes hold the potential for novel therapeutic options. Cytokines are the propagators of inflammation. In this review we will discuss important cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, M-CSF and GDF-15 and their effect on cardiac outcome. Recent findings IL-6 is a useful biomarker in patients with coronary artery disease. Summary PMID:21378564

  17. Hypothermic Cardiac Arrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. Danzl

    The contemporary allure of hypothermia is regularly sparked by the apparent “reanimations” of profoundly cold patients in\\u000a prolonged cardiac arrest (CA). Recently, a physician who was resuscitated from 13.7°C presented her own case report at an\\u000a international conference (1). There are also promising ongoing investigations of mild therapeutic hypothermia for traumatic intracranial hypertension\\u000a and stroke (2–4). Nevertheless, hypothermia remains more

  18. Glucose as an agent of post-translational modification in diabetes--New cardiac epigenetic insights.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Kimberley M; Brimble, Margaret A; Delbridge, Lea M D

    2015-05-15

    Diabetes elicits cardiac metabolic stress involving impaired glucose uptake and metabolic substrate shifts. Diabetic cardiac pathology is well documented in human patients and experimental animal models to be characterized by diastolic dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Signaling disturbances involved in cardiac insulin resistance are linked to glucose handling abnormalities. Both reversible (e.g. O-GlcNAc) and irreversible (e.g. AGEs) glucose-modifications of cardiomyocyte extracellular and intracellular proteins are implicated in structural and functional alterations underlying pathology in the diabetic heart. This review highlights some aspects of the epigenetic roles played by glucose (and related hexose sugars) in mediating diabetic cardiac pathology with specific consideration for the mechanisms impinging on post-translational modifications which have key signaling and mechanical impacts. PMID:24699006

  19. MiRiad Roles for MicroRNAs in Cardiac Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Ashley M.; Qian, Li

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac development is an exquisitely regulated process that is sensitive to perturbations in transcriptional activity and gene dosage. Accordingly, congenital heart abnormalities are prevalent worldwide, and are estimated to occur in approximately 1% of live births. Recently, small non-coding RNAs, known as microRNAs, have emerged as critical components of the cardiogenic regulatory network, and have been shown to play numerous roles in the growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the developing heart. Moreover, the importance of miRNA function in cardiac development has facilitated the identification of prospective therapeutic targets for patients with congenital and acquired cardiac diseases. Here, we discuss findings attesting to the critical role of miRNAs in cardiogenesis and cardiac regeneration, and present evidence regarding the therapeutic potential of miRNAs for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25055156

  20. Cardiac regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Shinsuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    Severe heart failure is associated with damage to the myocardium that is irreversible with current medical therapies. Recent experimental and clinical studies, however, have opened the possibility of solving many of the associated problems, making this an exciting and tangible goal. There are many potential cell sources for regenerative cardiac medicine, including bone marrow stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, skeletal myocytes, adult cardiac stem cells, and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although ES cells are highly proliferative and suitable for mass production, they are not autologous, and an efficient protocol is yet to be established to ensure selective cardiomyocyte induction. Recent studies have successfully established inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts by the gene transfer of 4 transcription factors that are strongly expressed in ES cells: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. iPS cells can differentiate into all 3 germ layer-derived cells and are syngeneic, indicating that they can become an ideal cell source for regenerative medicine. Despite these successes, the accumulating evidence from fields as diverse as developmental biology, stem cell biology and tissue engineering must be integrated to achieve the full potential of cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:18772528

  1. Cardiorespiratory abnormalities during epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Kothare, Sanjeev V; Singh, Kanwaljit

    2014-12-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of death in young and otherwise healthy patients with epilepsy, and sudden death is at least 20 times more common in epilepsy patients as compared to patients without epilepsy. A significant proportion of patients with epilepsy experience cardiac and respiratory complications during seizures. These cardiorespiratory complications are suspected to be a significant risk factor for SUDEP. Sleep physicians are increasingly involved in the care of epilepsy patients and a recognition of these changes in relation to seizures while a patient is under their care may improve their awareness of these potentially life-threatening complications that may occur during sleep studies. This paper details these cardiopulmonary changes that take place in relation to epileptic seizures and how these changes may relate to the occurrence of SUDEP. PMID:25311834

  2. Diagnostic ultrasound activates pure prekallikrein.

    PubMed

    Stief, Thomas W; Klingmüller, Volker

    2012-12-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound activates the contact phase of human coagulation. This has been seen in human blood or plasma or with purified factor 12. The present work aimed to quantify a possibly triggering action of ultrasound on purified prekallikrein, the second of the two main triggers of the intrinsic hemostasis cascade. Either 2.7 ?g/ml human prekallikrein or for control 1 ?g/ml kallikrein in 26% glycerol - 0.54% NaCl-10.6 mmol/l Na3 citrate pH 7.4, in emptied polypropylene coagulation monovettes (Sarstedt) were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound (Siemens Acouson Antares, 5 MHz, 0.6 TIB, 0.6 TIS) for 0-5 min at room temperature (RT). Fifty microliter samples were withdrawn in duplicate and placed into an U-wells high quality microtiter plate (Brand 781600). Then 10 ?l 2 mmol/l chromogenic substrate HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 0.45% NaCl were added, and the increase in absorbance with time (?A405 nm /t at 37°C) was determined by a microtiterplate photometer with a 1 mA resolution (PHOmo; anthos). Exposure to diagnostic ultrasound biphasically increased the chromogenic activity of a prekallikrein solution in 26% glycerol. About 3-4 min ultrasound at 23 °C generated about 0.02 ?g/ml kallikrein, that means that about 1% of pure prekallikrein in glycerol was converted into kallikrein. Thus, diagnostic ultrasound activates purified human prekallikrein to kallikrein. The ultrasound energy seems to fold the latent proenzyme prekallikrein into the active enzyme kallikrein. This contributes to explain the triggering action of ultrasound on the contact system of plasmatic human coagulation. Conversion of only 1% of prekallikrein into kallikrein is absolutely sufficient to start the intrinsic coagulation cascade. The clinical consequence of this action of ultrasound on intrinsic coagulation is that patients at risk for thrombosis, for example, patients with insufficiencies of hepatocytes, AT-3, C1-ina, or fibrinolysis should be protected by low-molecular-weight-heparin prior to the exposure of ultrasound, especially upon its prolonged exposure. PMID:22964768

  3. Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

    2005-04-01

    Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

  4. Sudden cardiac death and obesity.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Benoit; Sarrazin, Jean-François; Nault, Isabelle; Poirier, Paul

    2014-09-01

    For individuals and the society as a whole, the increased risk of sudden cardiac death in obese patients is becoming a major challenge, especially since obesity prevalence has been increasing steadily around the globe. Traditional risk factors and obesity often coexist. Hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for CV disease and are often present in the obese patient. Although the bulk of evidence is circumstantial, sudden cardiac death and obesity share common traditional CV risk factors. Structural, functional and metabolic factors modulate and influence the risk of sudden cardiac death in the obese population. Other risk factors such as left ventricular hypertrophy, increased number of premature ventricular complexes, altered QT interval and reduced heart rate variability are all documented in both obese and sudden cardiac death populations. The present review focuses on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death and potential mechanisms leading to sudden cardiac death in this population. PMID:25160995

