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This issue, redesigned in a new format, marks the beginning of Volume 25, the beginning of the "silver anniversary" year of the Journal of AbnormalChildPsychology. Data were compiled from the first 24 volumes to study changes over time, and Pearson correlations were calculated to determine linear trends in the journal's development. The number of articles per volume has doubled, from about 25 to 50. In recent years the first authors of articles were more likely to be located outside the U.S. (up from about 5% to about 25%). Also, in recent years the first authors of articles were less likely to be affiliated with nonmedical school university departments and more likely to be affiliated with medical schools or research institutes. An introduction to this special 25th anniversary issue is provided. PMID:9093894
Abnormalpsychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.
Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormalpsychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.
|The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormalpsychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university…
... also called psychological abuse) is a form of child abuse that occurs when someone intentionally does not provide ... disregard for the child's well being See also: Child abuse - physical Child abuse - sexual
In keeping with tradition, the editor of the current issue of the Journal of AbnormalPsychology (1980, Vol. 89, No. 4) presents an account of his policies and goals for the benefit of readers and potential authors. The author discusses the Journal's coverage, criteria for acceptance, types of articles, evaluation procedures, and the blind review process.
Explores the field of medicine as an area for psychological inquiry. Evidence for the growth of medical psychology is presented, though relatively few psychologists are engaged in its pursuit. Medical topics of interest to psychologists are discussed, and the importance of more rigorous research methodologies being used in this area is stressed. It is suggested that psychology and medicine need
Knowledge regarding the mechanisms of development is the aspect in most urgent need of attention, so that we can specify the processes responsible for children's progression from one stage to another. In particular, social influence processes need to be clarified, for past attempts to provide adequate socialisation theories have been hampered by various conceptual and methodological problems. Care must also be taken not to tie such theories to outdated stereotypes of the family; recent social changes and developments in the field of reproductive technology are raising new issues that need to be taken into account in attempts to explain the social context of child development. PMID:3793820
Though some authors have argued that the goals of third force psychology are intrinsically harmonious with those of childpsychology, humanistic or human science perspectives are rarely represented in child developmental texts, courses, and programs. This is particularly notable at the undergraduate level. A major reason for the relative underrepresentation of third force perspectives in the area of child development
The future of pediatric psychology is reviewed and placed in brief historical context in relation to children's psychological health care. Contemporary trends affecting the delivery of psychological services, research, and clinical training are highlighted, with suggestions for future development. Pediatric psychology is a child-based, developmentally-focused multidisciplinary practice directed toward psychosocial and neuropsychological issues of health and illness in children and
Methods available for use in the field of contemporary abnormalpsychology are: (1) application of certain standardized procedures which either measure or detect degrees of mental function, (2) observation and intelligent speculation, and (3) use of the experimental method. During the past ten years there has been a slow recrudescence of experimental fact and conclusion coming out of proper experimental
In William McDougall psychology had a staunch systematist able to integrate the abnormal and the normal within a single conceptual whole. He was not greatly interested in the classification of mental diseases, except as he found it necessary to consider \\
Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…
Evolutionary developmental psychology involves the expression of evolved, epigenetic programs, as de- scribed by the developmental systems approach, over the course of ontogeny. There have been different selec- tion pressures on organisms at different times in ontogeny, and some characteristics of infants and children were selected in evolution to serve an adaptive function at that time in their life history
|Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…
Evolutionary developmental psychology involves the expression of evolved, epigenetic programs, as described by the developmental systems approach, over the course of ontogeny. There have been different selection pressures on organisms at different times in ontogeny, and some characteristics of infants and children were selected in evolution to serve an adaptive function at that time in their life history rather than to prepare individuals for later adulthood. Examples of such adaptive functions of immaturity are provided from infancy, play, and cognitive development. Most evolved psychological mechanisms are proposed to be domain specific in nature and have been identified for various aspects of children's cognitive and social development, most notably for the acquisition of language and for theory of mind. Differences in the quality and quantity of parental investment affect children's development and influence their subsequent reproductive and childcare strategies. Some sex differences observed in childhood, particularly as expressed during play, are seen as antecedents and preparations for adult sex differences. Because evolved mechanisms were adaptive to ancestral environments, they are not always adaptive for contemporary people, and this mismatch of evolved mechanisms with modern environments is seen in children's maladjustment to some aspects of formal schooling. We argue that an evolutionary perspective can be valuable for developing a better understanding of human ontogeny in contemporary society and that a developmental perspective is important for a better understanding of evolutionary psychology. PMID:11194266
Many ailments which usually are attributed to physiological causes may be due to or accompanied by problems essentially psychological. The ordinary practitioner does not feel he can devote time to specialized training in psychology as well as in medicine. It is necessary, therefore, for the closest cooperation to exist between psychologist and physician, not only in diagnosis, but also in
During observation on the behavior of white rats, the idea occurred that comparative psychology could assist in solving some of the problems of abnormalpsychology. Some of the rats, considered neurotic because of their variation in conduct from the majority of rats when going for food, increased the speed of their performance with the increase of the drive (in this
Viewed from a feminist perspective, the history of clinical psychology reveals a troubled—and troubling—relationship to women. Diagnoses and treatments have sometimes served to control and even victimize women. Over the past 25 years, feminist scholarship, activism, and practice have yielded impressive contributions to knowledge. Yet, these accomplishments go largely unnoticed in textbooks in abnormalpsychology. Why the resistance? Looking beyond
Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormalpsychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)
This article examines the application of self psychology to the problem of child abuse. The understanding of child abuse has evolved and, through the application of psychoanalytic principles, has come to be viewed as a breakdown in the parent-child relationship. Self psychology provides a furthering of this understanding and suggests treatment modalities. The case illustration demonstrates the usefullness of self
Arguments in favor of establishing clinical childpsychology as an independent subject are first discussed, and then the discipline itself is defined as a comparatively autonomous domain of psychology. Using three examples (research on reading and spelling weaknesses, the development of the memory and social interaction in ecological fields) it is shown that clinical childpsychology can and must develop also through the utilization of fundamental research. The examples are closely related to aspects of the "Defective child" research project. PMID:122503
This current study surveyed psychology programs' use of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) for children and their families with a history of child maltreatment. In May 2009, there were 599 graduate school programs listed by the Graduate Study in Psychology Online of the American Psychological Association (APA). Psychology graduate school department heads or directors of training were asked to complete an
Neuropsychological aspects are of relevance to a variety of psychological concerns, especially in assessments. But is this trend represented in journals which do not explicitly refer to neuropsychologists? To investigate this question, publications in 2008 and 2009 editions of representative German journals on childpsychology and psychiatry were bibliometrically analyzed. Main topics of neuropsychological publications were attention disorders and diagnostic issues. Neuropsychological findings support the development of assessment instruments and interventions and help improve the basic understanding of disorders and treatment limitations. For example, reduced attention or memory resources are possible hindrances for individual progress in cognitive behavioral intervention. An intensified dialogue of the disciplines is essential for developing advanced guidelines for diagnostics and therapy. PMID:20957778
Rorschach story-completion test and autobiographical data were obtained from 21 students in an abnormalpsychology class and 22 students in a history class, both at the beginning and the end of the semester. Comparisons of the pre- and post-test data \\
Describes abnormalpsychology course centered around films which include "King of Hearts,""A Woman Under the Influence,""David and Lisa,""In Cold Blood," and "The Boys in the Band." Each film deals with a fundamental concept such as psychopathology, neurosis, psychosis, insanity, and sexuality. (KC)
Discusses the history of school psychology, emphasizing the work of L. Witmer (1897, 1907, 1910, 1922) and G. S. Hall (1911, 1923). Providing psychological services in the schools is among the earliest instances of applied psychology. School psychology was one of many child-saving services originating from 1890 to 1920. (SLD)
Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…
Discusses (a) what roles the specialty of clinical childpsychology fulfills and how societal and professional changes have enhanced the need for the specialty, (b) how the field defines itself, (c) how models of training are conceptualized for the specialty, and (d) how some training programs implement specialty training with broad, interdisciplinary components. Clinical childpsychology is a professional field of research and practice that, when adequate training is provided, properly deserves a places as a specialty. The dangers of overspecialization and narrowness are more likely present in traditional clinical (adult) psychology than in clinical childpsychology, especially when the clinical child training is done in a broadly comprehensive and integrated manner. PMID:10587898
|The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…
This paper reviews constructivist and related literature on child abuse and psychotherapy. Constructivist psychology, with its emphasis on the personal, socially embedded construction of meaning, is uniquely situated to contribute to humanistic psychotherapy for child victims and adult survivors. Conversely, work with abused clients deepens our understanding of developmental meaning?making processes and the social ecologies of meaning within which they
Examined developmental theory and its relevance for the practice of clinical childpsychology. Following a brief review of basic principles of developmental psychology and developmental psychopathology, implications of a developmental perspective are explored for the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of childhood disorders. Although it is obvious that many developmental issues confront the clinical child psychologist and that we have learned much about translating developmental theory into clinical practice, we conclude we have a long way to go before we can assert that a true developmental-clinical child interface has been realized. PMID:10587895
This qualitative study aims to describe the psychological impact of the diagnosis announcement of pathogenic Copy Number Variations (pCNVs). We performed semi-structured interviews of 60 parents of 41 affected children and 5 geneticists who announced the diagnoses. The diagnosis of the best characterized microdeletion syndromes, often defined by patronymic names (e.g. Williams syndrome), is generally made on a clinical basis by geneticists and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Chromosomal microarray, on the contrary, can allow the disclosure of rare pCNVs named after cytogenetic formulas, with poorly known clinical consequences: this makes doctors feel less confident with these diagnosis announcements. The disclosure of pCNVs named after cytogenetic formulas does not facilitate the parental mental representation of the disease, leading some parents to call into question the genotype-phenotype correlation or the very notion of a diagnosis. The announcement of inherited pCNVs can increase the feeling of parental guilt; the disclosure of de novo pCNVs can induce a feeling of "breakage" in the mental representation of the parent-child vertical transmission. In conclusion, our study shows that the disclosure of pCNVs has a significant psychological impact: a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis announcement, including a psychological support, should be systematically warranted. PMID:24055527
14 respondents from medical schools indicated that they thought instruction in abnormalpsychology for pre-medical students was advisable; 11 thought it was not advisable. Chief objections were: the pre-medical student cannot profit from a course in abnormalpsychology, as he has not had any medical preparation; a course in abnormalpsychology should be taught by a psychiatrist, as abnormalpsychology
The historical development of school psychology is discussed in the context of circumstances and individuals significant to its origins. The contributions of Witmer’s clinical psychology and Hall’s child study demonstrate how early forms of school psychology evolved from their conceptualizations. Even though the specialty did not achieve a stable national identity until the second half of the 20th century, the
The material is presented particularly for practitioners, but academicians should find the material of help and value, also, for introductory courses to study of clinical psychology, abnormalpsychology, and psychopathology. Areas covered include the foll...
Addiction to the Internet, the usage to deviant materials, such as child pornography, and personality traits which correlate with the usage of child pornography are the main points of interest in the current study. A literature review was conducted in order to gain an understanding of what has been done in terms of addiction to the Internet, sexualized addictions, and
The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes\\u000a in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment\\u000a mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role ambiguity) and worker outcome\\u000a variables (emotional exhaustion and intentions to remain employed in
This article explores the contribution of evolutionary theory to the understanding of causation and motive in filicide cases and also reviews special issues in the forensic evaluation of alleged perpetrators of filicide. Evolutionary social psychology seeks to understand the context in which our brains evolved, to understand human behaviors. The authors propose evolutionary theory as a framework theory to meaningfully appreciate research about filicide. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical lens, this article reviews the research on filicide over the past 40 years, and describes epidemiologic and typologic studies of filicide, and theoretical analyses from a range of disciplines. PMID:23107563
Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J
Background: Emotional/psychologicalchild maltreatment (ECM) is a major public health problem with serious consequences including emotional and behavioral problems. Nevertheless, ECM is an understudied area. Objectives: The aims of this review are to identify measures of ECM and to evaluate their psychometric properties and utilities. We provide a…
Tonmyr, Lil; Draca, Jasminka; Crain, Jennifer; MacMillan, Harriet L.
|Few images are as compelling as a child who has become the victim of a manmade or natural disaster. This book is designed to draw together data, theory, and observation that address children's psychological response to disaster. Characterized by its diversity in scope, nature, and quality, some of the material comes in the form of observations…
|Abnormalpsychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormalpsychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
The author discusses family reactions to chronic illness including sibling reactions. The management of the chronically ill child is covered with a special emphasis on separation, and the importance of peer relationships, support groups, and the role of the professional. PMID:4080621
Clinical childpsychology is a growing and vibrant field of practice and research within professional psychology. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the recent series of articles on specialties in Professional Psychology Research and Practice and delineate the development, design, and purpose of clinical childpsychology. The article describes the current trends in the specialty and the
This article examines the role of contemporary academic sociology and psychology in the development and maintenance of public attitudes towards homosexuality, by investigating the presentation of homosexuality in abnormalpsychology and sociology of deviance textbooks. The sample consisted of the latest editions of 22 psychology and 8 sociology textbooks; all were published in the United States and are currently in
Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormalpsychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…
The efficacy of pain management is subordinated to the efficacy of pain assessment. Children are particularly difficult-to-assess patients. In this area, childpsychology can contribute to the development of tools and to improving pain assessment. This paper highlights the relevance of studies on dialog in pain assessment situations and the importance of the specificity of both the patient and his pain. Assessing pain and listening to the patient's complaint means meeting the child in his own world. Nonetheless, it is necessary to use and develop assessment tools that are scientifically validated. PMID:19683905
|We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormalpsychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the…
Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.
A selective review of the literature in childpsychology over the last 30 years reveals substantial changes in methodology, in analysis and the interpretation of findings. Evidence on the multifactorial nature of development is drawn from genetic/environmental research, longitudinal studies and a consideration of potential long-term effects of early experience, including planned intervention. It is increasingly recognized that individuals play some part in causing their own development, via ongoing transactional processes. Eight themes form the basis for discussion, including the belated emergence of Piaget's theory and the changing outlook for the mentally retarded. In addition, the explosion of research upon infancy and the growing influence of behavioural psychology are noted. PMID:3539955
Examines the value and importance of theory in childpsychology, particularly with respect to clinical practice. Although it is readily apparent that theory is not an essential element of treatment, the role of theory is to provide a coherent framework for clinical intervention. Theory provides a foundation for understanding the presenting pathology, the factors that affect it, the patient's and therapist's roles within the context of treatment, and the specific intervention strategies to be utilized. Therapeutic commonalities are considered as they may affect treatment outcome, but they are not viewed as the essential factors in efficacy. The value and meaning of eclecticism are also discussed. PMID:10587906
Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can be challenging to pediatric recipients and their families. Little is known about the recipients' psychological status as they initiate treatment and in the year afterwards. The purpose of this study is to describe the psychological status of 107 pediatric HSCT recipients from their parents' perspective, and to compare reports from parents and children in a subset of 55 children. We hypothesized that there would be discrepancies between parent and child report of child distress. Procedure Multi-site, prospective study of eligible child participants and their parents who completed selected modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Childhood Version (KID-SCID) the month before and one year after HSCT. Diagnoses were threshold or subthreshold. Results According to parents, nearly 30% of children had anxiety disorder_both before and after HSCT; approximately half of these met threshold criteria. Agreement between parents and children for anxiety disorders was poor at baseline (?= ?0.18, 95th % CI= ?0.33, ?0.02) and fair at 12 months (?= 0.31, 95th % CI= ?0.04, 0.66). Agreement about mood disorders was fair at baseline (10% prevalence, ?=0.39, 95th % CI=?0.02, 0.79) and moderate at 12 months (14% prevalence, ?=0.41, 95th % CI= 0.02, 0.80). Conclusions Anxiety (30%) and mood (10 to 14%) symptoms are common in children both before and after HSCT; parent and child reports of these symptoms do not agree. Input from parents and children is recommended to identify more accurately children who may need additional intervention during and following HSCT.
Chang, Grace; Ratichek, Sara J.; Recklitis, Christopher; Syrjala, Karen; Patel, Sunita; Harris, Lynnette; Rodday, Angie Mae; Tighiouart, Hocine; Parsons, Susan K.
Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)
Course content rather than psychology, per se, is the selective factor in enrollment. Students in 4 college courses were compared as to emotional conflict measured by the Cornell Index, Form N-2. As the presumed amount of morbidity increased in courses, greater maladjustment was shown by the students who selected the course. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:1KD92W.
