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Sample records for abnormal child psychology

  1. Coverage of child maltreatment in abnormal psychology textbooks: Reviewing the adequacy of the content.

    PubMed

    Wilgus, Sam J; Packer, Mary M; Lile-King, Rachel; Miller-Perrin, Cindy L; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal psychology courses introduce undergraduate students to the range, causes, and treatments of psychological disorders. These courses present important opportunities to instruct students about disorders and treatments associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) as well as its prevalence. Little research has examined the adequacy with which abnormal psychology textbooks present information about CM. The present study reviewed the CM content of 10 abnormal psychology textbooks. The content was assessed in terms of the number of times CM was mentioned, the number of psychological disorders linked to CM, and the number of CM-related research citations. In addition, the authors conducted a content analysis to examine the significance, depth of detail, and organizational structure of the information provided within the sections of text addressing CM. There were significant differences in scores and the accuracy of coverage of CM across textbooks. Most of the textbooks lack key information on CM. The information presented in many textbooks is not consistent with current research and is overly focused on controversies. These findings are concerning because research has linked many psychological disorders and problematic outcomes to CM, but this information is not adequately conveyed to students via abnormal psychology textbooks. The authors make recommendations for improving the coverage of CM in abnormal psychology textbooks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010115

  2. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  3. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  4. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  5. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  7. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  8. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  9. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  10. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  11. Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeUnes, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)

  12. Students' Evaluation of Writing Assignments in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procidano, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which students in an abnormal psychology class rated the usefulness of drafts for two writing assignments. Reports that a research proposal was more effective than a case study in generating interest in psychology and opportunity for creativity. Concludes that writing assignments should reflect important aspects of a…

  13. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  14. Child abandonment: historical, sociological and psychological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Burnstein, M H

    1981-01-01

    Even thought the act of physical abandonment is a relatively common occurrence, it remains an understudied social phenomena. It has been an act of parents since earliest times, but even in our modern enlightened society, children are still ejected from their homes and physically abandoned in frightening numbers. Even though attention has been directed toward the understanding and combating of the numerous variations of child abuse and neglect, the problem of physical abandonment is rarely discussed until sensationalistic news reports emerge to remind us that children are still left in parks or on street corners. To further understand this phenomena of child abandonment, this paper reviews the literature and examines the process from historical, sociological and psychological perspectives. This report looks to stimulate further interest in physical child abandonment and its precursor, psychological child rejection, as forms of child abuse and neglect which can and should be combated by proper psychiatric intervention. PMID:7249800

  15. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  16. Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…

  17. The Image of Women in Abnormal Psychology: Professionalism versus Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean

    1980-01-01

    A survey of sex stereotyping in photographs was made of major current-edition textbooks of abnormal psychology published in the United States. In photographs of contributors to the field women were significantly underrepresented, amounting to less that 5 percent of the contributors pictured. (Author)

  18. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  19. The Teaching of Abnormal Psychology through the Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim-Sabat, Denis

    1979-01-01

    Describes abnormal psychology course centered around films which include "King of Hearts,""A Woman Under the Influence,""David and Lisa,""In Cold Blood," and "The Boys in the Band." Each film deals with a fundamental concept such as psychopathology, neurosis, psychosis, insanity, and sexuality. (KC)

  20. Use of Drama Students as "Clients" in Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1982-01-01

    Describes the use of drama students to role play subjects of case studies in simulations of standard interviews in a college-level abnormal psychology class. Graduate drama students role-played clients in interviews with instructors or student panels. After the interviews, class discussion covered alternative possible diagnoses and possible…

  1. Altering Attitudes toward Suicide in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, George

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a report stemming from the development and application of a Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ)--a 100 item attitudinal and factual instrument designed to cover a wide range of suicidal concerns. Subjects of the study were 17 college students drawn at random from 89 students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Results…

  2. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgin, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  3. Practice Forum: Self Psychology in Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmeier, John; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1991-01-01

    The use of self-psychology, a theory first developed by Heinz Kohut, is discussed and illustrated with case examples from child welfare practice. The cases demonstrate that self-psychology can enhance an ecological model. The ways in which self-psychology can enrich the social worker's therapeutic role in permanency planning are emphasized.…

  4. Psychological profile of pedophiles and child molesters.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    2000-03-01

    Pedophiles and child molesters share some characteristics. Most are male, and they can be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual. Some prefer adult sex partners but choose children because they are available and vulnerable. The sexual abuse perpetrated may be a 1-time incident and may consist only of fondling. Penetration is unlikely with young children. Perpetrators' ages range from teens to midlife. Most victims are girls, and the perpetrator usually is a relative, friend, or neighbor. The home of the victim is often the setting for the incident. When boys are victims, sexual abuse may take place outside the home, and perpetrators may be strangers. Perpetrators of sexual abuse of children often claim that they themselves were victims of childhood sexual abuse. Psychological profiles are helpful but are compromised partly because many perpetrators are prisoners and control groups are lacking for this research. PMID:10766112

  5. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  7. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  8. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  9. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  10. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  11. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  12. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  13. [Psychological repercussions of parental divorce on child].

    PubMed

    Vangyseghem, S; Appelboom, J

    2004-10-01

    The parental divorce is an experience with traumatic risk for child. The child's adaptation depends on many factors : his age, his personality and his parent's one, his life context. Those aspects are developed. As the parental separation moves forward, the symptoms that appear in the child are essentially linked to anxiety and feeling of loss. None of these is specific to the parental separation and are, most of the time, temporary. Divorce has to be considered as a factor of vulnerability rather than one precise etiology. The conflicts' persistence between parents seems to be the factor the most important in the worst influence for child's adaptation. PMID:15584645

  14. The Clinician's "World of Action" as an Approach to Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibace, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description of an undergraduate abnormal psychology course developed from a theory of instruction and active student participation, the theoretical basis for the course, student course evaluation, and an interpretation of the students' performances. (Author/CK)

  15. Student Expectations of Course Content Affect Faculty Evaluations in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Frances A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring how student expectations of an abnormal psychology course affect their rating of professors. Findings showed a significant impact, especially in relation to popularized topics. Recommends evaluative instruments separating course-related factors from instructor ratings. (CK)

  16. Use of Virtual Reality Technology to Enhance Undergraduate Learning in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…

  17. Use of Virtual Reality Technology to Enhance Undergraduate Learning in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…

  18. Capturing Students' Attention: Movie Clips Set the Stage for Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badura, Amy S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a study that evaluated using popular movie clips, shown in the first class meeting of an abnormal psychology course, in relation to student enthusiasm. Compares two classes of female juniors, one using clips and one class not using them. States that the films portrayed psychological disorders. (CMK)

  19. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  20. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  1. Helping Parents Understand the Findings of Their Child's Psychological Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Jack

    Although the role of a child psychologist has been defined in different ways, a typical pediatric psychologist spends a large amount of time with extensive diagnostic testing, because the psychological report is the ultimate product of the assessment procedure. It is important to determine how those receiving the information from the report view…

  2. Measurement of Emotional/Psychological Child Maltreatment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Draca, Jasminka; Crain, Jennifer; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emotional/psychological child maltreatment (ECM) is a major public health problem with serious consequences including emotional and behavioral problems. Nevertheless, ECM is an understudied area. Objectives: The aims of this review are to identify measures of ECM and to evaluate their psychometric properties and utilities. We provide a…

  3. Helping Parents Understand the Findings of Their Child's Psychological Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Jack

    Although the role of a child psychologist has been defined in different ways, a typical pediatric psychologist spends a large amount of time with extensive diagnostic testing, because the psychological report is the ultimate product of the assessment procedure. It is important to determine how those receiving the information from the report view…

  4. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Anne D., Ed.

    This book is a collection of six papers presented at a 1974 University of Minnesota symposium on child development. The six chapters deal with language acquisition, visual perception, effects of television viewing, the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), problem-solving strategies, and Piagetian concepts related to social development. The first…

  5. CHILD syndrome: analysis of abnormal keratinization and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Topper, S; Sharata, H; Edwards, M

    1995-06-01

    A new patient with CHILD syndrome (congenital hemidysplasia, ichthyosiform erythroderma, and limb defects), the thirtieth in the literature, was observed for over three years. Initially, the right-sided lesion spared the breast area. At 10 months of age the trunk lesion extended to cover the entire area of the right chest. At age 20 months the patient developed linear, bandlike, keratotic, brown-black lesions on her left thigh that subsided within six weeks, leaving a slight hyperpigmentation. This patient was studied by routine histologic methods as well as with markers of keratinization and electron microscopy. In hematoxylin and eosinstained sections, parakeratosis and orthokeratosis alternated. In some parakeratotic areas, large granular cells, and in others, ghost granular cells, were present. The latter showed basophilic cytoplasm, and palestaining or vacuolated nucleus and were seen either above the normal granular layer or without it. Although regional variations existed, basal cell-type keratins as recognized by AE1 continued to be expressed in suprabasal layers. Filaggrin- and involucrin-positive layers were expanded, particularly the latter, down to the lower prickle cell layer. Ultrastructurally, numerous lamellar or membranous structures were found in upper layers of the epidermis, both intracellulary and intercellularly. Normal cementsomes coexisted with these abnormal lamellar structures, and it was thought that the latter represent modified cementsomes because the discharge of those from the cell periphery was often detected. PMID:7544893

  6. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  7. Beyond the Sponge Model: Encouraging Students' Questioning Skills in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Stuart M.; Ali, Rahan; Gebing, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that educators should provide students with explicit training in asking critical questions. Describes a training strategy taught in abnormal psychology courses at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). Based on a pre- and post-test, results support the promise of using explicit questioning training in promoting the evaluative aspects of…

  8. Beyond the Sponge Model: Encouraging Students' Questioning Skills in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Stuart M.; Ali, Rahan; Gebing, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that educators should provide students with explicit training in asking critical questions. Describes a training strategy taught in abnormal psychology courses at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). Based on a pre- and post-test, results support the promise of using explicit questioning training in promoting the evaluative aspects of…

  9. Written Assignments for Abnormal Psychology at Howard Community College, Fall 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James

    Designed for students enrolled in an Abnormal Psychology course at Howard Community College (Maryland), this booklet explains the requirements for the course's writing assignments, which are designed to teach the skills of comparison and contrast, analysis, critical thinking, and synthesis. Following an overview of class assignments and…

  10. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  11. A Volunteer Program for Abnormal Psychology Students: Eighteen Years and Still Going Strong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scogin, Forrest; Rickard, Henry C.

    1987-01-01

    A volunteer experience in abnormal psychology is described. The program has been operating for 18 years, and student reactions have been quite positive. The program augments the traditional course offerings and provides reciprocal service for the University of Alabama and mental health facilities. Guidelines for implementing a volunteer program…

  12. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  13. Family, Friends, and Self: The Real-Life Context of an Abnormal Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of students in two sections of an abnormal psychology course. Assessed the number of students who had firsthand exposure to a psychiatric disorder (friend, family member, or themselves), the nature of the relationship, the average number of personal relationships with people with psychiatric disorders, and the…

  14. The experience of the child witness: Legal and psychological issues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The increasing presence of child witnesses in the courtroom has brought with it a host of challenges and dilemmas. Related concerns include whether children may be deemed incompetent solely because of their age, whether their testimony is reliable and accurate in light of their allegedly suggestible nature, and whether the experience of testifying may re-traumatize witnesses who are also victims. A growing body of multidisciplinary research continues to address the legal and clinical implications of permitting children to testify in open court. Numerous guidelines have been promulgated that contain recommendations for protecting children's best interests as they journey through the criminal justice system. Related courtroom procedures vary greatly among American jurisdictions, and innovations in other countries--for example, the United Kingdom's Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act of 1999, and similar legislation in Israel and in Norway--have introduced a range of alternative measures that can be employed with young witnesses, depending primarily on whether the child witness is ultimately deemed either "vulnerable" or "intimidated." This article incorporates legal and psychological studies--from geographically diverse perspectives--that focus upon the courtroom experiences of child witnesses in criminal proceedings, including determinations of testimonial capacity and other matters unique to this population. PMID:26343312

  15. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  16. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  17. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent–child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. Methods/Design The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child–parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. Discussion The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so as to serve as a reference for improving the quality of information during the waiting period, and the quality of support provided for parents and children by the healthcare team before the first surgical intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00993993. PMID:22682069

  18. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  19. Cardiac conduction abnormalities and congenital immunodeficiency in a child with Kabuki syndrome: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maulik; Bogucki, Brian; Mavers, Melissa; deMello, Daphne E; Knutsen, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Background Since it's recognition in 1981, a more complete phenotype of Kabuki syndrome is becoming evident as additional cases are identified. Congenital heart defects and a number of visceral abnormalities have been added to the typical dysmorphic features originally described. Case Report In this report we describe the clinical course of a child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome based on characteristic clinical, radiological and morphologic features who died of a cardiac arrhythmia at 11-months of age. This infant, however, had abnormal pulmonary architecture and alterations in his cardiac conduction system resulting in episodes of bradycardia and asystole. This child also had an immunological phenotype consistent with common variable immunodeficiency. His clinical course consisted of numerous hospitalizations for recurrent bacterial infections and congenital hypogammaglobulinemia characterized by low serum IgG and IgA but normal IgM levels, and decreased antibody levels to immunizations. T-, B- and NK lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell function studies were normal. Conclusion This child may represent a more severe phenotype of Kabuki syndrome. Recurrent infections in a child should prompt a thorough immunological evaluation. Additionally, electrophysiology testing may be indicated if cardiopulmonary events occur which are not explained by anatomic defects. PMID:16042804

  20. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  1. Psychological Distress, Social Withdrawal, and Coping Following Receipt of an Abnormal Mammogram Among Different Ethnicities: A Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Yamile; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Espinoza, Noah; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore ethnic differences in psychological distress and social withdrawal after receiving an abnormal mammogram result and to assess if coping strategies mediate ethnic differences. Design Descriptive correlational. Setting Two urban mobile mammography units and a rural community hospital in the state of Washington. Sample 41 Latina and 41 non-Latina Caucasian (NLC) women who had received an abnormal mammogram result. Methods Women completed standard sociodemographic questions, Impact of Event Scale–Revised, the social dimension of the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire, and the Brief COPE. Main Research Variables Ethnicity, psychological distress, social withdrawal, and coping. Findings Latinas experienced greater psychological distress and social withdrawal compared to NLC counterparts. Denial as a coping strategy mediated ethnic differences in psychological distress. Religious coping mediated ethnic differences in social withdrawal. Conclusions Larger population-based studies are necessary to understand how ethnic differences in coping strategies can influence psychological outcomes. This is an important finding that warrants additional study among women who are and are not diagnosed with breast cancer following an abnormal mammogram. Implications for Nursing Nurses may be able to work with Latina patients to diminish denial coping and consequent distress. Nurses may be particularly effective, given cultural values concerning strong interpersonal relationships and respect for authority figures. PMID:25158657

  2. Psychological Effects on the Family of a Mentally Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    The paper discusses the birth of a mentally retarded infant in terms of initial parent reactions, adjustment, decision to institutionalize, psychological effect on the mother, psychological effect on the father, impact on the marriage, and impact on siblings. The birth is a traumatic experience for the parents and can result in initial feelings of…

  3. Musical Education and Egyptian Child's Psychological and Social Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenawy, Hoda Mohammed