  5. Cardiac sarcoidosis: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Vishal; Sanal, Shireen; DeLorenzo, Lawrence J.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Maguire, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas in involved organs. Organs involved with sarcoidosis include lymph nodes, skin, lung, central nervous system, and eye. Only 40-50% of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed at autopsy have the diagnosis made during their lifetime. Cardiac sarcoidosis can manifest itself as complete heart block, ventricular arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion, pulmonary hypertension, and ventricular aneurysms. Diagnostic tests such as the electrocardiogram, two-dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scan, radionuclide scan, and endomyocardial biopsy can be helpful in the early detection of cardiac sarcoidosis. Considering the increased risk of sudden death, cardiac sarcoidosis is an indication for early treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents. Other treatments include placement of a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator to prevent sudden death. In refractory cases, cardiac transplantation should be considered. PMID:22291785

  6. Cardiac Emergencies in Neurosurgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Andrea; Cappellani, Ronald B.

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative safety concerns are a major area of interest in recent years. Severe cardiac perturbation such as cardiac arrest is one of the most dreaded complications in the intraoperative period; however, little is known about the management of these events in the patients undergoing elective neurosurgery. This special group needs further attention, as it is often neither feasible nor appropriate to apply conventional advanced cardiac life support algorithms in patients undergoing neurosurgery. Factors such as neurosurgical procedure and positioning can also have a significant effect on the occurrence of cardiac arrest. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the various causes and management of cardiac emergencies with special reference to cardiac arrest during elective neurosurgical procedures, including discussion of position-related factors and resuscitative considerations in these situations. This will help to formulate possible guidelines for management of such events. PMID:25692145

  7. Debate about ultrasound screening policies.

    PubMed

    Antsaklis, A J

    1998-01-01

    Routine ultrasound examination is defined as a screening procedure performed on the total obstetric population usually at 18-20 weeks of gestation as opposed to the selective use of ultrasound that might provide more information for a problem that is suspected on clinical grounds. Standard ultrasound examination includes a comprehensive examination of fetal anatomy as part of routine ultrasound. It is important for the clinician to realise that the comprehensive examination of fetal anatomy is an essential, not optional, part of the routine examination. Screening may lead to unnecessary anxiety if there is a false-positive result, or to a false sense of security if there is a false-negative result. The routine offering of obstetric ultrasound screening is the central issue in the general question of whether every woman should receive an obstetric ultrasound examination. The majority of countries have adopted the following diagnostic strategy. All pregnancies must be ultrasonographically tested in accordance with the protocols commonly recommended. The ultrasonography done at 18-20 weeks, which is known to be fundamental for diagnosing prenatal malformations, must always be performed at level II. High-risk pregnancies of malformations are to be selected in the first level of screening and referred to level II for further study. There is extensive literature neither supporting an improvement in perinatal morbidity or mortality nor an overall reduction in unnecessary intervention with routine ultrasound. The role of routine ultrasonography and its validity as a screening test for fetal malformation in a low-risk population is still the object of debate. PMID:9784640

  8. Sudden cardiac death – Historical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, S.P.; Namboodiri, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an unexpected death due to cardiac causes that occurs in a short time period (generally within 1 h of symptom onset) in a person with known or unknown cardiac disease. It is believed to be involved in nearly a quarter of human deaths, with ventricular fibrillation being the most common mechanism. It is estimated that more than 7 million lives per year are lost to SCD worldwide. Historical perspectives of SCD are analyzed with a brief description on how the developments in the management of sudden cardiac arrest evolved over time. PMID:24568828

  9. Cardiac risk stratification and protection.

    PubMed

    Halub, Meghan E; Sidwell, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    The goal of preoperative cardiac evaluation is to screen for undiagnosed cardiac disease or to find evidence of known conditions that are poorly controlled to allow management that reduces the risk of perioperative cardiac complications. A careful history and physical examination combined with the procedure-specific risk is the cornerstone of this assessment. This article reviews a brief history of prior cardiac risk stratification indexes, explores current practice guidelines by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association Task Force, reviews current methods for preoperative evaluation, discusses revascularization options, and evaluates perioperative medication recommendations. PMID:25814103

  10. Registry of Unexplained Cardiac Arrest

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-13

    Cardiac Arrest; Long QT Syndrome; Brugada Syndrome; Catecholaminergi Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia; Idiopathic VentricularFibrillation; Early Repolarization Syndrome; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

  11. The implications of obesity for cardiac arrhythmia mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Rajeev K; Mahajan, Rajiv; Lau, Dennis H; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2015-02-01

    The ever-increasing prevalence of obesity poses a significant burden on the health care system with escalating socioeconomic consequences. At the individual level, obesity is well recognized to increase morbidity and mortality. Not only is obesity an established cardiovascular risk factor, it also increases the risk of sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation. Studies have shown that increased adiposity itself and the accompanying metabolic consequences of weight gain contribute to an abnormal arrhythmogenic substrate. In this review, we focus on the diverse mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias related to obesity. In particular, we highlight the pathogenic role of adipose depots leading to increased atrial fibrillation and the effect of weight reduction in decreasing atrial fibrillation burden in obese individuals. PMID:25661555

  12. Cardiac PET perfusion: prognosis, risk stratification, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with PET has expanded significantly over the past decade. With the wider availability of PET scanners and the routine use of quantitative blood flow imaging, the clinical use of PET MPI is expected to increase further. PET MPI is a powerful tool to identify risk, to quantify risk, and to guide therapy in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. A large body of evidence supports the prognostic value of PET MPI and ejection fraction in intermediate- to high-risk subjects, in women, in obese individuals, and in post-coronary artery bypass grafting individuals. A normal perfusion study indicates low risk (<1% annualized rate of cardiac events of cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction), while an abnormal study indicates high risk. With accurate risk stratification, high-quality images, and quantitation, PET MPI may transform the management of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:25234079

  13. PCP4 regulates Purkinje cell excitability and cardiac rhythmicity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eugene E.; Shekhar, Akshay; Lu, Jia; Lin, Xianming; Liu, Fang-Yu; Zhang, Jie; Delmar, Mario; Fishman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac Purkinje cells are important triggers of ventricular arrhythmias associated with heritable and acquired syndromes; however, the mechanisms responsible for this proarrhythmic behavior are incompletely understood. Here, through transcriptional profiling of genetically labeled cardiomyocytes, we identified expression of Purkinje cell protein-4 (Pcp4), a putative regulator of calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) signaling, exclusively within the His-Purkinje network. Using Pcp4-null mice and acquired cardiomyopathy models, we determined that reduced expression of PCP4 is associated with CaMKII activation, abnormal electrophysiology, dysregulated intracellular calcium handling, and proarrhythmic behavior in isolated Purkinje cells. Pcp4-null mice also displayed profound autonomic dysregulation and arrhythmic behavior in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PCP4 regulates cardiac excitability through both Purkinje cell–autonomous and central mechanisms and identify this modulator of CaMKII signaling as a potential arrhythmia-susceptibility candidate. PMID:25295538

  14. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training. PMID:25548874

  15. Resonant nonlinear ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); TenCate, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Guyer, Robert A. (Amherst, MA); Van Den Abeele, Koen E. A. (Sint-Niklaas, BE)

    2001-01-01

    Components with defects are identified from the response to strains applied at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. The relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0.vertline., is determined as a function of applied strain amplitude for an acceptable component, where .function..sub.0 is the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak of a selected mode to determine a reference relationship. Then, the relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0 is determined as a function of applied strain for a component under test, where fo .function..sub.0 the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak to determine a quality test relationship. The reference relationship is compared with the quality test relationship to determine the presence of defects in the component under test.