Discusses the importance of biology in understanding the functional psychopathological phenomena and in determining their pathogenesis. It is necessary to ask whether morbid phenomenon may not be adapted reactions which have a reason for their existence. This would enable the understanding of how the process is abnormal, by comparing it with the analogous normal function. It also enables the reconstruction
The 1998 edition of the authoritative Handbook of ChildPsychology (HCP, Damon, 1998) was examined to reveal the impact of the work of Jean Piaget on the field of childpsychology at the turn of the millennium when TIME magazine hailed him as one of the greatest minds of the century (Papert, 1999). The review is set in the historical
This essay explores the constructions of the child developed in the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. These child-constructs constitute important psychological source-theories for spiritualities of childhood as each embodies a particular understanding of what childhood means, within the author's understandings of human personhood. After addressing an initial period of agreement between the two thinkers in which both
|This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…
|Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…
The seriously ill or dying child, his\\/her parents, and siblings all face daunting challenges. The services of a multidisciplinary team are required for optimal care. Experts in the fields of childpsychology, psychiatry, and\\/or pediatric palliative care should be included in this team. Different aspects of the care take into consideration the role of the child in the family, the
Mother-child hospitalization is still rarely practiced in child psychiatric services. The experience of this kind of care in the child and adolescent psychopathology service in the Herold Hospital (Paris), however, demonstrates its interest. It permits one to respect the bond of attachment and proves to be a useful instrument of psychiatric evaluation of children, particularly in greater diagnostic precision to which the observation of the mother-child unit also contributes. The conjoint hospitalization, however, involves some risks, which can be anticipated in pre-hospitalization work up: repercussion on the family, difficulties in the functioning of the care taking team, and especially the impact on the mother of the hospitalization which creates a real crisis situation which must be handled in order to be able to use the maturative possibilities. PMID:3786583
This issue marks the 75th anniversary of Morton Prince's founding of the Journal of AbnormalPsychology, the first issue of which was released on April 1, 1906. The 50th Anniversary issue in 1956 included Henry A. Murray's brief account of the life and work of Morton Prince and also commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Sigmund Freud. On
The Opinions about Mental Illness Scale was administered at the beginning and end of the semester to an abnormalpsychology class (38 men, 32 women) and to a control class of sociology students (60 men, 67 women). 5 attitudes were measured: Authoritarianism, Unsophisticated Benevolence, Mental Hygiene Ideology, Social Restrictiveness, and Interpersonal Etiology. Analysis of covariance revealed that changes which could
ObjectiveThis study aimed to examine the relative roles of demographic, child behavioral, and parental characteristics in understanding the psychological distress suffered by parents of children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was hypothesized that a combination of child and parent demographics, severity of child behavioral disturbance, low knowledge of ADHD, causal and controllability attributions internal to the child, along with lower
An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins.
|How should applied psychology practitioners be prepared to meet an increasingly challenging and unpredictable working context? This article explores some of the key current issues for educational and childpsychology practitioners and their professional trainers in the UK with regard to the topic of effective consultation. The article argues that…
Kennedy, Emma Kate; Cameron, R. J.; Monsen, Jeremy
How should applied psychology practitioners be prepared to meet an increasingly challenging and unpredictable working context? This article explores some of the key current issues for educational and childpsychology practitioners and their professional trainers in the UK with regard to the topic of effective consultation. The article argues that…
Kennedy, Emma Kate; Cameron, R. J.; Monsen, Jeremy
The purpose of this study was to apply a behavioral epidemiology framework reported in J. F. Sallis, N. Owen, and M. J. Fotheringham (2000) to the field of child health psychology and describe the resulting distribution of research phases. Recent volumes of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology were analyzed and their articles classified as belonging to one of five sequentially-ordered
Kenneth P. Tercyak; Marilyn L. Sampilo; Mira Brancu; Mark Beck-Hyman; Agnes Browne; Doee Kitessa; Sowmya Prahlad; Lauren Wine; Randi Streisand
Parent–child role reversal and its relation to psychological adjustment was investigated in Israel among immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Study 1 examined immigrant and Israeli-born college students (n = 184), and Study 2 examined adolescents (n = 180) by means of self-report questionnaires. Two major factors of role reversal emerged: child dominance and family support. The results of both
This special issue in the Journal of ChildPsychology and Psychiatry presents several invited articles examining gene-environment interplay in child development and psychopathology. Models of gene-environment interplay have been exhaustively discussed in the literature, including an important contribution by Rutter, Moffitt and Caspi (2006) published in this journal. PMID:24007414
Petrill, Stephen A; Bartlett, Christopher W; Blair, Clancy
Recurrence rates of psychological maltreatment (PM) and the services that may reduce those rates have not been systematically evaluated. The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System was used for 2003–2007 to study a cohort of children in 18 states with PM reports first confirmed by child protective services (CPS) during 2003. PM recurrence rates after counseling and other referrals
As students majoring in psychology demanded greater relevancy in the undergraduate curriculum, academic institutions have responded by implementing courses designed for field experiences in applied psychology. Particularly sought are practica in applied settings serving children. This paper examines the problems found in managing an applied childpsychology field experience. Sources of conflict between agency, student and academic institution are discussed and a program devised to reduce conflict is described. PMID:7438829
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and\\/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother–child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother–child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families
Susan Golombok; Lucy Blake; Polly Casey; Alex Marks; Vasanti Jadva
Receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result often generates fear and confusion and can have a negative impact on a woman's well-being. Most previous studies have focussed on high-grade abnormal smears. This study describes the psychological and psychosocial effects, on women, of having received a low-grade abnormal smear result. Over 3500 women recruited to TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) participated in this study. Anxiety was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at recruitment. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, locus of control and factors associated with the psychosocial impact of the abnormal smear result were also assessed. Women reported anxiety levels consistent with those found in previous studies of women with high-grade smear results. Women at highest risk of anxiety were younger, had children, were current smokers, or had the highest levels of physical activity. Interventions that focus particularly on women's understanding of smear results and pre-cancer, and/or directly address their fears about cancer, treatment and fertility might provide the greatest opportunity to reduce the adverse psychosocial impact of receiving a low-grade abnormal cervical smear result.
Gray, N M; Sharp, L; Cotton, S C; Masson, L F; Little, J; Walker, L G; Avis, M; Philips, Z; Russell, I; Whynes, D; Cruickshank, M; Woolley, C M
Psychologicalabnormality is a fundamental concept in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person’s current behaviors? The appropriate role of life-event context in assessment has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny among clinical theorists, yet relatively little is known about clinicians’ own judgments in practice. We propose a proportionate-response hypothesis, such that judgments of abnormality are influenced by whether the behaviors are a disproportionate response to past events, rendering them difficult to understand or explain. We presented licensed, practicing clinical psychologists (N=77) with vignettes describing hypothetical people’s behaviors (disordered, mildly distressed, or unaffected) that had been preceded by either traumatic or mildly distressing events. Experts’ judgments of abnormality were strongly and systematically influenced by the degree of mismatch between the past event and current behaviors in strength and valence, such that the greater the mismatch, the more abnormal the person seemed. A separate, additional group of clinical psychologists (N=20) further confirmed that the greater the degree of mismatch, the greater the perceived difficulty in understanding the patient. These findings held true across clinicians of different theoretical orientations and in disorders for which these patterns of judgments ran contrary to formal recommendations in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). The rationality of these effects and implications for clinical decision science are discussed.
Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle
OBJECTIVE: This study utilized an observational coding scheme to identify parenting behavior reflecting psychological control and autonomy granting and examined relations between these parenting dimensions and indices of child and family functioning. DESIGN: A community sample of 90 preadolescents (aged 10.5 to 12 years) and both of their parents engaged in a triadic interaction that was coded for parental psychological control and autonomy granting. Participants also completed measures of child adjustment, interparental conflict, and triangulation. RESULTS: Factor analyses indicated that a two-factor model better fit the data than a one-factor model, suggesting that psychological control and autonomy granting are best conceptualized as independent but related constructs. Parental psychological control and autonomy granting exhibited some shared and some unique correlates with indices of child and family functioning. Hierarchical regressions revealed significant interactions between these dimensions, suggesting that the strength of some associations between parents' use of psychological control and youth adjustment problems depends on the level of autonomy granting exhibited by the parent. CONCLUSIONS: By examining psychological control and autonomy granting simultaneously as unique constructs, this study identifies patterns of psychological control and autonomy granting that undermine youth adjustment. Findings inform targeted intervention efforts for families of preadolescent youth. PMID:23418403
Seventeen extrafamilial homicidal child molesters (HCM) were compared to 35 convicted extrafamilial child molesters (CM) who had not murdered, or attempted to murder, their victims. The two groups did not differ on age, IQ, education, history of marriage, or family history, although marriage rates of both groups were well below the national average. Similarly, both groups had high rates of
Philip Firestone; John M. Bradford; David M. Greenberg; Michel R. Larose; Susan Curry
|This instructional booklet is part of Learning Package #2 on self concept development and child behavior used in conjunction with the Child Development Training Program at Bemidji, Minnesota. The booklet is divided into 15 brief sections which emphasize: (1) techniques of observation and experimentation; (2) measurement of the readiness concept;…
The literature on personality research, developmental psychology and psychopathology has consistently revealed two types of personality. According to different theoretical and methodological approaches these types are considered as prototypes of a personality dimension, or as behavioral patterns in psychopathology. In the research on adult personality, they are known as extraversion and introversion. Child psychiatrists refer to these prototypes as externalizing and internalizing disorders. However, there are few empirical studies on the congruency between adult personality types and childhood disorders. Longitudinal studies from the USA and New Zealand give evidence that adult personality types can predict coping styles of school age children in stressful and challenging situations. Research on infant attachment to caregivers, revealing consistently different qualities of interaction patterns, may also be predictive for different coping styles in children of preschool age. Interdisciplinary discussions will focus on the question, whether early behavior patterns should be seen as predictors for adult traits (homotypic continuity) or as developmentally determined indicators for underlying functions (heterotypic continuity). Possibly, in early developmental stages behavior patterns have adaptive functions and in later stages become chronic strategies over time. Another topic concerns the relation between personality traits and pathologic behavior patterns and whether chronic strain may be influential. PMID:8657665
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.
This study assesses associations between mothers’ use of relational aggression with their peers and psychological control\\u000a with their children, and child adjustment in a sample of fifty U.S. mothers of elementary and middle school children. Mothers\\u000a completed surveys assessing their relational aggression and psychological control. Teachers completed surveys assessing children’s\\u000a externalizing behavior, internalizing symptoms, and relational aggression. Results suggest that
Tiffany J. Reed; Sara E. Goldstein; Amanda Sheffield Morris; Angela W. Keyes
In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century’s grand universal theories of\\u000a child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children’s development. We discuss how the\\u000a exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate cultural views of child development\\u000a based on cultural psychology. The
How a chronic illness leads to emotional disorders in a child or adolescent is primarily defined by the style of coping within the family. coping style describes the inner confrontation and the way of coming to terms with the disease and its effective management. For the treating physician, knowledge of the determining factors is important not only to perceive disturbances in the patient-physician relationship but also between the child or adolescent and his family. This is important when deciding whether the physician himself can intervene or whether outside help is necessary. Of these determining factors, the cognitive understanding of the disease by the affected child or adolescent and the art of communication within the family are described. Most important is the parental coping style, formed in earlier crisis situations, into which the child or adolescent is now integrated. Pathological "pseudo" solutions together with reasonably successful forms of coping and their influence on the patient-doctor-relationship are discussed. PMID:9312424
Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other childpsychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…
Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.
|Background: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through surrogacy. Methods: At the time of the child's 2nd birthday, 37 surrogacy families were compared with 48 egg donation families and 68 natural conception families on standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological…
|Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or…
Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.
|Summaries of four studies in childpsychology reveal that children's attachment to caregivers depends on physical contact more than food; secure attachment to loving caregivers provides a base from which children explore and learn; children's separation behaviors reveal much about their attachment relationship; and children are born with traits…
|Examines the individual and social contexts of the life of Mamie Clark (wife of African American psychologist Kenneth Clark), whose work at the Harlem Northside Center for Child Development helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. Urges greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in history of…
|Background: The seven papers in this special section chart where we are in the quest for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in key areas of childpsychology and psychiatry such as reading and hyperactivity. But we are not there yet. Methods: This commentary considers some new developments that are likely to accelerate the journey towards the…
OBJECTIVE. This was a descriptive study examining the psychological impact of a school- based, weight-screening intervention that included feedback to parents. METHODS. Children from years 3 and 6 (6 -7 and 10 -11 years old) in London schools were measured in school, and parents were sent information on the child's weight status. Children and parents completed questionnaires 6 weeks before
Chloe Grimmett; Helen Croker; Susan Carnell; Jane Wardle
The authors examined the associations of 3 types of psychological coping (task-based, emotion-based, avoidance), 2 types of religious coping (positive, negative), and their interactions with grief of 57 mothers bereaved by the sudden death of a child. Results indicated that mothers who use emotion-based coping report significantly higher levels of…
Anderson, Miriam J.; Marwit, Samuel J.; Vandenberg, Brian; Chibnall, John T.
The aim of this study was to analyse the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the psychological adjustment of survivors, as well as to determine the role of the feelings provoked by the abuse, following Finkelhor and Browne's traumagenic dynamics model (1985), on the adjustment of CSA victims. The sample of the study comprised 182 survivors of CSA, and
David Cantón-Cortés; María Rosario Cortés; José Cantón
|Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other childpsychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…
Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.
This study examines associations between psychological distress and alcohol and drug use across the first five years of raising a child and parenting quality at child age six for 185 adolescent mothers. Overall, alcohol and other drug use in this sample was relatively low, but drug use was associated with more mother-reported unrealistic expectations of child behavior and more attributions
Susan J. Spieker; Mary Rogers Gillmore; Steven M. Lewis; Diane M. Morrison; Mary Jane Lohr
With improvements in prognosis for children with leukemia, there has been a corresponding increase in degree of adverse psychological effects on the patient and his family. This review considers (1) the methods of coping adopted by parents, siblings, and the patient and (2) the possibility of damage to normal intellectual growth following the type of medical treatment involved. Implications of
Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…
The Authors emphasize how difficult is for the dental surgeon to approach the young patients. The researches carried out on school children (6-11 years old), of different social conditions, emphasis the psychological reality of the visited children and suggest some contrivances for a less traumatic possible meeting with an unknown world, source of anxiety, stress and fear. PMID:2097794
Celli, D; Aventaggiato, R; Carinci, D; Daniele, M; Di Domizio, P
|Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…
Review of professional opinions in the literature reveals that (a) the abusing parent was himself raised with some degree of deprivation, (b) the abusing parent brings to his role as parent mistaken notions of child rearing, (c) there is present in the parent a general defect in character structure allowing aggressive impulses to be expressed too freely, and (d) while
China's population explosions of the early 1950s and late 1960s, followed by the launching of the one-child population policy, can be expected to have an effect on the country's demographic structure that will persist for another 60-80 years. The proportion of the population over 60 years of age should increase from 7.6% in 1982 to a peak of 25.3% by 2040. As a result, by the mid-21st century, a labor force comprised of half the population will be supporting equal numbers of young and aged people. Although political and economic utility factors make it unlikely that China's fertility rate will ever fall below 2.0, the steady aging of society will have long-term social as well as demographic consequences. Increased material and emotional investment in children, brought about by the one-child policy, may compete with investments in the needs of the aged. Recommended is consolidation of a three-generation family system in which grandparents help to maintain family interdependence and provide child care in exchange for support from their adult children. Such a model is consistent with the Confucian emphasis on respect for the wisdom of the elderly and responsibility for their well-being. PMID:12346129
Cognitive-affective body image variables and their relation to long-term psychological and sexual functioning were investigated in a community sample of 57 female adult child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and 47 comparison subjects. The Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and the Body Esteem Scale were administered to assess cognitive-affective body image. Group comparisons indicated that, after controlling for actual weight status, survivors evaluated
Objective: Insufficient sleep may be a significant contributing factor to the increase in pediatric obesity and thus may also contribute to adult obesity and chronic illness. Previous research has been based on large survey studies with consideration of demographics and lifestyle factors (e.g., snacking and TV watching) but not of childpsychological\\/behavioral functioning and parenting factors.Method:This study investigated the relationship
Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis; Amy Storfer-Isser; Carol Rosen; Nathan L. Johnson; Susan Redline
We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed. PMID:22193390
Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc
Espouses developmental psychopathology as a framework for training our future leaders due to its emphasis on an ecological, transactional lifespan perspective, as well as interdisciplinary bridging and policy focus. This perspective, used as a framework for questioning and thinking about the complex interplay of psychological and social phenomena, provides a method for closing the gaps in training future psychologists as it allows for the development of niche expertise under an umbrella of the broader, ecological perspective. In an increasingly complex world of shrinking mental health dollars and growing severity of mental health problems for families and youth, clinical psychologists are needed more than ever to solve social problems. The current training paradigms in clinical childpsychology programs need redirection and clarification for future psychologists to contribute meaningfully to science, practice, and policy. This article provides background in the history and influence of the developmental psychopathology perspective, as well as future implications for doctoral training programs in clinical psychology. PMID:10587896
Diminished psychological health has been identified among caregiving grandmothers. The intent of this investigation was to examine psychological distress levels, as well as their predictors, in a sample of 480 caregiving African American grandmothers, mean age 56 years. Almost 40% (39.8%) of participants had clinically elevated psychological distress scores. Results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that internalizing and externalizing child behavior problems, poor grandmother physical health, younger age of grandmother, and lack of family resources predicted 31% of the variance in psychological distress. Results provide direction for nursing interventions aimed at enhancing the psychological well-being of caregiving grandmothers. PMID:23606233
Kelley, Susan J; Whitley, Deborah M; Campos, Peter E
|Assesses child sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual, physical, and psychological abuse with a sample of 633 college women. Survivors of CSA experienced more instances of physical abuse and psychological maltreatment than nonvictims. They were more likely to report unwanted sexual intercourse both by acquaintances due to force, and by acquaintances…
Research has suggested that child sexual abuse (CSA) may place a woman at greater risk for further abuse in adulthood, a phenomenon called revictimization. Revictimization may occur in the form of unwanted sexual contact, physical abuse, and psychological maltreatment. This study assessed CSA and adult sexual, physical, and psychological abuse with a sample of 633 college women. Survivors of CSA
In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a child’s safety during the hurricanes was
During the 1930s and 1940s, social psychologists became increasingly well-known among progressives battling race prejudice. By the early 1950s, African American psychologist Kenneth Bancroft Clark had become deeply involved with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's battle against segregated education in the South. By this time, his wife, who is less well-known in the annals of history, was developing her own reputation as the guiding spirit behind Harlem's Northside Center for Child Development. Her work at the center helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. This article examines the individual and social contexts of Mamie Phipps Clark's life and argues for greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in the history of psychology. PMID:11885299
The elementary course in psychology should have correlative experimental work, as in the elementary courses of the other natural sciences. Dashiell suggests experiments and demonstrations in the fields of educational, child, and animal psychology, in advertising, selling, and personnel course work, and in abnormal, social, and legal psychology. A plan for the coördination of lecture topics and experiments is presented.