    The role played by music in Egyptian education in developing the character of the child is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the characteristics of the elementary school child and examines how each can be developed through musical education. For example, young children have a fertile imagination that can be stimulated by music.…

  4. Is psychiatry only neurology? Or only abnormal psychology? Déjà vu after 100 years.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Forgetting history, which frequently repeats itself, is a mistake. In General Psychopathology, Jaspers criticised early 20th century psychiatrists, including those who thought psychiatry was only neurology (Wernicke) or only abnormal psychology (Freud), or who did not see the limitations of the medical model in psychiatry (Kraepelin). Jaspers proposed that some psychiatric disorders follow the medical model (Group I), while others are variations of normality (Group III), or comprise schizophrenia and severe mood disorders (Group II). In the early 21st century, the players' names have changed but the game remains the same. The US NIMH is reprising both Wernicke's brain mythology and Kraepelin's marketing promises. The neo-Kraepelinian revolution started at Washington University, became pre-eminent through the DSM-III developed by Spitzer, but reached a dead end with the DSM-5. McHugh, who described four perspectives in psychiatry, is the leading contemporary representative of the Jaspersian diagnostic approach. Other neo-Jaspersians are: Berrios, Wiggins and Schwartz, Ghaemi, Stanghellini, Parnas and Sass. Can psychiatry learn from its mistakes? The current psychiatric language, organised at its three levels, symptoms, syndromes, and disorders, was developed in the 19th century but is obsolete for the 21st century. Scientific advances in Jaspers' Group III disorders require collaborating with researchers in the social and psychological sciences. Jaspers' Group II disorders, redefined by the author as schizophrenia, catatonic syndromes, and severe mood disorders, are the core of psychiatry. Scientific advancement in them is not easy because we are not sure how to delineate between and within them correctly. PMID:25849592

  5. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  6. Glucocorticoid blockade reverses psychological stress-induced abnormalities in epidermal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eung-Ho; Demerjian, Marianne; Crumrine, Debra; Brown, Barbara E; Mauro, Theodora; Elias, Peter M; Feingold, Kenneth R

    2006-12-01

    Many cutaneous disorders are adversely affected by psychological stress (PS), but the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that PS decreases epidermal proliferation and differentiation, impairs permeability barrier homeostasis, and decreases stratum corneum integrity. PS also increases the production of endogenous glucocorticoids (GC), and both systemic and topical GC cause adverse effects on epidermal structure and function similar to those observed with PS. We therefore hypothesized that increased endogenous GC in PS mediates its adverse cutaneous effects. To test this hypothesis, we used two independent approaches, administering either RU-486, a GC receptor antagonist that inhibits GC action, or antalarmin, a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist that prevents increased GC production in the face of PS. Inhibition of either GC action or production prevents the PS-induced decline in epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation, impairment in permeability barrier homeostasis, and decrease in stratum corneum (SC) integrity. Moreover, the pathophysiological basis for the abnormality in permeability barrier homeostasis; i.e., decreased lamellar body production and secretion, is restored toward normal by inhibition of GC action. Similarly, the mechanistic basis for the decrease in SC integrity, i.e., a reduction in corneodesmosomes, is also normalized by inhibition of GC action. Thus many of the adverse effects of PS on epidermal structure and function can be attributed to increased endogenous GC and conversely, approaches that either reduce GC production or action might benefit cutaneous disorders that are provoked or exacerbated by PS. PMID:16857896

  7. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in ring chromosome 5: report of a child with congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2012-02-01

    We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed. PMID:22193390

  8. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  9. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Positive Resources among Palestinian Adolescents: Trauma, Child, and Mothering Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Montgomery, Edith; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine how traumatic and stressful events, responses to violence, child characteristics, and mothering quality, as measured in middle childhood predict psychological distress and positive resources in adolescence. Method: The participants were 65 Palestinian adolescents (17 [plus or minus] 0.85 years; 52% girls), who had…

  10. Hearing Children's Voices: True Empathy in Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Olivia K.

    2013-01-01

    Olivia Lima writes in this article that because she is not trained as a therapist or counselor, but rather as a researcher in cognitive development, she cannot speak to the clinical role of empathy. However she does consider empathy central to her work teaching Child Psychology. Keeping that in mind, she begins her first class by telling the…

  11. Giving Children Security: Mamie Phipps Clark and the Racialization of Child Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Shafali

    2002-01-01

    Examines the individual and social contexts of the life of Mamie Clark (wife of African American psychologist Kenneth Clark), whose work at the Harlem Northside Center for Child Development helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. Urges greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in history of…

  12. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  13. Roots and Wings: How Attachment and Temperament Shape Development. Revolutionary Studies in Child Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Summaries of four studies in child psychology reveal that children's attachment to caregivers depends on physical contact more than food; secure attachment to loving caregivers provides a base from which children explore and learn; children's separation behaviors reveal much about their attachment relationship; and children are born with traits…

  14. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Positive Resources among Palestinian Adolescents: Trauma, Child, and Mothering Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qouta, Samir; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Montgomery, Edith; El Sarraj, Eyad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine how traumatic and stressful events, responses to violence, child characteristics, and mothering quality, as measured in middle childhood predict psychological distress and positive resources in adolescence. Method: The participants were 65 Palestinian adolescents (17 [plus or minus] 0.85 years; 52% girls), who had…

  15. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  16. Finding Genes in Child Psychology and Psychiatry: When Are We Going to Be There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: The seven papers in this special section chart where we are in the quest for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in key areas of child psychology and psychiatry such as reading and hyperactivity. But we are not there yet. Methods: This commentary considers some new developments that are likely to accelerate the journey towards the…

  17. Hearing Children's Voices: True Empathy in Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Olivia K.

    2013-01-01

    Olivia Lima writes in this article that because she is not trained as a therapist or counselor, but rather as a researcher in cognitive development, she cannot speak to the clinical role of empathy. However she does consider empathy central to her work teaching Child Psychology. Keeping that in mind, she begins her first class by telling the…

  18. The Normalised Child: A Non-Traditional Psychological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    The terms "normalisation" and "normalised child" were introduced into early childhood scholarship by Maria Montessori, whose ideas regarding norm and deviation in children's development and behaviour have been discussed, debated and sometimes criticised, but remain magnetic and recognised worldwide. Contemporary Western society is witnessing a…

  19. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology. PMID:25440718

  20. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    PubMed

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood. PMID:25807688

  1. THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINSON, HALBERT B.; ROBINSON, NANCY M.

    PRESENTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MENTAL RETARDATION, THIS TEXT BEGINS WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. A SECTION ON ETIOLOGY AND SYNDROMES PRESENTS INFORMATION ON GENETIC FACTORS AND GENETIC SYNDROMES AND THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  2. Practitioner Review: Maternal mood in pregnancy and child development: implications for child psychology and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. Method In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Findings Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Conclusions Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. PMID:24127722

  3. Editorial: Looking beyond the horizon - innovation in child psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pasco Fearon, R M

    2016-03-01

    As readers will no doubt be well aware, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry dedicates an entire issue, once a year, to state-of-the-art authoritative reviews of research on some of the central issues in our field.(1) I like to think that in doing so we have been quietly undertaking a giant Pavlovian conditioning experiment: every year, as the spring flowers start to blossom (in the northern hemisphere at least), the nucleus accumbens of child psychologists and psychiatrists around the world begin to glow in anticipation of intellectual reward. PMID:26889890

  4. [Team supervision in pediatric day care facilities. Experiences with special psychologic child rearing technique].

    PubMed

    Knoke, H

    1993-03-01

    This article reports about experiences made with team supervision in child care centers. Some thoughts about socio-political and relationship-psychological conditions for the work pedagogues are first described. These are followed by observations and findings from the supervision groups, referring to implicit occupational norms of the pedagogues and their partially unreflected helping impulses. The experiences made are encouraging regarding continuing and intensifying the supervision work. PMID:8506214

  5. Relationship of prenatal cocaine exposure and maternal postpartum psychological distress to child developmental outcome

    PubMed Central

    SINGER, LYNN; ARENDT, ROBERT; FARKAS, KATHLEEN; MINNES, SONIA; HUANG, JIE; YAMASHITA, TOYOKO

    2014-01-01

    Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine’s influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant exposure to alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco was allowed to vary. Infants were 99% African American and poor. All mothers completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and infants were given the Bayley Scales of Mental (MDI) and Motor (PDI) Development at a mean corrected age of 17 ± 8 months. Both MDIs (94 ± 17 vs. 103 ± 16) and PDIs (101 ± 16 vs. 108 ± 12) were lower for cocaine exposed infants. Psychological distress was greater in cocaine using mothers. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relative effects of gestational age, maternal psychological distress, and cocaine and polydrug exposure on infant outcomes. Both psychological distress and cocaine and alcohol exposure predicted lower MDIs after controlling for prematurity. Neither psychological distress nor alcohol exposure predicted motor outcome, while cocaine had a significant effect. Tobacco and marijuana exposure were unrelated to outcome. These findings provide further support for direct effects of cocaine and alcohol on infant development, as well as highlight the need for studies to document maternal psychological factors, which may increase child risk for poorer outcomes. PMID:9327234

  6. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. PMID:26686656

  7. Creating the Multiple Personality: An Experiential Demonstration for an Undergraduate Abnormal Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a classroom role-playing exercise in which students and teacher re-enact interviewing techniques that cause subjects to assume characteristics of the multiple personality. Demonstrates the social psychological aspects of multiple personality disorder. Considers the pedagogical and ethical implications of creating the multiple personality…

  8. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology. PMID:26391339

  9. Mother-child reminiscing about everyday experiences: implications for psychological interventions in the preschool years.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Penny; Salmon, Karen

    2006-09-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for all aspects of child development, and any disruption to cognitive or socio-emotional functioning at this stage has potential repercussions for current and future functioning. There is, therefore, a need for clinical interventions that optimize the functioning of children at risk of psychological disorders. In the current paper, we review research showing that the way in which parents discuss everyday experiences with their young children has significant implications for the children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. Specifically, mothers who engage their child in a rich elaborative style of talking about past experiences have children who also develop an elaborative style of remembering and reporting personal experiences. Evidence suggests that elaborative reminiscing can benefit children's social and self understanding, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and language and emergent literacy. Moreover, findings show that elements of the elaborative style can be identified and taught to parents. We propose that elaborative parent-child discussion about the past could form the basis of developmentally sensitive intervention during the preschool period. PMID:16815615

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution, Maternal Psychological Distress, and Child Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia; Zhou, Hui; Stigter, Laura; Camann, David; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants generated by combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material. Both prenatal PAH exposure and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy have each been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in children. The goal was to evaluate potential interactions between prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy on subsequent behavioral problems in children. METHODS: In a longitudinal birth cohort study, 248 children of nonsmoking white women in the coal-burning region of Krakow, Poland, were followed from in utero until age 9. Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, maternal demoralization during pregnancy by the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Instrument–Demoralization, and child behavior by the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Significant interactions between maternal demoralization and PAH exposure (high versus low) were identified for symptoms of anxious/depressed, withdrawn/depressed, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The effects of demoralization on syndromes of anxious/depressed, withdrawn/depressed, rule-breaking, aggressive behavior, and the composite internalizing and externalizing scores were seen only in conjunction with high PAH exposure. Fewer significant effects with weaker effect sizes were observed in the low-PAH-exposure group. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal demoralization during pregnancy appears to have a greater effect on child neurobehavioral development among children who experienced high prenatal PAH exposure. The results provide the first evidence of an interaction between prenatal exposure to maternal demoralization and air pollution on child neurobehavioral development, indicating the need for a multifaceted approach to the prevention of developmental problems in children. PMID:24101766

  11. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers After Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a child’s safety during the hurricanes was a significant predictor of heightened postdisaster psychological distress and posttraumatic stress, even after controlling for demographic variables, predisaster psychological distress, evacuation timing, and bereavement. From interviews with a subset of the participants (n = 57), we found that mothers consistently put their own needs behind those of their children. The authors recommend policies that promptly reunite mothers with missing children and support lower-income mothers in caring for their children during natural disasters and the aftermath. PMID:22383861

  12. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  13. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  14. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  15. Burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and stress: a survey of Canadian hospital based child protection professionals

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, S; Plint, A; Clifford, T

    2005-01-01

    Aims: (1) To measure the prevalence of burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, job stress, and consideration of alternate work among multidisciplinary hospital based child and youth protection (CYP) professionals; (2) to understand the relations between these variables; and (3) to understand the reasons for leaving among former programme members. Methods: Mailed survey of current and former members of all Canadian academic hospital based CYP programmes. Surveys for current members contained validated measures of burnout, psychological morbidity, job satisfaction/stress, and questions about consideration of alternate work. Surveys for former members examined motivation(s) for leaving. Results: One hundred and twenty six of 165 current members (76.4%) and 13/14 (92.9%) former members responded. Over one third (34.1%) of respondents exhibited burnout while psychological morbidity was present in 13.5%. Job satisfaction was high, with 68.8% finding their job "extremely" or "quite" satisfying, whereas 26.2% found their job "extremely" or "quite" stressful. Psychological morbidity, job satisfaction, and job stress were not associated with any of the demographic variables measured, but burnout was most prevalent among non-physician programme members. Almost two thirds of current members indicated that they had seriously considered a change in work situation. Former members indicated that burnout and high levels of job stress were most responsible for their decision to leave and that increasing the number of programme staff and, consequently, reducing the number of hours worked would have influenced their decision to stay. Conclusions: Current levels of burnout and the large proportion of individuals who have contemplated leaving the service suggest a potential crisis in Canadian hospital based CYP services. PMID:16243862

  16. Child Rights as a Framework for Advancing Professional Standards for Practice, Ethics, and Professional Development in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Naser, Shereen

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child was designed to promote and protect the survival, development, and well-being of children, thus extending human rights to individuals from birth to age 18. This article examines the consistency of the Articles of the Convention with the professional standards for school psychology, as…

  17. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  18. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  19. Psychological Distress, Service Utilization, and Prescribed Medications among Youth with and without Histories of Involvement with Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…

  1. Child Rights as a Framework for Advancing Professional Standards for Practice, Ethics, and Professional Development in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Naser, Shereen

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child was designed to promote and protect the survival, development, and well-being of children, thus extending human rights to individuals from birth to age 18. This article examines the consistency of the Articles of the Convention with the professional standards for school psychology, as…

  2. Psychological Distress, Service Utilization, and Prescribed Medications among Youth with and without Histories of Involvement with Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…