  16. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Visscher, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Fisk, Zachary (Santa Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  17. What to Expect during Cardiac Rehabilitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Cardiac Rehabilitation During cardiac rehabilitation (rehab), you'll learn how to: Increase your ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> December 24, 2013 Cardiac Rehabilitation Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...

  18. Cardiac sarcoidosis: the challenge of radiologic-pathologic correlation: from the radiologic pathology archives.

    PubMed

    Jeudy, Jean; Burke, Allen P; White, Charles S; Kramer, Gerdien B G; Frazier, Aletta Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but potentially fatal disorder with a nonspecific spectrum of clinical manifestations, including conduction disorders, congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Although early treatment to improve morbidity and mortality is desirable, sensitive and accurate detection of cardiac sarcoidosis remains a challenge. Except for the histopathologic finding of noncaseating granulomas in an endomyocardial biopsy specimen, most diagnostic tests are limited and nonspecific at best. Therefore, the decision to initiate treatment is based largely on the patient's clinical symptoms and the course of the disease, rather than histologic confirmation. Successful recognition of cardiac sarcoidosis ultimately requires rigorous collaboration among a clinician, radiologist, and pathologist. Advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose, have become increasingly useful in facilitating diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, although limited prospective studies exist. This article describes the clinical parameters and pathologic findings of cardiac sarcoidosis and the advanced imaging features and differential diagnostic challenges that must be considered for a successful diagnostic approach. In addition, to improve the understanding of abnormalities detected with different imaging modalities, we suggest a unified terminology in describing radiologic findings related to cardiac sarcoidosis. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25969930

  19. University of Cambridge, 3D Ultrasound Research Sequential 3D Diagnostic Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    University of Cambridge, 3D Ultrasound Research Sequential 3D Diagnostic Ultrasound using the Stradx System Andrew Gee, Richard Prager & Graham Treece June 2001 Sequential 3D Diagnostic Ultrasound using the Stradx System 1 Sequential freehand 3D ultrasound Sequential Conventional Conventional

  20. Truncus arteriosus communis in a midtrimester fetus: comparison of prenatal ultrasound and MRI with postmortem MRI and autopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias R. Mühler; Anett Rake; Michael Schwabe; Rabih Chaoui; Kay-Sven Heling; Christiane Planke; Alexander Lembcke; Thomas Fischer; Dietmar Kivelitz

    2004-01-01

    Different techniques are used in fetal cardiology, and their accuracy has been demonstrated on several occasions. Color Doppler US has proved to be a reliable and valuable tool in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetal heart has, so far, played no role in prenatal diagnostics. We report on a truncus arteriosus communis diagnosed

  1. Therapeutic ultrasound: Recent trends and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence; Bailey, Michael; Hwang, Joo Ha; Khokhlova, Vera; Sapozhnikov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    Before ultrasound-imaging systems became widely available, ultrasound therapy devices showed great promise for general use in medicine. However, it is only in the last decade that ultrasound therapy has begun to obtain clinical acceptance. Recently, a variety of novel applications of therapeutic ultrasound have been developed that include sonothrombolysis, site-specific and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery, shock wave therapy, lithotripsy, tumor ablation, acoustic hemostasis and several others. This paper reviews a few selected applications of therapeutic ultrasound. It will address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. As a plenary presentation, its audience is intended for the ultrasound scientist or engineer, and thus is not presented at the level of the experienced medical ultrasound professional.

  2. Ultrasound probe localization by tracking skin features

    E-print Network

    Sun, Shih-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound probe localization with respect to the human body is essential for freehand three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US), image-guided surgery, and longitudinal studies. Existing methods for probe localization, however, ...

  3. Ultrasound Echoes as Biometric Navigators

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Benjamin M.; McDannold, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method of using ultrasound data to achieve prospective motion compensation in MRI, especially for respiratory motion during interventional MRI procedures in moving organs such as the liver. The method relies on fingerprint-like biometrically distinct ultra-sound echo patterns produced by different locations in tissue, which are collated with geometrical information from MRI during a training stage to form a mapping table that relates ultrasound measurements to positions. During prospective correction, the system makes frequent ultrasound measurements and uses the map to determine the corresponding position. Results in motorized linear motion phantoms and freely breathing animals indicate that the system performs well. Apparent motion is reduced by up to 97.8%, and motion artifacts are reduced or eliminated in 2D Spoiled Gradient-Echo images. The motion compensation is sufficient to permit MRI thermometry of focused ultrasound heating during respiratory-like motion, with results similar to those obtained in the absence of motion. This new technique may have applications for MRI thermometry and other dynamic imaging in the abdomen during free breathing. PMID:22648783

  4. Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:21080921

  5. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  6. MRI for patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Nazarian, Saman

    2014-05-01

    MRI has become an invaluable tool in the evaluation of soft tissue and bony abnormalities. The presence of a cardiac implantable electrical device (CIED) may complicate matters, however, because these devices are considered a contraindication to MRI scanning. When MRI is performed in patients with a CIED, risks include reed switch activation in older devices, lead heating, system malfunction, and significant radiofrequency noise resulting in inappropriate inhibition of demand pacing, tachycardia therapies, or programming changes. This report reviews indications and risk-benefit evaluation of MRI in patients with CIED and provides a clinical algorithm for performing MRI in patients with implanted devices. PMID:24793805

  7. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Achal

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA) or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA). While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances. PMID:23545866

  8. Cardiac tamponade in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, M L; Liao, W B; Bullard, M J; Lin, F C; Lin, P J; Chiang, C W; Liaw, S J; Chiang, C H

    1997-09-01

    We retrospectively reviewed all of the patients who were treated for cardiac tamponade at Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between January 1991 and December 1995. There were a total of 112 patients (57 males, 55 females) with a mean age of 51 +/- 14 years (53 +/- 15, 49 +/- 13, respectively). Dyspnea was the most common complaint (85%). The mean blood pressure was 129 +/- 24/78 +/- 17 mmHg, and only 8% had a systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mmHg. Sinus tachycardia was the most frequent electrocardiographic finding (72%, 62/86). Diffuse low voltage was noted in 35% (30/86) of the patients and electrical alternans was seen in 17% (15/86). The mean volume of pericardial effusion was 610 +/- 263 ml. Sixty-five percent of the pericardial effusions were bloody, 31% were serosanguineous, 2% were purulent and 2% were chylous. Overall, 54.5% of the patients had malignant diseases. Of the 61 patients who died, 79% had malignancies. Thirty-five (57%) of these 48 patients had lung cancer. The mean survival time from emergent pericardiocentesis was 3.4 months. In conclusion, non-traumatic cardiac tamponade had a poor prognosis because most patients had malignant etiologies. There is still no definitive treatment for recurrent malignant pericardial effusion-induced cardiac tamponade. Percutaneous pericardiocentesis as clinically required may be the most appropriate treatment, since it is questionable whether such subjects should be subjected to the unnecessary pain and suffering associated with an operative procedure, considering their short mean survival time. PMID:9293407

  9. Increased cardiomyocyte intracellular calcium during endotoxin-induced cardiac dysfunction in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M; Kliewer, A; Maass, D; Becker, L; White, D J; Bryant, D; Arteaga, G; Horton, J; Giroir, B P