Examined the degree to which clinical child programs incorporate and integrate developmental theory into their training, and introduced the contributions of 6 leaders in the field to this special section. Fifty-one clinical child doctoral programs responded to the survey. Results indicate that 3 types of training programs are operating: (a) child emphasis (n = 7), which do not have a formal clinical child training program but do have a faculty member who has child research interests; (b) clinical child (n = 37), which have a group of faculty members with specific child research and clinical interests and a formalized program of study; and (c) developmental-clinical programs (n = 7), which are similar to clinical child programs but require a substantive amount of developmental psychology course work and endorse a developmental psychopathology perspective. Findings reveal that clinical child programs have become increasingly differentiated and specialized over the past 20 years, but, with the exception of developmental-clinical programs, most programs are still neglecting to incorporate developmental theory into training. This issue, as well as concerns about the future direction of clinical child doctoral training is addressed in this special section on the Importance of Incorporating Developmental Theory Into Clinical Child Training. PMID:10587892
This study examines associations between psychological distress and alcohol and drug use across the first five years of raising a child and parenting quality at child age six for 185 adolescent mothers. Overall, alcohol and other drug use in this sample was relatively low, but drug use was associated with more mother-reported unrealistic expectations of child behavior and more attributions of child intent to annoy parent by misbehaving. Maternal psychological distress was associated with maternal reports of negative control (yelling, pushing, spanking, etc.), and alcohol use moderated the association between psychological distress and negative control. At low levels of alcohol use, more maternal distress was associated with greater negative control; at higher levels of alcohol use, maternal distress was not related to negative control, but the absolute level of negative control was similar to that reported by more distressed mothers. Neither psychological distress nor alcohol and other drug use were related to maternal behavior during an interaction task. Overall, much stronger associations with parenting outcomes were found for an index of maternal vocabulary, compared with maternal psychological distress or maternal alcohol and other drug use. PMID:11333005
Spieker, S J; Gillmore, M R; Lewis, S M; Morrison, D M; Lohr, M J
Objective To investigate psychological distress, serum levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as their\\u000a correlation with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty infertility patients with PCOS were assigned as the experimental group and 30 infertility patients without PCOS were\\u000a assigned as the control group. Psychological distress was self-evaluated in all patients with Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90).\\u000a Serum concentrations of
|Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…
Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. Method. Meta-analytic structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect influences of family-centered care and self-efficacy beliefs on parent and childpsychological health. Data from more than 2900 parents and other caregivers in 15 studies were used for the analyses. Results. Family-centered care had indirect effects on parent and childpsychological health mediated by self-efficacy beliefs. Conclusion. The relationships posited in the literature about family-centered care were supported by the study results.
|The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…
Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.
Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…
As the JCPP marks its 50th year of publication, this paper revisits the founding philosophy and traces the journey from the first issue through to the present. The history of the JCPP reflects the many changes that have come about in the fields of developmental psychology and child and adolescent psychiatry and the changes introduced both to meet the needs and shape the practices of clinicians and researchers. It documents the achievements of the Journal and the contributions made by many in enabling its success. As the JCPP moves forward it will enjoy the benefits of the major technological and other advances being made in research, in the evolving and expanding knowledge base, and in the modes of publication, as well as needing to manage the associated challenges that will inevitably impact on its future. PMID:19220586
This study points out the changing process of child development, childpsychology and the courses relating to child development in historical process of preschool education. The main point of this study is to analyze a book, which is recognized a textbook for preschool education in the history of preschool education. The book which was translated into Ottoman Turkish for the
Recurrence rates of psychological maltreatment (PM) and the services that may reduce those rates have not been systematically evaluated. The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System was used for 2003-2007 to study a cohort of children in 18 states with PM reports first confirmed by child protective services (CPS) during 2003. PM recurrence rates after counseling and other referrals were assessed while controlling for factors associated with service referral and other maltreatment. A total of 11,646 children had a first CPS-confirmed report with PM, and 9.2% of them had a second-confirmed PM report within 5 years. Fewer than one fourth of families were referred for services after PM, with service referrals being more likely for families with poverty, drug or alcohol problems, or other violence. Controlling for these factors, counseling referral was associated with a 54% reduction in PM recurrence, but other services were not associated with statistically significant reductions. Few families in which PM was confirmed receive any services, and most services provided were not associated with reductions in PM recurrence. Clarification of key services associated with efficacious prevention of PM is needed. PMID:22329945
An hypothesis is proposed to answer two questions: "How do the symptoms that are the experience of subjects who are self-conscious of abnormal appearance develop?" and "Why do they develop in some people and not others?" The hypothesis is explained using the typical experiences of patients with disproportionate breast size as examples. PMID:6831099
Child molesters are frequently uncomfortable in adult company but show high emotional congruence with children. It was hypothesized that these emotional problems may be mirrored by physical intimacy problems such that child molesters would show exaggerated disgust reactions to the thought of coming into physical contact with adults, but not children. It was demonstrated that the discomfort shown by both
Ian J. Mitchell; Helen Keylock; Nadine Campbell; Anthony R. Beech; Danielle Kogan
Child molesters are frequently uncomfortable in adult company but show high emotional congruence with children. It was hypothesized that these emotional problems may be mirrored by physical intimacy problems such that child molesters would show exaggerated disgust reactions to the thought of coming into physical contact with adults, but not children. It was demonstrated that the discomfort shown by both
Ian J. Mitchell; Helen Keylock; Nadine Campbell; Anthony R. Beech; Danielle Kogan
In order to inform clinical practice, we reviewed the empirical literature on emotional, behavioral and social outcomes in children with burns and their families published between 1989 and 2011. A systematic search of the literature yielded 75 articles. Qualitative synthesis of the results showed that child anxiety, traumatic stress reactions, and behavioral problems were considerably prevalent in the first months after the burn event. Among parents, high rates of posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and guilt feelings were found. Cross-sectional studies, often performed many years after the injury, suggest that some children experience long-term psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, and difficulties with social functioning. However, there was little evidence that behavior in general, self-esteem, or body image were impaired in the total population of children with a history of burns. Long-term family outcome studies suggest that psychological problems persist in a substantial subgroup of parents. Child peritraumatic factors anxiety and pain, parental posttrauma psychological reactions, and family functioning were the most consistently reported factors associated with child outcome. More recent studies have demonstrated that burn severity may have an indirect effect on child postburn psychosocial outcome. Clinical implications, methodological strengths and limitations of the reviewed studies, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23410718
Bakker, Anne; Maertens, Koen J P; Van Son, Maarten J M; Van Loey, Nancy E E
Objective: The availability of non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain abnormalities of two conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS), and illustrates how such findings are bringing clinical and preclinical perspectives closer together.Method: A selected review is presented of
Judith L. Rapoport; Xavier F. Castellanos; Nitin Gogate; Kristin Janson; Shawn Kohler; Phillip Nelson
The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for\\u000a medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents\\u000a without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health\\u000a Survey, a province-wide school-based survey of 7th
Hayley A. Hamilton; Angela Paglia-Boak; Christine Wekerle; Anna Marie Danielson; Robert E. Mann
Abstract Objective. To 1) conduct a meta-analysis of published research on the psychological effects of nonmaternal care on child development, and 2) discuss the policy implications of the findings. Methods. One hundred and one studies published between 1957 and 1995 involving 32,271 children met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. ,Results. Analysis of unweighted effect sizes indicated that there was
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…
Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms in psychiatric and primary care practice and a frequent reason for extensive diagnostic work-up. Despite extensive investigations no recognizable medical cause to account for these symptoms is detected in many patients with chest pain. Studies of patients with non-cardiac chest pain have revealed that many continue to report symptoms and disability despite medical reassurances. The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality profile and stressors along with functional impairment in patients with chest pain and normal angiographic findings and compare the same with patients who have chest pain but abnormal angiographic findings and a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The study included 30 consecutive patients in each group. The scales used were SCID-I of DSM-III-R, 16-PF, semi structured questionnaire for assessment of type A behaviour, PSLES and GAF scale of DSM-III-R. Panic disorder and depression were highly prevalent in patients with atypical chest pain. These patients had lower prevalence of type A behaviour, a unique 16-PF profile, experienced more stresses at any given point in time and significant impairment in day-day and in socio-occupational functioning.
Objective: This is an investigation into the correlates for childpsychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in the Northern Province of South Africa.Method: 414 students in standards 9 and 10 in three representative high schools filled in a retrospective self-rating questionnaire in a classroom setting. The questionnaire asked for age and some hypothesised correlates; psychological, physical,
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of perceived child vulnerability (PCV) and parental psychological distress (PPD) to adolescent anxiety (AANX) in youths with chronic illnesses. Ninety-one (n = 91) adolescents diagnosed with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) or asthma and their parents were recruited as part of a larger study examining parent and child adjustment
Wendi L. Lopez; Larry L. Mullins; Cortney Wolfe-Christensen; Teri Bourdeau
The research reported in this paper evaluated the weaknesses of an existing child patients' garment and generated ideas to develop a new practical garment to be used in a hospital environment in Hong Kong, China. The design procedure was based on the principles of product development, with the aim of achieving functions on physical and psychological aspects of the child
Using longitudinal data from a subsample of 890 African American families in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined whether maternal endorsement of physical discipline moderates the link between (a) maternal psychological distress and spanking frequency and (b) spanking frequency and child depressive symptoms. As predicted, physical discipline administered by nonendorsing mothers was
Vonnie C. McLoyd; Rachel Kaplan; Cecily R. Hardaway; Dana Wood
Objective: To determine whether child physical maltreatment early in life has long-term effects on psychological, behavioral, and academic problems in- dependent of other characteristics associated with mal- treatment. Design: Prospective longitudinal study with data collected annually from 1987 through 1999. Setting and Participants: Randomly selected, com- munity-based samples of 585 children from the ongo- ing Child Development Project were recruited
Jennifer E. Lansford; Kenneth A. Dodge; Gregory S. Pettit; John E. Bates; Joseph Crozier; Julie Kaplow
Childpsychology and early childhood education are closely related, but the relationship is very complex. This is due to the fact that ‘childpsychology’ at the same time covers 1) researchers' scientific psychology, 2) writers' popular psychology, and 3) parents' and teachers' common sense psychology about child development. This article presents current trends in scientific childpsychology and recent studies
|The author surveys the status in the USSR of educational programing and psychological research with learning disabled children who are classified as temporarily retarded in psychological development (TRPD). Education and psychology in the USSR are said to be marked by the following major characteristics: a strong emphasis on the importance of…
This article describes the implementation and development of a collaborative effort between a clinical psychology training program and a pediatric neurology clinic within a medical school to provide multidisciplinary services to children and families experiencing neurological and psychological problems. The article provides a description of the neurologist's views concerning the advantages of psychological consultation in a neurology clinic, as well
James E. Maddux; Richard J. Katnik; Elizabeth A. Sledden; Roger L. Greene
Non-invasive brain imaging permits the study of normal and abnormal brain development in childhood and adolescence. This paper summarizes current knowledge of brain development for healthy adolescents and for patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), a rare form of the disorder. The implications of these findings are explored. Cross-sectional and longitudinal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are reviewed. The pattern
Nitin Gogate; Jay Giedd; Kristin Janson; Judith L. Rapoport
Including a family session in a child assessment can significantly advance the assessor's and parents' understanding of the child's problems and enhance the likelihood that parents will follow through on recommendations after the assessment. A family session allows the assessor to observe the child in the family context, test systemic hypotheses, better understand the meaning of individual test results, and
Deborah J. Tharinger; Stephen E. Finn; Cynthia A. Austin; Lauren B. Gentry; Karen Elaine Bailey; Victoria T. Parton; Melissa E. Fisher
Four studies in child development show that children socialize parents as much as parents socialize children. Child development is a function of biological maturation and child-environment interaction. The most important determinants of resiliency are caregiver quality and socioeconomic status. Implications for camp are discussed, the most…
Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children.
Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.
Mock jurors viewed a videotape of a simulated child sexual abuse trial and then deliberated to a unanimous verdict. The complainant was described as either a 13- or 17-year-old female child. Jurors voted to convict more often when the younger complainant was seen, and the younger complainant was rated as more credible than the older complainant. Female jurors voted the
Natalie J. Gabora; Nicholas P. Spanos; Amanda Joab
Given the rapid expansion in access to the internet in the past decade with information flow being difficult to police it is perhaps not surprising that the internet is so open to misuse. One such misuse is by child sex offenders for whom the internet has facilitated communication and the distribution of child abuse images. This has meant that various
The single purpose of the research was to explore the dynamics of living in a single-parent family with an only child. This research used intensive, in-depth interviews with women in one-parent/one-child families which were compared with one-parent/two-ch...
Based on self-reports the prevalence during childhood of psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among 559 high school students in Standards 7, 8, 9, and 10 of three high schools in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa was examined. The questionnaire asked for the demographic information and experiences of psychological, physical, and emotional abuse by their parents or adult caretakers as well as ritualistic abusive experiences before they were 17 years of age plus an estimate of self-perceived abuse during childhood and an overall rating of their own childhood. Analysis showed the self-reported prevalence rates to be as follows: 70.7% psychologically abused (but 14.4% for extreme cases), 27.0% physically abused, 35.3% emotionally abused, and 10.0% ritualistically abused. 13.4% of those who reported themselves as psychologically abused, 20.7% of the physically abused, 19.3% of the emotionally abused, and 35.8% of the ritualistically abused perceive themselves as not abused in any form during childhood. Yet, of the psychologically abused 23.4%, of the physically abused 18.2%, of the emotionally abused 22.0%, and of the ritualistically abused 28.3% rated their childhood as 'very unhappy'. It appears these various forms of abuse are experienced by the participants as widespread, suggesting that a much more serious problem may exist than has been recognised. More research into those forms of child abuse in this Province and elsewhere is needed for a clear appreciation of the problems and the effects of such abuse in children's behavior. PMID:11783571
Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.
Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)
This longitudinal study assessed multidisciplinary data on 219 children with autistic spectrum disorders from the median age\\u000a of 5 (Time 1) to 8 years old (Time 2). The evolution of psychological and adaptive data was subjected to cluster analysis.\\u000a Four clinically meaningful clusters emerged. The first group (21%) demonstrated the most important psychological transformations\\u000a between the two times of the research.