  3. Multisystemic therapy for child non-externalizing psychological and health problems: a preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Pane, Heather T; White, Rachel S; Nadorff, Michael R; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-03-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors, specifically difficulties related to child maltreatment, serious psychiatric illness [Serious psychiatric illness was defined throughout the current review paper as the "presence of symptoms of suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, psychosis, or threat of harm to self or others due to mental illness severe enough to warrant psychiatric hospitalization based on the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC, 1996) level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness" (Henggeler et al. in J Am Acad Child Psy 38:1331-1345, p. 1332, 1999b). Additionally, youth with "serious emotional disturbance (SED)" defined as internalizing and/or externalizing problems severe enough to qualify for mental health services in public school who were "currently in or at imminent risk of a costly out-of-home placement" (Rowland et al. in J Emot Behav Disord 13:13-23, pp. 13-14, 2005) were also included in the serious psychiatric illness category.], and health problems (i.e., obesity and treatment adherence for diabetes). PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases; Clinicaltrials.gov; DARE; Web of Knowledge; and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched; and MST developers were queried to ensure identification of all relevant articles. Of 242 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria for review. These were combined in a narrative synthesis and critiqued in the context of review questions. Study quality ratings were all above mean scores reported in prior reviews. Mixed support was found for the efficacy of MST versus other treatments. In many cases, treatment effects for MST or comparison groups were not sustained over time. MST was efficacious for youth with diverse backgrounds. No studies discussed efficacy of MST provided in different treatment settings. Four studies found MST more cost-effective than a comparison treatment, leading to fewer out-of-home placements for youth with serious psychiatric illness or lower treatment costs for youth with poorly controlled diabetes. PMID:23385370

  4. Periventricular nodular heterotopia, frontonasal encephalocele, corpus callosal dysgenesis and arachnoid cyst: A constellation of abnormalities in a child with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Prasad; Chattopadhyay, Arijit; Saha, Manash

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old male child presented with poorly controlled generalized tonic-clonic seizures. On examination, he was mentally retarded, deaf and had a swelling at the root on the nose. Computed tomography scan done previously revealed a left temporal arachnoid cyst (AC) due to which he was referred for surgery. However, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a constellation of abnormalities – all of which could be responsible for his seizures. The combination of periventricular nodular heterotopias with encepaholcele is rarely described in the literature, and more infrequently so its combination with AC and callosal dysgenesis – the Chudley-Mccullough syndrome. We describe the case and review relevant literature on this subject. PMID:25624936

  5. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (?= ?0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

  6. Ear for recovery: protocol for a prospective study on parent–child communication and psychological recovery after paediatric injury

    PubMed Central

    Alisic, Eva; Barrett, Anna; Bowles, Peter; Babl, Franz E; Conroy, Rowena; McClure, Roderick J; Anderson, Vicki; Mehl, Matthias R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One in six children who have been admitted to hospital with an injury develop persistent stress symptoms that put their development at risk. Parents play a crucial role in children's psychological recovery, however, it is unknown how specific parenting behaviours can help or hinder. We aim to describe the nature and quantity of parent–child communication after a child has been injured, and to examine how these interactions are related to children's psychological recovery. Methods and analysis We are conducting a prospective observational study among children aged 3–16 years, who have been admitted to a tertiary children's hospital with a serious injury. Data collection involves a naturalistic observation of spontaneous, everyday parent–child communication at home, shortly after discharge, and an assessment of children's psychological recovery at 6 weeks and 3 months post-injury. Main analyses comprise descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and analyses of variance. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (33103) and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF13/2515—2013001322). We aim to disseminate the findings through international peer-reviewed journals, international conferences and social media. Participants will be sent a summary of the overall study findings. PMID:25652805

  7. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    SciTech Connect

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G.; Johnson, V.P.

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  9. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  10. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  11. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK,…

  12. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK,…

  13. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  14. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  15. Informal Child Care and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years) with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable) at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care. Results Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.26 to -0.14). Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Conclusion In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. PMID:25781484

  16. Psychology and Education of the Learning Disabled Child in the Soviet Union. Research Report No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    The author surveys the status in the USSR of educational programing and psychological research with learning disabled children who are classified as temporarily retarded in psychological development (TRPD). Education and psychology in the USSR are said to be marked by the following major characteristics: a strong emphasis on the importance of…

  17. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  18. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  19. The Effectiveness of Psychological Treatment for Reducing Recidivism in Child Molesters: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jamie S; Chou, Shihning

    2015-10-01

    In this systematic review, the effectiveness of psychological treatment interventions for child molesters was examined. Studies were restricted to randomized control trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and cohort designs where recidivism had been used as the outcome variable. ASSIA, NCJRS, Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Pro-requests Dissertations and Theses A&I, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Ten experts were contacted and the reference lists of 12 systematic reviews and 40 primary studies were observed. The number of hits was 3,019, of which 564 duplicates, 2,388 irrelevant references, and 38 that did not meet the inclusion criteria were removed. Fourteen studies using mixed samples had to be omitted because it was not possible to determine the recidivism rates of child molesters in the samples described. One RCT and 9 cohort studies were included in the data synthesis, providing 2,119 participants. In all, 52.1% received the intervention under investigation and 47.9% did not. The reported recidivism rates were 13.9% for the treated child molesters compared to 18.6% for the untreated child molesters. Three studies reported statistically significant lower recidivism rates for treated child molesters. Eight studies were assessed as weak. Four studies were assessed as having bias which increased the chance of finding a treatment effect and four studies were assessed as having bias which reduced the chance of finding a treatment effect. It was not possible to determine the direction of bias for two studies. PMID:24973229

  20. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  1. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent–Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  2. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  3. The Psychological Effects of Hospitalization for the Child and Family -- Implications for the School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouser, Kenia

    The author views hospitalization of the child as a time of potential crisis for the child and family and as an area where the school can play a significant role in minimizing potential disruption. Topics covered include historical trends in hospital treatment of children, the concept of crisis intervention, parents' reactions to their children's…

  4. Parent and Child Psychological Factors in Pediatric Syncope and Other Somatic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Morris, Julie A. B.; Cheng, Patricia S.; Campbell, Robert M.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined associations among parental and child adjustment, child syncope, somatic, and school problems. Participants were children (N = 56) ages 7-18 years with syncope. Measures included syncope severity, parental distress, and children's internalizing symptoms. For children diagnosed negative for neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), their…

  5. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  6. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  7. Maternal Psychological Functioning, Family Processes, and Child Adjustment in Rural, Single-Parent, African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1997-01-01

    Tested a model linking family financial resources to adjustment among African American 6- to 9-year olds with single, rural, Southern mothers. Found that inadequate financial resources related to mothers' depression and low self-esteem. Self-esteem was linked with family routines and mother-child relationship quality. Child self-regulation…

  8. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Gabrielsen, Kristen R.; Budden, Sarojini S.; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3–5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  9. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Gabrielsen, Kristen R; Budden, Sarojini S; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3-5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  10. Influence of biological, social and psychological factors on abnormal eating attitudes among female university students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Larrissa Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco Assis Guedes; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6-12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7-25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

  11. Influence of Biological, Social and Psychological Factors on Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Female University Students in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

  12. [Pastoral psychology--Freud's forgotten child? The reception of psychoanalysis in pastoral care and counseling].

    PubMed

    Noth, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Psychoanalysis played a decisive role in the conception and early development of pastoral psychology and continues to exercise a formative influence on this practical theological discipline. This makes it all the more astonishing that psychoanalysis takes no notice of pastoral psychology. The author broadly sketches significant stages of the reception of psychoanalysis in pastoral care and counseling, highlighting in particular the historical importance of Oskar Pfister and, half a century later, Joachim Scharfenberg. PMID:21560375

  13. [Psychological expert assessment as an intervention in child custody conflicts during divorce].

    PubMed

    Scheuerer-Englisch, H; Suess, G J; Schwabe-Höllein, M

    1994-12-01

    How to deal appropriately with families affected by divorce has also been discussed among psychological experts for years. In this article the psychological expert opinion in a divorce is described as a possibility of intervention in a current separation conflict. Based upon a process oriented and systemic point of view the corresponding main principles and approaches are described which are essential for the task of forming an expert opinion in such a conflict. PMID:7870710

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. The Impacts of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome Severity and Surgery Intervention on Psychological and Behavioral Abnormalities and Postoperative Recovery in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Haifei; Teng, Yaoshu; Yu, Daojun; Zhang, Haisheng; Shen, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of impact of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) severity on pediatric psychological and behavioral abnormalities. Material/Methods Fifty-one children aged 5–12 years with a confirmed diagnosis of OSAHS were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of OSAHS. They underwent bilateral tonsillectomy plus adenoidectomy or adenoidectomy alone. Repeated polysomnography and integrated visual and auditory continuous performance testing (IVA-CPT) was performed to assess full-scale response control quotient (FRCQ), full-scale attention quotient (FAQ), and hyperactivity (HYP) before surgery and 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results Mean FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP significantly improved over time in the 3 groups (FRCQ, F=292.05; FAQ, F=258.27; HYP, F=295.10, all P<0.001). FRCQ and HYP were not significantly different among the groups at the 3 time points. FAQ was significantly different among the groups (F=3.89, P<0.05). For FRCQ, FAQ, and HYP, there was no interaction between time and disease severity. Within groups, the effect of time on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and lowest oxygen saturation (LaSO2) were significant for each group and they were significantly different among the 3 groups at each time point (all P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that OSAHS may have a significant impact on self-control, attention, and hyperactivity in children, which is gradually alleviated after surgery. Disease severity was not closely related to preoperative mental and psychological function or postoperative recovery. Thus, we find it difficult to determine the impact degree of OSAHS severity on mental and psychological function or predict postoperative recovery by using OSAHS severity alone in children. PMID:25141885

  16. The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

  17. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children: A Handbook for Child Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilmes, Jenna; Welker, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Promote the mental health of preschool children in care by providing nurturing environments and relationships. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children is an easy-to-use guide that will help providers recognize and cope with the symptoms and behaviors associated with ADHD, autism, anxiety, and other disorders providers may face. Learn to…

  18. Young Children's Psychological Selves: Convergence with Maternal Reports of Child Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Agathen, Jean M.; Ho, Moon-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The present research examined five-year-old children's psychological self-concepts. Non-linear factor analysis was used to model the latent structure of the children's self-view questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), a measure of children's self-concepts. The coherence and reliability of the emerging factor structure indicated that young children are…

  19. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  20. The Child at School: Interactions with Peers and Teachers. Texts in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Blatchford, Peter

    Noting that school provides one of the most important arenas for interactive processes that are crucial to children's healthy social development, this book examines the social, educational, and developmental psychology of the school environment, focusing on peer relationships and teacher-student interactions. The book demonstrates the complexities…

  1. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children: A Handbook for Child Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilmes, Jenna; Welker, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Promote the mental health of preschool children in care by providing nurturing environments and relationships. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children is an easy-to-use guide that will help providers recognize and cope with the symptoms and behaviors associated with ADHD, autism, anxiety, and other disorders providers may face. Learn to…

  2. Parent-Child Relations and Children's Psychological Well-Being: Do Dads Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videon, Tami M.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the unique influence of fathers on adolescents' psychological well-being. Analyses are based on a nationally representative sample (Add Health) of students in Grades 7 through 12 living in intact homes. Results of multivariate analyses reveal that the father-adolescent relationship has an independent impact on adolescents'…

  3. The Child at School: Interactions with Peers and Teachers. Texts in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Blatchford, Peter

    Noting that school provides one of the most important arenas for interactive processes that are crucial to children's healthy social development, this book examines the social, educational, and developmental psychology of the school environment, focusing on peer relationships and teacher-student interactions. The book demonstrates the complexities…

  4. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  5. A Teaching Assistant's Guide to Child Development and Psychology in the Classroom. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "How can you help students most effectively in the classroom?" As a Teaching Assistant, you play a vital role in today's schools. This fully updated new edition will help you get to grips with the main issues to do with psychology and its role in the processes of teaching and learning. This accessible text, building on the success of a…

  6. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  7. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  8. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  9. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following papers; (1)…

  10. Intelligence in Childhood and Risk of Psychological Distress in Adulthood: The 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; Hatch, Stephani L.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of severe psychiatric disorder, but it is unclear whether it influences risk of psychological distress due to anxiety or the milder forms of depression. The participants in the present study were members of two British birth national birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey…

  11. Working Nonstandard Schedules and Variable Shifts in Low-Income Families: Associations with Parental Psychological Well-Being, Family Functioning, and Child Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the New Hope Project--an experimental evaluation of a work-based antipoverty program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin--was used to explore concurrent and lagged associations of nonstandard schedules and variable shifts with parental psychological well-being, regularity of family mealtimes, and child well-being among low-income…

  12. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following papers; (1)…

  13. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  14. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  15. Intelligence in Childhood and Risk of Psychological Distress in Adulthood: The 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; Hatch, Stephani L.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of severe psychiatric disorder, but it is unclear whether it influences risk of psychological distress due to anxiety or the milder forms of depression. The participants in the present study were members of two British birth national birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey…

  16. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  17. Child Psychology: Parent Handbook. Mehlville School District ESEA Title III, PACE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlville R-9 School District, St. Louis, MO.

    This document is one of a series published by the Mehlville School District (St. Louis, Mo.) and used in their workshops for parents regarding family communications. It includes an explanation of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, a definition of characteristics of the family constellation, an examination of child development stages, a brief summary of…

  18. Surrogacy Families: Parental Functioning, Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Development at Age 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; Jadva, Vasanti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through surrogacy. Methods: At the time of the child's 2nd birthday, 37 surrogacy families were compared with 48 egg donation families and 68 natural conception families on standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological…

  19. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  20. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  1. The Impact of Serial Transitions on Behavioral and Psychological Problems among Children in Child Protection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Jacques, Marie-Christine; Cloutier, Richard; Pauze, Robert; Simard, Marie; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Poulin, Amelie

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the impacts of serial transitions on externalized and internalized behavior disorders, anxiety, and depression among children in child protection services. The research was carried out with a sample of 741 children. The findings demonstrate that the number of times a family is blended is a stronger predictive factor for…

  2. Conversations around Homework: Links to Parental Mental Health, Family Characteristics and Child Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Woolgar, Matt; Martins, Carla; Christaki, Anna; Hipwell, Alison; Cooper, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Parents are increasingly expected to supplement their children's school-based learning by providing support for children's homework. However, parents' capacities to provide such support may vary and may be limited by the experience of depression. This may have implications for child development. In the course of a prospective, longitudinal study…

  3. Role of Child and Maternal Processes in the Psychological Adjustment of Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found that 64% of 50 children aged 7-12 years with sickle cell disease had parent-reported behavior problem. Internalizing types of behavior problems and diagnoses were most frequent. Maternal anxiety accounted for 16-33% of variance in mother-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively, and child pain-coping…

  4. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  5. Variation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene at rs41423247 moderates the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child cortisol reactivity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Velders, Fleur P; Dieleman, Gwen; Cents, Rolieke A M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-10-01

    Prenatal maternal psychopathology affects child development, but some children seem more vulnerable than others. Genetic variance in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes may influence the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child emotional and behavioral problems. This hypothesis was tested in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onward. In total, 1727 children of Northern European descent and their mothers participated in this study and were genotyped for variants in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (rs6189/rs6190, rs10052957, rs41423247, rs6195, and rs6198) and the FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene (rs1360780). Prenatal maternal psychological symptoms were assessed at 20 weeks pregnancy and child behavior was assessed by both parents at 3 years. In a subsample of 331 children, data about cortisol reactivity were available. Based on power calculations, only those genetic variants with sufficient minor allele frequencies (rs41423247, rs10052957, and rs1360780) were included in the interaction analyses. We found that variation in GR at rs41423247 moderates the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child emotional and behavioral problems (beta 0.41, SE 0.16, p=0.009). This prenatal interaction effect was independent of mother's genotype and maternal postnatal psychopathology, and not found for prenatal psychological symptoms of the father. Moreover, the interaction between rs41423247 and prenatal psychological symptoms was also associated with decreased child cortisol reactivity (beta -2.30, p-value 0.05). These findings emphasize the potential effect of prenatal gene-environment interaction, and give insight in possible mechanisms accounting for children's individual vulnerability to develop emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:22781842

  6. Corporal punishment: mother's disciplinary behavior and child's psychological profile in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A

    2009-01-01

    Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p < 0.01), rural origin of the father (p= 0.02), the mother's bad history of rearing experience (p < 0.01), and poor interparental relationship (p= 0.02). The relation between corporal punishment of children and their self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p < 0.05). Corporal punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse effects on the child especially on his or her relationship with others. Planning an awareness-raising educational program for current and expectant parents is recommended, to promote positive nonviolent methods of child rearing, via the media and campaigns, and encouragement of political, community, and religious leaders; medical personnel; journalists; and sports and entertainment figures to share in these campaigns. PMID:19222684

  7. Utilization of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) for Assessing Program and Clinical Outcomes. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Kay; Landsverk, John; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Simpkins, Celeste G.; Daniels, La Vonne; Clements, Lisa

    The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) provides information on psychological impairment, including a score for the child's overall functioning as well as scale scores for eight psychosocial areas: school, work, home, community relationships, moods, self-harmful behavior, substance use, and abnormal thinking. This symposium…

  8. [Early interactions between mother and child and the development of the psychological life].