    2000-05-01

    Septic shock is a complex pathophysiologic state characterized by circulatory insufficiency, multiple system organ dysfunction, and frequent mortality. Although profound cardiac dysfunction occurs during sepsis, the pathogenesis of this dysfunction remains poorly understood. To determine whether abnormalities in intramyocyte calcium accumulation might contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction, we measured myocyte intracellular calcium during peak cardiac dysfunction after an endotoxin challenge. Intraperitoneal administration of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 4 mg/kg to adult guinea pigs resulted in significantly impaired cardiac performance (Langendorff preparation) 18 h after challenge compared with control. This included diminished left ventricular pressure development (56 +/- 7 versus 95 +/- 4 mm Hg, p < 0.05), maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (998 +/- 171 versus 1784 +/- 94 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05) and left ventricular pressure fall (1014 +/- 189 versus 1621 +/- 138 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Assay of intracellular calcium in fura-2AM-loaded cardiac myocytes demonstrated increased intracellular calcium concentration in myocytes obtained from lipopolysaccharide-challenged animals compared with controls (234 +/- 18 versus 151 +/- 6 nM, p < 0.05). Inhibition of calcium-release channel (ryanodine receptor) opening by administration of dantrolene prevented the increase in intracytoplasmic calcium (159 +/- 8 versus 234 +/- 18 nM, p < 0.05) and partially ameliorated systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction. These data indicate that abnormalities of intracellular calcium contribute to the development of endotoxin-induced myocardial dysfunction. PMID:10813595

  10. Medical Imaging with Ultrasound: Some Basic Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are medical applications of ultrasound. The physics of the wave nature of ultrasound including its propagation and production, return by the body, spatial and contrast resolution, attenuation, image formation using pulsed echo ultrasound techniques, measurement of velocity and duplex scanning are described. (YP)

  11. Optimizing ultrasound focus distributions for hyperthermia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Lalonde; John W. Hunt

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for generating ultrasound focus patterns for ultrasound hyperthermia treatment planning for steady state and transient hyperthermia. The solution for placement and intensity of ultrasound focus points is based on two types of temperature constraints: 1) equality constraints on the tumor boundary (temperature is held at maximum safe level), and 2) inequality constraints in the tumor interior

  12. Portable Antenatal Ultrasound Platform for Village Midwives

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Ruth

    to appropriate medical facilities for delivery. Ultrasound is a common imaging modality for obstetrical (OBPortable Antenatal Ultrasound Platform for Village Midwives Waylon Brunette 1 , Wayne Gerard 1 University of Washington Seattle, WA USA 98195 ronathan@uw.edu ABSTRACT Ultrasound imaging is an effective

  13. Acoustic shear wave displacement measurement using ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinayak Dutt; Randall R. Kinnick; James F. Greenleaf

    1996-01-01

    Echo ultrasound can be used to detect and measure acoustic shear waves. Earlier it has been shown that a phase contrast based magnetic resonance imaging technique can be used for cyclic shear wave displacement measurement. Echo ultrasound presents an alternate method for imaging of such shear waves. The ultrasound based method uses the phase of quadrature echo signals to estimate

  14. Ultrasound Imaging Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201

    E-print Network

    Suel, Torsten

    -echo equation · Different ultrasound imaging modes · Steering and focusing of phased arrays · Doppler ImagingUltrasound Imaging Yao Wang Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L. Prince and J the textbook except otherwise noted. #12;EL5823 Ultrasound Imaging Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture

  15. Combined ultrasound, optoacoustic, and elasticity imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav Y. Emelianov; Salavat R. Aglyamov; J. Shah; S. Sethuraman; W. G. Scott; R. Schmitt; Massoud Motamedi; A. Karpiouk; Alexander A. Oraevsky

    2004-01-01

    Combination of three complementary imaging technologies - ultrasound imaging, elastography, and optoacoustic imaging - is suggested for detection and diagnostics of tissue pathology including cancer. The fusion of these ultrasound-based techniques results in a novel imaging system capable of simultaneous imaging of the anatomy (ultrasound imaging), cancer-induced angiogenesis (optoacoustic imaging) and changes in mechanical properties (elasticity imaging) of tissue to

  16. Medical Imaging Techniques Combining Light and Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. DiMarzio; Todd W. Murray

    2003-01-01

    The combination of light and ultrasound can lead to new medical imaging techniques combining the spectroscopic capability of light with the spatial resolution of ultrasound. Spectroscopy can be used to measure blood volume and blood oxygen, but because most biological tissues are highly scattering at optical wavelengths, spatial resolution is poor. Ultrasound provides excellent resolution, but not good soft-tissue contrast.

  17. Threedimensional Reconstruction of Intravascular Ultrasound Data

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

    Three­dimensional Reconstruction of Intravascular Ultrasound Data K.R. Subramanian Michael Funk 26 of research within the medical community. A number of technologies widely used in medicine (such as ultrasound imaging), and ultrasound. Each of these technologies has its own characteristic strengths and weaknesses

  18. ULTRASOUND IN SYNTHESIS Kenneth S. Suslick

    E-print Network

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    ULTRASOUND IN SYNTHESIS Kenneth S. Suslick School of Chemical Sciences University of Illinois....................................... 2 2. Origins of the Chemical Effects of Ultrasound................. 3 2.1. The Nature of Acoustic .. ......... ...................·.... 16 4. Synthetic Applications of Ultrasound.......................... 20 4.1. Homogeneous Systems

  19. Ultrasound Imaging of Internal Corrosion Habib Ammari

    E-print Network

    Ammari, Habib

    Ultrasound Imaging of Internal Corrosion Habib Ammari Hyeonbae Kang Eunjoo Kim§ Mikyoung Lim ultrasound boundary measurements. The method is based on an asymp- totic expansion of the effect, reconstruction, ultrasound detection, high fre- quencies, MUSIC-type algorithm 1 Introduction Corrosion detection

  20. Ultrasound attenuation measurement the presence scatterer variation

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    Ultrasound attenuation measurement the presence scatterer variation for reduction shadowing.cam.ac.uk #12; #12; Abstract Pulse­echo ultrasound display relies many assumptions which known incorrect. De­ parture these makes interpretation conventional ultrasound images di#cult, and visu­ alisations harder

  1. Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display Takayuki Iwamoto

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display Takayuki Iwamoto Mari Tatezono Takayuki Hoshi Hiroyuki Shinoda of the spatial distribution of the pressure is quite lim- ited. The airborne ultrasound tactile display attachments. 2 Principle The method is based on a nonlinear phenomenon of ultrasound; acoustic radiation

  2. Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display: Supplement Takayuki Iwamoto

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display: Supplement Takayuki Iwamoto Mari Tatezono Takayuki Hoshi. S [m2 ] is the radiation area of a single transducer and Stot = NS. A common airborne ultrasound.041 W of ultrasound in normal use. Hence, if the number of the transducer is 100 and the sound speed

  3. Parameter Initialisation for Three-Dimensional Ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    Parameter Initialisation for Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Deconvolution H. Gomersall, N. G beamforming used in pulse-echo ultrasound images results in an inherent blurring. This blurring limits the resolution, and hence the utility, of pulse-echo ultrasound in clinical applications. Ng et al. developed

  4. NONPLANAR RESLICING FOR FREEHAND 3D ULTRASOUND

    E-print Network

    Drummond, Tom

    NON­PLANAR RESLICING FOR FREEHAND 3D ULTRASOUND A. H. Gee, R. W. Prager and L. Berman CUED 3D Ultrasound Andrew Gee, Richard Prager and Laurence Berman \\Lambda University of Cambridge imaging modalities, including 3D ultrasound. The acquired data is resampled on a user­ specified plane