René Pry; Joffrey Bodet; Eric Pernon; Charles Aussilloux; Amaria Baghdadli
This study explored the decision-making processes of medical examiners in the determination of child suicide. Ninety-four medical examiners completed a survey regarding those factors considered when making a child suicide determination, sources of information used, and considerations in accident vs. suicide classifications. No significant differences between groups of respondents were observed. Well-known risk factors such as suicide notes were considered
Using generalizability theory to evaluate the reliability of child and adolescent measures enables researchers to enhance precision of measurement and consequently increase confidence in research findings. With an observer-rated measure of child self-regulation, we illustrate how multiple sources of error variance (e.g., raters, items) affect the dependability (replicability) of scores and demonstrate methods for enhancing dependability of observer ratings. Using
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by
Larissa Da Cunha Feio Costa; Francisco De Assis Guedes De Vasconcelos; Karen Glazer Peres
|The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following papers; (1)…
Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death, especially in children and young adults. The long-term psychological effects are
Karin S. W. H. Hendriks; F. J. M. Grosfeld; Tintelen van J. P; Langen van I. M; A. A. M. Wilde; J. van den Bout; Kroode ten H. F. J
This paper discusses fatherhood and its pertinence and influence in the infant's psychological health. It is assumed that fatherhood constitutes a model of identity and a code of values for chil- dren. Said image offers shelter, discipline, and develops the child's personality and the exercise of authority. The authors argue that fatherhood cannot be studied independently of being a man
Laura Evelia; Torres Velázquez; Alejandra Salguero Velázquez; Patricia Ortega Silva
|I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…
|Longitudinal data from the New Hope Project--an experimental evaluation of a work-based antipoverty program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin--was used to explore concurrent and lagged associations of nonstandard schedules and variable shifts with parental psychological well-being, regularity of family mealtimes, and child well-being among low-income…
Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of severe psychiatric disorder, but it is unclear whether it influences risk of psychological distress due to anxiety or the milder forms of depression. The participants in the present study were members of two British birth national birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey (n=6369) and the 1970 British
Catharine R. Gale; Stephani L. Hatch; G. David Batty; Ian J. Deary
The purpose of this article is to provide easily accessible readability information for 49 parent- and 35 child- and adolescent-report measures commonly used by clinicians and researchers. There is a great deal of variability in reading ability required across measures. The majority of parent-report measures (65%) required reading ability above the 8th grade level. The average child-/adolescent-report measure required reading ability above the 6th grade level. Given the potential contribution of readability to a measure's reliability, validity, and overall utility, examining and accounting for readability should be a more common practice in test construction and administration. PMID:16953738
Jensen, Scott A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Chacko, Anil
Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells revealed an abnormal clone with monosomy 7 and trisomy 21 in a 12-year-old child with Kostmann disease (KD). The patient presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and splenomegaly after 5 years of treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The bone marrow morphology was consistent with the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Administration of G-CSF was discontinued
Sofia Shekhter-Levin; Lila Penchansky; Michael R. Wollman; Maureen E. Sherer; Niel Wald; Susanne M. Gollin
|The present research examined five-year-old children's psychological self-concepts. Non-linear factor analysis was used to model the latent structure of the children's self-view questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), a measure of children's self-concepts. The coherence and reliability of the emerging factor structure indicated that young children are…
Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Agathen, Jean M.; Ho, Moon-Ho
|This longitudinal study assessed multidisciplinary data on 219 children with autistic spectrum disorders from the median age of 5 (Time 1) to 8 years old (Time 2). The evolution of psychological and adaptive data was subjected to cluster analysis. Four clinically meaningful clusters emerged. The first group (21%) demonstrated the most important…
We interviewed a community sample of 391 women to obtain a thorough history of lifetime victimization experiences, including experiences such as childhood and adult sexual assault, aggravated assault, robbery, and burglary. In order to assess current psychological functioning, participants were administered the Derogatis Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, the Modified Fear Survey, and the Impact of Event scale. Results indicated that childhood
SHANE M. MURPHY; DEAN G. KILPATRICK; ANGELYNNE AMICK-McMULLAN; LOIS J. VERONEN; JANET PADUHOVICH; CONNIE L. BEST; LORENZ A. VILLEPONTEAUX; BENJAMIN E. SAUNDERS
|"How can you help students most effectively in the classroom?" As a Teaching Assistant, you play a vital role in today's schools. This fully updated new edition will help you get to grips with the main issues to do with psychology and its role in the processes of teaching and learning. This accessible text, building on the success of a…
|This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic…
Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.
|Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers…
El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen
|Using "Patterns of Childrearing," by Sears, Maccoby and Levin (1957) as a starting point, this paper touches on the schism between developmental and social psychology and attempts to assess the progress of research in social development during the past quarter century with respect to five major perspectives that are at once evolutionary,…
"How can you help students most effectively in the classroom?" As a Teaching Assistant, you play a vital role in today's schools. This fully updated new edition will help you get to grips with the main issues to do with psychology and its role in the processes of teaching and learning. This accessible text, building on the success of a…
This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…
Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine's influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and\\/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant exposure to alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco was allowed to vary. Infants
LYNN SINGER; ROBERT ARENDT; KATHLEEN FARKAS; SONIA MINNES; JIE HUANG; TOYOKO YAMASHITA
|Promote the mental health of preschool children in care by providing nurturing environments and relationships. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children is an easy-to-use guide that will help providers recognize and cope with the symptoms and behaviors associated with ADHD, autism, anxiety, and other disorders providers may face. Learn to…
This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…
Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.
|Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…
Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent
Child molesters (n=13) and sexually non-deviant subjects (n=29) were immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features while their sexual arousal and gaze behaviour were assessed to characterise their sexual preferences and intentional dynamics. Sexual arousal was measured using circumferential penile plethysmography (PPG). Gaze behaviour dynamics were derived from average gaze radial angular deviation (GRAD) and GRAD coefficient of variation
Patrice Renaud; Sylvain Chartier; Joanne-Lucine Rouleau; Jean Proulx; Mathieu Goyette; Dominique Trottier; Paul Fedoroff; John-P. Bradford; BenoÎt Dassylva; Stéphane Bouchard
|Found that 64% of 50 children aged 7-12 years with sickle cell disease had parent-reported behavior problem. Internalizing types of behavior problems and diagnoses were most frequent. Maternal anxiety accounted for 16-33% of variance in mother-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively, and child pain-coping…
|In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…
This paper describes a self-report measure, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, which yields a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of various types of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence. Data on this measure are presented for two large samples of college students and for a small clinical sample of subjects with a diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder.
While the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) of 2000 and subsequent reauthorizations defined all minors under the age of 18 involved in commercial sex acts as victims, state and local systems continue to classify prostituted minors who are U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents as offenders. A review of the historical, neurological, and developmental vulnerabilities typical of child sex trafficking
The use of the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test is described and illustrated by three examples of child abuse. This test should be considered in the investigation of definite or suspected cases of abuse and as part of the preparation of court evidence.
This article gives an overview of the processes of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers in Sierra Leone. In contrast to many other situations, in Sierra Leone there has been an effective, integrated response involving a large number of civil society organizations and committees as well as the government. Nine areas of intervention were identified as having contributed to
|Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…
DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.
In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…
It seemed like a natural thing to do at the time. I was beginning what I imaged to be a year of work revising our introductory child development textbook and the new Handbook had just been published. Since I was going to have to read most of the Handbook anyway, why not write a review of it? This idea especially
|This study focuses on the impacts of serial transitions on externalized and internalized behavior disorders, anxiety, and depression among children in child protection services. The research was carried out with a sample of 741 children. The findings demonstrate that the number of times a family is blended is a stronger predictive factor for…
Psychologists who conduct divorce mediation or child custody assessment must understand the context of such professional practice and the views of other professions involved, such as lawyers. In this study, family lawyers (N = 161) completed a questionnaire about mediation and assessment of custody disputes, indicating positive attitudes toward mediation and recognition of its favorable effects on the family. Lawyers
Catherine M. Lee; Christine P. M. Beauregard; John Hunsley
The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…
Prenatal maternal psychopathology affects child development, but some children seem more vulnerable than others. Genetic variance in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis genes may influence the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child emotional and behavioral problems. This hypothesis was tested in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onward. In total, 1727 children of Northern European descent and their mothers participated in this study and were genotyped for variants in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (rs6189/rs6190, rs10052957, rs41423247, rs6195, and rs6198) and the FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene (rs1360780). Prenatal maternal psychological symptoms were assessed at 20 weeks pregnancy and child behavior was assessed by both parents at 3 years. In a subsample of 331 children, data about cortisol reactivity were available. Based on power calculations, only those genetic variants with sufficient minor allele frequencies (rs41423247, rs10052957, and rs1360780) were included in the interaction analyses. We found that variation in GR at rs41423247 moderates the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child emotional and behavioral problems (beta 0.41, SE 0.16, p=0.009). This prenatal interaction effect was independent of mother's genotype and maternal postnatal psychopathology, and not found for prenatal psychological symptoms of the father. Moreover, the interaction between rs41423247 and prenatal psychological symptoms was also associated with decreased child cortisol reactivity (beta ?2.30, p-value 0.05). These findings emphasize the potential effect of prenatal gene–environment interaction, and give insight in possible mechanisms accounting for children's individual vulnerability to develop emotional and behavioral problems.
Velders, Fleur P; Dieleman, Gwen; Cents, Rolieke AM; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Hofman, Albert; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Focuses on the developmental periods of infancy, childhood, and adolescence to offer illustrations of the advantages of using developmental theory and research to establish targets for research on intervention, assessment and treatment planning, and evaluation of effective strategies for prevention of childhood and later adult disorders. The importance for training clinical graduate students in developmental approaches to research is stressed, and hopes for a future of mutual contributions of developmental and clinical psychology are expressed in light of the fact that, after a troubled history of isolation from one another and even active denigration of one another's goals and methods, developmental and clinical psychology are exhibiting joint recognition of the advantages of collaborative research. PMID:10587894
Attention to the total care of the patient and family is needed to promote emotional as well as physical healing. This paper looks at the grief process as experienced by the parents of a burn injured child. Mention is made of non-accidental injuries, accident prevention and the rehabilitation stage of a burn injury. Emphasis is on scalds to toddlers between the ages of 1 to 2 years. PMID:7880137
Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125
Many devices are used in child assessment and treatment as communication aids, projective tools, and symbolic means of interaction. None are as hotly debated in their application among mental health professionals as dolls with genital details. Anatomically detailed (AD) dolls are often used in sexual-abuse evaluation and treatment with children, but such applications are controversial. This article is the product of a working group formed to review AD doll research and practice. This article reviews historical use of dolls in clinical inquiry and research on sexual behaviors in children, normative use of AD dolls in nonreferred children, differences in children's play behavior and emotional reactions to AD dolls, and memory and suggestibility issues relating to AD-doll use. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:7568570
Koocher, G P; Goodman, G S; White, C S; Friedrich, W N; Sivan, A B; Reynolds, C R
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions.
Longitudinal data from the New Hope Project—an experimental evaluation of a work-based antipoverty program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was used to explore concurrent and lagged associations of nonstandard schedules and variable shifts with parental psychological well-being, regularity of family mealtimes, and child well-being among low-income families. Working a combination of variable shifts and nonstandard hours was associated concurrently with lower teacher-reported school
Author wishes to demonstrate that partially not directed interview based on free association of ideas and memories is one of the indispensable parts of exploration for the gathering of exact data in Infantile Psychiatry. Use of another technique, perhaps more "scientific" paradoxically risks leaving to one side and ignoring closest pathogenesis to the first causes of the illness and with it forfaits the possibility of administering a treatment which may consider the etiology of the disorder. To illustrate this postulate, the author chooses the area of precocious infantile anorexia and examines the gathering of data in successive interviews; why the new data are radically changing the initial etiopathogenic hypothesis which are being elaborated in the course of the interviews and why the selected treatment is being modified in a essential way. This technique not only requires an important time investment but a respectful listening altitude on the part of the consultant as well limiting to a minimum his interventions and transmitting a feeling of security to parents and child which makes possible his free remembrance activity and with it, the emergence of pathogenic emotions. On the other hand therapeutic yield in real terms the efficient psychotherapeutic intervention "mutant" as some authors would say, are highest in these moments: "Iron is best shapable when red-hot". PMID:3867300
This study evaluated the effect of parent-child relationship quality (acceptance and differential treatment) over dimensions of the quality of sibling relationships (warmth and confl ict) and psychologi- cal adjustment in 69 adolescent sibling dyads. The effects of parent-child relationships were evaluated both at the individual and dyadic levels. In older siblings, the father-child relationship had a signifi - cant effect
KAREN RIPOLL; SONIA CARRILLO; JOHN ALEXANDER CASTRO
A case of triple mosaicism involving chromosome 18 is described in a girl with abnormal skin pigmentation similar to hypomelanosis of Ito. The karyotype is 46,XX, -18, + del(18)(p11.23-->pter)/46,XX, -18, + idic(18)(p11.23)/46,XX, -18, + r(18). The patient displays some clinical features of monosomy 18p and a few signs of trisomy 18q. Our case illustrates a non-random association of chromosomal mosaicism with abnormal skin pigmentation. PMID:8411041
Bocian, E; Mazurczak, T; Bu?awa, E; Sta?czak, H; Rowicka, G
A 12-year-old girl presented with extensive epidermal nevi, new onset seizures, mental retardation, and oral and ocular abnormalities. We briefly review the case and epidermal nevus syndrome (ENS), which is characterized by epidermal nevi occurring in conjunction with neurologic, ocular, skeletal, and/or other system involvement. PMID:23031372
Using longitudinal data from a subsample of 890 African American families in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined whether maternal endorsement of physical discipline moderates the link between (a) maternal psychological distress and spanking frequency and (b) spanking frequency and child depressive symptoms. As predicted, physical discipline administered by nonendorsing mothers was more strongly linked to maternal psychological distress than physical discipline administered by endorsing mothers. Also in keeping with the authors' hypothesis, the relation between spanking frequency and child-reported depressive symptoms was stronger for children of nonendorsing mothers than for children of endorsing mothers. In particular, the positive relation between physical discipline and children's depressive symptoms was significant only for children of nonendorsing mothers. These findings suggest that within-group variation in African American mothers' attitudes about physical discipline partially regulates the conditions under which these mothers use physical discipline and the probability that physical discipline contributes to depressive symptoms in children. Conclusions and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17605539
McLoyd, Vonnie C; Kaplan, Rachel; Hardaway, Cecily R; Wood, Dana
A case of triple mosaicism involving chromosome 18 is described in a girl with abnormal skin pigmentation similar to hypomelanosis of Ito. The karyotype is 46,XX, -18, + del(18)(p11.23-->pter)\\/46,XX, -18, + idic(18)(p11.23)\\/46,XX, -18, + r(18). The patient displays some clinical features of monosomy 18p and a few signs of trisomy 18q. Our case illustrates a non-random association of chromosomal mosaicism
E Bocian; T Mazurczak; E Bu?awa; H Sta?czak; G Rowicka
We aimed to determine the quantitative scientific publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations during 2005-2010 by country based on both, "PubMed" and "Scopus" and performed a bibliometric qualitative evaluation for 2009 using "PubMed". We performed our search by affiliation related to child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological institutions using "PubMed". For the quantitative analysis for 2005-2010, we counted the number of abstracts. For the qualitative analysis for 2009 we derived the impact factor of each abstract's journal from "Journal Citation Reports". We related total impact factor scores to the gross domestic product (GDP) and population size of each country. Additionally, we used "Scopus" to determine the number of abstracts for each country that was identified via "PubMed" for 2009 and compared the ranking of countries between the two databases. 61 % of the publications between 2005 and 2010 originated from European countries and 26 % from the USA. After adjustment for GDP and population size, the ranking positions changed in favor of smaller European countries with a population size of less than 20 million inhabitants. The ranking of countries for the count of articles in 2009 as derived from "Scopus" was similar to that identified via the "PubMed" search. The performed search revealed only minor differences between "Scopus" and "PubMed" related to the ranking of countries. Our data indicate a sharp difference between countries with a high versus low GDP with regard to scientific publication output in child and adolescent psychiatry/psychology. PMID:22434265
Albayrak, Ozgür; Föcker, Manuel; Wibker, Katrin; Hebebrand, Johannes
|Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…
Empirical research has shown that parent–child conflict is positively related to poor adjustment in adolescents; however, the underlying processes have not been adequately examined. To explore the possible mediating pathways, reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat were chosen to represent two likely mechanisms accounting for how parent–child conflict harms adolescents' perceptions of their relationship with their parents and their self-perceptions
|The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history…
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed self-report questionnaires. Abuse characteristics were significantly related to
Heidi Zinzow; Puja Seth; Joan Jackson; Ashley Niehaus; Monica Fitzgerald
|This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…
|Recent research on how infants and toddlers grow and learn has provided new evidence for creating child care practices that support healthy development. The author describes 6 program practices drawn from this research. The article discusses practices that support secure attachments, identity formation, family practices, attention to…
Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...
This paper examines the application of selected concepts from classical psychoanalysis, ego psychology, object relations theory, and self psychology to the assessment and treatment of child abuse. Child maltreatment is conceptualized as deriving, in part, from impaired symbiotic and separation-individuation experiences. The role of certain defense mechanisms employed by the formerly abused parent in perpetuating intergenerational cycles of abuse is
Child abuse, a new name for cruelty to children, is a social phenomenon and not a purely psychological one. Historically, most definitions of child abuse have emphasized physical injury to the very young child. The term should be expanded to include children of all ages and to include sexual and psychological as well as physical abuse. The current…
People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...
Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...