    PubMed

    Decerf, A

    1987-01-01

    Recent research on the perceptual and behavioural performance of the new-born suggest that he has neuromotor and sensory capacities which are programmed to enable him to react in a special way to the stimuli engendered by a human presence. The work of T. B. Brazelton leads us to think that the "good enough mother" develops a relationship with her infant not only by exploiting this special sensitivity which the new-born has to signals of human presence but also by respecting the boundaries of resistance with which a burgeoning mental life opposes the excitation of the impact of an active presence. In admitting that the psyche exploits mental functions to give shape and sense to its state of tension, early mother-child interactions, because they condition the setting up of mental functioning, also influence the beginning of psychic functioning. PMID:3321113

  9. Adaptation to the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly: a prospective longitudinal study of maternal well-being and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Nes, Ragnhild B; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress. PMID:24588521

  10. The child who has severe neurologic impairment.

    PubMed

    Liptak, G S

    1998-02-01

    The formulation of a diagnosis in a child who has neurologic impairment should not (except in extreme circumstances) be made on the basis of a single finding. For example, the presence of delayed milestones, primitive or exaggerated reflexes, abnormal muscle tone, abnormal posture, abnormal neurologic examination, and temporal course should all be used to make the diagnosis of cerebral palsy. Furthermore, because each condition has a spectrum of disabilities from mild to severe involvement, determination of the child's abilities and impairments should be part of the diagnostic process. Because the child lives in a number of different environments, assessment of the child's functional abilities and evaluation of the environments should be made. Finally, evaluations by specialists in physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychology, special education, and nutrition may be necessary to complete the child's diagnosis. The ability to examine the child over a period of time (i.e., continuity of care) allows the practitioner to provide a more accurate prognosis for future development. It also enables easier diagnosis of the child when he or she is acutely ill. This also allows a more trusting relationship to develop with the parent and enhances the ability to influence the psychosocial conditions that affect outcomes. Finally, all these children should have care coordination (case management) (i.e., someone who can ensure that they receive the care they need, without duplication) across all settings, including home, school, hospitals, and ambulatory facilities. PMID:9491090

  11. An Approach to Assessing "Accountability" in Implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: Implications for School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; Briggs, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    Together, the UN Convention on Rights of the Child and the USA's National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP) Principles for Professional Ethics (2010a) serve as aspirational documents that place a child's right to healthy development as the ultimate priority, regardless of the child's circumstances. This article…

  12. Does endorsement of physical discipline matter? Assessing moderating influences on the maternal and child psychological correlates of physical discipline in African American families.

    PubMed

    McLoyd, Vonnie C; Kaplan, Rachel; Hardaway, Cecily R; Wood, Dana

    2007-06-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of 890 African American families in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined whether maternal endorsement of physical discipline moderates the link between (a) maternal psychological distress and spanking frequency and (b) spanking frequency and child depressive symptoms. As predicted, physical discipline administered by nonendorsing mothers was more strongly linked to maternal psychological distress than physical discipline administered by endorsing mothers. Also in keeping with the authors' hypothesis, the relation between spanking frequency and child-reported depressive symptoms was stronger for children of nonendorsing mothers than for children of endorsing mothers. In particular, the positive relation between physical discipline and children's depressive symptoms was significant only for children of nonendorsing mothers. These findings suggest that within-group variation in African American mothers' attitudes about physical discipline partially regulates the conditions under which these mothers use physical discipline and the probability that physical discipline contributes to depressive symptoms in children. Conclusions and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17605539

  13. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks’ gestation in infants born <30 weeks’ gestation and parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants born <30 weeks’ gestation are at increased risk of long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent–child relationship and children’s outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. Methods/Design This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at <30 weeks’ gestational age from birth to term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years’ corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child’s birth until their child’s second birthday. The parent–child relationship will be assessed at one and two years’ corrected age. Discussion Detailing the trajectory of infant neurobehaviour and parental psychological distress following very preterm birth is important not only to identify infants most at risk, further understand the parental experience and highlight potential times for intervention for the infant and/or parent, but also to gain insight into the effect this has on parent–child interaction and child development. PMID:24758605

  14. Psychology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  15. Child-Rearing and Development: Comparisons between Japanese and Americans Based upon the Psychological-Anthropological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Michio; Kajiwara, Yasuko

    Discussed are: (1) historical and cultural backgrounds of the Japanese style of child rearing; (2) differences of child rearing style between Japan and the United States; (3) the hidden curriculum at school and home. Content explores the recent controversy in Japan over "Amae," or the Japanese infant's craving for close contact with its mother and…

  16. The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Psychological Maltreatment Rating Scales (PMRS) were developed for assessing psychological maltreatment in the mother-child interaction, and were used to rate the videotaped interaction of 49 high-risk mother-child dyads and predict child protective service involvements. The PMRS was found to be a moderately reliable and valid measure.…

  17. [The chronically ill and disabled child: a psychologic task of paediatrics. Part II: Special problems of various diseases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Börner, S; Steinhausen, H C

    1975-09-01

    This second out of three articles deals with some specific psychological problems of chronic illness and handicap in childhood, i.e. epilepsy, physical handicap, diabetes mellitus, congenital heartdisease, hemophilia, dwarfism, hemodialysis and renal transplantation, and malignant disease. PMID:126332

  18. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  19. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  20. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  1. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  2. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  3. Grade Repetition and Psychological Referrals in Relation to Child Behavior Checklist Scores for Students in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Colin W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Students (N=738) from grades one-five who exhibited behavior problems were assessed for behavioral disturbance using the Teacher's Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were analyzed to assess the form's internal consistency, accuracy in discriminating disturbed and nondisturbed students, and validity in terms of grade repetition and…

  4. The Psychology of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  5. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  6. The role of abnormalities in the distal pathway of cholesterol synthesis in the Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects (CHILD) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Paller, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    CHILD syndrome (Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform erythroderma and Limb Defects) is a rare X-linked dominant ichthyotic disorder. CHILD syndrome results from loss of function mutations in the NSDHL gene, which leads to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates in affected tissues. The CHILD syndrome skin is characterized by plaques topped by waxy scales and a variety of developmental defects in extracutaneous tissues, particularly limb hypoplasia or aplasia. Strikingly, these alterations are commonly segregated to either the right or left side of the body midline with little to no manifestations on the ipsilateral side. By understanding the underlying disease mechanism of CHILD syndrome, a pathogenesis-based therapy has been developed that successfully reverses the CHILD syndrome skin phenotype and has potential applications to the treatment of other ichthyoses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. PMID:24060582

  7. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Lester, Kathryn J; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C Y; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C; Silverman, Wendy K; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C

    2016-02-01

    BackgroundWe previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT outcome.AimsTo replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2, n = 829).MethodLogistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both cohorts were performed.ResultsThere was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2. Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45, P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder outcomes.ConclusionsThe association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous samples. PMID:26294368

  9. Psychological Impact of AIDS on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfer, Myron L.

    There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…

  10. Parent-child conflict and psychological maladjustment: a mediational analysis with reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Empirical research has shown that parent-child conflict is positively related to poor adjustment in adolescents; however, the underlying processes have not been adequately examined. To explore the possible mediating pathways, reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat were chosen to represent two likely mechanisms accounting for how parent-child conflict harms adolescents' perceptions of their relationship with their parents and their self-perceptions within their cognitive-appraisal framework. The former operates by attenuating children's affection towards their parents and the latter by lowering their self-perceptions. This study also distinguishes internalizing from externalizing problems in order to examine whether lower reciprocal filial belief more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' externalizing problems and whether perceived threat more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' internalizing problems. Hypotheses are as follows: (1) the more parent-child conflict adolescents report, the less reciprocal filial belief they recognize, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially externalizing ones; (2) the more parent-child conflicts adolescents report, the more threat they perceive, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially internalizing ones. Participants consisted of 603 Taiwanese adolescents (226 males and 377 females) aged 15 to 19 (average age = 16.95; SD = 0.78). Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed the hypotheses. However, the three direct effects of conflict on internalizing problems, aggression, and deviant behaviour were still significant. In addition, a greater effect of the paternal than the maternal role on the link between conflict and attenuated reciprocal filial belief, and between perceived threat and internalizing problems, was identified. Implications for understanding the mediation processes responsible for all indirect effects, even the subsidiary ones, and the greater impact of conflict with the father than with the mother are discussed. Limitations of the study and considerations for future research are also addressed. La recherche empirique a indiqué que le conflit parent-enfant est positivement lié à une faible adaptation chez les adolescents; cependant, les processus sous-jacents n'ont pas été adéquatement examinés. Pour explorer les trajectoires de médiation possibles, la croyance filiale réciproque et la menace perçue ont été sélectionnées afin de représenter deux méchanismes plausiblement responsables de comment le conflit parent-enfant nuit aux peceptions des adolescents de leur relation avec les parents ainsi que de leurs auto-perceptions dans le cadre de leur évaluation cognitive. Le premier fonctionne en atténuant l'affection des enfants envers leurs parents et le dernier fonctionne en diminuant leurs auto-perceptions. Cette étude distingue aussi les problèmes internalisés de ceux qui sont externalisés dans le but d'examiner si la plus faible croyance de filiation réciproque médie fortement la relation entre le conflit avec les parents et les problèmes externalisés des adolescents et si la menace perçue médie plus fortement la relation entre le conflit avec les parents et les problèmes internalisés des adolescents. Les hypothèses sont les suivantes: (1) plus il y a de conflit parent-enfant rapporté par les adolescents, moins il y aura de croyance filiale réciproque reconnue par les adolescents qui, en revanche, mènera à plus de mésadaptation surtout externalisée. L'échantillon incluait 603 participants (226 mâles et 377 femelles) âgés entre 15 et 19 ans (âge moyen = 16.95; SD = 0.78). Une analyse de modélisation par équation structurelle a confirmé les hypotheses. Cependant, les trois effets directs du conflit sur les problèmes internalisés, sur l'agression et sur le comportement déviant étaient toujours significatifs. De plus, nous avons observé un plus grand effet du rôle paternel plus que maternel sur le lien entre le conflit et la croyance filiale réciproque atténuée ainsi qu'entre la menace perçue et les problèmes internalisés. Les implications pour la compréhension des processus de médiation responsables pour tous les effets indirects, même ceux qui sont accessoires, et le plus grand impact du conflit avec le père plus qu'avec la mère sont discutés. Les limites de l'étude et les considérations pour la recherche future sont aussi abordées. La investigación empírica ha demostrado que el conflicto entre padres e hijos está positivamente relacionado con pobre ajuste en adolescentes; no obstante, el proceso subyacente no ha sido examinado adecuadamente. Para explorar posibles caminos, se eligieron la creencia filial recíproca y la amenaza percibida con el objetivo de representar dos posibles mecanismos explicativos de cómo el conflicto padres-hijos daña la percepción de los adolescentes de su relación con los padres y su auto-percepción dentro de su marco de valoración cognitiva. El primero actúa atenuando el afecto de los hijos hacia los padres y el último bajando su auto-percepción. Este estudio también distingue los problemas interiorizados de los exteriorizados para examinar si la baja creencia filial recíproca es un mediador más fuerte de la relación entre el conflicto con los padres y los problemas exteriorizados de los adolescentes y si la amenaza percibida es un mediador más fuerte de la relación entre el conflicto con los padres y los problemas interiorizados de los adolescentes. Se han planteado las siguientes hipótesis: (1) cuanto más conflicto entre padres e hijos refieran los adolescentes, menor será el reconocimiento de la creencia filial recíproca, lo cual llevará a inadaptación, sobre todo, exteriorizada; (2) cuanto más conflicto entre padres e hijos refieran los adolescentes, mayor será la amenaza percibida, lo cual llevará a mayor inadaptación, sobre todo interiorizada. La muestra consistió de 603 adolescentes taiwaneses (226 chicos y 377 chicas) entre 15 y 19 años de edad (media edad = 16.95; DT = 0.78). Los análisis de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales confirmaron las hipótesis. Sin embargo, los tres efectos directos de los conflictos en la internalización de los problemas, agresión y comportamiento anormal seguían siendo significativos. Además, se identificó un efecto mayor del rol paternal en comparación con el rol maternal en la relación entre conflicto y la creencia filial reciproca atenuada y entre la amenaza percibida y la internalización de los problemas. Se discuten las implicaciones para la comprensión del proceso mediador responsable de todos los efectos indirectos, incluso los subsidiarios, y el mayor impacto del conflicto con los padres que con las madres. Igualmente, se discuten las limitaciones del estudio y las consideraciones para la investigación futura. PMID:22043893

  11. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Nastassja; Brittain, Kirsty; Donald, Kirsten A.; Barnett, Whitney; Koopowitz, Sheri; Maré, Karen; Zar, Heather J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES), and depression. Results A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5) in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores) at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions In this exploratory study, maternal trauma and PTSD were found to be highly prevalent, and preliminary evidence suggested that trauma may adversely affect fetal growth, as measured by birth head circumference. However, these findings are limited by a number of methodological weaknesses, and further studies are required to extend findings and delineate causal links and mechanisms of association. PMID:26886489

  12. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.

  13. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  14. Fathers with Child Custody.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    Since recent laws prescribe equal rights for both parents, more fathers will be receiving custody of their children. Counseling psychology must prepare these fathers for their new parental roles. Ten suggestions are listed, including professional training in child custody and the encouragement of father-mother and father-child relationships. (LPG)

  15. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  16. Abnormalities of the external genitalia.