  5. Pathogenesis of Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias in Mecp2 Mutant Mice: Implication for Therapy in Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Mark D.; Wang, Tiannan; Mike, Elise; Herrera, Jose; Beavers, David L.; Huang, Teng-Wei; Ward, Christopher S.; Skinner, Steven; Percy, Alan K.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) in which 26% of deaths are sudden and of unknown cause. To explore the hypothesis that these deaths may be due to cardiac dysfunction, we characterized the electrocardiograms (ECGs) in 379 people with Rett syndrome and found that 18.5% show prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc), indicating a repolarization abnormality that can predispose to the development of an unstable fatal cardiac rhythm. Male mice lacking MeCP2 function, Mecp2Null/Y, also have prolonged QTc and show increased susceptibility to induced ventricular tachycardia. Female heterozygous null mice, Mecp2Null/+, show an age-dependent prolongation of QTc associated with ventricular tachycardia and cardiac-related death. Genetic deletion of MeCP2 function in only the nervous system was sufficient to cause long QTc and ventricular tachycardia, implicating neuronally-mediated changes to cardiac electrical conduction as a potential cause of ventricular tachycardia in Rett syndrome. The standard therapy for prolonged QTc in Rett syndrome, ?-adrenergic receptor blockers, did not prevent ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2Null/Y mice. To determine whether an alternative therapy would be more appropriate, we characterized cardiomyocytes from Mecp2Null/Y mice and found increased persistent sodium current, which was normalized when cells were treated with the sodium channel-blocking anti-seizure drug phenytoin. Treatment with phenytoin reduced both QTc and sustained ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2Null/Y mice. These results demonstrate that cardiac abnormalities in Rett syndrome are secondary to abnormal nervous system control, which leads to increased persistent sodium current. Our findings suggest that treatment in people with Rett syndrome would be more effective if it targeted the increased persistent sodium current in order to prevent lethal cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:22174313

  6. Cardiac autonomic involvement and peripheral nerve function in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, A; Lang, E; Birklein, F; Claus, D; Neundörfer, B

    1997-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between cardiac autonomic neuropathy and dysfunction of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres in the peripheral nerve. We measured nerve conduction velocities, warmth/cold perception thresholds at the foot dorsum, sympathetic skin response (SSR), and performed the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART). Forty-three diabetic patients with distal-symmetric polyneuropathy were included. According to the results of heart rate variation, 20 patients had cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN+). Apart from motor nerve conduction velocities, all tests were more often abnormal in CAN+ patients. Warmth thresholds (afferent C-fibres) and reduced compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the tibial and peroneal nerve, indicating axonal damage, were more often abnormal in CAN+. Cold threshold and sural nerve conduction velocity were indicators of involvement of myelinated small and large nerve fibres, but not of the cardiac autonomic system. Ninety-four percent (94%) of patients with absent SSR and 78% of patients with abnormal QSART had CAN+. SSR and QSART may be useful for assessment of autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients with cardiac arrhythmia where direct measurement of heart rate variability is not possible. In the majority of our patients with CAN+, the vagal-cardiac and the sudomotor-sympathetic systems were involved simultaneously, although two entirely different systems were tested. This may reflect a C-fibre directed selectivity of the pathological process in autonomic diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion our results show that diabetics with and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy have a different profile of involvement of peripheral nerve fibres. PMID:9218965

  7. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed. PMID:25851889

  8. Ultrasound tissue analysis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufhold, John; Chan, Ray C.; Karl, William C.; Castanon, David A.

    1999-07-01

    On the battlefield of the future, it may become feasible for medics to perform, via application of new biomedical technologies, more sophisticated diagnoses and surgery than is currently practiced. Emerging biomedical technology may enable the medic to perform laparoscopic surgical procedures to remove, for example, shrapnel from injured soldiers. Battlefield conditions constrain the types of medical image acquisition and interpretation which can be performed. Ultrasound is the only viable biomedical imaging modality appropriate for deployment on the battlefield -- which leads to image interpretation issues because of the poor quality of ultrasound imagery. To help overcome these issues, we develop and implement a method of image enhancement which could aid non-experts in the rapid interpretation and use of ultrasound imagery. We describe an energy minimization approach to finding boundaries in medical images and show how prior information on edge orientation can be incorporated into this framework to detect tissue boundaries oriented at a known angle.

  9. Clinical applications of doppler ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.J.W.; Burns, P.N.; Well, P.N.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces a guide to the physical principles and instrumentation of duplex Doppler ultrasound and its applications in obstetrics, gynecology, neonatology, gastroentology, and evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. The book provides information needed to perform Doppler ultrasound examinations and interpret the results. An introduction to Doppler physics and instrumentation is followed by a thorough review of hemodynamics, which explains the principles underlying interpretation of Doppler signals. Of special note is the state-of-the-art coverage of new applications of Doppler in recognition of high-risk pregnancy, diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation, investigation of neonatal blood flow, evaluation of first-trimester pregnancy, and diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. The book also offers guidelines on the use of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing carotid disease, deep venous thrombosis, and aorta/femoral disease.

  10. Ultrasound: From Earth to Space

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jennifer; Macbeth, Paul. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a versatile imaging modality that offers many advantages over radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. On Earth, the use of ultrasound has become standard in many areas of medicine including diagnosis of medical and surgical diseases, management of obstetric and gynecologic conditions, assessment of critically ill patients, and procedural guidance. Advances in telecommunications have enabled remotely-guided ultrasonography for both geographically isolated populations and astronauts aboard the International Space Station. While ultrasound has traditionally been used in spaceflight to study anatomical and physiological adaptations to microgravity and evaluate countermeasures, recent years have seen a growth of applications adapted from terrestrial techniques. Terrestrial, remote, and space applications for ultrasound are reviewed in this paper. PMID:22399873

  11. Genetic determinants of cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Ali J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Cardiac hypertrophy is a common phenotypic response of the heart to stimulants. It is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in various cardiovascular disorders. Genetic factors are important determinants of phenotypic expression of cardiac hypertrophy, whether in single-gene disorders or in complex traits. We focus on the molecular genetics of cardiac hypertrophy in various conditions with an emphasis on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a genetic paradigm of cardiac hypertrophic response. Recent findings The molecular genetic basis of cardiac hypertrophy in single-gene disorders has been partially elucidated. Likewise, the impact of genetics on the expression of cardiac hypertrophy in the general population has been demonstrated. Identification of mutations in the Z disk proteins has expanded the spectrum of causal mutations beyond the thin and thick filaments of the sarcomeres. In addition, modifier loci have been mapped and shown to impart considerable effects on the expression of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Elucidation of the molecular genetics of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and many of the phenocopies has highlighted the limitations of clinical diagnosis as a determinant of management and prognostic advice. The findings have raised the importance of diagnosis and treatment algorithms, which are based on both genotype and phenotype information. Summary Cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of the cause, is the phenotypic consequence of complex interactions between genetic and nongenetic factors. PMID:18382207

  12. Optogenetic Control of Cardiac Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aristides B. Arrenberg; Didier Y. R. Stainier; Herwig Baier; Jan Huisken

    2010-01-01

    The cardiac pacemaker controls the rhythmicity of heart contractions and can be substituted by a battery-operated device as a last resort. We created a genetically encoded, optically controlled pacemaker by expressing halorhodopsin and channelrhodopsin in zebrafish cardiomyocytes. Using patterned illumination in a selective plane illumination microscope, we located the pacemaker and simulated tachycardia, bradycardia, atrioventricular blocks, and cardiac arrest. The