Once we abstract away,from questions about theory versus simulation and from questions about modularity, it can seem truistic that having a theory of mind ? being able to engage,in our everyday,folk psychological,practices or having,psychological understanding ? is fundamental to social functioning. Thus, for example, at the beginning of The Child’s Theory of Mind, Henry Wellman says (1990, p. 1): ‘Arriving
Longitudinal studies are difficult to do well. Too short a study and the results may be meaningless. Too long a study and the subjects cannot be found, money runs out, and research methods become seriously out of date. Despite these problems, there have been some longitudinal studies done that have greatly advanced our understanding of the nature and the treatment of psychopathology in childhood. Without these studies, much less would be known about the clinical course of important disorders, the effects of treatments, and the various risk and protective factors. None of these studies has been perfect. Some longitudinal studies did not focus on quite the right questions, some produced contradictory results, and others produced results that were hard to interpret. What have we learned from the longitudinal studies reviewed in this Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) report? Many of the things that we have learned have been surprising--even counterintuitive. Pre- and perinatal insults need not necessarily lead to serious consequences in later life. Premature infants, if raised in nondeprived settings, are not likely to be mentally retarded or learning disabled. Today, of course, premature infants who would not have been kept alive 15 years ago are surviving. Will this advancement led to an untoward outcome? We do not know. New longitudinal studies need to be done. Certain serious illnesses emerging later in childhood may be associated with a greater risk of psychopathology. This risk is true at least for those with asthma. Psychological factors, such as psychological stress, also may lead to exacerbation of asthmatic attacks. Whether other illnesses are associated with a greater risk of psychopathology simply has not been studied adequately. Infant temperamental characteristics can be classified and measured; however, they appear to predict little in terms of later personality development or psychopathology. Although temperamental characteristics measured in infancy correlate poorly with temperamental characteristics measured at age 4 or 5 years, they appear to be much more stable and correlate well with temperament at ages 8 and 12 years. Some of these temperamental characteristics, particularly aggressivity and negativity at age 5 years, are serious risk factors for behavioral psychopathology at age 8 or 12 years and, possibly, at later ages as well. Aggressive, negative 5-year-olds do not necessarily grow out of their problems. Their problems are important and should be dealt with when children are age 5 years. What does appear important is early language development. Delays in language development or developmental language disorders are risk factors for later psychopathology. Fifty percent of school-age children with language problems requiring speech and language therapy also have diagnosable psychopathology. Hyperactivity and short attention span are characteristics that tend to persist in later childhood--even adulthood. Alone, each of these characteristics may not be a risk factor for later psychopathology, but, when accompanied by oppositional behavior and conduct disorder, the outcome is detrimental to the child. Many studies have shown that children with these comorbid problems are at risk later for becoming delinquent and antisocial. Conduct disorder in childhood, which is much more common in males, is a risk factor for later delinquency, even if it is not associated with hyperactivity. Again, early intervention is important. The effects of comorbidity in this instance can be serious. Comorbidity in general, especially as children grow older, leads to adverse social, academic, and psychopathological outcomes. Depression does occur in children, in all of its adult manifestations. Mania, in contrast, is rarely seen in children younger than age 12 years. Depression in school-age children can be severe or mild. In contrast to adolescents with depression, depressed children are most likely to have somatic compla PMID:10230287
This paper describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, a behavioral family therapy approach for the psychological treatment of preschool children and their parents. This approach emphasizes the integration of traditional child play therapy techniques within a behavioral framework of parent-child therapy. Implications for the treatment of a broad range of childhood problems are discussed.
\\u000a Résumé La Psychologie de l’enfant est en train de prendre une place toute nouvelle dans le monde moderne. Cette science qui, lorsqu’elle\\u000a a été fondée, voici environ 80 ans, relevait de la pure recherche, est maintenant regardée comme touchant les fibres mêmes\\u000a de la société. L’avenir lointain de la société échappe à toute prévision, car les progrès de la physique et
Preventive methods for the work with children and parents are presented by the example of a mental health prevention center, where the early development of children is carefully attended on the basis of psychoanalysis and own movement studies. Besides a child-centered setting and multifarious ways of fostering the child's creative expression the emphasis is laid on methods helping to mediate between parents and child in everyday life, as well as methods supporting the child's ego to enable it to cope with future traumatic events. PMID:1762990
|Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…
Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.
Childhood maltreatment is a robust contributing factor to mental health problems in adolescents. The current study examines the impact of childhood emotional abuse on adolescent psychological distress in 48 youths with borderline-to-mild intellectual disability, as compared to 117 peers with average intellectual functioning. Both emotional abuse and intellectual functioning predicted the severity of youth psychological distress. Childhood emotional abuse has
Jonathan A. Weiss; Randall Waechter; Christine Wekerle
The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.
Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self-mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to
An elementary psychology course was offered at Amherst Central High School in Snyder, New York in 1954. Teaching methods included lectures, discussions and oral reports. The major topics studied included heredity and environment, personality types, frustrations and how to deal with them, the psychology of advertising, extrasensory perception, telepathy, parent-child relations, boy-girl relations, and family problems and how to solve
|Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)|
Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important
Surrogate motherhood arrangements have increased in recent years and yet the practice remains controversial. The present paper evaluates the limited available research evidence. Issues discussed include: psychological stressors associated with surrogacy, attitudes towards the practice, motives of surrogate and commissioning couple and issues pertaining to their relationship, the question of the surrogate relinquishing the child to the commissioning couple and
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.
Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh
This study examined the association between generativity and psychological well-being for a subsample of 1882 mid- to late-life parents using the MIDUS data set. Guided by Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, we tested a structural model of psychological well-being that also included direct and indirect effects (via generativity) of remembered pre-adult relationships with parents and current parental experiences with offspring
One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…
|One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…
The impact of perceived child abuse history on 160 adult, Native American women's emotional well-being (i.e., depressive mood and anger) and AIDS risk was examined. How sense of mastery and social support might lead to women's greater resiliency was also investigated. Child physical–emotional abuse was found to have greater impact on depressive mood and anger and AIDS risk than did
Stevan E. Hobfoll; Anita Bansal; Rebecca Schurg; Sarah Young; Charles A. Pierce; Ivonne Hobfoll; Robert Johnson
... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...
... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...
A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images
By bringing together neurologists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, and economists, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child offers a unique knowledge base from which early childhood policy and practice can be informed. By communicating how and why early experiences have a lasting impact on brain architecture--and what…
BACKGROUND: Findings are presented of the third phase of a longitudinal study of children conceived by assisted reproduction procedures involving surrogacy and\\/or donor conception. METHODS: At the time of the child's third birthday, 34 surrogacy families, 41 donor insemination families and 41 oocyte donation families were compared with 67 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the
S. Golombok; C. Murray; V. Jadva; E. Lycett; F. MacCallum; J. Rust
Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…
Discusses three articles of Mr. McDougall, on the subject of psychological method. The articles accomplish their purpose, if by method we mean (with Mr. McDougall) not so much ways and means of going to work in psychology, but the method of conceiving the scope of psychology and of psychological processes. By their contention that there can be \\
Mother-child interaction is usually described in psychological terms; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that neuroendocrine mechanisms are involved in the mother-child interaction. Mother and fetus influence each other by hormonal mechanisms in utero, and after birth, mother and child interact by way of sensory stimulation. In the breastfeeding situation, the infant's suckling stimulates maternal oxytocin and PRL release and,
Examined the relationship between selected maternal attitudes and the sex, sex role preference and level of psychological differentiation of the preschool child. Data indicate that extreme sex role typing works against learning. (GO)
|This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…
|Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…
Positive psychology is the study of human strength, resilience, and optimal human functioning. The goal of positive psychology is to make people happier by understanding and building positive emotion, gratification and meaning. The constructs of happiness, hope, optimism, well-being, resilience and flow are examined in how they relate to positive psychology. The \\
Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.
The history of clinical psychology from just prior to the turn of the century to date is reviewed. Included are the topics: the psychometric tradition; the dynamic tradition; the psychologist in the clinic, the child guidance center, the mental hospital, and the home for mentally defective; psychology as a profession. These topics are organized under the headings of the 1920's
Educational psychology departments should offer to interested students throughout the university a parent education course stressing child development and the educational process. As a result of declining enrollments in schools of education, professors of educational psychology need to develop new courses applicable to new student populations.…
This study examined statistically the differential relationships among child domain and parent domain scores of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and child disruptive behaviors as measured by the problem and intensity scales of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). As were 165 children ages 2-10 referred for psychological evaluation. The PSI child domain and parent domain scores were significantly correlated
Sheila M. Eyberg; Stephen R. Boggs; Christina M. Rodriguez
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced
Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…
|Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…
|Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. PMID:19203139
\\u000a Does the appearance of pruritus always necessitate psychological treatment? The answer to this question remains subordinate\\u000a to the dermatologist’s clinical examination, including the psychological component (cf. Part II, Subchapter 4, Psychological\\u000a Approach). The dermatologist’s entire observational and clinical sense is mobilized. ‘What is the patient telling me about\\u000a his pruritus?’ ‘Is he psychically and physically overwhelmed by the itching?’ ‘Did
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541
|This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…
|Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormalpsychology. (Author/LS)|
Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormalpsychology. (Author/LS)
Four dimensions of psychological adaptation of 101 parents of HIV-infected children were examined. Heightened anxiety, depression, and anticipatory grief were associated with child's age at diagnosis, parent's HIV status, and parent's relationship to the child. Parents at higher risk for psychological distress were identified, and an optimum time point for intervention is suggested. PMID:7977671
Wiener, L; Theut, S; Steinberg, S M; Riekert, K A; Pizzo, P A
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Comments on Notes on the Psychic Development of the Young White Rat, by Willard S. Small (American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XI., No. I, Oct., 1899. Pp. 80-100; ; An Experimental Study of the Mental Processes of the Rat, by Willard S. Small (American Journal of Psychology, Vol. XI., No. 2, Jan., 1900. Pp. 133-165; ; Notes on the Individual
This article concerns itself with the four factors in preparing psychological profiles of perpetrators of crimes. The author provides a brief background of psychological profiling and its application to biographical studies and law enforcement. The author's perspective is that of a psychoanalytical orientation. He emphasizes the need to integrate neurological understanding when preparing the profile of a suspect.
A new instrument, the Psychological Maltreatment Review (PMR), is introduced and its psychometrics are described. The PMR examines adult retrospective reports of childpsychological abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological support, measured separately for maternal and paternal figures. Male and female participants (N?=?1,051) completed the PMR and a measure of adult attachment, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships scale (Fraley, Waller,
Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children.
Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay
Divergent etiological viewpoints of child abuse stress psychological disturbance in parents, abuse-eliciting characteristics of children, dysfunctional patterns of family interaction, stress-inducing social forces, and abuse-promoting cultural values. A conceptual framework that integrates these viewpoints is proposed to show that much of the theoretical conflict that has characterized the study of child maltreatment is more apparent than real. The framework conceptualizes
A psychological and psychiatric study of 11 children with cystic fibrosis revealed major psychological problems in all of them. Among the parents of the majority of these children, marked psychopathology and gross marital discord were noted. Popular literature concerning cystic fibrosis had a negative effect on the child's attitude toward the disease. Virtually all of these patients showed a preoccupation with death. In this study, the necessity of psychiatric consultation as an integral part of current intensive treatment programs in cystic fibrosis clinics was demonstrated.
Lawler, Robert H.; Nakielny, Wladyslaw; Wright, Nancy A.
In 1951 the WHO Regional Office for Europe as a part of its long-term activities in child health initiated plans for a meeting between paediatricians and child psychiatrists, at which they could discuss their respective roles and the co-ordination of their work. Early in 1953 an ad hoc committee was called together to discuss the possibility of holding a conference which would delineate the role of the paediatrician in the management of psychosomatic and behaviour disorders in young children. This committee, consisting of leading specialists in paediatrics and child psychiatry, under the chairmanship of Professor R. Debré (France), felt that any wider conference should be devoted to considering more fully the inter-relation of somatic and psychological processes in sick children, the respective roles of paediatricians and child psychiatrists in their treatment, and the working relations between the different disciplines responsible for the care of children. In order to avoid diffusion of effort, and to arrive as far as possible at practical conclusions, the study group that was subsequently convened in Stockholm concentrated on one important aspect of child care—the child in hospital.
Psychologists are frequently retained by the judicial system to evaluate alleged victims and defendants in child abuse cases. The standard of service provided in such cases ranges from competent and comprehensive to levels of such incompetence as to be beyond description. Psychological evaluations of either the victim or the defendant in child abuse cases should be done only by psychologists
Behavioral scientists have been presented as expert witnesses in child sexual abuse cases to testify that known child molesters perform differently on psychological tests than persons who do not molest children. Such testimony has been offered in a wide range of cases ranging from family court to the criminal arena, both for and against the accused. For a variety of
Anorexia nervosa is a common problem in young adults that may present with a variety of metabolic and hematologic abnormalities, as well as weight loss and psychological disturbances. We present a young man with a long history of anorexia nervosa who developed pancytopenia associated with decreased bone marrow cellularity and abnormal architecture and marrow infil- tration with an amorphous, gelatinous
Victoria L. Vande Zande; Joseph J. Mazza; Steven H. Yale
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Comments on a recent article in The Reporter (Feb. 16, 1962), where Marya Mannes, a staff writer of this publication, praises Joyce Brothers for her ability to answer complex psychological problems in simple language \\
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged. PMID:23672157
... become depressed. He or she may withdraw, think of suicide or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.
|This study examined parental views of their child's educability through the parents' perceptions of their child's resilience. The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine psychometric properties of the rating scale created to measure parental views of their child's educational and psychological resilience, (2) to explore whether the parents'…
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
|A brief overview of the history of the scientific study of the child in Canada is provided in this paper. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the…
|Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention. PMID:20541100
This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID:12157998
Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families.
|Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…
Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas
|Examined was the feasibility of predicting the potential for abnormalchild rearing practices, including child abuse and neglect among 350 mothers. Through interviews, questionnaires, and observations during labor, delivery and the postpartum period, 100 mothers were identified as at high risk for abnormal parenting procedures. Ss were then…
Diagnostic criteria for stress reactions and adjustment disorders are summarized. Existing psychological treatments are outlined with a focus on evidence-based methods, and recommendations for treatment are described. The conclusion is that there is no evidence for the effect of psychological debriefing or other professional treatment in the immediate aftermath of traumatic events. On the other hand, cognitive behavioural therapy, EMDR and similar methods with focus on exposure can be recommended, both as a preventive strategy and for patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:19284905
Guided by the emotional security hypothesis developed by Davies & Cummings (1994), studies were conducted to test a conceptual refinement of children's adjustment to parental conflict in relation to hypotheses of other prominent theories. Study 1 examined whether the pattern of child responses to simulations of adult conflict tactics and topics was consistent with the emotional security hypothesis and social learning theory in a sample of 327 Welsh children. Supporting the emotional security hypothesis, child reports of fear, avoidance, and involvement were especially prominent responses to destructive conflict. Study 2 examined the relative roles of child emotional insecurity and social-cognitive appraisals in accounting for associations between parental conflict and childpsychological symptoms in a sample of 285 Welsh children and parents. Findings indicated that child emotional insecurity was a robust intervening process in the prospective links between parental conflict and child maladjustment even when intervening processes proposed in the social-cognitive models were included in the analyses. Studies 3 and 4 explored pathways among parental conflict, child emotional insecurity, and psychological adjustment in the broader family context with a sample of 174 children and mothers. Supporting the emotional security hypothesis, Study 3 findings indicated that child insecurity continued to mediate the link between parental conflict and child maladjustment even after specifying the effects of other parenting processes. Parenting difficulties accompanying interparental conflict were related to child maladjustment through their association with insecure parent-child attachment. In support of the emotional security hypothesis, Study 4 findings indicated that family instability, parenting difficulties, and parent-child attachment insecurity potentiated mediational pathways among parental conflict, child insecurity, and maladjustment. Family cohesiveness, interparental satisfaction, and interparental expressiveness appeared to be protective factors in these mediational paths. No support was found for the social learning theory prediction that parent-child warmth would amplify associations between parental conflict and child disruptive behaviors. PMID:12528424
Davies, Patrick T; Harold, Gordon T; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark; Shelton, Katherine; Rasi, Jennifer A
Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the prevalence of psychological distress in parents of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the relationship between parental psychological distress and health outcomes, and parents’ psychological experience of having a child with T1DM. Clinical and research implications are presented. Method A systematic mixed-studies review was undertaken to review the quantitative and qualitative research on the parental experience of having a child with T1DM. A total of 34 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Results The prevalence of parental psychological distress across all studies ranged from 10% to 74%, with an average of 33.5% of parents reporting distress at diagnosis and 19% of parents reporting distress 1 to 4 years after diagnosis. Parental psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM, regardless of how it was defined, was associated with higher child self-report of stress and depressive symptoms, more problematic child behavior, and lower child self-report of quality of life. Parental psychological distress also had negative effects on diabetes management. Themes of the qualitative synthesis indicated that parents perceived T1DM as a difficult diagnosis that contributed to significant family disruption. Adjustment occurred over time; however, ongoing stress was experienced. Conclusions Screening for psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM is indicated, and preventive interventions are needed.
Whittemore, Robin; Jaser, Sarah; Chao, Ariana; Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret
OBJECTIVES. Studies suggest that having a child with autism has a negative impact on maternal psychological functioning, but no large-scale, population-based studies are available. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the psychological functioning, physical and mental health, family communication, and parenting support of mothers of a child with autism compared with other mothers on a population basis
Abstract Studying human behavior in the light of evolutionary theory involves studying the comparative evolutionary history of behaviors (phylogeny), the psychological machinery that generates them (mechanisms), and the adaptive value of that machinery in past reproductive competition (natural selection). To show the value of a phylogenetic perspective, I consider the ethology of emotional expression and the cladistics of primate social
Discusses trivia related to the history of psychology (with many fun examples such as: What are the names of Pavlov's original dogs?) and the relationship of this game to students learning how to use library resources (in attempts to answer such trivia questions), as well as the relevance of such knowledge.
This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…
The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…
This article examines some of the ways in which sociohistorical contexts influence the formulation of issues in developmental psychology. It is essential to examine social, political, and historical forces when trying to understand the discipline. Two examples are provided, the first having to do with child care and the origins of developmental psychology in the USA, the second having to
Objective To provide a brief, nontechnical introduction to individual growth curve modeling for the analysis of longitudinal data. Several applications of individual growth curve modeling for pediatric psychology research are discussed. Methods To illustrate these applications, we analyze data from an ongoing pediatric psychology study of the possible impact of spina bifida on child and family development (N = 135).
Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychologicalchild outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing psychological problems. Methods: The participants were 58 white children between the ages
Comfort B. Asanbe; Charlene Hall; Charles D. Bolden
The impact of different forms of child maltreatment on children's normal and abnormal development is discussed in relation to the family context. Theory and clinical findings are presented to demonstrate how some children's observed adjustment problems can be explained on the basis of their violent and abusive family context. We draw upon the theoretical structure of developmental psychopathology and mechanisms
Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...
... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...
Using a cross-lagged panel design, this study examined the directionality of relations between parental psychological control and child relational aggression. Data were collected from a proportionally stratified sample of 600 Flemish 8- to 10-year-old children at 3 measurement points with 1-year intervals. Reciprocal effects were evident in mother-child dyads. Maternal psychological control was positively related to child relational aggression 1 year later, and child relational aggression was positively related to maternal psychological control 1 year later. The father-child dyads were best represented by unidirectional parent effects. Paternal psychological control was positively related to child relational aggression 1 year later. Surprisingly, these effects emerged only for relational aggression as indexed by mother and father reports and not for relational aggression as indexed by teacher and peer measures. PMID:19130362
|Social and psychological development shapes a child's character and personality as well as academic achievement. This article examines five factors that are critical to this development: self-esteem, achievement motivation, social skills, coping skills, and aspirations. Self-esteem should be a desired result in and of itself, enhancing the…
Study design:Cross-sectional survey.Objectives:To describe anxiety and depression among caregivers of youth with spinal cord injury (SCI), examine predictors of caregiver psychological functioning and evaluate relationships between caregiver and childpsychological outcomes. The protective factor of youth social relationships was also included to examine its impact on relationships between caregiver and childpsychological functioning.Setting:Families received services at one of three pediatric
E H Kelly; C J Anderson; S I Garma; H F Russell; S J Klaas; J A Gorzkowski; L C Vogel
G. Stanley Hall influenced several social movements that had great implications for child wellbeing: the Child Study, Parent Education, and Child Welfare Movements. However, while Hall laid much of the foundation for the field of scientific child study and policy-relevant research, his legacy is virtually nonexistent. The current article reviews the life and contributions of G. Stanley Hall, and the dual role Hall played in history as a revered leader of the Child Study Movement and a controversial figure in the landscape of early childpsychology. PMID:17153147
After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious phenomena are discussed.
Examined textbooks in developmental psychology and abnormalpsychology for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence, conducted by H. Garber and R. Heber (1973). Descriptions of the study began to appear in 1977 and have appeared with increasing frequency since then. The Milwaukee study is a cautionary example of how research data can appear
Developmental psychology as a modern, western (minority-world) discipline has been wedded to an individualist model of child development that treats the baby or child as an isolated unit of development. Heir to both romantic and functionalist traditions within its Euro-American context of formulation, within this paradigm the child develops according to regular, predictable patterns (sometimes described as stages) that are
Discusses three categories of children overburdened by responsibilities resulting from divorce. Describes economic, social, and psychological stresses affecting parent-child relationships, as well as the potential for psychopathology within the relationship. (JAC)
Forensic psychology is a rapidly growing specialism within psychology. A survey was carried out among the 152 members of the Icelandic Psychological Society (Sálfradingafélagi Islands) about their involvement and role in court work. Out of 101 psychologists who responded to the survey, 39 reported having been involved in court work, of whom 34 had testified in court. The great majority of court work of the psychologists involved assessments relating to child-care and custody proceedings, but there was evidence that Icelandic psychologists are increasingly becoming involved in criminal cases concerning criminal responsibility and the reliability of testimony. They are working much more independently of medical colleagues than before. PMID:15281922
|Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…
Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane
This article presents excerpts of the three lectures delivered by George F. Still on March 4, 1902, March 6, 1902, and March 11, 1902. In the first lecture, Still discussed several points in the psychology and development of social control in the normal child and considered the occurrence of defective moral control in in association with general…
|This article presents excerpts of the three lectures delivered by George F. Still on March 4, 1902, March 6, 1902, and March 11, 1902. In the first lecture, Still discussed several points in the psychology and development of social control in the normal child and considered the occurrence of defective moral control in in association with general…
Objective: This exploratory study investigated the co-occurrence of domestic violence and three types of child maltreatment: physical child abuse, psychologicalchild abuse, and child neglect.Method: A sample of 2544 at-risk mothers with first-born children participated in a home-visiting child abuse prevention program. A longitudinal design using multiple data collection methods investigated the effect of domestic violence during the first 6
BackgroundWe propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled
For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in jealousy, and motivational mechanisms underlying parental love and its lapses, which purportedly result in child maltreatment. In this article, I argue that the empirical evidence for these "discoveries" is inconclusive, at best. I suggest that, as the reigning paradigm in evolutionary psychology has produced questionable results, the evolutionary study of human psychology is still in need of a guiding paradigm. PMID:15925806
|Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of AbnormalPsychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…
Recent research on the economics of human development deepens understanding of the origins of inequality and excellence. It draws on and contributes to personality psychology and the psychology of human development. Inequalities in family environments and investments in children are substantial. They causally affect the development of capabilities. Both cognitive and noncognitive capabilities determine success in life but to varying degrees for different outcomes. An empirically determined technology of capability formation reveals that capabilities are self-productive and cross-fertilizing and can be enhanced by investment. Investments in capabilities are relatively more productive at some stages of a child’s life cycle than others. Optimal child investment strategies differ depending on target outcomes of interest and on the nature of adversity in a child’s early years. For some configurations of early disadvantage and for some desired outcomes, it is efficient to invest relatively more in the later years of childhood than in the early years.
Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may choose in-home care, where the caregiver comes to your home. Or your child ...
Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often been associated with higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress, and a number of studies have examined the role of psychological processes as mediators of the impact of child problem behavior on parent mental health. The current study examined the relations among child problem behavior, parent mental health,
Jonathan A. Weiss; M. Catherine Cappadocia; Jennifer Anne MacMullin; Michelle Viecili; Yona Lunsky
The provision of psychological (e.g., psychotherapy, coparenting, mediation, collaborative divorce, child custody evaluation) services for families of divorce are growing specialties for many clinical and forensic psychologists. However, practice in domestic relations psychology, such as divorce and custody assessment and testimony, is a high-risk venture for incurring ethics complaints and law suits. The lead article and the three commentaries that
Jeffrey Zimmerman; Allen K. Hess; Nancy A. McGarrah; G. Andrew H. Benjamin; Glenn A. Ally; Jackie K. Gollan; Nancy Kaser-Boyd
Over the past two decades, interest in the psychological development of children has steadily increased (Beg, Casey, & Saunders, 2007), presumably because statistics describing childhood psychological illness are alarming. Certain parent interaction styles or behaviors are known to influence child adjustment. According to attachment theory, the reason for these findings is that interaction with a caregiver informs an individual’s construction
Over the past two decades, interest in the psychological development of children has steadily increased (Beg, Casey, & Saunders, 2007), presumably because statistics describing childhood psychological illness are alarming. Certain parent interaction styles or behaviors are known to influence child adjustment. According to attachment theory, the reason for these findings is that interaction with a caregiver informs an individual’s construction
The purpose of this paper is to present different aspects of Cultural-Historical Theory and examine their relevance to child development. It is discussed some important conceptual features of theory such as elemantary functions and higher psychological functions, tools and mediation, social interactions, zone of proximal development. In addition Vygotsky's a number of methodological points concerning the nature of psychological inquiry
Studies comparing child-abusive and nonabusive parents on psychological and behavioral dimensions are reviewed to determine relevant distinctions between these populations. Whereas few studies found significant differences between abusers and nonabusers on traditional psychological dimensions, abusers are more likely to report stress-related symptoms, such as depression and health problems, that are linked to the parenting role. Comparative studies of family interactions
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
... and Cognitive Sciences Social Psychology Description The Social Psychology Program at NSF ... emotion, social comparison and social influence, and the psychophysiological and neurophysiological ...
The distinction between purposive and mechanical psychology cuts across both introspective and behavioristic psychology. Although behaviorism is actually mechanistic, a teleological behaviorism is theoretically possible. \\
In today's health care marketplace dominated by Health Maintenance Organizations and managed care, psychology internship and residency programs must increasingly prepare child psychologists to practice in a variety of managed care settings. Educational and training considerations are outlined to provide a framework for supervising child psychologists in such settings. Principles of practice in managed care are first addressed. Training should
Objective. The object of this study was to increase our understanding of the social, clinical, radiographic and psychological consequences of child abuse after the initial insult and to describe the role of neurosurgery and other specialties in this context. Methods. A review of the literature on child abuse (using scientific journals, textbooks, and internet reports) was conducted, with special attention
Eimir Perez-Arjona; Manuel Dujovny; Zachary DelProposto; Federico Vinas; Hun Park; Sandra Lizarraga; Thomas Park; Fernando G. Diaz
The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6–11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All testing was completed before the
Several commonly held assumptions about child abuse were examined to determine their validity for a court referred inner city population. Subjects were referred to the Forensic Psychiatry Division for evaluation and identified by the court as child abusers. Each evaluation included a psychiatric interview, some psychological testing, and social history data. The results indicated that childhood emotional deprivation may be
Diana E. Jensen; Jogues R. Prandoni; Herbert R. Hagenau; Patricia A. Wisdom; E. Anne Riley
Many authors have written about the psychological consequences for the survivors when a family member commits suicide. Most clinicians use bereavement as a paradigm for planning therapeutic interventions. We have not been able to find any articles which recognize that the experience may be a form of child abuse. We believe that using the model of child abuse as well
Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…
Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.
Mental health professionals can assist legal decision makers in cases of allegations of child sexual abuse by collecting data using forensic interviews, psychological testing, and record reviews, and by summarizing relevant findings from social science research. Significant controversy surrounds another key task performed by mental health professionals in most child sexual abuse evaluations, i.e., deciding whether or not to substantiate
|The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…
Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia
|Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to…
|Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its…
The field of sport and exercise psychology explores the relation between psychologic factors and optimal performance. Sport psychology is slowly becoming an integral aspect of the holistic care of sports medicine and phys- ical rehabilitation patients. The physician specialist should have some knowledge regarding the various facets of sport and performance psychol- ogy, because many of these skills are relevant
Historically, sport psychology has been identified with physical education; however, recent developments in the field toward applied issues have substantially expanded psychologists' interests and opportunities. Unfortunately, little is known about professional psychologists' involvement in sport psychology practice, research, and training. Therefore, a national survey of 500 male and 500 female psychologists (American Psychological Association Division 12members) was conducted. Based on
Educational psychology mediates between the disciplines of psychology and education. Scholars have seldom agreed on a single definition of the field but have incorporated knowledge from several areas. The discipline of educational psychology was fostered primarily in the United States by such eminent psychologists as William James, Edward L. Thorndike, and James McKeen Cattell. Over the past century, several philosophical
By accepting psychology’s borders of concern, some histories of psychology tend to mute significant interfaces between research and society. The alternative approach of critical theory provides histories more sensitive to these relations. Critical theory’s conceptual problems with regress of explanation and with determining adequate criteria for evaluating differing historical narratives are considered. By using this approach, the study of history
|Describes the benefits and drawbacks of teaching a course outside one's area of expertise. Claims this enhances faculty development and alleviates burnout. Finds the positive aspects, personal and institutional, outweigh the negative. Results show favorable student evaluations. (Author/NL)|
Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article.
Sixty-five patients with esophageal complaints were studied to determine clinical associations with abnormal sensitivity to intraesophageal balloon distension (esophageal sensory dysfunction). Associations were examined in four categories: motility, esophageal symptoms, recent psychological symptoms, and general clinical features. A positive response to balloon distension (pain with =8 ml volume) was found in 29 (45%) of the subjects. This response was associated
Ray E. Clouse; Gregory S. McCord; Patrick J. Lustman; Steven A. Edmundowicz
On Maré Island in New Caledonia ;the elder's child' is an etiologic category with its own specific features. This article describes the work of a clinical psychologist with the family of a polyhandicapped child described as 'the elder's child.' Psychological and ethnographic perspectives provide complementary approaches to investigating cultural meanings, social organization and cosmogony, which all influence clinical interaction with the family and provides tools for developing a therapeutic alliance. PMID:17379614
We present a case study of a child's psychological assessment using the methods of Therapeutic Assessment (TA). The case illustrates how TA can help assessors understand the process and structure of a family by highlighting how maladaptive family processes and interactions impact a child's development. It also illustrates how TA with a child can serve as a family intervention. In
Amy M. Hamilton; Johnathan L. Fowler; Brooke Hersh; Cynthia A. Austin; Stephen E. Finn; Deborah J. Tharinger; Victoria Parton; Katharine Stahl; Prerna Arora
Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…
Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.
This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the Internet child pornography offenders turned out to be significantly younger on
|Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity.…
There has been extensive research into the areas of transition to parenthood, psychological processes during pregnancy, and having a child with disabilities. However, a much-needed topic of study is that of the unique experience which combines these three areas - pregnancy and parenting subsequent to having a child with disabilities. Understanding this experience, for example pregnancy after having a child
This article examines whether children's anger regulation mediates the relation of cancer-related parental posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) to the psychological adjustment of children with cancer. Children with cancer, and their parents (N = 199; 52.3% boys), completed measures of parental PTSS, child anger regulation, and child adjustment. Parental cancer-related PTSS was significantly associated with child adjustment and anger regulation. Children's
Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether the risk factor actually causes outcomes. Random assignment is not possible in many instances, and for that reason, psychologists must rely on observational studies. Such studies identify associations, and causal interpretation of such associations requires additional assumptions. Research in developmental psychology generally has relied on various forms of linear regression, but this methodology has limitations for causal inference. Fortunately, methodological developments in various fields are providing new tools for causal inference-tools that rely on more plausible assumptions. This article describes the limitations of regression for causal inference and describes how new tools might offer better causal inference. This discussion highlights the importance of properly identifying covariates to include (and exclude) from the analysis. This discussion considers the directed acyclic graph for use in accomplishing this task. With the proper covariates having been chosen, many of the available methods rely on the assumption of "ignorability." The article discusses the meaning of ignorability and considers alternatives to this assumption, such as instrumental variables estimation. Finally, the article considers the use of the tools discussed in the context of a specific research question, the effect of family structure on child development. PMID:20677855
\\u000a Health professionals attending the 1993 UNESCO Conference in Brussels, Belgium, have asserted that child prostitution and\\u000a child pornography are highly organized industries that operate on a national and international scale. At the conference, officials\\u000a from Asia, Europe, and North and South America reported on what they saw as a dramatic increase over the last 10 years in\\u000a the number of
|Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Reviews the state of psychology in 1908: Describes the developments in animal psychology and the mnemic conception of evolution proposed by Darwin; conflicting views on consciousness, especially its physical conditions had been proposed, and the chemical nature of nervous impulses, mechanism of audition, and cerebral localization were studied; assessing the requirements of experimental psychology was emphasized; the psychology of temperature
|Analyzes the relationship between cognitive psychology as a broad theoretical framework, and the psychology of mathematics education. Argues that mathematics education should not simply borrow from cognitive psychology; rather, it should provide its own psychological research problems, adapted investigation strategies, and adequate original…
Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…
|Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…
In this address to the American Psychological Association, the President examines the relation of psychology to social practice, focusing primarily on the relation of psychology to education. The main point is whether the standpoint of psychological science, as a study of mechanism, is indifferent and opposed to the demands of education with its free interplay of personalities in their vital
|Using an interdisciplinary perspective that combines research in psychology, sociology, and anthropology, this book examines the composition and role of the family with respect to young children, adolescents, and adult children of elderly parents. Following a preface discussing the major themes of the book--parent-child attachment, transitions…
How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…
|This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…
|Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…
The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963
Summary The clinical implications of venous cerebrovascular maldevelopment remain poorly understood. We report on the association of cerebrofacial venous anomalies (including sinus pericranii), ocular abnormalities and mild developmental delay in two children. In addition, one child had a seizure disorder. Complex cerebrofacial slow-flow vascular anomalies may herald an underlying developmental aberration affecting the cerebrofacial and orbital regions
OBJECTIVE:The presentation will successively deal with the psychological models to explain for the onset or maintenance of child obesity.DESIGN:Five psychological perspectives on childhood obesity are selected. The boundary model of Herman and Polivy (1980) was brought forward as an explanation model for understanding the overeating behaviour in obese people. Others describe obese children as over-responsive to external cues and this
One hundred and fifty-five women with functional uterine bleeding were studied to evaluate the importance of concomitant psychological disorders. Psychological illnesses were diagnosed in 128 patients (82.6%), most of which arose from problems directly related to sexual or reproductive functions. The remaining 27 patients (17.4%) were different in that they were psychologically stable and all but two were at puberty or approaching the menopause. Histological studies of endometrial samples from 135 of these patients indicated little evidence of abnormal sex hormone activity; 77 (57%) showed normal secretory phase endometrium and 32 (23.7%), proliferative phase endometrium. The remaining 26 (19.2%) showed evidence of some endocrine dysfunction, 15 such specimens being obtained from psychologically stable patients. It is probable that psychological disturbances are the principal cause of functional uterine bleeding during the prime reproductive years. The psychological component of the illness is the most important and determines the ultimate prognosis.
Two cases of pediatric patients with heart failure are presented. One child presented with vomiting and the other a child with a history of asthma who had respiratory distress. Though their presenting complaints are common, the diagnosis was made based on careful examination and consideration of abnormal findings. Abnormal vital signs (tachycardia, bradycardia, hypotension) or physical exam findings (heart murmur
This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine professional a unique perspective into the care of patients who are athletes and elite performers. PMID:16952750
Cognitive science is the scientific domain which studies, analyses, simulates and infers for various aspects, functions and\\u000a procedures of human mentality such as, thinking, logic, language, knowledge, memory, learning, perception and the ability\\u000a to solve problems. E-psychology is in a close relation with the cognitive science domain, but expands beyond it, as e-psychology\\u000a is the efficient convergence of Psychology and
ObjectiveThe goal of this study is to examine the role of psychological distress in predicting child re-victimization across various forms including conventional crime, peer\\/sibling violence, maltreatment, sexual violence, and witnessed violence.
Carlos A. Cuevas; David Finkelhor; Cynthia Clifford; Richard K. Ormrod; Heather A. Turner
... Us: Social Media Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Immunizations > Your Child's Immunizations ... of shots a child receives. What Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the psychological states and the stress levels of the Korean mothers who have cleft lip and palate child patients. The authors explored whether psychological assessments of the mothers with child patients could play a role in screening for psychiatric counseling. Thirty-six mothers of child patients admitted to receive cleft lip and palate surgery at Seoul National University Children's Hospital were recruited as subjects of this study. The 3 questionnaires included in the study were the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Parenting Stress Inventory. We compared these results with those of general population according to the domestic studies. The statistical significances of these results were analyzed using Mann-Whitney method. The average score from the Beck Depression Inventory was 8.89 with standard deviation of 6.08. The average score from the Beck Anxiety Inventory was 9.69 with standard deviation of 6.89. In the Parenting Stress Inventory, the average score was 55.06 and standard deviation was 16.45. However, there were no statistically significant differences between mothers whose children have underwent surgery versus no surgery and mothers whose children had visible versus invisible anomalies. The reliable psychological analysis of depression, anxiety, and stress levels of the mothers of child patients allowed the authors to assess the psychological states of the mothers of child patients. Such assessment can play a vital role in the screening of candidates who need psychiatric treatment or consultation. PMID:24036717
Jeong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sukwha
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced 119 child sexual abuse myths, some with overlapping themes. Coders grouped myths into four categories: (a) minimizations or exaggerations of the extent of harm child sexual abuse poses, (b) denials of the extent of child sexual abuse, (c) diffusions of perpetrator blame, and (d) perpetrator stereotypes. This review provides available data regarding the prevalence for these myths, empirical research that refutes or confirms myth categories, and considerations of cultural contexts and implications. PMID:21113832
Because myocyte depolarization and repolarization depend on intra- and extracellular shifts in ion gradients, abnormal serum electrolyte levels can have profound effects on cardiac conduction and the electrocardiogram (EKG). Changes in extracellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels can change myocyte membrane potential gradients and alter the cardiac action potential. These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead EKG
Deborah B Diercks; George M Shumaik; Richard A Harrigan; William J Brady; Theodore C Chan
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by
Pigment abnormalities have been reported to occur on both sides of flatfish. Hypomelanosis or pseudo-albinism, characterized by white patches or areas devoid of normal pigmentation on the ocular surface of the skin, is common in both wild and hatchery reared flatfish. The blind side may display hypermelanosis in the form of dark spots, known as ambicoloration of the skin. The
Ideally, each participant in psychotherapy should be accepted as a unique individual with no reference to diagnosis. Most forms of psychotherapy are limited by assumptions about abnormality that focus on pathology while ignoring the potential for growth that exists in all. Effective psychotherapy requires respect for human complexity. Each person needs to be perceived as embodying a unique balance of
This paper presents a theory of child development which integrates race, class, gender and culture as central factors that structure this development in fundamental ways. Human development evolves within the context of our social roles, which are fundamentally organized and bounded by our position within the class, gender, racial and cultural structure of society. This theory can be used to
... will examine your child's joints, such as the hip and knee, for pain, swelling, and loss of range of motion. Decreased ... of areas of the body where there is pain, swelling, or loss of range of ... different angles, such as the front, side, and back. X-ray images of your ...
Using the meanings of Keaton's nickname ‘Buster’ and long?standing debates about his traumatic childhood as a point of departure, this paper focuses on the comedian's early years as a child star in American vaudeville. Promoted and widely recognized as the main attraction of the family act ‘The Three Keatons’, Keaton performed a physically extremely challenging routine, centring on mock fights
|Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's…
Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's play should be the focus of these efforts,
Psychological Operations - targeting not just the physical capabilities of an opponent but the psychological dimensions as well is a key military consideration. The direct and almost instantaneous communication available with today's technology provides a...
Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)
The paper proposes that the Navy develop an Aviation Clinical Psychology (ACP) program that would complement the Flight Surgeon Program by providing mental health services tailored to the aviation community. Using a community psychology model, it is argue...
Forensic hospital records of 39 severely mentally ill mothers adjudicated Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity for filicide (child murder by parents) were analyzed to describe characteristics preceding this tragedy and to suggest prevention strategies. Almost three-quarters of the mothers (72%) had previous mental health treatment. Over two thirds (69%) of the mothers were experiencing auditory hallucinations, most frequently command hallucinations, and half (49%) were depressed at the time of the offense. Over one third (38%) of the filicides occurred during pregnancy or the postpartum period, and many had a history of postpartum psychosis. Almost three-quarters (72%) of the mothers had experienced considerable developmental stressors, such as death of their own mother or incest. Maternal motives for filicide were predominantly "altruistic" (meaning murder out of love) or "acutely psychotic" (occurring in the throes of psychosis, without rational motive). Psychiatrists should perform careful risk assessments for filicide in mothers with mental illnesses. PMID:16382847
Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hrouda, Debra R; Holden, Carol E; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Resnick, Phillip J
|TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…
The present article reviews the empirical research regarding the parent-child relationships and the development of children in donor insemination (DI) families. Over the years, follow-up studies have appeared sporadically and, despite the varying quality of the research methods, preliminary findings have emerged. Heterosexual DI parents were psychologically well adjusted and had stable marital relationships. DI parents showed a similar or
\\u000a Psychology’s most explicitly direct involvement with religion has obviously been the sub-discipline Psychology of Religion.\\u000a While enjoying an early flourishing in North America and mainland Europe, this went into a serious decline during the 1920s\\u000a and by 1930 appeared to have run into the ground in anglophone Psychology, despite occasional fitful revivals for the rest\\u000a of the century. Although C.
This article explores the common ground between positive and humanistic psychology and responds to positive psychology’s challenges to humanistic psychology about research and a concern for social values. It begins with a brief review of the humanistic psychology movement and shows how its many developments in fact constitute a “positive psychology.” Next, the article moves into an exploration of the
Psychologists have been interested in their public image since the organization of the American Psychological Association nearly 100 years ago. Yet formal surveys of the public's opinions about and understanding of psychology are more recent, dating from the 1940s. This article reviews the published and unpublished surveys of psychology's public image to date and describes new data from a recent
This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas - cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope
Medical psychology in Australia is heavily influenced by British and American thought. The dominant model for clinical training and practice is the scientist–practitioner model, yet a gulf exists between academic and practice settings. Membership of the professional society requires 6 years of university study in psychology. However, registration requires only 4 years training in psychology. Medical psychologists provide a broad
This article reviews a major new subject encyclopedia, the Encyclopedia of Psychology, jointly published by the American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press. This comprehensive and scholarly reference tool encompasses the discipline's theory, research, practice, and history. All of the articles are signed and include bibliographies. The author describes important features of the set, including biographies, articles about psychology in
This article introduces the special section of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology on empirically supported psychological therapies. After a discussion of the rationale for the selection of the specific terms in the label, several justifications are considered for conducting and learning from empirical evaluations of psychological therapies. Finally, the process that guided the special section is described.
Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…
|This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human…
This article describes medical psychology in Russia. A particular emphasis is placed upon a historical description of the changes that have occurred since the 1930s when the scientific development of psychology was “interrupted” by the policies of Stalin's government. These changes have included the development of psychology faculties at St. Petersburg State University and Moscow State University in the 1960s
Tatiana N. Balachova; Sheldon Levy; Galina L. Isurina; Ludvig I. Wasserman
|Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of…
Clinical psychologists are frequently called on to testify in court regarding mental health issues in civil or criminal cases. One of the legal criteria by which admissibility of testimony is determined includes whether the testimony is based on methods that have gained "general acceptance" in their field. In this study, we sought to evaluate the psychological tests used in forensic assessments by members of the American Psychology-Law Society Division of the American Psychological Association, and by diplomates in the American Board of Forensic Psychology. We present test results from this survey, based on 152 respondents, for forensic evaluations conducted with adults using multiscale inventories, single-scale tests, unstructured personality tests, cognitive and/or intellectual tests, neuropsychological tests, risk assessment and psychopathy instruments, sex offender risk assessment instruments, competency or sanity-related instruments, and instruments used to evaluate malingering. In addition, we provide findings for psychological testing involving child-related forensic issues. PMID:16856789
Archer, Robert P; Buffington-Vollum, Jacqueline K; Stredny, Rebecca Vauter; Handel, Richard W
Community psychology, indeed psychology as a discipline, has been largely absent from the table of school reform. Schools are critical socializing forces in society and serve as the one institution through which the full diversity of our child population passes. At the start of the 21st century, despite successive waves of legislation, the goals of the civil rights struggle for
|Health care psychology is distinguished from traditional childpsychology in that it emphasizes clinical application and is concerned with primary mental health care. Diagnosis, classification, prediction, and treatment and control strategies in the field offer definite solutions to problems such as tracheotomy addiction, encopresis, psychogenic…
This study was designed to identify predictors of parental stress and psychological distress among parents of children with mental retardation in the United Arab Emirates. It examined the relative contributions of child characteristics, parents’ sociodemographics, and family environment to parental stress and psychological distress. Participants were parents of 225 mentally retarded children, of whom 113 were fathers and 112 were
|Written for child caregivers, this booklet provides very basic information about child abuse and neglect, discusses early warnings that signal when a family is in trouble or when a child is at risk, and indicates how caregivers can helpfully intervene. Also suggested are ways caregivers might protect themselves against the charge of child abuse.…
|This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), the…
|Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…
de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria
Narcissistic injury is a major component of the seq-uelae of child abuse. The disregard ofthe child's basic needs disturbs the develop- ment of self-esteem and the ability to function effectively. The field of self psychology describes the effects of narcissistic injury on chil- dren and presents therapeutic methods for use within the transfer- ence that address the consequent damage to
|This paper will discuss the recent establishment of the Police Rehabilitation and Retraining Trust's Child and Adolescent Therapy Service. This service was set up in response to an expressed need within the police family to provide evidenced-based psychological therapies for child and adolescent psychopathology caused either directly by…
Two hundred fifty-three adults working in a New York child welfare agency agreed to complete anonymous research packets containing, among other measures, 6 existing scales of psychological maltreatment and a single item about exposure to parental alienation as a child. Results revealed that one fourth of the full sample reported some exposure to parental alienation, which itself was associated with
Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…
de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria
First released on July 1, 2003, this online service provides answers to hundreds of questions about lifestyle issues such as post-traumatic stress syndrome, child guidance, obesity, and eating disorders. The project is funded by the EU, and the questions are answered in full by a team of psychological and psychiatric experts from a number of European countries. Visitors can elect to send in their own question directly to an expert, or read through a list of previously answered questions organized around topics ranging from psychotherapy to depression. Additionally, users may take part in a number of ongoing forums where they can discuss their issues anonymously, and seek advice from experts. Finally, the homepage features a list of recent discussions that are currently in progress, and questions that have recently been answered. Appropriately enough, the site is also available in Greek, German, and Swedish.
Background:Psychological comorbidities of obesity are well recognised. However, the role of childhood psychological problems in the aetiology of later obesity has been little studied.Design:Secondary analyses of a national birth cohort (1970 British Cohort Study). Analysis: Logistic regression models to predict obesity risk at 26, 30 and 34 years related to hypothesised predictors: maternal and teacher reported childpsychological function at
B White; D Nicholls; D Christie; T J Cole; R M Viner
Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943
|THE COLLECTION CONTAINS LECTURES AND PAPERS BY VARIOUS AUTHORS DEALING WITH CHILDPSYCHOLOGY, CONSIDERATION OF CHILD PSYCHIATRY INCLUDES DEFINITION, PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT, FACTORS IN CHILDREN'S PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, CLINICAL SYNDROMES, CHILDHOOD PSYCHOSES, AND PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY. AN OVERVIEW OF A PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY IN CHILD…
Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.
\\u000a CHILD syndrome (OMIM # 308050) is an acronym designation for Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform nevus and Limb Defects. This X-linked\\u000a dominant, male-lethal trait is characterized by: (1) congenital unilateral inflammatory erythematous patches often covered\\u000a in dry yellowish scales which usually undergo spontaneous partial regression during childhood; (2) psoriasiform epidermal\\u000a hyperplasia with marked hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis, with sparse perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates
Child Trends is a non-profit, non-partisan research center, and is the "nation's only independent research and policy center focused exclusively on improving outcomes for children." Child Trends has twelve areas of research, listed across the top of any page. Some of the topics include "Child Poverty," "Fatherhood & Parenting," "Youth Development," and "Health." In each section, the research focus on that topic is explained in a brief introduction, followed by resources that include research briefs, executive summaries and full reports, fact sheets, and a publications archive of materials over three years old. A feature that visitors shouldn't miss is "What Works/LINKS," which can be accessed via the left side menu. The data in this section is about "programs that work -or don't- to enhance children's development". There are effectiveness charts, "Lifecourse Interventions that Work," and a continually updated database on programs that work (or don't). Visitors who are "Program Providers" in policy, education, or the media will find the "Information for..." heading on the left side of the homepage useful for fulfilling their specific needs.
The meeting of feminism with post-structuralism has brought issues of multiplicity of meanings to the fore. However, attention to difference threatens to disperse politics. This paper explores how these issues are played out in developmental psychological research. The concerns of feminist research with issues of reciprocity, consultation and accountability challenge developmental research conducted within the structural power relations of adult-child,
Regarding the differences in timing of adult transitions (i.e., completion of education, full-time employment, having an intimate relationship, having a child) and their relation to childhood antecedents and adulthood psychological functioning, 282 participants were examined. The study was based on the ongoing Finnish Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development in which the same individuals have been followed from
While domestic violence and child abuse are known to be highly correlated, several related areas of functioning of victim mothers and children are not well researched and have implications for the provision of services. Fifty mothers and children were referred by service agencies for independent structured interviews and psychological assessment. Assessment focused on evidence of posttraumatic reexperiencing, avoidance, physiological arousal,
Although US children and youth remain an underserved group, some members of the psychological community have become deeply involved since the 1970s in shaping public policy toward this population. Efforts include examination of the relationship between knowledge and policy, the process of policy formulation, the efficacy of programs for children, and training programs in child development and social policy.
Ruby Takanishi; Patrick H. DeLeon; Michael S. Pallak
Drawing on data from a longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood, four psychological tasks for women and men in the post-partum were identified: recovery from and making sense of childbirth, feelings about\\/relations with child, feelings about self, and changing relationships. These were examined using a mix of questionnaires and interviews. Women's responses and ways of coping with these four
This book describes recent psychological theories on the nature of intelligence and the influence of environmental factors, and argues that culture and child rearing practices affect the development of abilities (linguistic, sensory motor and perceptual). Studies of intelligence, achievement, and environment in England are discussed, along with…
Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychologicalchild outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…
Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.
Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574
Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth
\\u000a Although it is only since the development of coronary angiography in the 1960’s that the label “chest pain and normal coronary\\u000a arteries” has been used, accounts of similar patients can be found in the literature up to a century earlier. Most early descriptions\\u000a emphasize organic abnormalities in explaining the symptoms: but there has been an increasing recognition that psychological\\u000a abnormalities
The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub?fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology
Jennifer L. Lucas; Melissa A. Blazek; Amber B. Raley; Christi Washington
Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243
Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children. PMID:331392
We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the
|We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…
|This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)|
This is the third of a series of three books on child rearing. In simple language, understandable to any basic French reader, practical information is given regarding the normal medical and psychological problems normally encountered when raising young ch...
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473
Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.
Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA. PMID:23558712
|Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, "Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review" 2:71-90, 1999; Sanders, "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" 68:624-640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, "Journal of Clinical Child and…
Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.
Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, "Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review" 2:71-90, 1999; Sanders, "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" 68:624-640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, "Journal of Clinical Child and…
Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.
|Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often been associated with higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress, and a number of studies have examined the role of psychological processes as mediators of the impact of child problem behavior on parent mental health. The current study examined the relations among…
Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; MacMullin, Jennifer Anne; Viecili, Michelle; Lunsky, Yona
Background Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health issue around the globe. Previous studies regarding IAD were mainly focused on associated psychological examinations. However, there are few studies on brain structure and function about IAD. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter integrity in adolescents with IAD. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen IAD subjects and sixteen healthy controls without IAD participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal white matter regions between groups. TBSS demonstrated that IAD had significantly lower FA than controls throughout the brain, including the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corona radiation, internal and external capsules, while exhibiting no areas of higher FA. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in the regions showing FA abnormalities. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by an increase in radial diffusivity while no changes in axial diffusivity. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures within the IAD group. Significantly negative correlations were found between FA values in the left genu of the corpus callosum and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and between FA values in the left external capsule and the Young's Internet addiction scale. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IAD demonstrated widespread reductions of FA in major white matter pathways and such abnormal white matter structure may be linked to some behavioral impairments. In addition, white matter integrity may serve as a potential new treatment target and FA may be as a qualified biomarker to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of injury or to assess the effectiveness of specific early interventions in IAD.
We studied 186 paraplegic patients to clarify the pathogenesis of the sacroiliac (SI) joint abnormalities reported in these patients. Partial or complete fusion of SI joints was noted in 47 patients (25%), and milder degrees of abnormalities of these joints were present in 27 patients (15%). The abnormalities differed from those seen in ankylosing spondylitis and were found more commonly
Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis.
Manometric examination of the oesophagus frequently reveals abnormalities whose cause is unknown and whose physiological importance is not clear. A large body of literature dealing with oesophageal motility abnormalities has evolved over the past few decades but comparisons among studies have been compromised by the lack of a widely accepted system for classifying the abnormal motility patterns, and by the
The current study examined reciprocal parent-child emotion-related behaviors and links to child emotional and psychological functioning. Fifty-four mothers, fathers, and children (7 to 12 years old) participated in four emotion discussions about a time when the child felt angry, happy, sad, and anxious. Supportive emotion parenting (SEP), unsupportive emotion parenting (UEP), and child adaptive/maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) behaviors were coded using Noldus behavioral research software (Noldus Information Technology, 2007). Parents were more likely to follow children's adaptive emotion regulation with supportive versus unsupportive emotional responses and children were more likely to show adaptive versus maladaptive emotion regulation in response to supportive emotion parenting. Interaction patterns involving unsupportive emotion parenting related to childpsychological and emotional outcomes. The results provide empirical support for an evocative person-environment framework of emotion socialization and identify the ways in which particular patterns of interaction relate to psychological functioning in youth. PMID:23066675
The present study examined the extent to which mothers' ratings of their psychological distress, marital adjustment, and negative life events were related to maternal ratings of child behavior problems. Data were collected from mothers of 110 children (ages 2 to 12 years) who were referred to a pediatric clinic for a variety of common behavioral concerns. Maternal psychological distress and marital adjustment were significantly correlated with mothers' ratings on a child behavior checklist. Maternal psychological distress also accounted for a significant amount of the variance in maternal child behavior ratings over and above that accounted for by fathers' ratings of the same behaviors. Given that maternal characteristics co-vary significantly with reports of child behavior problems, pediatricians should interpret findings derived from child behavior rating scales within the overall family context. PMID:1643763
This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment. PMID:21718221
Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley
A cognitive-behavioural programme for the treatment of depressive disorders in child and adolescent psychiatric patients is described. The treatment is based on research findings from studies on cognitive abnormalities in adult depression and on similar abnormalities which have been described in child populations. Similar treatment programmes for adult depressed patients and children from non-clinical populations are also discussed. The aims
|Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…
Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.
Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561
Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph
Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.
... cult to know what to expect for a young child who only has café-au-lait spots. It ... as these can be signs of malignancy. The child’s learning and cognitive development should be monitored and discussed ...
Describes the transitional nature of child custody decisions in current legal decisions, and the shifting emhasis from parental to child's rights. The legal structure of joint custody is based on the child's right and need for conjoint parental accessibility. (Author)
... hard play at recess, being overly active, and physical education class. Ask the doctor when your child can ... their normal activities. Make sure your child’s teacher, physical education teacher, coaches, and school nurse are aware of ...
... information in Spanish ( en español ) Babysitters and child care Related information Child care provider checklist (PDF, 197 ... proofing Return to top Choosing and using child care Many moms go back to work after having ...
... visit usa.gov What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and promotes children's learning by improving ...
Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include authoritarianism, dogmatism, need for cognition, pretrial knowledge, and race\\/socioeconomic status. Case-specific variables include sexual
Robert J. Cramer; Desiree D. Adams; Stanley L. Brodsky
Although child maltreatment has important effects on physical and psychological health, even serious cases often go unreported. Little is known about actions that individuals take when they know of an abused child, factors influencing whether they take action, or general population beliefs about how best to prevent maltreatment. A random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State civilian, English-speaking adults living
Objective. The purposes of this study were to identify multiple dimensions of maternal protectiveness and to examine their relations with demographic factors, child characteristics, and children's psychological adjustment. Design. One hundred and seven mothers of 8- to 13-year-old children completed questionnaires on child temperament and maternal protectiveness. Teachers completed questionnaires on children's social-emotional adjustment. Results. Three domains of protectiveness were
Designed and maintained by Professor Michael E. Nielsen of the Psychology Department at Georgia Southern University, this site offers numerous resources for people interested in psychological aspects of religious belief and behavior. The site is designed as an introduction to the psychology of religion, rather than a comprehensive treatment. Resources are grouped into three main categories: general resource pages, science and religion pages, and pages devoted to new religious movements. Contents include notable people in the psychology of religion; a bibliography; course syllabi; journal TOCs; essays on the field, on science and religion, and on several aspects of new religious movements; and related links.
The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.
van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.
On recommendation of the Committee on Evaluation, the Education and Training Board with the concurrence of the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association has approved the doctoral training programs in clinical psychology and in counseling psychology\\
After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The terminology of normal and abnormal menstrual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The causes of menstrual dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Consequences of menstrual dysfunction in young women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Health concerns because of menstrual dysfunction.
|Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse,…
Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect for husbands; only neglect predicted lower satisfaction for wives. Increased maltreatment of various
David DiLillo; James Peugh; Kate Walsh; Jillian Panuzio; Emily Trask; Sarah Evans
Anxiety disorders are known to run in families [Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Costello, A. (1987). Psychopathology in the offspring of anxiety disorder patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 229–235] and environmental factors may largely account for the concordance between parental and child anxieties. Cognitive psychology models emphasise the importance of interpretive biases towards threat in
Kathryn J. Lester; Andy P. Field; Samantha Oliver; Sam Cartwright-Hatton
Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review\\u000a 2:71–90, 1999; Sanders, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68:624–640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, Journal of Clinical Child\\u000a and Adolescent Psychology, 35(2):180–193, 2006), to date Stepping Stones has not been evaluated
Koa Whittingham; Kate Sofronoff; Jeanie Sheffield; Matthew R. Sanders
Background and purpose: Child abuse has serious physical and psychosocial consequences which adversely affect the health and overall well-being of a child. However, in a developing country like India there has been no knowledge of the extent, magnitude and trends of the problem. This study reviews the overall scenario of child abuse in India as well as the role of the dentist in recognising and thereby combating this problem. Results: Among health professionals, dentists are probably in the most favourable position to recognise child abuse, with opportunities to observe and assess not only the physical and the psychological condition of the children, but also the family environment. The high frequency of facial injuries associated with physical abuse places the dentist at the forefront of professionals to detect and treat an abused child. Screening for maltreatment should be an integral part of any clinical examination performed on a child. Although many injuries are not caused by abuse, dentists should always be suspicious of traumatic injuries. The dental professional's role in child abuse and neglect is to know the current state law regarding reporting child abuse and to follow the law. Awareness, identification, documentation and notification should be carried out by the dentist. Conclusion: Paediatric dentists can provide valuable information and assistance to physicians about oral and dental aspects of child abuse and neglect. Such efforts will strengthen the ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance care and protection for the children. PMID:23534033
Child victims of sexual abuse face secondary trauma in the crisis of discovery. Their attempts to reconcile their private experiences with the realities of the outer world are assaulted by the disbelief, blame and rejection they experience from adults. The normal coping behavior of the child contradicts the entrenched beliefs and expectations typically held by adults, stigmatizing the child with charges of lying, manipulating or imagining from parents, courts and clinicians. Such abandonment by the very adults most crucial to the child's protection and recovery drives the child deeper into self-blame, self-hate, alienation and revictimization. In contrast, the advocacy of an empathic clinician within a supportive treatment network can provide vital credibility and endorsement for the child. Evaluation of the responses of normal children to sexual assault provides clear evidence that societal definitions of "normal" victim behavior are inappropriate and procrustean, serving adults as mythic insulators against the child's pain. Within this climate of prejudice, the sequential survival options available to the victim further alienate the child from any hope of outside credibility or acceptance. Ironically, the child's inevitable choice of the "wrong" options reinforces and perpetuates the prejudicial myths. The most typical reactions of children are classified in this paper as the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. The syndrome is composed of five categories, of which two define basic childhood vulnerability and three are sequentially contingent on sexual assault: (1) secrecy, (2) helplessness, (3) entrapment and accommodation, (4) delayed, unconvincing disclosure, and (5) retraction. The accommodation syndrome is proposed as a simple and logical model for use by clinicians to improve understanding and acceptance of the child's position in the complex and controversial dynamics of sexual victimization. Application of the syndrome tends to challenge entrenched myths and prejudice, providing credibility and advocacy for the child within the home, the courts, and throughout the treatment process. The paper also provides discussion of the child's coping strategies as analogs for subsequent behavioral and psychological problems, including implications for specific modalities of treatment. PMID:6605796
Using data collected from an urban Southern Visayan province during the Summer of 2006, this study examines a sample of 133 Filipino fathers to consider potential relationships between father behaviors and child outcomes. Increased paternal psychological control predicts increased problematic child outcomes, with sons being more affected than daughters. Furthermore, increased authoritative fathering is associated with decreased externalizing problems of
This paper presents results of a novel study on interaction kinesics where 18 children interacted with a humanoid child-sized robot called KASPAR. Based on findings in psychology and social sciences we propose the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis which predicts that children will adapt to and match the robot's temporal behaviour. Each child took part in six experimental trials involving two
Ben Robins; Kerstin Dautenhahn; Rene Te Boekhorst; Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
|Based on the view that every adopted child will have been exposed to psychological pain as a result of separation or other hurtful experiences, this book examines issues relating to adoption, attachment, and child development. The book offers guidance to adoptive and foster parents on helping their children through separation, loss, and trauma in…
This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…
ObjectiveA single study tested the hypothesis that simulated practice interviews for investigative interviewers of children are more effective when the role of the child respondent is played by trained actors (i.e., postgraduate psychology students) than untrained fellow participants (i.e., child protection workers).
Martine B. Powell; Ronald P. Fisher; Carolyn H. Hughes-Scholes
Conducted interviews with 39 psychologists and psychology students to examine attitudes toward reporting child abuse cases to the authorities. Ss were almost equally divided in their decisions about reporting; the majority considered the child's life the most important, with confidentiality ranked second, and the law ranked third. Those who considered the law the most important issue (31%) chose always to
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is among the most commonly encountered clinical diagnosis in children and adolescents (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [AACAP], 2007). This study aims to improve the efficacy of treatment planning for children exhibiting symptoms of ODD in a day treatment setting by identifying childpsychological factors related to treatment outcome. ^ The current study examines
|This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away…
Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu
|Objective: A single study tested the hypothesis that simulated practice interviews for investigative interviewers of children are more effective when the role of the child respondent is played by trained actors (i.e., postgraduate psychology students) than untrained fellow participants (i.e., child protection workers). Method: The interviewers…
Powell, Martine B.; Fisher, Ronald P.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.
|Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…
Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam
This study investigated whether differences in child care arrangements and mothers' attitudes about leaving their child in nonmaternal care were associated with maternal psychological well-being and perceptions of children in a sample of single, employed, low-income, Black mothers who were former welfare recipients. Feelings of discomfort with regard to nonmaternal care were associated with higher levels of maternal depressive symptomatology,
Objective: The aim was to review the literature on female perpetrated child sexual abuse by highlighting how cultural myths about women inhibit recognition of this much hidden phenomenon.Method: Three sections are presented. Part 1 evaluates evidence concerning beliefs about child sexual abuse by women which minimize the problem. Part 2 provides a theoretical account of psychological processes that are hypothesized
|This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…
Sexual offenders against children are known to be a heterogeneous population with respect to psychological and behavioral characteristics. To subdivide child molesters into homogeneous subgroups, Duthie and McIvor cluster-analyzed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles of nonincarcerated child molesters. They identified eight subgroups of offenders which varied in psychopathology and demographic characteristics. Because their 1990 study was an initial
Child abuse and neglect is a serious social problem with complex causes and tragic results. Because of the suffering and loss of life it incurs, the costs of treating the resulting physical and psychological trauma, and the linkage of child maltreatment t...
E. A. Quinn J. D. Coats P. L. Halpern A. G. Rosario A. R. Scarbrough
Menkes syndrome, also known as kinky-hair disease, is a rare X-linked recessive, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder of impaired copper transport. The disorder typically is characterized by fine, hypopigmented, wiry hair; doughy skin; bone and connective-tissue disturbances; vascular abnormalities that can result in spontaneous hemorrhaging; and progressive neurologic deterioration. These early findings often are easily confused with child abuse. We report a case of a 6-month-old boy with Menkes syndrome whose symptoms originally were thought to be from child abuse. PMID:23259200
Cronin, Hyland; Fussell, Jacqueline Nicole; Pride, Howard; Bellino, Paul
Opportunities are expanding rapidly for health psychologists to work in Australia in a wider range of health-care settings, and on challenging aspects of community disease prevention and public health. Published material in psychological journals in Australia does not suggest that there is a trend towards more health psychology research being reported in this country; however, research reported at conferences, and
|This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…
Suggests that school psychologists and teachers ought to begin teaching school children about psychology, using as an example the author's experiences in teaching psychology to 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. The need for mental health education is also suggested.
|Discusses how psychologists have established themselves as integral health care providers in rehabilitation. Discusses how psychologists and the psychological associations have failed to recognize the importance of public policy for the practice of psychology. Explores the role of Medicare, and the effects of the inclusion of psychologists in…
This book provides a comprehensive review of the branch of sport and exercise science that focuses on the psychological aspects of human behavior. Part I presents a general orientation to the field, including an introduction and description of sport psychology and a discussion of the history and current status of the field. Individual differences…
Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…
The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…
This publication is intended to help make secondary and college students aware of careers in psychology. Approximately one-half of the booklet contains sketches of 16 jobs in psychology emphasizing teaching, research, and public service. For each job sketch there is a general description of the types of work involved and the educational background…
|The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for…
|Describes the experience of teaching psychology at Tartu University and Tallinn Pedagogical University in Estonia. Discusses the lessons learned by teaching in Estonia and applies those lessons to teaching psychology in the United States, focusing on the benefits teachers reap when they become more aware of themselves and their audiences. (CMK)|
In rheumatology practice and applied research, there are numerous psychologic issues that merit special attention, including depression, helplessness, self-efficacy, and coping. A wide variety of measures are available for addressing these issues. The tests themselves must meet the psychometric criteria of reliability and validity. Psychologic tests must be administered under standardized conditions. PMID:7631039
One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…
The practice of psychology in general hospitals has evolved from a few isolated practitioners operating primarily within psychiatry to several thousand psychologists, organized administratively and providing a wide range of services to various hospital departments. This article reviews major developments in the practice of hospital psychology. Four current influences on hospital psychologists are particularly noted: the deinstitutionalization of chronic mental
In this chapter I will try to provide a brief overview of the concepts and techniques that are most widely used in the psychology of memory. Although it may not appear to be the case from sampling the literature, there is in fact a great deal of agreement as to what constitutes the psychology of memory, much of it developed
|In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical…
This article discusses the state of medical psychology in Canada and explores some current controversies and challenges for the future of the field. The practice of psychology in Canadian medical settings is influenced by the country's universal healthcare system and by the need to provide adequate care to a diverse and widely dispersed population. Although Canada's licensing system does not
Community psychology's twin goals of prevention and empowerment are ill-served when researchers and practitioners restrict their activities to traditional mental health settings. This paper echoes the call of the Swampscott conference for expanding community psychology's domain of inquiry and action. It reviews examples from the research literature of efforts at prevention and empowerment in five classes of behavior settings identified
The ‘affective turn’ is a contemporary movement within the humanities, social science, and psychology to investigate affect, emotion, and feeling as hybrid phenomena jointly constituted from both biological and social influences. Health and illness are themselves jointly constituted in this way, and many of the topics, concerns, and methods of health psychology are strongly permeated by affective phenomena. Qualitative research
How have spokespersons for the positive psychology movement presented the movement to the public and to the profession of psychology? Moreover, what are the consequences for psychology of that presentation? These questions inform my assessment of the \\