    PubMed

    Baldinger, Lauren; Mudegowdar, Abhijith; Shukla, Aseem R

    2014-09-01

    Abnormalities of the external genitalia span the spectrum from subtle findings of limited clinical significance to profound anomalies that call into question such essential questions as sex determination. In addition, missing a diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a newborn female child with virilized external genitalia can result in near-term mortality, whereas a large inguinal hernia could present rapidly with incarceration if undetected. To that end, this article seeks to present a survey of commonly encountered genital abnormalities while highlighting those scenarios that require multidisciplinary interventions. PMID:25155737

  17. Parental Psychological and Emotional Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Psychological abuse hits a child from many different sources. It is also the most difficult to counter. The counselor is in a delicate position when faced with the child she/he knows is being harmed by his parents. These students need help. (Author/BEF)

  18. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  19. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  20. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  1. School Psychology Review: 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The vision for "School Psychology Review" for the 2006-2010 editorial term is described, and five major goals are outlined. These goals include (a) addressing issues of critical importance to school psychology and the broader domains of child-oriented psychology and education; (b) promoting intervention and prevention research and publishing this…

  2. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity. PMID:23766572

  3. HIV Disease in the Psychology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Ann R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides ideas for relating HIV topics to psychology content. Suggests three methods of curriculum integration: (1) using traditional course content (research methods, abnormal psychology, health psychology, gender and ethnic studies, drugs and behavior); (2) exploring diversity issues; and (3) challenging students' critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  4. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  5. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Knodt, Annchen R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such "stress sensitization," little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life stress, gender, and age is associated with reduced structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a major white matter pathway between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in young adults. We further demonstrate that individuals with lower uncinate fasciculus integrity at baseline who subsequently experience stressful life events report higher levels of internalizing symptomatology at follow-up. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological mechanism linking child maltreatment with later internalizing symptoms, specifically altered structural connectivity within the brain's threat-detection and emotion-regulation circuitry. PMID:26535947

  6. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L; Knodt, Annchen R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such “stress sensitization,” little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life stress, gender, and age is associated with reduced structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a major white matter pathway between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in young adults. We further demonstrate that individuals with lower uncinate fasciculus integrity at baseline who subsequently experience stressful life events report higher levels of internalizing symptomatology at follow-up. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological mechanism linking child maltreatment with later internalizing symptoms, specifically altered structural connectivity within the brain’s threat-detection and emotion regulation circuitry. PMID:26535947

  7. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    1998-01-01

    Includes materials on: (1) abnormal and clinical psychology, and personality; (2) career issues; (3) cognition and learning; (4) educational technology; (5) faculty evaluation; (6) graduate education; (7) high school instruction; (8) history of psychology; (9) introductory psychology; (10) perception, and physiological and comparative psychology;…

  8. A Developmental Psychology Perspective in Germany: Co-Construction of Transitions between Family and Education System by the Child, Parents and Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebel, Wilfried; Niesel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, there exists a traditional gap between kindergarten and primary school. Transition research has led to a new understanding of the need for cooperation between different educational institutions and the family at this time. This article emphasises that educational transitions affect not only the child but also the parents, who actively…

  9. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  10. What Science Is Telling Us: How Neurobiology and Developmental Psychology Are Changing the Way Policymakers and Communities Think about the Developing Child. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    By bringing together neurologists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, and economists, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child offers a unique knowledge base from which early childhood policy and practice can be informed. By communicating how and why early experiences have a lasting impact on brain architecture--and what…

  11. What Science Is Telling Us: How Neurobiology and Developmental Psychology Are Changing the Way Policymakers and Communities Think about the Developing Child. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    By bringing together neurologists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, and economists, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child offers a unique knowledge base from which early childhood policy and practice can be informed. By communicating how and why early experiences have a lasting impact on brain architecture--and what…

  12. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective services. PMID:25771266

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in parent-reported and teacher-reported psychological well-being

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah; Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there are differences in the social gradient of parent-reported and teacher-reported child psychological well-being. Design Secondary data analysis comparing ratings of child psychological well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) in the UK Millennium Cohort Study at 7?years by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC). A number of measures of SEC were tested; results are reported for maternal education. From a sample of 13?168 singletons who participated at the age of 7?years, complete data were available for 8207 children. Results There was a social gradient in SDQ scores reported by parents and teachers, with ‘borderline/abnormal’ scores more prevalent in children with lower-educated mothers. However, the gradient was more marked in parent report compared with teacher report, and discrepancies between parent and teacher reports were greatest for children from higher SECs. Conclusions The social gradient in child psychological well-being, although present, was weaker in teacher report compared with parent report. This may be because children behave differently in school and home settings, or parents and teachers demonstrate reporting bias. PMID:25165074

  14. Psychological Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Holidays Personal Stories IBS Awareness Month The Art of IBS Who We Are Contact Us Donate Psychological Treatments Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS The cause ...

  15. Promoting Writing among Psychology Students and Faculty: An Interview with Dana S. Dunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Perilou

    2002-01-01

    Perilou Goddard is a professor of psychology at Northern Kentucky University (NKU), where she teaches introductory and abnormal psychology as well as courses in writing in psychology and drug policy. She was chosen as NKU's outstanding professor in 1999. Dana S. Dunn is a professor of psychology and former chair of the Department of Psychology at…

  16. Promoting Writing among Psychology Students and Faculty: An Interview with Dana S. Dunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Perilou

    2002-01-01

    Perilou Goddard is a professor of psychology at Northern Kentucky University (NKU), where she teaches introductory and abnormal psychology as well as courses in writing in psychology and drug policy. She was chosen as NKU's outstanding professor in 1999. Dana S. Dunn is a professor of psychology and former chair of the Department of Psychology at…

  17. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  18. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  19. Mathematical psychology.

    PubMed

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271659

  20. Socioecological psychology.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility ? anxiety ? familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking ? dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments. PMID:23987114

  1. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  2. How Abnormal Reflexes Influence Movements in Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Jeanne Shanks

    Some of the more frequently observed reflex patterns in cerebral palsy are examined, and descriptions are given of how they affect movement. A chart outlines: (1) desirable movement patterns; (2) typical abnormal movement of the cerebral palsied child; (3) possible physical cause of abnormal movements; and (4) activities which may facilitate…

  3. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    1999-01-01

    Three distinct periods mark the history of developmental psychology in Canada. Period 1 was dominated by cognitive developmental theorist, James Mark Baldwin. Period 2, defined by the Child Study Movement, began in the 1920s with Mental Hygiene Movement and founding of two child study centers. Period 3, started in the 1950s, focused on…

  4. Psychological Dynamics of Adolescent Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Anthony R.; Story, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to describe the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Describes processes in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. Proposes a model called the web of psychic tension to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Describes techniques for…

  5. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  6. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  7. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  8. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  9. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Simona; Emer, Alessandra; Martini, Laura; Rigo, Paola; Pruner, Sonia; Venuti, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families can efficiently reduce the impact of risk factors on mother and child psychological health. This study examines predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in a sample of first-time mothers with psychosocial and/or socio-demographic risk factors. Forty primiparous women satisfying specific risk criteria participated in a longitudinal study with their children from pregnancy until 18 month of child age. A multiple psychological and socioeconomic assessment was performed. The Emotional Availability Scales were used to measure the quality of emotional exchanges between mother and child at 12 months and the Attachment Q-Sort served as a measure of child attachment security at 18 months. Results highlight both the effect of specific single factors, considered at a continuous level, and the cumulative risk effect of different co-occurring factors, considered at binary level, on mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security. Implication for the selection of inclusion criteria of intervention programs that support parenting skills in at-risk families are discussed. PMID:25191287

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  11. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon*

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Priyvadan C.

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. ‘Meanings’ have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades. PMID:25838721

  12. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Priyvadan C

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. 'Meanings' have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades. PMID:25838721

  13. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  14. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Child Abuse in the Name of Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Vincent J.

    The author discusses the connection between corporal punishment and child abuse; analyzes the difference between discipline and abuse; and asserts that there are sociological, psychological, and biological characteristics typical of promoters of corporal punishment. (CL)

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  18. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... The term skeletal limb abnormalities is most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are due to a problem with your ...

  19. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Psychological counterterrorism.

    PubMed

    Everly, George S

    2003-01-01

    At the end of the last century international terrorist groups declared war on the United States. Rather than pursue this war using conventional means, terrorist tactics have been employed. Terrorism represents psychological warfare, not traditional military combat. Threats of assassination, bioterrorism, and even nuclear detonations have been used. Numerous attacks have subsequently been realized against both domestic and international American targets. Winning the war against terrorism means acknowledging and responding to the psychological dynamics inherent in this form of warfare, as well as the military and law enforcement aspects of the war. Consistent with Caplan's notions of preventive psychiatry, the fight against terrorism must occur on three levels: (1) prevention of the terrorist attacks themselves, (2) mitigating the adverse psychological impact of the persistent threats of terrorist acts, as well as the terrorist attacks when they do occur, and (3) psychological treatment of the lingering adverse effects of threatened or actualized terrorist attacks. The preplanned and/or coordinated psychological efforts to counteract terrorism and prevail in any given war against terrorism shall be herein discussed and subsequently referred to as "psychological counterterrorism." PMID:12882091

  1. Child Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. Child Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  3. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  4. Multiple endocrine abnormalities in a child with Blackfan-Diamond anemia and hemochromatosis. Significant improvement of growth velocity and predicted adult height following growth hormone treatment despite liver damage.

    PubMed

    Lanes, R; Muller, A; Palacios, A

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated a short, prepubertal 13.9 year-old boy with Blackfan-Diamond anemia and significant liver iron stores due to multiple blood transfusions and found him to have several endocrine abnormalities, including hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, primary and secondary hypogonadism and IGF-I insufficiency. Growth velocity was poor despite treatment with levothyroxine, calcitriol, calcium and aggressive therapy with chelating agents. After 25 months of treatment with rhGH his growth velocity, height for age and PAH increased significantly, suggesting a degree of sensitivity to GH despite his liver damage. PMID:10714760

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Plachot, M

    2001-10-22

    Since the beginning of in vitro fertilization (IVF), basic research has provided insight in the field of human reproduction, especially in genetics. Indeed, the contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to oocyte disorders and impaired embryonic development is now well known. Of oocytes that fail to fertilize after in vitro insemination, 26.5% have been found to be abnormal, with 13.3% showing hypohaploidy, 8.1% hyperhaploidy, 1.6% structural abnormalities and 3.5% diploidy. The total incidence of abnormalities seems to be correlated with the fertility status of the woman. It is higher in oocytes from women with tubal or unexplained infertility than in those from women whose husband's infertility is the sole cause of infertility in the couple. Although few oocytes recovered during natural cycles have been studied, gonadotropins, which are widely used to stimulate follicle growth and ovulation, do not increase the risk of abnormalities. The effect of maternal age on fetal aneuploidy, well documented at birth, has not been unambiguously shown to result from an increase in the frequency of aneuploid oocytes. Intra- and extra-follicular influences (perifollicular microvasculature, oxygenation, and the presence of residues from cigarette smoke) may disturb maturation, leading to immaturity and aneuploidy. Thus, oocyte meiosis is very sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that could result in oocytes with chromosomal abnormalities and therefore, abnormal zygotes. PMID:11576735

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  7. Prediction and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Jane D.; And Others

    Examined was the feasibility of predicting the potential for abnormal child rearing practices, including child abuse and neglect among 350 mothers. Through interviews, questionnaires, and observations during labor, delivery and the postpartum period, 100 mothers were identified as at high risk for abnormal parenting procedures. Ss were then…

  8. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  9. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  10. Child Abuse in Canada: Knowns and Unknowns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    Presents variables related to child abuse appearing in the research, and points out gaps of knowledge in this area. Social stresses exacerbate underlying personality difficulties and induce psychological problems by placing the individual under stress. Families facing stresses also are frequently involved in child abuse because they contain more…

  11. Socialization or Sociability of the Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Lucien; Balmer, Blaise

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two extreme theories about the social development of a child: "sociocentrism" considers the social integration of the individual as adaption to societal standards, attitudes, patterns, and language; "pedocentrism" sees development as a result of previous psychological aptitudes within the child. Notes problems associated with each…

  12. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  13. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery.

  14. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  15. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  16. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John P., Ed.

    Ten schizophrenic and autistic children who exhibited self destructive, tantrum, echolalic, and self stimulatory behaviors were treated by reinforcement therapy. Reinforcement withdrawal, in the form of interpersonal isolation contingent upon self-destruction, and electrical shocks served to extinguish these behaviors in some children.…

  17. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  18. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  19. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  1. Parents' Perceptions of Their Child's Resilience and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Riitta; Raty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parental views of their child's educability through the parents' perceptions of their child's resilience. The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine psychometric properties of the rating scale created to measure parental views of their child's educational and psychological resilience, (2) to explore whether the parents'…

  2. Parent-Child Relationships and ADHD Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Evidence both from psychological research and clinical intervention studies suggests that there are bidirectional influences between overt child behavior problems and parent-child relations. Very little research however, has considered the pattern of relations that exists between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the parent-child…

  3. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  4. Congenital bronchial abnormalities revisited.

    PubMed

    Ghaye, B; Szapiro, D; Fanchamps, J M; Dondelinger, R F

    2001-01-01

    Bronchial anatomy is adequately demonstrated with the appropriate spiral computed tomographic technique on cross-sectional images, multiplanar reconstruction images, and three-dimensional reconstruction images. Contrary to the numerous variations of lobar or segmental bronchial subdivisions, abnormal bronchi originating from the trachea or main bronchi are rare. Major bronchial abnormalities include accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) and "tracheal" bronchus. An ACB is a supernumerary bronchus from the inner wall of the right main bronchus or intermediate bronchus that progresses toward the pericardium. Fourteen ACBs were found in 17,500 consecutive patients (frequency, 0.08%). The term tracheal bronchus encompasses a variety of bronchial anomalies originating from the trachea or main bronchus and directed to the upper lobe. In a series of 35 tracheal bronchi, only eight originated from the trachea, three originated from the carina, and 24 originated from the bronchi. Displaced tracheal bronchi (27 of 35) are more frequent than supernumerary tracheal bronchi (eight of 35). Minor bronchial abnormalities include variants of tracheal bronchus, displaced segmental bronchi, and bronchial agenesis. The main embryogenic hypotheses for congenital bronchial abnormalities are the reduction, migration, and selection theories. Knowledge and understanding of congenital bronchial abnormalities may have important implications for diagnosis, bronchoscopy, surgery, brachytherapy, and intubation. PMID:11158647

  5. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID:12157998

  6. Some Abnormal Psychical Conditions in Children: Excerpts from Three Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, George F.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents excerpts of the three lectures delivered by George F. Still on March 4, 1902, March 6, 1902, and March 11, 1902. In the first lecture, Still discussed several points in the psychology and development of social control in the normal child and considered the occurrence of defective moral control in in association with general…

  7. [Psychology and fecundity. Motivations for parenthood].

    PubMed

    Buron, A

    1976-01-01

    Questions relating to population problems are more and more important at different levels, i.e. political, economic, national and international. In demographical research, sociological analyses were routine, but other disciplines such as psychology have rarely been emphasized for understanding mechanisms of fecondity. In a preliminary research on motivations to parenthood, this article proposes a critical analysis of the main orientations of research in the area of fecondity: socio-psychological studies, analytical and other works psychologically oriented on attitudes, motivations and values towards the child. It also delines the conceptual frame for a new research. PMID:1027329

  8. Essential tension: specialization with broad and general training in psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115833

  9. [Contribution of the clinical psychologists to rehabilitation of children with craniofacial abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes the role of the clinical psychologist collaborating in an interdisciplinary rehabilitation team for children with severe congenital craniofacial disorders. This includes: 1. Psychological counseling during the initial period of responding to the traumatic experience of the child's birth; 2. Preparing the child and parents for surgery and hospitalisation; 3. Developmental assessment and counseling in parenting and educational issues; 4. Prevention of social-emotional disorders and psychological support for the long-term adjustment to facial difference. PMID:10067085

  10. Psychological Experience of Parents of Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Robin; Jaser, Sarah; Chao, Ariana; Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the prevalence of psychological distress in parents of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the relationship between parental psychological distress and health outcomes, and parents’ psychological experience of having a child with T1DM. Clinical and research implications are presented. Method A systematic mixed-studies review was undertaken to review the quantitative and qualitative research on the parental experience of having a child with T1DM. A total of 34 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Results The prevalence of parental psychological distress across all studies ranged from 10% to 74%, with an average of 33.5% of parents reporting distress at diagnosis and 19% of parents reporting distress 1 to 4 years after diagnosis. Parental psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM, regardless of how it was defined, was associated with higher child self-report of stress and depressive symptoms, more problematic child behavior, and lower child self-report of quality of life. Parental psychological distress also had negative effects on diabetes management. Themes of the qualitative synthesis indicated that parents perceived T1DM as a difficult diagnosis that contributed to significant family disruption. Adjustment occurred over time; however, ongoing stress was experienced. Conclusions Screening for psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM is indicated, and preventive interventions are needed. PMID:22581804

  11. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  12. Models of Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

  13. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to…

  14. Incorporating Published Autobiographies into the Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcross, John C.; Sommer, Robert; Clifford, Jennifer S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores six methods for incorporating into courses published autobiographies written by individuals suffering from mental disorders: (1) outside readings; (2) examples for classroom lectures; (3) primary texts for discussion sections; (4) remedial or extra-credit assignments; (5) information resources; and (6) source books for topical seminars.…

  15. Development of the Parental Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kylie; Moore, Susan

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes development and validation of the Parental Psychological Flexibility (PPF) Questionnaire, a parent-report measure designed to assess psychological flexibility among parents of pre-adolescents and adolescents (aged 10-18 years). Psychological flexibility within parenting refers to parents' accepting negative thoughts, emotions and urges about one's child and still acting in ways that are consistent with effective parenting. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 178 parents) of a 43-item draft measure, resulted in a 30-item, 3-factor structure. Three subscales were created, consistent with the psychological flexibility literature: acceptance, cognitive defusion and committed action. A second sample of parents (n = 192) was then used to confirm the factor structure and reliability and validity of the PPF. Results supported the 3-factor structure, reduced the number of items to 19 and demonstrated that the PPF subscales have adequate reliability and validity and are thus suitable for researching psychological flexibility among parents of pre-adolescents and adolescents. PMID:25236325

  16. Forty Years of Introductory Psychology: An Analysis of the First 10 Editions of Hilgard et al.'s Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes 10 editions of an introductory college psychology textbook to determine changes in the content. Reveals that coverage of consciousness, personality, abnormal (disorders), therapies, and social psychology increased, while coverage of introductory material, learning, methods, intelligence, developmental psychology, and applied psychology…

  17. Teaching Social Workers To Use Psychological Assessment Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayser, John A.; Lyon, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how social service caseworkers in child welfare may become more sophisticated consumers of psychological assessments, and how collaborative relationships between evaluating psychologists and caseworkers can be fostered. Considers the appropriate uses of psychological tests, formulating referral questions, preparing children and parents…

  18. How Much Do Students Remember from an Introductory Psychology Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 100 students were given a Pre-Test in psychology on the first day of class without warning in order to assess their knowledge of basic course content derived from the prerequisites of the course (PSYC-100 Introduction to Psychology or PSYC-220 Child Development) and other life experiences. This was intended as a low-stakes testing…

  19. Using Online Psychological Consultation in Early Childhood Student Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann; Dygdon, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of online psychological consultation regarding child behavior in an early childhood teacher education program. The authors discuss psychological consultation in terms of current theory and philosophy in early childhood teacher education in general, and in terms of the professional objectives of this specific…

  20. Psychological and Pedagogic Support of Children with Health Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezhovkina, Elena Vasilyevna; Ryabova, Natalia Vladimirovna

    2015-01-01

    The article represented theoretic analysis of the literature on the problem of psychological and pedagogic support of disabled children. It defined the following terms: a successfully adapting disabled child, a model, interaction of specialists, psychological and pedagogic support. The article also determined the key components of a successfully…

  1. Effects of Psychology Courseware Use on Computer Anxiety in Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew E.; Lenthall, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that examined the relationship between computer anxiety and the use of psychology courseware in an undergraduate abnormal psychology class using four computerized case simulations. Comparisons of pretest and posttest computer anxiety measures are described, and the relationship between computer anxiety/attitudes and computer use is…

  2. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  3. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  4. Congenital midface abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Daniel J G; Shroff, Manohar

    2011-08-01

    There are a wide variety of congenital midface abnormalities that originate during transformation of the first pair of pharyngeal arches into adult structures. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are important components in the comprehensive evaluation of these lesions. A detailed understanding of midface embryogenesis and developmental anatomy is important in directing appropriate patient management. PMID:21807312

  5. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  6. Cerebrofacial Venous Anomalies, Sinus Pericranii, Ocular Abnormalities and Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Macit, B.; Burrows, P.E.; Yilmaz, S.; Orbach, D.B.; Mulliken, J.B.; Alomari, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The clinical implications of venous cerebrovascular maldevelopment remain poorly understood. We report on the association of cerebrofacial venous anomalies (including sinus pericranii), ocular abnormalities and mild developmental delay in two children. In addition, one child had a seizure disorder. Complex cerebrofacial slow-flow vascular anomalies may herald an underlying developmental aberration affecting the cerebrofacial and orbital regions PMID:22681729

  7. The Psychology of Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, James R.

    Providing information about the interrelationships among learning, teaching, and the act of reading, this book serves as a guide for gaining an understanding of the psychological bases of the reading process. The 11 chapters discuss the following topics: (1) language and intellectual development during the formative years; (2) the aspects of child…

  8. Psychological assessment for adults and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychological factors play a significant role in many nutritional abnormalities. These factors include mood (e.g., depression, anger, and anxiety), emotional eating, distorted body image, low self-esteem, poor self-efficacy and quality of life, dietary restraint, stress, susceptibility to external c...

  9. Child Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...

  10. Sensory-Perceptual Abnormalities in Autism: A Case for More Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Meena; Jones, Robert S. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sensory-perceptual abnormalities in people with autism from published firsthand accounts and existing psychological research evidence. A range of abnormalities, including hyper- and hyposensitivity, sensory distortion and overload, and multichannel receptivity and processing difficulties, are described and the limitations of clinical and…

  11. Child Daycare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jackqueline T.

    Based on the thesis that the absence of adequate child care resources in the United States presents a crisis not only for the child but for the parent, the employer, and society as a whole, this book provides an overview of that crisis in child day care. Part 1 briefly indicates the dimensions of the crisis; discusses the historical antecedents of…

  12. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  13. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  14. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  15. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  16. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  17. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

  18. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  19. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  20. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  2. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  3. Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

  4. The Overburdened Child: Some Long-Term Consequences of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallterstein, Judith S.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses three categories of children overburdened by responsibilities resulting from divorce. Describes economic, social, and psychological stresses affecting parent-child relationships, as well as the potential for psychopathology within the relationship. (JAC)

  5. Mothers' Response to Psychological Birth Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Irajpour, Alireza; Arbabi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychologically traumatic events can affect anybody, but consequences of psychological birth trauma for the mother are very profound, extensive and unforgettable. Furthermore, the mother’s response not only touches the mother, but also affects the child, the father and the society. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers’ response to psychological birth trauma. Objectives Psychological birth trauma is a complex matter as the length of a women`s life and mother`s responds can be present through different psychological and physical ways. In this regard, the mothers suffer from its consequences, but they do not know what is going on? Mothers are getting worse every day by “the silent effects of the psychological phenomena”. Materials & Methods This qualitative study was conducted on 23 mothers with psychological birth trauma experience, who were recruited from health centers of the capital and one of the metropolises of Iran. Their interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the content analysis method. Results Three themes were extracted from the data: impact on health, changes in mother`s roles, and changes decision making ability. Several categories and sub-categories also emerged from the data (physical and psychological problems, bonding with the child, relationship with husband, social role, cesarean request and psychological inability to have another child). Conclusions By considering the mothers` responses to traumatic labor, which endangers the health of the child as well as that of the mother and impairs their familial and social relationships, midwives should notice the consequences of psychological birth trauma in order to plan supportive and timely interventions. PMID:24693361

  6. Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

  7. The unwanted child.

    PubMed

    Trias, M

    1982-12-01

    The problem of the unwanted child is a most grievous aspect of the complex of negative factors associated with underdevelopment. Although the problem of the unwanted child exists in industrialized countries as well, the incidence is much higher in the 3rd world. In industrialized nations modern contraceptives are widely available, public awareness of them is high, and legal abortion may be an option in the event of contraceptive failure or nonuse. In Colombia alone, nearly 1 million women are living in immediate danger of an unwanted pregnancy. In the 3rd world as a whole there are an estimated 150 million who do not want another pregnancy but who lack access to contraceptive information and services. Research from a variety of sources suggests that being unwanted and unloved can have a lasting effect on a child's development. Sociological research confirms the need to preserve the bond between mother and child. Studies of adopted children have established a clear relationship between their physical and psychological development and the age at which they were adopted. If this affective bond is not established in the early months of life, the negative effects which result may prove difficult to overcome. Yet, however late it comes, adoption is always preferable to the relative deprivation a child experiences when institutionalized. Studies conducted in Eastern Europe comparing children whose parents had requested an abortion but had not been granted permission with a control group of children revealed a pattern of inferior physical development and social adjustment in the 1st group. Intelligence, in addition to its important genetic foundation, requires physical nurturing and psychological stimulation from the surrounding environment, provided during the final months of pregnancy or the 1st few years of life. Religious doctrine postulates that universal maternal instinct allows the mother to overcome her problems, but this is often not the case. Infanticide dates back to the dawn of history. Access to contraception and legalized abortion have minimized the occurrence of unwanted births. Where effective family planning services are unavailable, there are more subtle and crueler ways of limiting family size. The incidence of the unwanted child could be drastically reduced by extending to all families the wide variety of modern contraceptives now available and by offering medical abortion services to those who want them. PMID:12264604

  8. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  9. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  10. Mothers' violence victimization and child behavior problems: examining the link.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. PMID:17535128

  11. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  12. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  13. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  14. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015;38(5):833–837. PMID:25409105

  15. Press coverage of the new psychology by the New York Times during the progressive era.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Press coverage of psychology by the New York Times was examined for the Progressive Era. Following a period in which psychology was associated with spiritualism, psychoanalysis, and the Emmanuel movement, the Times gave editorial preference to reports about psychology's applications. Reaching an audience that was both affluent and influential, the topics emphasized by the Times included the lie detector, psychological applications in the work place, mental tests, and child psychology. These areas reflected issues of social concern to Progressives, publicized the rise of the psychologist as expert, and aided psychology in its challenge to common sense. PMID:21688722

  16. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  17. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  18. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  19. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  20. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child My Child Is Stealing KidsHealth > For Parents > My Child Is ... between parents and kids. previous continue If a Child Keeps Stealing If your child has stolen more ...

  1. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies My Child Is Stealing KidsHealth > For Parents > My Child Is ... between parents and kids. previous continue If a Child Keeps Stealing If your child has stolen more ...

  2. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make ... and unable to feel pain during the operation. During ...

  3. Behavioural consequences of child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  4. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  5. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA. PMID:23558712

  6. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  7. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  8. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  9. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  10. Bullying in Schools: A Form of Child Abuse in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluedse, Oyaziwo

    2006-01-01

    Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  12. Give Sorrow Words: Working with a Dying Child. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Dorothy

    Efforts to alleviate the emotional pain of terminally ill children and their parents have led many physicians to turn to child psychiatrists for psychological support and treatment services. This book, written by a child psychotherapist, offers an overview of children's attitudes to death and considers the moral and ethical issues raised by…

  13. Give Sorrow Words: Working with a Dying Child. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Dorothy

    Efforts to alleviate the emotional pain of terminally ill children and their parents have led many physicians to turn to child psychiatrists for psychological support and treatment services. This book, written by a child psychotherapist, offers an overview of children's attitudes to death and considers the moral and ethical issues raised by…

  14. Congruence of Parental Perception, Marital Satisfaction, and Child Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lucy Rau; Allen, Deborah R.

    1978-01-01

    Parents completed the Locke-Wallace Scale, the Interpersonal Checklist, and the Children's Behavior Checklist to assess marital satisfaction, congruence of perceptions, and agreement in perceptions of their child and child adjustment. Variables were positively intercorrelated. Similarity in partners' self-concepts and psychological empathy were…

  15. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  16. Child-to-Parent Violence: Emotional and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…

  17. Pathways among Marital Distress, Parental Symptomatology, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Lauren M.; Mark Cummings, E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.

    2004-01-01

    A community sample of 295 mothers, fathers, and children M age 11-14 years, SD2.32 years rated marital distress, maternal and paternal psychological symptoms, and child adjustment. The predicted direct relations between these family and child variables were demonstrated for both fathers and mothers. Tests of pathways among these variables were…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Assessment: Issues in Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milchman, Madelyn Simring

    1995-01-01

    Coordinates ethical codes for psychiatry, psychology, and social work and discusses their implications for child sexual abuse assessment in child protection and divorce/custody/visitation cases. Guidelines developed by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children are also considered. Confidentiality, protection from harm, and bias…

  19. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  20. Child-to-Parent Violence: Emotional and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…

  1. Forty Years of Introductory Psychology: An Analysis of the First 10 Editions of Hilgard et al.'s Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes 10 editions of an introductory college psychology textbook to determine changes in the content. Reveals that coverage of consciousness, personality, abnormal (disorders), therapies, and social psychology increased, while coverage of introductory material, learning, methods, intelligence, developmental psychology, and applied psychology…

  2. Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lindi; Zhao, Zhimin; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health issue around the globe. Previous studies regarding IAD were mainly focused on associated psychological examinations. However, there are few studies on brain structure and function about IAD. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter integrity in adolescents with IAD. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen IAD subjects and sixteen healthy controls without IAD participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal white matter regions between groups. TBSS demonstrated that IAD had significantly lower FA than controls throughout the brain, including the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corona radiation, internal and external capsules, while exhibiting no areas of higher FA. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in the regions showing FA abnormalities. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by an increase in radial diffusivity while no changes in axial diffusivity. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures within the IAD group. Significantly negative correlations were found between FA values in the left genu of the corpus callosum and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and between FA values in the left external capsule and the Young's Internet addiction scale. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IAD demonstrated widespread reductions of FA in major white matter pathways and such abnormal white matter structure may be linked to some behavioral impairments. In addition, white matter integrity may serve as a potential new treatment target and FA may be as a qualified biomarker to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of injury or to assess the effectiveness of specific early interventions in IAD. PMID:22253926

  3. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  4. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  5. Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

  6. Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Uprooted Children Threatened by Exploitation" (Bonnet); "Child of the Wind" (Roess); "At the Fishing School with the Sampaneers" (Bertrand); and "The Street Kids of Nairobi: Surviving in the City" (Goodson). (SK)

  7. Child Care

    MedlinePLUS

    Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may ...

  8. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  9. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  10. Waldorf Schools: A Child-Centered System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…

  11. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  12. Smile Parents, Your Child's Watching You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Linda K.

    The influence exerted by parents on the psychological development of children in youth sports programs is examined, and the risks and benefits attendent on youth participation in sports is discussed. Parents are considered as role models for their children, and the attitudes and self-concepts a young child acquires through his or her early…

  13. Child Care Centers: Indoor Lighting; Outdoor Playspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Robert; And Others

    Suggested guidelines for designing indoor lighting and outdoor play space for child care centers are outlined in this booklet. It is recommended that, by focusing on the psychological and physiological needs of the children, decisions as to lighting, color, and playground design will evolve naturally. The guidelines were prepared based on the fact…

  14. Teaching Your Child. Televised Parent Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    "Teaching Your Child" was a televised parent training program conducted in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The program was designed to reach parents in low income areas and was intended to assist families with young children by presenting practical applications of basic psychological theory. This booklet was the main workbook for the entire program. It…

  15. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  16. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  17. The Second Child: Family Transition and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert B., Jr.

    Synthesizing the methodologies of developmental psychology, family sociology, and systems theory, this 15-month longitudinal study examined familial role adjustments in 41 suburban families after the birth of a second child. Using interviews, observations, and rating scales, the study examined families during the third trimester of the second…

  18. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  19. Prenatal Psychology: Implications for the Practice of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Verny, Thomas R.

    1984-01-01

    Through the combined efforts of embryologists, neuro-embryologists, physiologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists and many other health professionals a new science of pre- and perinatal psychology has begun to emerge. This science explores the psychology of conception, pregnancy, labor, delivery and the postpartum period, as well as the unborn and newborn child's intellectual and emotional development. Implications of this new knowledge for the family physician counselling pregnant women will be discussed. PMID:21279126

  20. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool. PMID:11836491

  1. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  2. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Organizations Resources: FAQs › FAQs - The Psychological Component of Infertility -- written by the ASRM Mental Health Professional Group ( ... Professional in your area ) Q1. What impact does infertility have on psychological well being? Infertility often creates ...

  3. School Psychology in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the status of school psychology in Australia. Information is presented on the education system, the role of the school psychologist, historical development, special problems, contributions, and future trends in Australian school psychology. (Author)

  4. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  6. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  7. Rett's Syndrome in an Australian Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, E. J. R.; Callaghan, C.

    1987-01-01

    Following a literature review on Rett's Syndrome, a case study is presented of a 15-year-old girl with normal development during the first months of life followed by manifestation of behavior abnormalities and deterioration of intellectual level. The child's medical history and the mother's description of the girl's development are included.…

  8. Psychology: Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human Development";…

  9. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  10. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  11. Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  12. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  13. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  14. Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

  15. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Checkups Print A A A Text Size From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting ...

  16. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePLUS

    ... learn about high-quality child care. Welcome to Child Care Aware® E-Mail Print Share Tweet Military Child ... 2246 Call TTY#: 1-866-278-9428 Free Child Care Search Please enter your zip code. Your local ...

  17. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePLUS

    Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: A report of child abuse happens every 10 ... and emotional abuse Sexual abuse Shaken baby syndrome PHYSICAL CHILD ABUSE Physical child abuse is when a person physically ...

  18. Your Child's Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Your Child's Habits KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Habits Print ... Mom or Dad. previous continue Coping With Your Child's Habit The good news is that most habits ...

  19. Your Child's Immunizations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print ... receives. Take Our Quiz! continue The Vaccines Your Child Needs The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended ...

  20. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Checkups Print A A A Text Size From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting ...

  1. Confidentiality issues in psychological research.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C C; Siddle, D A T

    1995-11-01

    There has been increased attention in recent years to the importance of individual privacy and professional confidentiality both in Australia and overseas. At the same time, psychologists' growing research interests in areas such as AIDS, child sexual abuse, and domestic violence have led to new ethical dilemmas over the contract of confidentiality between researchers and their research participants. The present paper discusses a number of issues regarding the ethics of confidentiality in psychological research. Following Bok (1989), the issues are highlighted within the context of four ethical principles that underlie researchers' obligations to preserve confidentiality. These principles are derived from considerations of privacy, loyalty, the pledge of silence, and professional codes of ethical standards. Each of these principles is illustrated with examples taken from recent research. We devote special attention to instances that appear to provide a clash between moral principles. PMID:17144059

  2. The Relationship between Parental Abuse and Psychological Safety of the Children at the City of Amman and the Central Valleys of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Anani, Hanan Abd Al-Hameed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of parental abuse and psychological security of the child, as well as the degree differences of these variables, based on the gender, the age and place of residency. The aim of this study also was to detect the relationship between parental abuse and the psychological security of the child. The…

  3. Relationships between Adult Children and Their Parents: Psychological Consequences for Both Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberson, Debra

    1992-01-01

    Examined how parent/adult child relationships affect adult children's and parents' (n=3,618) psychological distress levels. Found that quality of intergenerational relationships appears influenced by structural circumstances; that negative aspects of relationships are more strongly associated with psychological distress than are positive aspects;…

  4. Children's Rights and School Psychology: Historical Perspective and Implications for the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Hart, Brannon W.

    2014-01-01

    School psychology and children's rights have great potential, well beyond what has been realized, for advancing the best interests of children, their communities, and societies. A child rights approach infused into school psychology can significantly contribute to the fulfillment of this potential. To respect and illuminate these factors and…

  5. SEMO PROJECT HEAD START, PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES REPORT, 1966-67 YEAR PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THORNTON, SAM M.

    THIS FOUR-PHASE TRANSITIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES PROGRAM IS PART TWO OF A THREE-PART STUDY DESIGNED TO EXAMINE AND EVALUATE CHILDREN IN HEAD START PROGRAMS IN SIX SOUTHEAST MISSOURI COUNTIES. THESE FOUR PHASES, USING 428 CHILDREN IN A 1966-1967 ACADEMIC YEAR HEAD START PROGRAM, WERE (1) CHILD OBSERVATION BY A PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELOR, (2)…

  6. Child Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... them Limit fast food and junk food Offer water or milk instead of sugary fruit drinks and sodas Learn about your children's nutrient requirements. Some of them, such as the requirements for iron and calcium, change as your child ages. NIH: ...

  7. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  8. Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Raymond H.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews definitions, causal hypotheses, research, and information regarding incidence and treatment of child abuse. Discusses problems with screening, including poor validity of the measures utilized to predict abuse, invasion of family privacy, and the absence of adequate treatment and prevention programs. (GC)

  9. Child Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your children safe: Install the right child safety seat in your car Teach children how to cross the street safely Make sure they wear the right gear and equipment for sports Install and test smoke alarms Store ... your home Don't leave small children unattended

  10. Psychological Masculinity and Femininity in Children and Its Relationship to Trait Stereotypes and Toy Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Janet T.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), the…

  11. Long-Term Influences of Intergenerational Ambivalence on Midlife Parents' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt, K. Jill; Blieszner, Rosemary; Savla, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated changes in midlife parents' intergenerational ambivalence toward a focal child and its influence on their psychological well-being over 14 years, as the focal child moved from adolescence into young adulthood. We estimated growth curve models using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,510…

  12. Teachers' Negative Affect toward Academically Gifted Students: An Evolutionary Psychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geake, John G.; Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2008-01-01

    A frequent reason for teachers not making special provisions for a gifted child is that the child is "not fitting in socially." The conjecture that a psychological source of such negative affect has evolved along with human language was tested with a large sample (N = 377) of teachers in England, Scotland, and Australia who were undertaking…

  13. Long-Term Influences of Intergenerational Ambivalence on Midlife Parents' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt, K. Jill; Blieszner, Rosemary; Savla, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated changes in midlife parents' intergenerational ambivalence toward a focal child and its influence on their psychological well-being over 14 years, as the focal child moved from adolescence into young adulthood. We estimated growth curve models using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,510…

  14. The Treatment of Psychological Problems Experienced by the Children of Police Officers in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alastair

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent establishment of the Police Rehabilitation and Retraining Trust's Child and Adolescent Therapy Service. This service was set up in response to an expressed need within the police family to provide evidenced-based psychological therapies for child and adolescent psychopathology caused either directly by…

  15. Differential Effects of Psychological Maltreatment on Children of Mothers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…

  16. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  17. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  18. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  19. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  20. Effects of Commitment and Psychological Centrality on Fathering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasley, Kay; Furtis, Ted G.; Skinner, Martie L.

    2002-01-01

    Identity theory model was tested with fathers (N=186) to assess whether commitment to the fathering role identity affected the psychological centrality of that role. Results showed that fathers who perceived that their wives evaluated them positively as fathers were more likely to report higher levels of involvement in child-related activities and…

  1. The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…

  2. Mystery in Milwaukee: Early Intervention, IQ, and Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…

  3. Mystery in Milwaukee: Early Intervention, IQ, and Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…

  4. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  5. Community interaction and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur. PMID:23981436

  6. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. PMID:26234921

  7. The Burden of Disaster: Part I. Challenges and Opportunities Within a Child’s Social Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Noffsinger, Mary A.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.

    2013-01-01

    Child development and adaptation are best understood as biological and psychological individual processes occurring within the context of interconnecting groups, systems, and communities which, along with family, constitute the child’s social ecology. This first of two articles describes the challenges and opportunities within a child’s social ecology, consisting of Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. The parent-child relationship, the most salient Microsystem influence in children’s lives, plays an influential role in children’s reactions to and recovery from disasters. Children, parents, and other adults participate in Mesosystem activities at schools and faith-based organizations. The Exosystem—including workplaces, spcial agencies, neighborhood, and mass media—directly affects important adults in children’s lives. The Macrosystem affects disaster response and recovery indirectly through intangible cultural, social, economic, and political structures and processes. Children’s responses to adversity occur in the context of these dynamically interconnected and interdependent nested environments, all of which endure the burden of disaster. Increased understanding of the influences of and the relationships between key components contributes to recovery and rebuilding efforts, limiting disruption to the child and his or her social ecology. A companion article (R. L. Pfefferbaum et al., in press) describes interventions across the child’s social ecology. PMID:23156957

  8. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n = 90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n = 88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176) = 2.92, P = 0.004; d = 0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being. PMID:26080320

  9. Longevity factor klotho and chronic psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Prather, A A; Epel, E S; Arenander, J; Broestl, L; Garay, B I; Wang, D; Dubal, D B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is associated with accelerated aging and premature morbidity and mortality; however, the biology linking chronic psychological stress and its maladaptive effects remains largely unknown. Klotho is a pleiotropic hormone that regulates the aging process and promotes better brain and body health. Whether klotho is linked to psychosocial stress or its negative impact in humans has not been investigated. To address this gap, we recruited 178 healthy women who were either chronically high-stress maternal caregivers for a child with autism spectrum disorder (n=90) or low-stress control mothers of a typically developing child (n=88). We found that women under high chronic stress displayed significantly lower levels of the longevity hormone klotho compared with low-stress controls (t(176)=2.92, P=0.004; d=0.44), and the decrease among those under high stress was age-dependent. In addition, high-stress caregivers who reported more depressive symptoms displayed even lower klotho levels compared with low-stress participants. These findings provide the first evidence that klotho levels are sensitive to psychosocial stressors and raise the possibility that klotho may serve as a novel biological link connecting stress, depression and risk for accelerated disease development. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for understanding the plasticity of the aging process and may represent a therapeutic target for mitigating the deleterious effects of chronic psychological stress on health and well-being. PMID:26080320

  10. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  11. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  12. TRAINING IN THERAPEUTIC WORK WITH CHILDREN. CLINICAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD, VOLUME 2. LANGLEY PORTER CHILD PSYCHIATRY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERLIN, I.N., ED.; SZUREK, S.A., ED.

    THE COLLECTION CONTAINS LECTURES AND PAPERS BY VARIOUS AUTHORS DEALING WITH CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, CONSIDERATION OF CHILD PSYCHIATRY INCLUDES DEFINITION, PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT, FACTORS IN CHILDREN'S PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, CLINICAL SYNDROMES, CHILDHOOD PSYCHOSES, AND PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY. AN OVERVIEW OF A PHILOSOPHY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY IN CHILD…

  13. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  14. A Theoretical Upgrade of the Concept of Parental Psychological Control: Proposing New Insights on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Psychological control refers to manipulative parental behavior that intrudes upon the child's psychological world. During the past decade, socialization research has consistently demonstrated the negative effects of psychologically controlling parenting on children's and adolescents' development. However, there has been relatively little advance…

  15. Counseling Psychology in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, Bob

    The history of counseling psychology in Australia, which has been marked by confusion and uncertainty about the distinction between it and other applied areas such as clinical psychology, community psychology, educational psychology, and psychotherapy, is discussed in this paper. The development of the Division of Counselling Psychology within the…

  16. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. PMID:26346388

  17. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH. PMID:26365482

  19. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  20. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

  1. Experiences in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1977-01-01

    This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)

  2. Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

  3. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  4. Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

  5. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

  6. Foundations of Phenomenological Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aanstoos, Christopher M.

    Phenomenology, hermeneutics and experiential psychology form the backbone of an emerging paradigm within psychology known as human science. Human science's use of phenomenology provides a way to set aside the naturalistic presupposition and directly study the irreducible involvement of human existence within a meaningful world, as it is given in…

  7. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  8. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

  9. Rehabilitation: Psychology's Greatest Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how psychologists have established themselves as integral health care providers in rehabilitation. Discusses how psychologists and the psychological associations have failed to recognize the importance of public policy for the practice of psychology. Explores the role of Medicare, and the effects of the inclusion of psychologists in…

  10. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  11. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  12. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  13. Sex-Role Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Frank; Wesley, Claire

    The book explores the psychological aspects of sex-role development and investigates various approaches which have been suggested to provide greater equality between females and males. Chapter one describes the psychology of women and identifies possible approaches toward integration of male and female characteristics. Chapter two discusses…

  14. Child Behavior Problems and Parental Well-Being in Families of Children with Autism: The Mediating Role of Mindfulness and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leah; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Totsika, Vasiliki; Keane, Lisa; Rhule, Neisha

    2014-01-01

    Few research studies have explored how the level of a child's behavior problems leads to psychological distress in parents of children with autism. The authors explored whether psychological acceptance and mindfulness mediated this relationship between child behavior and parental distress. Seventy-one mothers and 39 fathers of children with…

  15. Stepping Stones Triple P: An RCT of a Parenting Program with Parents of a Child Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, "Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review" 2:71-90, 1999; Sanders, "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" 68:624-640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, "Journal of Clinical Child and…

  16. The Impact of Child Problem Behaviors of Children with ASD on Parent Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Acceptance and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; MacMullin, Jennifer Anne; Viecili, Michelle; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often been associated with higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress, and a number of studies have examined the role of psychological processes as mediators of the impact of child problem behavior on parent mental health. The current study examined the relations among…

  17. Child Behavior Problems and Parental Well-Being in Families of Children with Autism: The Mediating Role of Mindfulness and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leah; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Totsika, Vasiliki; Keane, Lisa; Rhule, Neisha

    2014-01-01

    Few research studies have explored how the level of a child's behavior problems leads to psychological distress in parents of children with autism. The authors explored whether psychological acceptance and mindfulness mediated this relationship between child behavior and parental distress. Seventy-one mothers and 39 fathers of children with…

  18. The Impact of Child Problem Behaviors of Children with ASD on Parent Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Acceptance and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; MacMullin, Jennifer Anne; Viecili, Michelle; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often been associated with higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress, and a number of studies have examined the role of psychological processes as mediators of the impact of child problem behavior on parent mental health. The current study examined the relations among…

  19. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  20. Menkes syndrome presenting as possible child abuse.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Hyland; Fussell, Jacqueline Nicole; Pride, Howard; Bellino, Paul

    2012-10-01

    Menkes syndrome, also known as kinky-hair disease, is a rare X-linked recessive, lethal, neurodegenerative disorder of impaired copper transport. The disorder typically is characterized by fine, hypopigmented, wiry hair; doughy skin; bone and connective-tissue disturbances; vascular abnormalities that can result in spontaneous hemorrhaging; and progressive neurologic deterioration. These early findings often are easily confused with child abuse. We report a case of a 6-month-old boy with Menkes syndrome whose symptoms originally were thought to be from child abuse. PMID:23259200

  1. Information technology (IT) use and children's psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Linda A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zhao, Yong; Kolenic, Anthony; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between four types of information technology use and eight dimensions of psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 500 African American and Anglo-American girls and boys. Both parent and child ratings of well-being were considered. Findings indicated that greater IT use, but especially greater videogame use, was associated with lower psychological well-being, with one exception: greater Internet use for purposes other than communication was associated with greater psychological well-being. Greater Internet use for communication was associated with more social problems in real life. Gender and race differences in psychological well-being and IT use suggest that African American males may be at risk for the adverse effects of IT use because their videogame playing equals that of Anglo-American males, but their Internet use is the least of all groups. PMID:18991532

  2. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  3. Helping Your Overweight Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Español Helping Your Overweight Child Page Content Introduction How can I tell if ... a lifetime. How can I tell if my child is overweight? Telling whether a child is overweight ...

  4. Surviving Your Child's Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Surviving Your Child's Suicide The suicide of a child of any ... our Online Support Community. Get Support After a Child Dies Information to help you find your way ...

  5. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the first week after surgery, check your child's temperature every day. Ask your child's doctor if your ... Call your health care provider if: Your child's temperature is above 101°F (38.3°C). The ...

  6. Your Child's Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Your Child's Habits KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Habits Print A ... and is not cause for alarm. What's a Habit? A habit is a pattern of behavior that's ...

  7. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Toilet Training Your Child When should I start toilet training my child? Do not start toilet training until both you and your child are ready. You are ready when you are ...

  8. [The phantasm of the perfect child and phantoms of eugenism].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Frydman, R

    2007-01-01

    The perfect child phantasm is a frequent problem in prenatal diagnosis. However, the definition of a perfect child is complex and is different from a couple to another. The chromosomal analysis of the fetus and amniocentesis are therefore frequently demanded by the parents. However, this could lead to foetal loss. The diminution of the number of unjustified amniocentesis is time consuming and requires a psychological approach. Dialogue, appropriate screening, ultrasound examination, and eventually late amniocentesis can avoid some pregnancy loss. PMID:17708469

  9. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618955

  10. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Tonape, Trupti; Singh, Gurjit; Koushik, P.; Tumepalli, Trinath

    2012-01-01

    Polyorchidism is an extremely rare congenital anomaly which refers to the presence of more than two testicles. There are very few reports of triorchidism in a 2 year old child. Polyorchidism is usually discovered incidentally. The most common anomalies associated with polyorchidism are inguinal hernia (30%), maldescended testis (15% to 30%), testicular torsion (13%) and hydrocele (9%). A 2-year-old child was brought with bilateral undescended testis with normal milestones. Ultrasonography of scrotum and abdomen showed both the testes to be in inguinal canal. Intra-operatively, on left side - there were two testes, which belonged to Leung III class and one testis on right side. Management of polyorchidism is still controversial. The management of polyorchidism will depend upon the location, size and anatomical organisation of the testicular drainage system and the age of the patient. PMID:23741593

  11. Abnormalities of the Optic Fundus

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, David W.; Mandelcorn, Mark S.

    1990-01-01

    Common abnormalities of the optic fundus are illustrated in this article. The authors provide brief clinical descriptions and discuss a test used to screen for a shallow anterior chamber of the eye before dilating the pupil. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17 PMID:21234023

  12. Mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hirai, K; Aliev, G; Nunomura, A; Fujioka, H; Russell, R L; Atwood, C S; Johnson, A B; Kress, Y; Vinters, H V; Tabaton, M; Shimohama, S; Cash, A D; Siedlak, S L; Harris, P L; Jones, P K; Petersen, R B; Perry, G; Smith, M A

    2001-05-01

    The finding that oxidative damage, including that to nucleic acids, in Alzheimer's disease is primarily limited to the cytoplasm of susceptible neuronal populations suggests that mitochondrial abnormalities might be part of the spectrum of chronic oxidative stress of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), immunocytochemistry of cytochrome oxidase, and morphometry of electron micrographs of biopsy specimens to determine whether there are mitochondrial abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease and their relationship to oxidative damage marked by 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine. We found that the same neurons showing increased oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease have a striking and significant increase in mtDNA and cytochrome oxidase. Surprisingly, much of the mtDNA and cytochrome oxidase is found in the neuronal cytoplasm and in the case of mtDNA, the vacuoles associated with lipofuscin. Morphometric analysis showed that mitochondria are significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease. The relationship shown here between the site and extent of mitochondrial abnormalities and oxidative damage suggests an intimate and early association between these features in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:11312286

  13. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  14. Predicting Students' Performance in Introductory Psychology from their Psychology Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhle, Barry X.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bristol, Adam S.

    2009-01-01

    Students bring many misconceptions about psychology to the introductory psychology course. We investigated whether scores on a 10-item Knowledge of Psychology Test (adapted from Vaughan, 1977) taken on the first class day were related to final class grades in 11 introductory psychology classes taught by the same instructor at three colleges. A…

  15. Applied Developmental Psychology: What Is Its Relationship to School Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    The identity problems of school psychologists are complicated by the emergence of applied developmental psychology. Traditionally, school psychology has recognized developmental psychology as one of its major foundations; however, the two fields are not synonymous. School psychology also applies other disciplinary practices, and conversely, all…

  16. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  17. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  18. La investigacion sovietica en psicologia de la actividad linguistica (Soviet Investigations in Psychology Relating to Linguistic Processes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prucha, J.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the actual state of Russian research on verbal behavior as seen from the field of psychology. The research is in four parts: (1) language and thought, especially internal language, (2) neurological aspects of language, (3) child language, and (4) psychology of language learning and teaching for native and foreign languages. (Text is in…

  19. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of an Early Psychological Intervention with Children Involved in Road Traffic Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallard, Paul; Velleman, Richard; Salter, Emma; Howse, Imogen; Yule, William; Taylor, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether an early intervention using a psychological debriefing format is effective in preventing psychological distress in child road traffic accident survivors. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Accident and Emergency Department, Royal United Hospital, Bath. Subjects: 158 children aged 7-18. Follow-up…

  20. La investigacion sovietica en psicologia de la actividad linguistica (Soviet Investigations in Psychology Relating to Linguistic Processes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prucha, J.

    1975-01-01

    Surveys the actual state of Russian research on verbal behavior as seen from the field of psychology. The research is in four parts: (1) language and thought, especially internal language, (2) neurological aspects of language, (3) child language, and (4) psychology of language learning and teaching for native and foreign languages. (Text is in…

  1. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  2. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  3. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  4. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  5. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  6. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  7. Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Le, Brenda; Hanson, R. Karl; Baker, Charlene K.; McMahon, Pam M.; Ryan, Gail; Klein, Alisa; Rice, Deborah Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Since the late 1980s, there has been a strong theoretical focus on psychological and social influences of perpetration of child sexual abuse. This paper presents the results of a review and meta-analysis of studies examining risk factors for perpetration of child sexual abuse published since 1990. Method: Eighty-nine studies published…

  8. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  9. Post Doctoral Fellowship to Study the Language Handicapped Child. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, James J. A.

    A post doctoral fellowship to study the language handicapped child is briefly discussed. The report concludes a year of study during which the author attempts to develop a foundation to bring education and medicine together to meet the challenge of the language handicapped child. The major areas of study - reading, linguistics, and psychology as…

  10. Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Le, Brenda; Hanson, R. Karl; Baker, Charlene K.; McMahon, Pam M.; Ryan, Gail; Klein, Alisa; Rice, Deborah Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Since the late 1980s, there has been a strong theoretical focus on psychological and social influences of perpetration of child sexual abuse. This paper presents the results of a review and meta-analysis of studies examining risk factors for perpetration of child sexual abuse published since 1990. Method: Eighty-nine studies published…

  11. Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghiselin, Michael T.

    1973-01-01

    Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)

  12. A New Theoretical Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet-Higgins, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the study of artificial intelligence can provide ways of thinking about the human mind that are potentially valuable in formulating cognitive theories. Theoretical psychology is proposed as an appropriate classification for this branch of theory. (MSE)

  13. Operational Psychology Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  14. Child abuse: concerns for oral health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are prevalent issues that permeate all ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic segments of society. Parents of abused children frequently change physicians in order to prevent detection, but they are more likely to continue to visit the child's dentist. Most states recognize four major types of maltreatment: neglect; physical abuse; psychological maltreatment; and sexual abuse. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines dental neglect as "the willful failure of parent or guardian to seek and follow through with treatment necessary to ensure a level of oral health essential for adequate function and freedom from pain and infection." The oral health practitioner must uphold his or her legal and ethical responsibility if there is suspicion, record and report the incidence. It may help save a child from further abuse. PMID:24027895

  15. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179

  16. The Spacing Principle for Unlearning Abnormal Neuronal Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Xenakis, Markos N.; Tass, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Desynchronizing stimulation techniques were developed to specifically counteract abnormal neuronal synchronization relevant to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The goal of our approach is to achieve an anti-kindling, where the affected neural networks unlearn abnormal synaptic connectivity and, hence, abnormal neuronal synchrony, by means of desynchronizing stimulation, in particular, Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation. As known from neuroscience, psychology and education, learning effects can be enhanced by means of the spacing principle, i.e. by delivering repeated stimuli spaced by pauses as opposed to delivering a massed stimulus (in a single long stimulation session). To illustrate that the spacing principle may boost the anti-kindling effect of CR neuromodulation, in this computational study we carry this approach to extremes. To this end, we deliver spaced CR neuromodulation at particularly weak intensities which render permanently delivered CR neuromodulation ineffective. Intriguingly, spaced CR neuromodulation at these particularly weak intensities effectively induces an anti-kindling. In fact, the spacing principle enables the neuronal population to successively hop from one attractor to another one, finally approaching attractors characterized by down-regulated synaptic connectivity and synchrony. Our computational results might open up novel opportunities to effectively induce sustained desynchronization at particularly weak stimulation intensities, thereby avoiding side effects, e.g., in the case of deep brain stimulation. PMID:25714553

  17. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  18. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

  19. Child care subsidies, maternal health, and child-parent interactions: evidence from three nationally representative datasets.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal

    2014-08-01

    A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. PMID:23832797

  20. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-03-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the new born (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support, (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required, (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the new born (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory distress and cyanosis (sometimes differential). Clinical examination also reveals evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid and, at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:11129917

  1. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-07-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in the 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and, therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses, especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory tension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid, and at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:10957839

  2. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  3. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  4. Child Support Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2002 of the Child Support Report, which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  5. THE DIFFICULT CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROUCEK, JOSEPH S.

    THIS BOOK CONSISTS OF 16 ESSAYS BY SPECIALISTS ON PROBLEMS WHICH MAY MAKE A CHILD DIFFICULT. EACH AUTHOR DISCUSSES ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND HOW DIFFICULTIES MAY BE REDUCED. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE CREATIVE CHILD" BY E.P. TORRANCE, (2) "THE INATTENTIVE CHILD" BY I.W. SCHERER, (3) "THE CHILD WITH LANGUAGE…

  6. Child Support Report, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  7. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  8. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

  9. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

  10. Determinants of child-bearing intentions of low-income women: attitudes versus life circumstances.

    PubMed

    Radecki, S E; Beckman, L J

    1992-04-01

    Surveys of low-income women in Los Angeles County in 1985 and 1986 were used to examine the relative impact of child-bearing motivations versus life circumstances on the intention to have a(nother) child. Future child-bearing intentions are strongly related to current parity level regardless of marital status, race/ethnicity or economic status. Psychological motivating factors predict child-bearing intentions of nulliparous women, but not those of parous women. Multivariate analyses showed that motivation for parenthood and life circumstances combined predicted women's child-bearing intentions 88.6% of the time for nulliparous women, but 73.7% for parous women. These findings suggest that, in a low-income population, the onset of parenthood reduces the relationship between specific motivations for child-bearing and actual child-bearing intentions, and diminishes the ability to predict child-bearing intentions based on both attitudinal and social/structural factors. PMID:1583030

  11. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  12. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  13. Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S S

    1989-01-01

    Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concurrent presence of cirrhosis seems to retard the occurrence of overt heart failure. Even nonalcoholic cirrhosis may be associated with latent cardiomyopathy, although overt heart failure is not observed. Tense ascites is associated with some cardiac compromise, and removing or mobilizing ascitic fluid by paracentesis or peritoneovenous shunting results in short-term increases in cardiac output. Cirrhosis also appears to be associated with a decreased risk of major coronary atherosclerosis and an increased risk of bacterial endocarditis. Small hemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusions may be seen in ascitic patients. The release of atrial natriuretic peptide appears to be unimpaired in cirrhosis, although the kidney may be hyporesponsive to its natriuretic effects. PMID:2690463

  14. Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-01-01

    Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

  15. Program Learning: Dealing with Common Problems in the Residential Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…

  16. A Pediatric-Child-Psychiatry Liaison Program in a Community Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Larrie W.; Rice, Harvey W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an innovative pediatric and child psychiatry liaison program in a community hospital that focuses on the identification of normal and abnormal development of the hospitalized child and his family, none of whom has obvious psychopathology. Directed toward medical students, residents, and paramedical personnel, it has been well…

  17. Program Learning: Dealing with Common Problems in the Residential Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…

  18. Parenting during Toddlerhood: Contributions of Parental, Contextual, and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; Van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the contribution of parental, contextual, and child characteristics to parenting behavior during toddlerhood in 111 two-parent families with a 17-month-old son (M = 16.9 months, SD = 0.57). Parenting was conceptualized in terms of five dimensions: support, structure, positive discipline, psychological control, and…

  19. CHELLO: The Child/Home Environmental Language and Literacy Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, S.B.; Koh, S.; Dwyer, J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring the quality of the language and literacy environment in home-based settings. Based on a convergence of research on the ecological and psychological factors associated with early literacy development, the Child/Home Environmental Language and Literacy Observation…

  20. G. Stanley Hall, Child Study, and the Teaching of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koelsch, William A.

    2002-01-01

    G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924), founding president of Clark University, was a leader in the child study movement and a significant figure in psychology and education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Hall had pronounced opinions on many educational subjects, including the teaching of geography. His criticisms and program for the…