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw and label…

  14. Human Internal Jugular Valve M-mode Ultrasound Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Menegatti, Erica; Tessari, Mirko; Gianesini, Sergio; Vannini, Maria Elena; Sisini, Francesco; Zamboni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In humans the mechanism governing the internal jugular vein (IJV) valve opening and closure is still unclear. M-mode is used in echo-cardiology for the heart valves assessment. Sometimes it was performed also in deep peripheral veins and in vena cava assessment, but never in the IJV valve. Aim of the present study is to investigate the IJV valves physiology in healthy volunteers, by means of both B and M-mode ultrasound. Eighty-three (83) healthy volunteers (35 Male, 48 Female, 25.7±6.7 y.o.), for a total of 166 IJVs, were enrolled. The entire cohort underwent IJVs high-resolution B and M-mode evaluation, in standardized postural and respiratory conditions. Presence, motility, and number of cusps, as well as their opening and closure mechanism have been assessed. Bilateral valve absence occurred in 13/83 (16%), whereas at least a one side absence was recorded in 38/83 (46‰ of the cohort) (p<0.0356). Valve leaflets were always mobile and respectively bi-cusps in 34%, or mono-cusp in 27%. The latter was significantly more frequent on the left side (35%) than on the right side (19%) (p<0.0013). In supine, M-mode valve opening was synchronous with the cardiac cycle. To the contrary, in an upright position, the valve remained always open and saddled to the wall, independently from the cardiac cycle. In healthy subjects, the IJV valve leaflets are always mobile, but the significant rate of mono and bilateral absence could suggest a progressive phylogenetic importance loss of such apparatus. M-mode ultrasound enhances the characterization of IJV valve, for this reason it should be taken into consideration to routinely add it to the cerebral venous return investigation. PMID:24712644

  15. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  16. Clinical controversies in endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Arvind J.; Berzin, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The field of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is growing rapidly. Although EUS has enhanced our ability to diagnose and treat a wide variety of GI conditions, there are many controversial issues regarding the appropriate application of EUS techniques. In this review we discuss five controversial topics in EUS: the utility of EUS in staging of esophageal and gastric cancer; selection of appropriate needle gauge for fine needle aspiration (FNA); use of the stylet in FNA; and the emerging role of contrast agents in endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:24759665

  17. The Chemotherapy of Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Minuck, Max

    1965-01-01

    Direct-air ventilation, external cardiac compression, and external defibrillation are established techniques for patients who unexpectedly develop cardiac arrest. The proper use of drugs can increase the incidence of successful resuscitation. Intracardiac adrenaline (epinephrine) acts as a powerful stimulant during cardiac standstill and, in addition, converts fine ventricular fibrillation to a coarser type, more responsive to electrical defibrillation. Routine use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate is recommended to combat the severe metabolic acidosis accompanying cardiac arrest. Lidocaine is particularly useful when ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia tends to recur. Analeptics are contraindicated, since they invariably increase oxygen requirements of already hypoxic cerebral tissues. The following acrostic is a useful mnemonic for recalling the details of the management of cardiac arrest in their proper order: A (Airway), B (Breathing), C (Circulation), D (Diagnosis of underlying cause), E (Epinephrine), F (Fibrillation), G (Glucose intravenously), pH (Sodium bicarbonate), I (Intensive care). ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:14216141

  18. Ultrasound in sports medicine: relevance of emerging techniques to clinical care of athletes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Eugene Sun; Corrado, Gianmichael

    2012-08-01

    The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™. The search produced 617 articles in total, with a predominance of articles focused on cardiac and musculoskeletal ultrasound. 266 of the studies involved application of ultrasound in evaluating the cardiovascular properties of athletes, and 151 studies involved musculoskeletal ultrasound. Other applications of ultrasound included abdominal, vascular, bone density and volume status. New techniques in echocardiography have made significant contributions to the understanding of the physiological changes that occur in the athlete's heart in response to the haemodynamic stress associated with different types of activity. The likely application of these techniques will be in managing athletes with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the techniques are near ready for application into clinical practice. These techniques are highly specialized, however, and will require referral to dedicated laboratories to influence the clinical management of athletes. Investigation of aortic root pathology and pulmonary vascular haemodynamics are also emerging, but will require additional studies with larger numbers and outcomes analysis to validate their clinical utility. Some of these techniques are relatively simple, and thus hold the potential to enter clinical management in a point-of-care fashion. Musculoskeletal ultrasound has demonstrated a number of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques applicable to pathology of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee and ankle. These techniques have been applied mainly to the management of impingement syndromes, tendinopathies and arthritis. Many of these techniques have been validated and have entered clinical practice, while more recently developed techniques (such as dynamic ultrasound and platelet-rich plasma injections) will require further research to verify efficacy. Research in musculoskeletal ultrasound has also been helpful in identifying risk factors for injury and, thus, serving as a focus for developing interventions. Research in abdominal ultrasound has investigated the potential role of ultrasound imaging in assessing splenomegaly in athletes with mononucleosis, in an attempt to inform decisions and policies regarding return to play. Future research will have to demonstrate a reduction in adverse events in order to justify the application of such a technique into policy. The role of ultrasound in assessing groin pain and abdominal pain in ultraendurance athletes has also been investigated, providing promising areas of focus for the development of treatment interventions and physical therapy. Finally, preliminary research has also identified the role of ultrasound in addressing vascular disease, bone density and volume status in athletes. The potential applications of ultrasound in athletes are broad, and continuing research, including larger outcome studies, will be required to establish the clinical utility of these techniques in the care of athletes. PMID:22712843

  19. Psychiatric medications and sudden cardiac death: putting the risk in perspective.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    A potential adverse effect of some psychiatric medications is an abnormally prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval and an increased risk of developing Torsade de Pointes (TdP), which is associated with sudden death. Because antidepressant and antipsychotic drug use is increasing and rates of sudden cardiac death are decreasing, the proportion of sudden cardiac death cases that may be attributed to these drugs is likely to be exceedingly small compared to other risk factors. A comprehensive review of the published literature has concluded that there is little evidence that psychotropic drug-associated QTc interval prolongation by itself is sufficient to predict TdP. PMID:25654571

  20. Measuring myofiber orientations from high-frequency ultrasound images using multiscale decompositions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xulei; Fei, Baowei

    2014-07-21

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) has the ability to image both skeletal and cardiac muscles. The quantitative assessment of these myofiber orientations has a number of applications in both research and clinical examinations; however, difficulties arise due to the severe speckle noise contained in the HFU images. Thus, for the purpose of automatically measuring myofiber orientations from two-dimensional HFU images, we propose a two-step multiscale image decomposition method. It combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter and a coherence enhancing diffusion filter to extract myofibers. This method has been verified by ultrasound data from simulated phantoms, excised fiber phantoms, specimens of porcine hearts, and human skeletal muscles in vivo. The quantitative evaluations of both phantoms indicated that the myofiber measurements of our proposed method were more accurate than other methods. The myofiber orientations extracted from different layers of the porcine hearts matched the prediction of an established cardiac mode and demonstrated the feasibility of extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from HFU images ex vivo. Moreover, HFU also demonstrated the ability to measure myofiber orientations in vivo. PMID:24957945

  1. Measuring myofiber orientations from high-frequency ultrasound images using multiscale decompositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Fei, Baowei

    2014-07-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) has the ability to image both skeletal and cardiac muscles. The quantitative assessment of these myofiber orientations has a number of applications in both research and clinical examinations; however, difficulties arise due to the severe speckle noise contained in the HFU images. Thus, for the purpose of automatically measuring myofiber orientations from two-dimensional HFU images, we propose a two-step multiscale image decomposition method. It combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter and a coherence enhancing diffusion filter to extract myofibers. This method has been verified by ultrasound data from simulated phantoms, excised fiber phantoms, specimens of porcine hearts, and human skeletal muscles in vivo. The quantitative evaluations of both phantoms indicated that the myofiber measurements of our proposed method were more accurate than other methods. The myofiber orientations extracted from different layers of the porcine hearts matched the prediction of an established cardiac mode and demonstrated the feasibility of extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from HFU images ex vivo. Moreover, HFU also demonstrated the ability to measure myofiber orientations in vivo.

  2. Idiopathic granulomatous gastritis diagnosed with endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Imbe, Koh; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Abe, Yoko; Saito, Akiko; Hoshi, Koki; Yamabe, Akane; Igarashi, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old man in whom a gastric submucosal lesion was found incidentally was referred to our hospital for detailed examination. Esophagastroduodenoscopy showed a submucosal lesion in the body of the stomach. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a 15-mm hypoechoic round mass with calcifications arising from the muscular layer. Confusing the diagnosis, it resembled a gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor. Subsequently, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was conducted for definitive diagnosis. Pathologic analysis showed a granuloma. Because this patient had no prior exposure to tuberculosis or Helicobacter pylori infection and had no abnormal laboratory data, this submucosal lesion was diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous gastritis.

  3. Cardiac Remodeling in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    ABEL, E. DALE; LITWIN, SHELDON E.; SWEENEY, GARY

    2010-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its strong association with cardiovascular disease have resulted in unprecedented interest in understanding the effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system. A consistent, but puzzling clinical observation is that obesity confers an increased susceptibility to the development of cardiac disease, while at the same time affording protection against subsequent mortality (termed the obesity paradox). In this review we focus on evidence available from human and animal model studies and summarize the ways in which obesity can influence structure and function of the heart. We also review current hypotheses regarding mechanisms linking obesity and various aspects of cardiac remodeling. There is currently great interest in the role of adipokines, factors secreted from adipose tissue, and their role in the numerous cardiovascular complications of obesity. Here we focus on the role of leptin and the emerging promise of adiponectin as a cardioprotective agent. The challenge of understanding the association between obesity and heart failure is complicated by the multifaceted interplay between various hemodynamic, metabolic, and other physiological factors that ultimately impact the myocardium. Furthermore, the end result of obesity-associated changes in the myocardial structure and function may vary at distinct stages in the progression of remodeling, may depend on the individual pathophysiology of heart failure, and may even remain undetected for decades before clinical manifestation. Here we summarize our current knowledge of this complex yet intriguing topic. PMID:18391168

  4. [Consensus document on ultrasound training in Intensive Care Medicine. Care process, use of the technique and acquisition of professional skills].

    PubMed

    Ayuela Azcárate, J M; Clau-Terré, F; Vicho Pereira, R; Guerrero de Mier, M; Carrillo López, A; Ochagavia, A; López Pérez, J M; Trenado Alvarez, J; Pérez, L; Llompart-Pou, J A; González de Molina, F J; Fojón, S; Rodríguez Salgado, A; Martínez Díaz, M C; Royo Villa, C; Romero Bermejo, F J; Ruíz Bailén, M; Arroyo Díez, M; Argueso García, M; Fernández Fernández, J L

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound has become an essential tool in assisting critically ill patients. His knowledge, use and instruction requires a statement by scientific societies involved in its development and implementation. Our aim are to determine the use of the technique in intensive care medicine, clinical situations where its application is recommended, levels of knowledge, associated responsibility and learning process also implement the ultrasound technique as a common tool in all intensive care units, similar to the rest of european countries. The SEMICYUC's Working Group Cardiac Intensive Care and CPR establishes after literature review and scientific evidence, a consensus document which sets out the requirements for accreditation in ultrasound applied to the critically ill patient and how to acquire the necessary skills. Training and learning requires a structured process within the specialty. The SEMICYUC must agree to disclose this document, build relationships with other scientific societies and give legal cover through accreditation of the training units, training courses and different levels of training. PMID:24315132

  5. [Abdominal ultrasound course an introduction to the ultrasound technique. Physical basis. Ultrasound language].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Sáez-Fernández, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Díaz-Rodríguez, N

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, accessible, and versatile diagnostic technique that uses high frequency ultrasound waves to define outline the organs of the human body, with no ionising radiation, in real time and with the capacity to visual several planes. The high diagnostic yield of the technique, together with its ease of uses plus the previously mentioned characteristics, has currently made it a routine method in daily medical practice. It is for this reason that the multidisciplinary character of this technique is being strengthened every day. To be able to perform the technique correctly requires knowledge of the physical basis of ultrasound, the method and the equipment, as well as of the human anatomy, in order to have the maximum information possible to avoid diagnostic errors due to poor interpretation or lack of information. PMID:24373619

  6. Mice with cardiac overexpression of PPAR? have impaired repolarization and spontaneous fatal ventricular arrhythmias (Morrow, PPAR? overexpression induces fatal arrhythmias)

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, John P.; Katchman, Alexander; Son, Ni-Huiping; Trent, Chad M.; Khan, Raffay; Shiomi, Takayuki; Huang, Haiyan; Amin, Vaibhav; Lader, Joshua M.; Vasquez, Carolina; Morley, Gregory E.; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Homma, Shunichi; Goldberg, Ira J.; Marx, Steven O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes and obesity, which confer an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, are associated with cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation and altered cardiac electrical properties, manifested by prolongation of the QRS duration and QT interval. It is difficult to distinguish the contribution of cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation versus the contribution of global metabolic defects to the increased incidence of sudden death and electrical abnormalities. Methods and Results In order to study the effects of metabolic abnormalities on arrhythmias without the complex systemic effects of diabetes and obesity, we studied cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing PPAR?1 via the cardiac ?-myosin heavy-chain promoter. The PPAR?-transgenic mice develop abnormal accumulation of intracellular lipids and die as young adults, prior to a significant reduction in systolic function. Using implantable ECG telemeters, we found that these mice have prolongation of the QRS and QT intervals, and spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias, including polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Isolated cardiomyocytes demonstrated prolonged action potential duration caused by reduced expression and function of the potassium channels responsible for repolarization. Short-term exposure to pioglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, had no effect on mortality or rhythm in WT mice, but further exacerbated the arrhythmic phenotype and increased the mortality in the PPAR? TG mice. Conclusions Our findings support an important link between PPAR? activation, cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation, ion channel remodeling and increased cardiac mortality. PMID:22124376

  7. Measuring tissue blood flow using ultrasound modulated diffused light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, A.; Racheli, N.; Breskin, I.; Metzger, Y.; Silman, Z.; Kamar, M.; Nini, A.; Shechter, R.; Balberg, M.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate the ability of a novel device employing ultrasound modulation of near infrared light (referred as "Ultrasound tagged light" or UTL) to perform non-invasive monitoring of blood flow in the microvascular level in tissue. Monitoring microcirculatory blood flow is critical in clinical situations affecting flow to different organs, such as the brain or the limbs. . However, currently there are no non-invasive devices that measure microcirculatory blood flow in deep tissue continuously. Our prototype device (Ornim Medical, Israel) was used to monitor tissue blood flow on anesthetized swine during controlled manipulations of increased and decreased blood flow. Measurements were done on the calf muscle and forehead of the animal and compared with Laser Doppler (LD). ROC analysis of the sensitivity and specificity for detecting an increase in blood flow on the calf muscle, demonstrated AUC = 0.951 for 23 systemic manipulations of cardiac output by Epinephrine injection, which is comparable to AUC = 0.943 using laser Doppler. Some examples of cerebral blood flow monitoring are presented, along with their individual ROC curves. UTL flowmetry is shown to be effective in detecting changes in cerebral and muscle blood flow in swine, and has merit in clinical applications.

  8. Measuring Ascending Aortic Stiffness In Vivo in Mice Using Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Maggie M.; Barodka, Viachaslau; Abraham, Theodore P.; Steppan, Jochen; Shoukas, Artin A.; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    We present a protocol for measuring in vivo aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol. This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size. PMID:25489936

  9. Common Variants in Cardiac Ion Channel Genes are Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Christine M.; MacRae, Calum A.; Chasman, Daniel I.; VanDenburgh, Martin; Buring, Julie E; Manson, JoAnn E; Cook, Nancy R; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background Rare variants in cardiac ion channel genes are associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in rare primary arrhythmic syndromes; however, it is unknown whether common variation in these same genes may contribute to SCD risk at the population level. Methods and Results We examined the association between 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (137 tag, 5 non-coding SNPs associated with QT interval duration and 5 nonsynonymous SNPs) in 5 cardiac ion channel genes, KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1 and KCNE2 and sudden and/or arrhythmic death in a combined nested case-control analysis among 516 cases and 1522 matched controls of European ancestry enrolled in six prospective cohort studies. After accounting for multiple testing, two SNPs (rs2283222 located in intron 11 in KCNQ1 and rs11720524 located in intron 1 in SCN5A) remained significantly associated with sudden/arrhythmic death (FDR = 0.01 and 0.03 respectively). Each increasing copy of the major T allele of rs2283222 or the major C allele of rs1172052 was associated with an OR = 1.36 (95% CI 1.16-1.60, P=0.0002) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.12-1.51, P=0.0005) respectively. Control for cardiovascular risk factors and/or limiting the analysis to definite SCDs did not significantly alter these relationships. Conclusion In this combined analysis of 6 prospective cohort studies, two common intronic variants in KCNQ1 and SCN5A were associated with SCD in individuals of European ancestry. Further study in other populations and investigation into the functional abnormalities associated with non-coding variation in these genes may lead to important insights into predisposition to lethal arrhythmias. PMID:20400777

  10. Pseudo Wellens T-waves in patients with suspected myocardial infarction: How cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can help the diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci; Pablo Denes; Thomas A. Holly; Edwin Wu

    2008-01-01

    Wellens' syndrome is characterized by symmetrically inverted T-waves in the precordial leads suggestive of impending myocardial infarction due to a critical proximal left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis. We describe three unusual cases of patients with such electrocardiographic abnormality in which coronary angiography ruled out the presence of critical coronary stenosis and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging excluded the presence of acute

  11. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  12. Experience with Emergency Ultrasound Training by Canadian Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel J.; Theoret, Jonathan; Liao, Michael M.; Kendall, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Starting in 2008, emergency ultrasound (EUS) was introduced as a core competency to the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College) emergency medicine (EM) training standards. The Royal College accredits postgraduate EM specialty training in Canada through 5-year residency programs. The objective of this study is to describe both the current experience with and the perceptions of EUS by Canadian Royal College EM senior residents. Methods: This was a web-based survey conducted from January to March 2011 of all 39 Canadian Royal College postgraduate fifth-year (PGY-5) EM residents. Main outcome measures were characteristics of EUS training and perceptions of EUS. Results: Survey response rate was 95% (37/39). EUS was part of the formal residency curriculum for 86% of respondents (32/37). Residents most commonly received training in focused assessment with sonography for trauma, intrauterine pregnancy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, cardiac, and procedural guidance. Although the most commonly provided instructional material (86% [32/37]) was an ultrasound course, 73% (27/37) of residents used educational resources outside of residency training to supplement their ultrasound knowledge. Most residents (95% [35/37]) made clinical decisions and patient dispositions based on their EUS interpretation without a consultative study by radiology. Residents had very favorable perceptions and opinions of EUS. Conclusion: EUS training in Royal College EM programs was prevalent and perceived favorably by residents, but there was heterogeneity in resident training and practice of EUS. This suggests variability in both the level and quality of EUS training in Canadian Royal College EM residency programs. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):306–311.] PMID:24868309

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Arbustini, Eloisa; Diegoli, Marta; Fasani, Roberta; Grasso, Maurizia; Morbini, Patrizia; Banchieri, Nadia; Bellini, Ornella; Dal Bello, Barbara; Pilotto, Andrea; Magrini, Giulia; Campana, Carlo; Fortina, Paolo; Gavazzi, Antonello; Narula, Jagat; Viganò, Mario

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt)DNA defects, both deletions and tRNA point mutations, have been associated with cardiomyopathies. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pathological mtDNA mutations and to assess associated defects of mitochondrial enzyme activity in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients with ultrastructural abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria. In a large cohort of 601 DCM patients we performed conventional light and electron microscopy on endomyocardial biopsy samples. Cases with giant organelles, angulated, tubular, and concentric cristae, and crystalloid or osmiophilic inclusion bodies were selected for mtDNA analysis. Mutation screening techniques, automated DNA sequencing, restriction enzyme digestion, and densitometric assays were performed to identify mtDNA mutations, assess heteroplasmy, and quantify the amount of mutant in myocardial and blood DNA. Of 601 patients (16 to 63 years; mean, 43.5 ± 12.7 years), 85 had ultrastructural evidence of giant organelles, with abnormal cristae and inclusion bodies; 19 of 85 (22.35%) had heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations (9 tRNA, 5 rRNA, and 4 missense, one in two patients) that were not found in 111 normal controls and in 32 DCM patients without the above ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities. In all cases, the amount of mutant was higher in heart than in blood. In hearts of patients that later underwent transplantation, cytochrome c oxidase (Cox) activity was significantly lower in cases with mutations than in those without or controls (P = 0.0008). NADH dehydrogenase activity was only slightly reduced in cases with mutations (P = 0.0388), whereas succinic dehydrogenase activity did not significantly differ between DCM patients with mtDNA mutations and those without or controls. The present study represents the first attempt to detect a morphological, easily identifiable marker to guide mtDNA mutation screening. Pathological mtDNA mutations are associated with ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria, and reduced Cox activity in a small subgroup of non-otherwise-defined, idiopathic DCMs, in which mtDNA defects may constitute the basis for, or contribute to, the development of congestive heart failure. PMID:9811342

  14. Cardiac Nonmyocytes in the Hub of Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Takehiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2015-06-19

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by complex multicellular alterations, such as cardiomyocyte growth, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and inflammation. The heart consists of myocytes and nonmyocytes, such as fibroblasts, vascular cells, and blood cells, and these cells communicate with each other directly or indirectly via a variety of autocrine or paracrine mediators. Accumulating evidence has suggested that nonmyocytes actively participate in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In this review, recent progress in our understanding of the importance of nonmyocytes as a hub for induction of cardiac hypertrophy is summarized with an emphasis of the contribution of noncontact communication mediated by diffusible factors between cardiomyocytes and nonmyocytes in the heart. PMID:26089366

  15. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  16. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  17. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  18. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

  19. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  20. Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schedl

    2007-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron