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Sample records for abnormal child psychology

  1. The Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology at 25.

    PubMed

    Wasserstein, S B; Lopez, N; Routh, D K

    1997-02-01

    This issue, redesigned in a new format, marks the beginning of Volume 25, the beginning of the "silver anniversary" year of the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Data were compiled from the first 24 volumes to study changes over time, and Pearson correlations were calculated to determine linear trends in the journal's development. The number of articles per volume has doubled, from about 25 to 50. In recent years the first authors of articles were more likely to be located outside the U.S. (up from about 5% to about 25%). Also, in recent years the first authors of articles were less likely to be affiliated with nonmedical school university departments and more likely to be affiliated with medical schools or research institutes. An introduction to this special 25th anniversary issue is provided. PMID:9093894

  2. Coverage of child maltreatment in abnormal psychology textbooks: Reviewing the adequacy of the content.

    PubMed

    Wilgus, Sam J; Packer, Mary M; Lile-King, Rachel; Miller-Perrin, Cindy L; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal psychology courses introduce undergraduate students to the range, causes, and treatments of psychological disorders. These courses present important opportunities to instruct students about disorders and treatments associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) as well as its prevalence. Little research has examined the adequacy with which abnormal psychology textbooks present information about CM. The present study reviewed the CM content of 10 abnormal psychology textbooks. The content was assessed in terms of the number of times CM was mentioned, the number of psychological disorders linked to CM, and the number of CM-related research citations. In addition, the authors conducted a content analysis to examine the significance, depth of detail, and organizational structure of the information provided within the sections of text addressing CM. There were significant differences in scores and the accuracy of coverage of CM across textbooks. Most of the textbooks lack key information on CM. The information presented in many textbooks is not consistent with current research and is overly focused on controversies. These findings are concerning because research has linked many psychological disorders and problematic outcomes to CM, but this information is not adequately conveyed to students via abnormal psychology textbooks. The authors make recommendations for improving the coverage of CM in abnormal psychology textbooks. PMID:26010115

  3. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  4. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  5. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  6. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  7. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  8. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  10. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  11. Social and Abnormal Psychology Textbooks: An Objective Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)

  12. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  13. Little Albert from the Viewpoint of Abnormal Psychology Textbook Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeUnes, Arnold

    1983-01-01

    Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert and conditioned emotional reactions is unquestionably a classic in psychology. Observations are made on what authors of 27 college textbooks in abnormal psychology have to say or not to say about Little Albert. (RM)

  14. Students' Evaluation of Writing Assignments in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procidano, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which students in an abnormal psychology class rated the usefulness of drafts for two writing assignments. Reports that a research proposal was more effective than a case study in generating interest in psychology and opportunity for creativity. Concludes that writing assignments should reflect important aspects of a…

  15. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  16. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia. PMID:15209373

  17. Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, David F.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that an evolutionary account provides insight into developmental function and individual differences. Outlines some assumptions of evolutionary psychology related to development. Introduces the developmental systems approach, differential influence of natural selection at different points in ontogeny, and development of evolved…

  18. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  19. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Altering Attitudes toward Suicide in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, George

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a report stemming from the development and application of a Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ)--a 100 item attitudinal and factual instrument designed to cover a wide range of suicidal concerns. Subjects of the study were 17 college students drawn at random from 89 students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Results…

  1. Use of Drama Students as "Clients" in Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Kirby

    1982-01-01

    Describes the use of drama students to role play subjects of case studies in simulations of standard interviews in a college-level abnormal psychology class. Graduate drama students role-played clients in interviews with instructors or student panels. After the interviews, class discussion covered alternative possible diagnoses and possible…

  2. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  3. The Image of Women in Abnormal Psychology: Professionalism versus Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean

    1980-01-01

    A survey of sex stereotyping in photographs was made of major current-edition textbooks of abnormal psychology published in the United States. In photographs of contributors to the field women were significantly underrepresented, amounting to less that 5 percent of the contributors pictured. (Author)

  4. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgin, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  5. The Teaching of Abnormal Psychology through the Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim-Sabat, Denis

    1979-01-01

    Describes abnormal psychology course centered around films which include "King of Hearts,""A Woman Under the Influence,""David and Lisa,""In Cold Blood," and "The Boys in the Band." Each film deals with a fundamental concept such as psychopathology, neurosis, psychosis, insanity, and sexuality. (KC)

  6. Practice Forum: Self Psychology in Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmeier, John; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1991-01-01

    The use of self-psychology, a theory first developed by Heinz Kohut, is discussed and illustrated with case examples from child welfare practice. The cases demonstrate that self-psychology can enhance an ecological model. The ways in which self-psychology can enrich the social worker's therapeutic role in permanency planning are emphasized.…

  7. The Portrayal of Child Sexual Assault in Introductory Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Lewis, Tonya C.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the manner in which introductory psychology textbooks present issues about child sexual assault. Finds that four texts made no mention of any child sexual assault issues and of the remaining textbooks, the majority of the information concerning child sexual assault dealt with memory issues. Identifies five overgeneralizations in relation…

  8. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China. PMID:27030213

  9. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  10. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198

  11. Teaching Abnormal Psychology to Improve Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…

  12. Psychological characteristics of and counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, H L; Wu, B; Guo, K M; Tian, R H

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a psychological problem has gained increasing attention. Male partners among infertile couples have elevated levels of psychological distress, which could affect semen quality, result in hormonal abnormalities, and increase the occurrence of early miscarriage. Infertile women are more vulnerable to psychological distress and require psychological support. Subfertile women who conceive after assisted reproduction have higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertility patients. However, psychosocial characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities have not been studied. We report the characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities and their influence on psychological counseling. Seventy-five patients were carriers of reciprocal translocations, 25 carried Robertsonian translocations, 17 carried inversions, 10 carried deletions, and 3 carried isochromosomes. The main clinical characteristics were recurrent spontaneous abortion, oligospermatism, azoospermatism, primary amenorrhea, and fetal death. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those scores of women with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those of men with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than their scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality. Women carriers with structural chromosome abnormality were more vulnerable to psychological distress. Psychosocial counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities should focus on self-confidence and treatment with assisted reproductive technology. PMID:27173267

  13. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  14. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  15. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  16. The Clinician's "World of Action" as an Approach to Teaching Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibace, Roger; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Presents a description of an undergraduate abnormal psychology course developed from a theory of instruction and active student participation, the theoretical basis for the course, student course evaluation, and an interpretation of the students' performances. (Author/CK)

  17. Student Expectations of Course Content Affect Faculty Evaluations in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Frances A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring how student expectations of an abnormal psychology course affect their rating of professors. Findings showed a significant impact, especially in relation to popularized topics. Recommends evaluative instruments separating course-related factors from instructor ratings. (CK)

  18. Use of Virtual Reality Technology to Enhance Undergraduate Learning in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kim; Kreiner, David S.; Boeding, Christopher M.; Lopata, Ashley N.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Church, Tina M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether using virtual reality (VR) technology to provide students with direct exposure to evidence-based psychological treatment approaches would enhance their understanding of and appreciation for such treatments. Students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course participated in a VR session designed to help clients overcome the fear…

  19. Capturing Students' Attention: Movie Clips Set the Stage for Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badura, Amy S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a study that evaluated using popular movie clips, shown in the first class meeting of an abnormal psychology course, in relation to student enthusiasm. Compares two classes of female juniors, one using clips and one class not using them. States that the films portrayed psychological disorders. (CMK)

  20. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  1. Child murder by parents and evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Cavney, James; Resnick, Phillip J

    2012-12-01

    This article explores the contribution of evolutionary theory to the understanding of causation and motive in filicide cases and also reviews special issues in the forensic evaluation of alleged perpetrators of filicide. Evolutionary social psychology seeks to understand the context in which our brains evolved, to understand human behaviors. The authors propose evolutionary theory as a framework theory to meaningfully appreciate research about filicide. Using evolutionary psychology as a theoretical lens, this article reviews the research on filicide over the past 40 years, and describes epidemiologic and typologic studies of filicide, and theoretical analyses from a range of disciplines. PMID:23107563

  2. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  3. Measurement of Emotional/Psychological Child Maltreatment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonmyr, Lil; Draca, Jasminka; Crain, Jennifer; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emotional/psychological child maltreatment (ECM) is a major public health problem with serious consequences including emotional and behavioral problems. Nevertheless, ECM is an understudied area. Objectives: The aims of this review are to identify measures of ECM and to evaluate their psychometric properties and utilities. We provide a…

  4. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, Anne D., Ed.

    This book is a collection of six papers presented at a 1974 University of Minnesota symposium on child development. The six chapters deal with language acquisition, visual perception, effects of television viewing, the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), problem-solving strategies, and Piagetian concepts related to social development. The first…

  5. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  6. Psychological considerations of the child with asthma.

    PubMed

    Peters, Todd E; Fritz, Gregory K

    2010-04-01

    Asthma, the most common chronic disease in children and adolescents in industrialized countries, is typified by airway inflammation and obstruction leading to wheezing, dyspnea, and cough. However, the effect of asthma does not end with pulmonary changes. Research has shown a direct link between asthma and stress and psychiatric illness, which if untreated results in heightened morbidity and effects on society. The link between asthma and psychiatric illness, however, is often underappreciated by many pediatric and child mental health professionals. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of asthma as well as the correlation between asthma and psychiatric illness in children in an effort to improve management and treatment strategies for this prevalent disease. PMID:20478502

  7. Beyond the Sponge Model: Encouraging Students' Questioning Skills in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Stuart M.; Ali, Rahan; Gebing, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that educators should provide students with explicit training in asking critical questions. Describes a training strategy taught in abnormal psychology courses at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). Based on a pre- and post-test, results support the promise of using explicit questioning training in promoting the evaluative aspects of…

  8. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  9. Family, Friends, and Self: The Real-Life Context of an Abnormal Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from a survey of students in two sections of an abnormal psychology course. Assessed the number of students who had firsthand exposure to a psychiatric disorder (friend, family member, or themselves), the nature of the relationship, the average number of personal relationships with people with psychiatric disorders, and the…

  10. A Volunteer Program for Abnormal Psychology Students: Eighteen Years and Still Going Strong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scogin, Forrest; Rickard, Henry C.

    1987-01-01

    A volunteer experience in abnormal psychology is described. The program has been operating for 18 years, and student reactions have been quite positive. The program augments the traditional course offerings and provides reciprocal service for the University of Alabama and mental health facilities. Guidelines for implementing a volunteer program…

  11. A Case-Conference Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafosse, Jose M.; Zinser, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe an in-class case-conference exercise designed to enhance the teaching of paradigms in abnormal psychology courses. The primary pedagogical goals are to increase awareness of how paradigms are applied in real-life settings; better distinguish between paradigms; and recognize how paradigms influence understanding of…

  12. Written Assignments for Abnormal Psychology at Howard Community College, Fall 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James

    Designed for students enrolled in an Abnormal Psychology course at Howard Community College (Maryland), this booklet explains the requirements for the course's writing assignments, which are designed to teach the skills of comparison and contrast, analysis, critical thinking, and synthesis. Following an overview of class assignments and…

  13. Values-Oriented Public Policy Forums: Active Learning in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevern, Vincent W.

    Students in an undergraduate course in abnormal psychology annually employ a cooperative active learning model to conduct a 4- to 6-day, values-oriented public policy forum (PPF) within the class itself on a general topic of concern to the field of mental health. A comprehensive and structured five-phase model for a PPF is detailed for course…

  14. The experience of the child witness: Legal and psychological issues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The increasing presence of child witnesses in the courtroom has brought with it a host of challenges and dilemmas. Related concerns include whether children may be deemed incompetent solely because of their age, whether their testimony is reliable and accurate in light of their allegedly suggestible nature, and whether the experience of testifying may re-traumatize witnesses who are also victims. A growing body of multidisciplinary research continues to address the legal and clinical implications of permitting children to testify in open court. Numerous guidelines have been promulgated that contain recommendations for protecting children's best interests as they journey through the criminal justice system. Related courtroom procedures vary greatly among American jurisdictions, and innovations in other countries--for example, the United Kingdom's Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act of 1999, and similar legislation in Israel and in Norway--have introduced a range of alternative measures that can be employed with young witnesses, depending primarily on whether the child witness is ultimately deemed either "vulnerable" or "intimidated." This article incorporates legal and psychological studies--from geographically diverse perspectives--that focus upon the courtroom experiences of child witnesses in criminal proceedings, including determinations of testimonial capacity and other matters unique to this population. PMID:26343312

  15. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The birth of a child with a cleft lip, whether or not in association with a cleft palate, is a traumatic event for parents. This prospective, multidisciplinary and multi-centre study aims to explore the perceptions and feelings of parents in the year following the birth of their child, and to analyse parent–child relationships. Four inclusion centres have been selected, differing as to the date of the first surgical intervention, between birth and six months. The aim is to compare results, also distinguishing the subgroups of parents who were given the diagnosis in utero and those who were not. Methods/Design The main hypothesis is that the longer the time-lapse before the first surgical intervention, the more likely are the psychological perceptions of the parents to affect the harmonious development of their child. Parents and children are seen twice, when the child is 4 months (T0) and when the child is one year old (T1). At these two times, the psychological state of the child and his/her relational abilities are assessed by a specially trained professional, and self-administered questionnaires measuring factors liable to affect child–parent relationships are issued to the parents. The Alarme Détresse BéBé score for the child and the Parenting Stress Index score for the parents, measured when the child reaches one year, will be used as the main criteria to compare children with early surgery to children with late surgery, and those where the diagnosis was obtained prior to birth with those receiving it at birth. Discussion The mental and psychological dimensions relating to the abnormality and its correction will be analysed for the parents (the importance of prenatal diagnosis, relational development with the child, self-image, quality of life) and also, for the first time, for the child (distress, withdrawal). In an ethical perspective, the different time lapses until surgery in the different protocols and their effects will be analysed, so

  16. Evaluation of Small Student-Led Discussion Groups as an Adjunct to a Course in Abnormal Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents data related to student involvement in biweekly student-led discussion groups in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Evaluates the degree to which students felt they benefited from discussion groups composed of similar and dissimilar students. (Author/AV)

  17. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  18. Editorial: Bayesian benefits for child psychology and psychiatry researchers.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-09-01

    For many scientists, performing statistical tests has become an almost automated routine. However, p-values are frequently used and interpreted incorrectly; and even when used appropriately, p-values tend to provide answers that do not match researchers' questions and hypotheses well. Bayesian statistics present an elegant and often more suitable alternative. The Bayesian approach has rarely been applied in child psychology and psychiatry research so far, but the development of user-friendly software packages and tutorials has placed it well within reach now. Because Bayesian analyses require a more refined definition of hypothesized probabilities of possible outcomes than the classical approach, going Bayesian may offer the additional benefit of sparkling the development and refinement of theoretical models in our field. PMID:27535649

  19. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians’ Judgments Of Psychological Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person’s current behaviors? The appropriate role of life-event context in assessment has long been the subject of intense debate and scrutiny among clinical theorists, yet relatively little is known about clinicians’ own judgments in practice. We propose a proportionate-response hypothesis, such that judgments of abnormality are influenced by whether the behaviors are a disproportionate response to past events, rendering them difficult to understand or explain. We presented licensed, practicing clinical psychologists (N=77) with vignettes describing hypothetical people’s behaviors (disordered, mildly distressed, or unaffected) that had been preceded by either traumatic or mildly distressing events. Experts’ judgments of abnormality were strongly and systematically influenced by the degree of mismatch between the past event and current behaviors in strength and valence, such that the greater the mismatch, the more abnormal the person seemed. A separate, additional group of clinical psychologists (N=20) further confirmed that the greater the degree of mismatch, the greater the perceived difficulty in understanding the patient. These findings held true across clinicians of different theoretical orientations and in disorders for which these patterns of judgments ran contrary to formal recommendations in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000). The rationality of these effects and implications for clinical decision science are discussed. PMID:22142425

  20. Effective Consultation in Educational and Child Psychology Practice: Professional Training for Both Competence and Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Emma Kate; Cameron, R. J.; Monsen, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    How should applied psychology practitioners be prepared to meet an increasingly challenging and unpredictable working context? This article explores some of the key current issues for educational and child psychology practitioners and their professional trainers in the UK with regard to the topic of effective consultation. The article argues that…

  1. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  2. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiological Abnormality in an 8 Months Old Female Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kunal R.; Chandanwale, Ajay S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Spinal cord injury in children frequently occurs without fracture or dislocation. SCIWORA is a syndrome occurring when the spinal cord sustains neural damage during a traumatic event without positive radiographic findings. The incidence of SCIWORA was found to be 8% to 32% in various studies with very few cases documented in children below the age of 1 year. We report such a case of spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in an 8 months old female child. Case Report: An 8 months old female child was brought to the emergency room after a history of fall from the bed four days back. External spine examination revealed no abnormality. She had no upper or lower limb movements, both active and withdrawal movements with painful tactile stimuli, power was grade 0; are flexic; abdominal cremasteric and anal reflexes were absent, bladder was palpable and urine could be expressed on manual pressure. MRI of cervical spine with screening of whole spine: suggestive of non hemorrhagic cord edema at C4 level, with suspicious tear of anterior longitudinal ligament at that level. The child was immobilized in pediatric cervical collar and treatment was initiated with corticosteroids and the dose adjusted as per age of the patient. A paediatric physiotherapist started with physical therapy after four days of commencement of treatment. Conclusion: In present times with wide spread use of MRI, the definition of SCIWORA is slowly turning towards spinal cord injury without neuroimaging abnormality [4]. Traumatic spinal cord infarction is a special type of SCIWORA which presents with normal radiology with delayed neurological deterioration [1]. Corticosteroid usage has been useful in cases of SCIWORA as proved by NASCISII Trial. PMID:27299114

  3. Children conceived by gamete donation: psychological adjustment and mother-child relationships at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-04-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in nondisclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families, suggesting that families may benefit from openness about the child's genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  4. Parent-child relationships, parental psychological control, and aggression: maternal and paternal relationships.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Dwyer, Kathleen M; Rubin, Kenneth H; Knighton-Wisor, Sarah; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have examined both maternal and paternal parenting practices in the prediction of child outcomes despite evidence that underscores the salience of fathers throughout their children's development. This study examined the role of the quality of mother-child and father-child relationships in buffering the influence of ineffective parenting practices on subsequent adolescent aggression. Measures of parental psychological control, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and youth aggressive behavior were completed by 163 (49 % female) mostly White and Asian adolescents and their parents during the eighth and ninth grades. Paternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their mothers. Similarly, maternal psychological control predicted aggression when adolescents perceived low-quality relationships with their fathers. Maternal psychological control was also associated with lower levels of aggression among adolescent males who reported a high-quality relationship with their father. These findings indicate that, when one parent exerts psychological control, the low-quality relationship the adolescent shares with the opposite gender parent increases risk for adolescent aggression. The findings also suggest that, as mothers exert psychological control, the high-quality parent-child relationship a son shares with his father decreases risk for adolescent aggression. PMID:24072564

  5. Identifying expectant parents at risk for psychological distress in response to a confirmed fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Cole, Joanna C M; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Berger, Kelsey; Cary, Mark S; Smith, Haley; Martino, Victoria; Rendon, Norma; Howell, Lori J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of psychological distress among expectant women carrying fetuses with prenatal diagnosed abnormalities and their partners. A 2-year retrospective medical chart review was completed of 1032 expectant mothers carrying fetuses with a confirmed anomaly, and 788 expectant fathers, who completed the CFDT Mental Health Screening Tool. Furthermore, 19.3 % of women and 13.1 % of men reported significant post-traumatic stress symptoms, and 14 % of men and 23 % of women scored positive for a major depressive disorder. Higher risk was noted among expectant parents of younger age and minority racial/ethnic status, and women with post-college level education and current or prior use of antidepressant medications. Heightened distress was noted within fetal diagnostic subgroups including neck masses, sacrococcygeal teratomas, neurological defects, and miscellaneous diagnoses. Incorporating screening tools into prenatal practice can help clinicians better identify the potential risk for psychological distress among expectant parents within high-risk fetal settings. PMID:26392365

  6. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemination and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. Although no differences were found for maternal negativity or child adjustment, mothers in non-disclosing gamete donation families showed less positive interaction than mothers in natural conception families suggesting families may benefit from openness about the child’s genetic origins. PMID:21401244

  7. Psychological Effects on the Family of a Mentally Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    The paper discusses the birth of a mentally retarded infant in terms of initial parent reactions, adjustment, decision to institutionalize, psychological effect on the mother, psychological effect on the father, impact on the marriage, and impact on siblings. The birth is a traumatic experience for the parents and can result in initial feelings of…

  8. Musical Education and Egyptian Child's Psychological and Social Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenawy, Hoda Mohammed

    The role played by music in Egyptian education in developing the character of the child is discussed. The first part of the paper discusses the characteristics of the elementary school child and examines how each can be developed through musical education. For example, young children have a fertile imagination that can be stimulated by music.…

  9. Is psychiatry only neurology? Or only abnormal psychology? Déjà vu after 100 years.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Forgetting history, which frequently repeats itself, is a mistake. In General Psychopathology, Jaspers criticised early 20th century psychiatrists, including those who thought psychiatry was only neurology (Wernicke) or only abnormal psychology (Freud), or who did not see the limitations of the medical model in psychiatry (Kraepelin). Jaspers proposed that some psychiatric disorders follow the medical model (Group I), while others are variations of normality (Group III), or comprise schizophrenia and severe mood disorders (Group II). In the early 21st century, the players' names have changed but the game remains the same. The US NIMH is reprising both Wernicke's brain mythology and Kraepelin's marketing promises. The neo-Kraepelinian revolution started at Washington University, became pre-eminent through the DSM-III developed by Spitzer, but reached a dead end with the DSM-5. McHugh, who described four perspectives in psychiatry, is the leading contemporary representative of the Jaspersian diagnostic approach. Other neo-Jaspersians are: Berrios, Wiggins and Schwartz, Ghaemi, Stanghellini, Parnas and Sass. Can psychiatry learn from its mistakes? The current psychiatric language, organised at its three levels, symptoms, syndromes, and disorders, was developed in the 19th century but is obsolete for the 21st century. Scientific advances in Jaspers' Group III disorders require collaborating with researchers in the social and psychological sciences. Jaspers' Group II disorders, redefined by the author as schizophrenia, catatonic syndromes, and severe mood disorders, are the core of psychiatry. Scientific advancement in them is not easy because we are not sure how to delineate between and within them correctly. PMID:25849592

  10. Single mothers by choice: Mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Zadeh, Sophie; Imrie, Susan; Smith, Venessa; Freeman, Tabitha

    2016-06-01

    Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4-9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother-child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother-child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child's gender, and parenting stress were associated with children's adjustment problems in both family types. The findings suggest that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866836

  11. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  12. [Experience of a chronic condition and psychological support of the child with epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Labidurie, Marine; Leduc-Leballeur, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic condition with extremely variable consequences in children and can disrupt their development. Children who have epilepsy can present cognitive, behavioural and psychological disorders. The psychological follow-up forms part of a global care management of the child and their family, enabling everyone to express their own experience of the condition. This support helps them to develop strategies to face up to epilepsy and preserve their quality of life. PMID:26100482

  13. Psychological intervention for a child exposed to murder.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Megha; Hirisave, Uma; Srinath, Shoba

    2014-05-01

    This report describes the process of psychotherapy for a 7-y-old boy who witnessed the gruesome murder of his mother by the father. Expressive therapy techniques such as play, art and storytelling were used to help the child emote, achieve independence and emotional maturity. The child was seen as an in-patient for 3 mo on a daily basis, followed by weekly and subsequently bi-monthly follow ups. During the ward stay, aggression towards other children and grandmother had reduced significantly. The child was able to verbalize the irreversibility and inevitability of death, and had developed healthy ways to resolve the grief. In the subsequent follow ups, although some behavior problems persisted, gains from therapy generalized to help him deal with challenges of real life, such as a constantly lurking fear of the father returning from prison. PMID:23604611

  14. Single Mothers by Choice: Mother–Child Relationships and Children’s Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4–9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother–child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother–child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child’s gender, and parenting stress were associated with children’s adjustment problems in both family types. The findings suggest that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. PMID:26866836

  15. Giving Children Security: Mamie Phipps Clark and the Racialization of Child Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Shafali

    2002-01-01

    Examines the individual and social contexts of the life of Mamie Clark (wife of African American psychologist Kenneth Clark), whose work at the Harlem Northside Center for Child Development helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. Urges greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in history of…

  16. The Psychological Development of Justice and Injustice in Child Maltreatment: Some Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how children construct their experiences of justice and injustice and how abuse relates exclusively to the meaning assigned to these constructs. Notes that children's psychological adaptation is shaped by the legal system's response to the child's plight and how the traumatic event is interpreted according to the ethical standards that…

  17. Roots and Wings: How Attachment and Temperament Shape Development. Revolutionary Studies in Child Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Summaries of four studies in child psychology reveal that children's attachment to caregivers depends on physical contact more than food; secure attachment to loving caregivers provides a base from which children explore and learn; children's separation behaviors reveal much about their attachment relationship; and children are born with traits…

  18. Hearing Children's Voices: True Empathy in Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Olivia K.

    2013-01-01

    Olivia Lima writes in this article that because she is not trained as a therapist or counselor, but rather as a researcher in cognitive development, she cannot speak to the clinical role of empathy. However she does consider empathy central to her work teaching Child Psychology. Keeping that in mind, she begins her first class by telling the…

  19. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  20. Finding Genes in Child Psychology and Psychiatry: When Are We Going to Be There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: The seven papers in this special section chart where we are in the quest for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in key areas of child psychology and psychiatry such as reading and hyperactivity. But we are not there yet. Methods: This commentary considers some new developments that are likely to accelerate the journey towards the…

  1. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  2. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  3. Psychological and Religious Coping Strategies of Mothers Bereaved by the Sudden Death of a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Miriam J.; Marwit, Samuel J.; Vandenberg, Brian; Chibnall, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of 3 types of psychological coping (task-based, emotion-based, avoidance), 2 types of religious coping (positive, negative), and their interactions with grief of 57 mothers bereaved by the sudden death of a child. Results indicated that mothers who use emotion-based coping report significantly higher levels of…

  4. Diagnosing Cartman: Psychology Students' Use of Symptoms and Traits to Assess Child Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…

  5. Evidence of Psychological Engagement When Raising a Virtual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Douglas K.; Smith, Kathleen H.

    2014-01-01

    Students are very familiar with digital media and computers. The aim of this study was to take advantage of this skill-set and examine evidence of psychological engagement in a personalized web-based learning experience, given the more general interest in student engagement of students in Higher Education. In this study, 117 students each raised…

  6. Psychologic Implications of the Maltreated-Child Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Roig, Antonio; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective investigation of 97 psychologically maltreated children showed a clear relationship between clinical symptoms and intensity of the abuse. Parental neglect resulted in impairment of intellectual and locomotor development and in emotional and behavioral disorders. Neurotic manifestations of regressive type appeared in nearly half the…

  7. The Psychological Rights of the Child and Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; McGee, John J.

    1982-01-01

    The psychological rights of children with disabilities are discussed in this article. The emergence of a worldwide movement for full citizenship for the disabled is traced, and the physical and social integration of disabled citizens into the mainstream of family and community life is described. (PP)

  8. Integrating Child Neuropsychological Elements in School Psychology Graduate Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    This paper contends that school psychologists often are expected to reconcile, interpret, and evaluate the cognitive and behavioral functioning of children with neurologically related disorders. In this light, it is suggested that students in graduate programs in school psychology could benefit from specialized education and experience in applied…

  9. The Psychological Rights of the Child and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelbaum, Lee E.

    1982-01-01

    Children's rights are discussed as part of a larger conflict between the integrative (emphasizing the duty of institutions to guide the child) and the libertarian views of civil rights. The relative authority given to the judgments of parents, professionals, and children by the law and by court decisions is described. (Author/PP)

  10. The Normalised Child: A Non-Traditional Psychological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grebennikov, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    The terms "normalisation" and "normalised child" were introduced into early childhood scholarship by Maria Montessori, whose ideas regarding norm and deviation in children's development and behaviour have been discussed, debated and sometimes criticised, but remain magnetic and recognised worldwide. Contemporary Western society is witnessing a…

  11. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology. PMID:25440718

  12. Severe hypermagnesemia presenting with abnormal electrocardiographic findings similar to those of hyperkalemia in a child undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Jhang, Won Kyoung; Lee, Yoon Jung; Kim, Young A; Park, Seong Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we present a pediatric case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia resulting from the use of magnesium oxide as a laxative in a child undergoing continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease. The patient showed abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) findings, such as tall T waves, a widened QRS complex, and irregular conduction, which were initially misdiagnosed as hyperkalemia; later, the correct diagnosis of hypermagnesemia was obtained. Emergent hemodialysis successfully returned the serum magnesium concentration to normal without complications. When abnormal ECG changes are detected in patients with renal failure, hypermagnesemia should be considered. PMID:23908672

  13. Editorial: Looking beyond the horizon--innovation in child psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pasco Fearon, R M

    2016-03-01

    As readers will no doubt be well aware, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry dedicates an entire issue, once a year, to state-of-the-art authoritative reviews of research on some of the central issues in our field.(1) I like to think that in doing so we have been quietly undertaking a giant Pavlovian conditioning experiment: every year, as the spring flowers start to blossom (in the northern hemisphere at least), the nucleus accumbens of child psychologists and psychiatrists around the world begin to glow in anticipation of intellectual reward. PMID:26889890

  14. THE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROBINSON, HALBERT B.; ROBINSON, NANCY M.

    PRESENTING A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MENTAL RETARDATION, THIS TEXT BEGINS WITH A DISCUSSION OF THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE, PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION, AND THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. A SECTION ON ETIOLOGY AND SYNDROMES PRESENTS INFORMATION ON GENETIC FACTORS AND GENETIC SYNDROMES AND THE PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL…

  15. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments. PMID:27402736

  16. Psychological distress in African American grandmothers raising grandchildren: the contribution of child behavior problems, physical health, and family resources.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Susan J; Whitley, Deborah M; Campos, Peter E

    2013-08-01

    Diminished psychological health has been identified among caregiving grandmothers. The intent of this investigation was to examine psychological distress levels, as well as their predictors, in a sample of 480 caregiving African American grandmothers, mean age 56 years. Almost 40% (39.8%) of participants had clinically elevated psychological distress scores. Results of hierarchical multiple regression indicated that internalizing and externalizing child behavior problems, poor grandmother physical health, younger age of grandmother, and lack of family resources predicted 31% of the variance in psychological distress. Results provide direction for nursing interventions aimed at enhancing the psychological well-being of caregiving grandmothers. PMID:23606233

  17. Abnormal degree centrality of functional hubs associated with negative coping in older Chinese adults who lost their only child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, HuiJuan; Wei, Dongtao; Sun, Jiangzhou; Yang, Junyi; Meng, Jie; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-12-01

    The loss of an only child is a negative life event and may potentially increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. However, the psychological consequences of the loss of an only child and the associated neural mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Degree centrality (DC), derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was used to examine network communication in 22 older adults who lost their only child and 23 matched controls. The older adults who lost their only child exhibited an ineffective coping style. They also showed decreased distant and local DC in the precuneus and left inferior parietal lobule and decreased distant DC in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, the decreased local and distant DC of these regions and the decreased DLPFC-precuneus connectivity strength were negatively correlated with negative coping scores in the loss group but not in the controls. Overall, the results suggested a model that the impaired neural network communication of brain hubs within the default mode network (DMN) and central executive network (CEN) were associated with a negative coping style in older adults who lost their only child. The decreased connectivity of the hubs can be identified as a neural risk factor that is related to future psychopathology. PMID:26391339

  18. [A study on family pattern and psychological aspects of parent and child].

    PubMed

    Seo, M H; Hong, M S

    1988-12-01

    This study reviews the relationship between family patterns and psychological aspects of the mother-child relationship. As the population increase in Korea will reach 50 million in 2020, population policy must deal with population quality. The data come from 118 5th and 6th grade students and their mothers. Survey results shows that the number of children and the family type are related to mothers' child rearing attitudes. Mothers in nuclear families tended to be warmer and freer towards their children than others. Family type was not related to the self-esteem of children, and the number of siblings showed a weak relationship. Children with siblings have stronger self-esteem. Birth order and younger sibling spacing had a stronger relationship with self-esteem. First borns and those who had younger siblings within a 2-year interval had the weakest self-esteem. Since families are becoming smaller, child quality is becoming more important. Not only family size but also family type, birth order, and spacing need to be considered for the psychological well-being of the population. PMID:12342280

  19. A Prospective Investigation of the Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Indicators of Adult Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean; Dee, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified 3 decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r < .30) correlated with several psychological well-being indicators and predictive of adult anger, self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction, after accounting for childhood SES, gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent. PMID:23155725

  20. A prospective investigation of the relationship between child maltreatment and indicators of adult psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean; Dee, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified three decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r < .30) correlated with several psychological well-being indicators and predictive of adult anger, self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent. PMID:23155725

  1. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  2. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition. PMID:21922711

  3. Editorial: Ingenious designs and causal inference in child psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The embryology of behavior--This title of a book by the great developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell (Gesell, 1945) continues nicely to encapsulate for me a core endeavour in child psychology and psychiatry; in the use of scientific method to tease out causes and processes within developmental science and psychopathology. This edition of JCPP includes some tremendous examples of the increasing rigour and sophistication with which such questions are being addressed. Particularly encouraging for me, as primarily an interventionist, is the use of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for that end. PMID:27090380

  4. Mother-child reminiscing about everyday experiences: implications for psychological interventions in the preschool years.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Penny; Salmon, Karen

    2006-09-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for all aspects of child development, and any disruption to cognitive or socio-emotional functioning at this stage has potential repercussions for current and future functioning. There is, therefore, a need for clinical interventions that optimize the functioning of children at risk of psychological disorders. In the current paper, we review research showing that the way in which parents discuss everyday experiences with their young children has significant implications for the children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. Specifically, mothers who engage their child in a rich elaborative style of talking about past experiences have children who also develop an elaborative style of remembering and reporting personal experiences. Evidence suggests that elaborative reminiscing can benefit children's social and self understanding, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and language and emergent literacy. Moreover, findings show that elements of the elaborative style can be identified and taught to parents. We propose that elaborative parent-child discussion about the past could form the basis of developmentally sensitive intervention during the preschool period. PMID:16815615

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution, Maternal Psychological Distress, and Child Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia; Zhou, Hui; Stigter, Laura; Camann, David; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants generated by combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material. Both prenatal PAH exposure and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy have each been associated with neurodevelopmental problems in children. The goal was to evaluate potential interactions between prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy on subsequent behavioral problems in children. METHODS: In a longitudinal birth cohort study, 248 children of nonsmoking white women in the coal-burning region of Krakow, Poland, were followed from in utero until age 9. Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, maternal demoralization during pregnancy by the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Instrument–Demoralization, and child behavior by the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Significant interactions between maternal demoralization and PAH exposure (high versus low) were identified for symptoms of anxious/depressed, withdrawn/depressed, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. The effects of demoralization on syndromes of anxious/depressed, withdrawn/depressed, rule-breaking, aggressive behavior, and the composite internalizing and externalizing scores were seen only in conjunction with high PAH exposure. Fewer significant effects with weaker effect sizes were observed in the low-PAH-exposure group. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal demoralization during pregnancy appears to have a greater effect on child neurobehavioral development among children who experienced high prenatal PAH exposure. The results provide the first evidence of an interaction between prenatal exposure to maternal demoralization and air pollution on child neurobehavioral development, indicating the need for a multifaceted approach to the prevention of developmental problems in children. PMID:24101766

  6. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    PubMed

    Byford, Andy

    2016-04-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement. PMID:26910603

  7. My Child Has Been Diagnosed with ADHD - Now What?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006). Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 527-543. doi:10.1007/s10802-006- ...

  8. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  9. Genital Abnormalities in Female Siblings and Friends of Child Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-nine girls (age 12 and under) who were associates of victims of sexual abuse received a colposcopic examination. Forty-five of the girls were found to have abnormal genital findings, which were considered specific for sexual abuse in 40 cases. Medical evaluation of siblings and close associates of sexual abuse victims is recommended.…

  10. Maternal smoking and child psychological problems: Disentangling causal and non-causal effects

    PubMed Central

    Brion, Marie-Jo; Victora, Cesar; Matijasevich, Alicia; Horta, Bernardo; Anselmi, Luciana; Steer, Colin; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Lawlor, Debbie A; Smith, George Davey

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore associations of maternal prenatal smoking and child psychological problems and determine the role of causal intrauterine mechanisms. Patients and Methods Maternal smoking and child psychological problems were explored in 2 birth cohorts in Pelotas, Brazil (n=509; random sub-sample) and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Britain (n=6,735). Four approaches for exploring causal mechanisms were applied: 1) cross-population comparisons between a high-income and a middle-income country, 2) multiple adjustment for socioeconomic and parental psychological factors, 3) maternal-paternal comparisons as a test of putative intrauterine effects; and 4) search for specific effects on different behavioural subscales. Results Socioeconomic patterning of maternal prenatal smoking was stronger in the ALSPAC compared with the Pelotas cohort. Despite this difference in a key confounder, consistency in observed associations was found between these cohorts. In both cohorts, unadjusted, maternal smoking was associated with greater offspring hyperactivity, conduct/externalizing problems, and peer problems, but not with emotional/internalizing problems. After adjusting for confounders and paternal prenatal smoking, only the association with conduct/externalizing problems persisted in both cohorts (conduct problems in the ALSPAC cohort, odds ratio OR: 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.46], p= .005; externalizing problems in the Pelotas cohort, OR:1.82 [95% CI:1.19–2.78], p=.005; ORs reflect ordinal ORs of maternal smokers having offspring with higher scores). Maternal smoking associations were stronger than paternal smoking associations, although statistical evidence for differences was weak in 1 cohort. Conclusions Evidence from 4 approaches suggests a possible intrauterine effect of maternal smoking on offspring conduct/externalizing problems. PMID:20587678

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ANGIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Malay; Dhavale, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Chest pain is one of the most common symptoms in psychiatric and primary care practice and a frequent reason for extensive diagnostic work-up. Despite extensive investigations no recognizable medical cause to account for these symptoms is detected in many patients with chest pain. Studies of patients with non-cardiac chest pain have revealed that many continue to report symptoms and disability despite medical reassurances. The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality profile and stressors along with functional impairment in patients with chest pain and normal angiographic findings and compare the same with patients who have chest pain but abnormal angiographic findings and a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The study included 30 consecutive patients in each group. The scales used were SCID-I of DSM-III-R, 16-PF, semi structured questionnaire for assessment of type A behaviour, PSLES and GAF scale of DSM-III-R. Panic disorder and depression were highly prevalent in patients with atypical chest pain. These patients had lower prevalence of type A behaviour, a unique 16-PF profile, experienced more stresses at any given point in time and significant impairment in day-day and in socio-occupational functioning. PMID:21430803

  12. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  13. Parent-Child Relationships and Parent Psychological Distress: How Do Social Support, Strain, Dissatisfaction, and Equity Matter?

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Relationships with children are important for parents' psychological well-being, yet limited research addresses whether and how relationships with adult children matter for aging parents' psychological well-being in mid- to later life. We used four waves of national longitudinal data (Americans' Changing Lives, N = 1,692) and growth curve models to test how multiple dimensions of the intergenerational relationship-social support, strain, equity, and dissatisfaction-shape mid- to later life parents' psychological distress over time. Results showed that social support and strain were associated with parents' distress at baseline but not over time, while relationship equity and dissatisfaction affected change in parents' psychological distress over time. Findings further showed how the effects of dissatisfaction varied for mothers and fathers. This study adds to an understanding of the social context of aging by drawing attention to how specific dimensions of the parent-child tie matter longitudinally for mid- to later life parents' psychological distress. PMID:26334963

  14. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saman Kumara, L. P. C.

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4. PMID:27610251

  15. Ring Chromosome 4 in a Child with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Paththinige, C S; Sirisena, N D; Kariyawasam, U G I U; Saman Kumara, L P C; Dissanayake, V H W

    2016-01-01

    A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4. PMID:27610251

  16. Psychological Distress, Service Utilization, and Prescribed Medications among Youth with and without Histories of Involvement with Child Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Hayley A.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Wekerle, Christine; Danielson, Anna Marie; Mann, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress, service utilization, and prescriptions for medications between adolescents with histories of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) and adolescents without such involvement. Data on 3,497 students were obtained from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario…

  17. Precursors and Correlates of Women's Violence: Child Abuse Traumatization, Victimization of Women, Avoidance Coping, and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Meese, Katharine J.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Snow, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Path modeling assessed (a) the influence of child abuse traumatization on women's use of violence and their experiences of being victimized, (b) the association of these three variables to depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms, and (c) the indirect pathways from women using violence and their being victimized to psychological symptoms…

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…

  19. Child Rights as a Framework for Advancing Professional Standards for Practice, Ethics, and Professional Development in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Naser, Shereen

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child was designed to promote and protect the survival, development, and well-being of children, thus extending human rights to individuals from birth to age 18. This article examines the consistency of the Articles of the Convention with the professional standards for school psychology, as…

  20. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  1. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a…

  2. Are there gender-specific pathways from early adolescence psychological distress symptoms toward the development of substance use and abnormal eating behavior?

    PubMed

    Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview, psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and eating psychopathology with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), and the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE). Controlling the effect of initial substance use problems, psychological distress predicted later reported substance use problems in males. Girls with an initial score above the cut-off point on the GHQ were two times more likely to be at risk of having an eating disorder 2 years later. Therefore, psychological distress might take different developmental pathways in males and females, leading toward eating problems in the latter versus substance use in the former. PMID:17001526

  3. The Impact of Child-Related Stressors on the Psychological Functioning of Lower-Income Mothers After Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the role of child-related stressors in the psychological adjustment of lower-income, primarily unmarried and African American, mothers (N = 386). All participants lived in areas affected by Hurricane Katrina, and about a third were also exposed to Hurricane Rita (30.3%, n = 117). Lacking knowledge of a child's safety during the hurricanes was a significant predictor of heightened postdisaster psychological distress and posttraumatic stress, even after controlling for demographic variables, predisaster psychological distress, evacuation timing, and bereavement. From interviews with a subset of the participants (n = 57), we found that mothers consistently put their own needs behind those of their children. The authors recommend policies that promptly reunite mothers with missing children and support lower-income mothers in caring for their children during natural disasters and the aftermath. PMID:22383861

  4. Multisystemic therapy for child non-externalizing psychological and health problems: a preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Pane, Heather T; White, Rachel S; Nadorff, Michael R; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-03-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors, specifically difficulties related to child maltreatment, serious psychiatric illness [Serious psychiatric illness was defined throughout the current review paper as the "presence of symptoms of suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, psychosis, or threat of harm to self or others due to mental illness severe enough to warrant psychiatric hospitalization based on the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC, 1996) level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness" (Henggeler et al. in J Am Acad Child Psy 38:1331-1345, p. 1332, 1999b). Additionally, youth with "serious emotional disturbance (SED)" defined as internalizing and/or externalizing problems severe enough to qualify for mental health services in public school who were "currently in or at imminent risk of a costly out-of-home placement" (Rowland et al. in J Emot Behav Disord 13:13-23, pp. 13-14, 2005) were also included in the serious psychiatric illness category.], and health problems (i.e., obesity and treatment adherence for diabetes). PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases; Clinicaltrials.gov; DARE; Web of Knowledge; and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched; and MST developers were queried to ensure identification of all relevant articles. Of 242 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria for review. These were combined in a narrative synthesis and critiqued in the context of review questions. Study quality ratings were all above mean scores reported in prior reviews. Mixed support was

  5. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases < 0.01). Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth. PMID:27257112

  6. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  7. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    SciTech Connect

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G.; Johnson, V.P.

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Use of abnormal and health psychology as topics in a classroom format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among college students at risk.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M

    2001-12-01

    This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men. PMID:11824744

  9. Psychological outcomes in midadulthood associated with mother's child-rearing attitudes in early childhood--evidence from the 1970 British birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini

    2004-02-01

    This study used longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to examine the role of mother's child-rearing attitudes assessed when cohort members were aged 5 in children's psychological well-being (psychological functioning, psychological distress, life satisfaction and self-efficacy) at age 30. Although at the multivariate level mother's childrearing attitudes were not related to sons' psychological well-being in adult life, in daughters self-efficacy and life satisfaction at age 30 were related to mother's anti-child autonomy attitudes and mother's non-authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, respectively. In addition, mother's non-authoritarian childrearing attitudes had a protective effect against later psychological distress and low self-efficacy in daughters who had experienced significant material disadvantage in early childhood. PMID:14991430

  10. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  11. Ear for recovery: protocol for a prospective study on parent–child communication and psychological recovery after paediatric injury

    PubMed Central

    Alisic, Eva; Barrett, Anna; Bowles, Peter; Babl, Franz E; Conroy, Rowena; McClure, Roderick J; Anderson, Vicki; Mehl, Matthias R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One in six children who have been admitted to hospital with an injury develop persistent stress symptoms that put their development at risk. Parents play a crucial role in children's psychological recovery, however, it is unknown how specific parenting behaviours can help or hinder. We aim to describe the nature and quantity of parent–child communication after a child has been injured, and to examine how these interactions are related to children's psychological recovery. Methods and analysis We are conducting a prospective observational study among children aged 3–16 years, who have been admitted to a tertiary children's hospital with a serious injury. Data collection involves a naturalistic observation of spontaneous, everyday parent–child communication at home, shortly after discharge, and an assessment of children's psychological recovery at 6 weeks and 3 months post-injury. Main analyses comprise descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and analyses of variance. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne (33103) and Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF13/2515—2013001322). We aim to disseminate the findings through international peer-reviewed journals, international conferences and social media. Participants will be sent a summary of the overall study findings. PMID:25652805

  12. Physical and Psychological Aggression towards a Child among Homeless, Doubled-up, and Other Low-income Families

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Min; Ostler, Teresa; Fertig, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent of adverse parenting behaviors among low-income families with children and determines whether housing instability, measured by homelessness and doubling up with relatives or friends due to economic hardship, increases the likelihood of physical and psychological aggression towards a child, after considering the contribution of other relevant characteristics. Using data from 3 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study followed 2,332 low-income children in 20 large U.S. cities. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Adverse parenting behaviors were common among all low-income families regardless of their having experienced housing instability. Nonetheless, mothers with a homeless or doubled-up episode reported higher rates of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviors towards a child compared to the housed group. Having a homeless episode was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting a high level of physical aggression towards a child. Child’s behavioral issues, maternal depression, and parental stress also contributed to adverse parenting behaviors. Findings suggest that housing instability can be a marker of adverse parenting behaviors and service professionals need to respond to parenting needs as well as housing needs for families in unstable housing. Areas of future research were discussed. PMID:27134322

  13. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  14. Linking Regulation of Practitioner School Psychology and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The Need to Build a Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child presents an opportunity for school psychology to evaluate its achievements relevant to the Convention, as well as its current and future strategic adherence to the Convention's principles. With analysis of key school psychology documentation from the UK,…

  15. Informal Child Care and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years) with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable) at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care. Results Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.26 to -0.14). Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Conclusion In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. PMID:25781484

  16. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  17. Hearing Parents' Appraisals of Parenting a Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Child: Application of a Positive Psychology Framework.

    PubMed

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick J

    2016-07-01

    Hearing parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children face unique challenges and stressors, the understanding of which has been the focus of numerous studies; yet, relatively little is known about their positive experiences. Using a qualitative purposive sampling design, interviews were conducted with 11 hearing parents (8 mothers, 3 fathers) exploring parents' positive appraisals of their experiences in raising a child who is deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH). Interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis was conducted, which allowed the researchers to identify themes and patterns in the parents' appraisals. Nine key themes emerged, which characterized parents' positive perceptions of raising a child who is D/HH: knowing the child, appreciating everyday positives, increasing involvement with the child, relishing the highs, taking less for granted, letting go, learning, advocating, and experiencing personal growth A positive psychology framework was employed to foster understanding of the interview findings and their implications. When asked about the positive aspects of raising a D/HH child, hearing parents were readily able to identify ways in which their parenting experience had been enhanced and their lives improved as a result of their unique situations. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26977097

  18. The Effectiveness of Psychological Treatment for Reducing Recidivism in Child Molesters: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jamie S; Chou, Shihning

    2015-10-01

    In this systematic review, the effectiveness of psychological treatment interventions for child molesters was examined. Studies were restricted to randomized control trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and cohort designs where recidivism had been used as the outcome variable. ASSIA, NCJRS, Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Pro-requests Dissertations and Theses A&I, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Ten experts were contacted and the reference lists of 12 systematic reviews and 40 primary studies were observed. The number of hits was 3,019, of which 564 duplicates, 2,388 irrelevant references, and 38 that did not meet the inclusion criteria were removed. Fourteen studies using mixed samples had to be omitted because it was not possible to determine the recidivism rates of child molesters in the samples described. One RCT and 9 cohort studies were included in the data synthesis, providing 2,119 participants. In all, 52.1% received the intervention under investigation and 47.9% did not. The reported recidivism rates were 13.9% for the treated child molesters compared to 18.6% for the untreated child molesters. Three studies reported statistically significant lower recidivism rates for treated child molesters. Eight studies were assessed as weak. Four studies were assessed as having bias which increased the chance of finding a treatment effect and four studies were assessed as having bias which reduced the chance of finding a treatment effect. It was not possible to determine the direction of bias for two studies. PMID:24973229

  19. Psychology and Education of the Learning Disabled Child in the Soviet Union. Research Report No. 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, R. H.

    The author surveys the status in the USSR of educational programing and psychological research with learning disabled children who are classified as temporarily retarded in psychological development (TRPD). Education and psychology in the USSR are said to be marked by the following major characteristics: a strong emphasis on the importance of…

  20. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. PMID:27372801

  1. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent–Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  2. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  3. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Louisa M. T.; Gabrielsen, Kristen R.; Budden, Sarojini S.; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3–5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  4. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Gabrielsen, Kristen R; Budden, Sarojini S; Buenrostro, Martha; Horton, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Tactile abnormalities are severe and universal in preschool children with autism. They respond well to treatment with a daily massage protocol directed at tactile abnormalities (QST massage for autism). Treatment is based on a model for autism proposing that tactile impairment poses a barrier to development. Two previous randomized controlled trials evaluating five months of massage treatment reported improvement of behavior, social/communication skills, and tactile and other sensory symptoms. This is the first report from a two-year replication study evaluating the protocol in 103 preschool children with autism. Parents gave daily treatment; trained staff gave weekly treatment and parent support. Five-month outcomes replicated earlier studies and showed normalization of receptive language (18%, P = .03), autistic behavior (32%, P = .006), total sensory abnormalities (38%, P = .0000005), tactile abnormalities (49%, P = .0002), and decreased autism severity (medium to large effect size, P = .008). In addition, parents reported improved child-to-parent interactions, bonding, and decreased parenting stress (44%, P = .00008). Early childhood special education programs are tasked with addressing sensory abnormalities and engaging parents in effective home programs. Until now, they have lacked research-based methods to do so. This program fulfills the need. It is recommended to parents and ECSE programs (ages 3-5) at autism diagnosis. PMID:25878901

  5. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. Parent and Child Psychological Factors in Pediatric Syncope and Other Somatic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Morris, Julie A. B.; Cheng, Patricia S.; Campbell, Robert M.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined associations among parental and child adjustment, child syncope, somatic, and school problems. Participants were children (N = 56) ages 7-18 years with syncope. Measures included syncope severity, parental distress, and children's internalizing symptoms. For children diagnosed negative for neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), their…

  8. Your Child Is Asleep: Early Infantile Autism. The Dorsey Series in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesLauriers, Austin M.; Carlson, Carole F.

    Focusing on the education of the autistic child as an awakening process, the book discusses the role of meaningful human communication and reports a research program which applied a therapeutic educational technique. The development of language in children, the diagnosis of an autistic child, autistic behavior and sensory and emotional…

  9. [Rehabilitation and psychological follow-up of a child with talipes equinovarus].

    PubMed

    Pilotti, Anne; Scharff, Katy

    2016-01-01

    In France, one child in every 800 is born with talipes equinovarus. This congenital deformity of the foot prevents the flexion and extension of the ankle. Follow-up by a psychologist is essential during the care of a child with this condition, in parallel with functional rehabilitation by the masseur-physiotherapist. PMID:27015706

  10. Associating Parental to Child Psychological Symptoms: Investigating a Transactional Model of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Fanti, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal transactional association among paternal and maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. Data were collected on preschool- to adolescent-age youth via a total of six assessments. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]…

  11. Sexual Interest in Children, Child Sexual Abuse, and Psychological Sequelae for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on sexual victimization of minors and the role of school psychologists in assessing and intervening with sexually abused minors. Although estimates of child sexual abuse prevalence differ widely owing to disclosure biases and the researcher definitions, it is clear that child sexual abuse is a serious public problem.…

  12. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  13. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  14. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  15. Parental absence, child victimization, and psychological well-being in rural China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-09-01

    Using cross-sectional data regarding 793 rural children aged 10-16 in Sichuan Province of China, the present study examined the preceding-year rates of seven forms of child victimization (physical assault, property crime, peer/sibling victimization, child maltreatment, sexual victimization, witnessing family violence, and exposure to community violence) and poly-victimization, and found children's victimization experiences increased as the degree of parental absence increased (from the presence of two biological parents, to parental migration and parental separation and divorce). Elevated levels of depression were also found among left-behind children and children of separated or divorced parents, compared to children living with both biological parents; and child poly-victimization added to the risk of child depression. Certain demographic characteristics (being a boy and younger) and parental factors were associated with child victimization in rural China. This study highlights the need for child protection in rural China, and in particular for parent-absent children. PMID:27500387

  16. Maternal affection moderates the impact of psychological control on a child's mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the extent to which mothers' psychological control predicts their children's mathematical performance during the children's transition from preschool to primary school over and above the impact of maternal affection and behavioral control. Also investigated was the extent to which maternal affection and behavioral control moderate the impact of mothers' psychological control. Children 5-6 years old at baseline (N=196) were followed up 6 times to measure their performance in mathematics over a 3-year period from preschool to 2nd grade. Mothers were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring their parenting styles once every year over the 3-year period. A high level of psychological control exercised by mothers predicted their children's slow progress in mathematics. However, this impact was particularly evident among those children whose mothers reported a high level of affection. No evidence was found that children's mathematical performance had any effect on their mothers' parenting styles. PMID:15535751

  17. The Debate over the Young "Disadvantaged Child": Preschool Intervention, Developmental Psychology, and Compensatory Education in the 1960s and Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    I focus on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the "disadvantaged child" and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational "disadvantages" in young children. I argue that preschool interventions concentrated especially on compensating for supposedly deficient…

  18. Social Studies. Exceptional Child Education Curriculum K-12: Volume II. History Process and Skills, Geography, Economics, Citizenship, Political Science, Humanities, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Dean; And Others

    Volume II of the Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools exceptional child education curriculum for K-12 social studies covers history process and skills, geography, economics, citizenship, political science, humanities, anthropology, sociology, psychology, and world history. The curriculum guide is organized by content areas, and within each…

  19. Socialization and the Child Rearing Practice. [Proceedings from the] Fenno-Hungarian Conference on Developmental Psychology (4th, Debrecen, Hungary, October 4-6, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar-Kadar, Julia, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the Fenno-Hungarian Conferences on Developmental Psychology had as its theme "Socialization and the Child-Rearing Practice. The conference consisted of three Symposia. The first symposium, "Results of the collaborations on the basis of the series of the Fenno-Hungarian conferences," contains the following papers; (1)…

  20. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  1. Intelligence in Childhood and Risk of Psychological Distress in Adulthood: The 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; Hatch, Stephani L.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of severe psychiatric disorder, but it is unclear whether it influences risk of psychological distress due to anxiety or the milder forms of depression. The participants in the present study were members of two British birth national birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey…

  2. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  3. Parent-Child Relations and Psychological Adjustment among High-Achieving Chinese and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian; Rak, Eniko; Rana, Meenal; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Chinese American students are often perceived as problem-free high achievers. Recent research, however, suggests that high-achieving Chinese American students can experience elevated levels of stress, especially comparing to their peers from other ethnic groups. In this paper, we examine how family dynamics may influence psychological adjustment…

  4. Initial Characteristics of Psychological Development and Evolution of the Young Autistic Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pry, Rene; Bodet, Joffrey; Pernon, Eric; Aussilloux, Charles; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed multidisciplinary data on 219 children with autistic spectrum disorders from the median age of 5 (Time 1) to 8 years old (Time 2). The evolution of psychological and adaptive data was subjected to cluster analysis. Four clinically meaningful clusters emerged. The first group (21%) demonstrated the most important…

  5. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children: A Handbook for Child Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilmes, Jenna; Welker, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Promote the mental health of preschool children in care by providing nurturing environments and relationships. Common Psychological Disorders in Young Children is an easy-to-use guide that will help providers recognize and cope with the symptoms and behaviors associated with ADHD, autism, anxiety, and other disorders providers may face. Learn to…

  6. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  7. The Orthopedically Disabled Child: Psychological Implications with an Individual Basis. July 1984 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This study describes the implications of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler and field theory associated with Kurt Lewin in understanding orthopedically disabled children and points out that orthopedically disabled youngsters have a remarkable range of individual differences both in type of disability as well as level of adjustment.…

  8. A Teaching Assistant's Guide to Child Development and Psychology in the Classroom. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "How can you help students most effectively in the classroom?" As a Teaching Assistant, you play a vital role in today's schools. This fully updated new edition will help you get to grips with the main issues to do with psychology and its role in the processes of teaching and learning. This accessible text, building on the success of a…

  9. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  10. Psychological Disturbance and Child Sexual Abuse: A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calam, Rachel; Horne, Louise; Glasgow, David; Cox, Antony

    1998-01-01

    A study of 144 English children who had been sexually abused investigated risk factors for the development of psychological disturbance in sexually abused children. Results found age, gender, abuse, and perpetrator characteristics did not show strong effects initially. Children involved in criminal proceedings were at particular risk. (Author/CR)

  11. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  12. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  13. Surrogacy Families: Parental Functioning, Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Development at Age 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; Jadva, Vasanti

    2006-01-01

    Background: Findings are presented of the second phase of a longitudinal study of families created through surrogacy. Methods: At the time of the child's 2nd birthday, 37 surrogacy families were compared with 48 egg donation families and 68 natural conception families on standardised interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological…

  14. Role of Child and Maternal Processes in the Psychological Adjustment of Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found that 64% of 50 children aged 7-12 years with sickle cell disease had parent-reported behavior problem. Internalizing types of behavior problems and diagnoses were most frequent. Maternal anxiety accounted for 16-33% of variance in mother-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, respectively, and child pain-coping…

  15. Child Psychology: Parent Handbook. Mehlville School District ESEA Title III, PACE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlville R-9 School District, St. Louis, MO.

    This document is one of a series published by the Mehlville School District (St. Louis, Mo.) and used in their workshops for parents regarding family communications. It includes an explanation of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, a definition of characteristics of the family constellation, an examination of child development stages, a brief summary of…

  16. Child Development in Cultural Contexts: Implications of Cultural Psychology for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghwa; Johnson, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we argue that early childhood educators, under the influence of last century's grand universal theories of child development, have not been attentive enough to the centrality of culture in children's development. We discuss how the exploration of contemporary developmental perspectives is critical to the field and illustrate…

  17. Conversations around Homework: Links to Parental Mental Health, Family Characteristics and Child Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Woolgar, Matt; Martins, Carla; Christaki, Anna; Hipwell, Alison; Cooper, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Parents are increasingly expected to supplement their children's school-based learning by providing support for children's homework. However, parents' capacities to provide such support may vary and may be limited by the experience of depression. This may have implications for child development. In the course of a prospective, longitudinal study…

  18. Verbal auditory agnosia with focal EEG abnormality: an unusual case of a child presenting to an ENT surgeon with "deafness".

    PubMed

    Kale, U; el-Naggar, M; Hawthorne, M

    1995-05-01

    Verbal auditory agnosia implies the failure to recognize sounds in a patient who is nevertheless not deaf. We present a child referred to the ENT outpatients for suspected hearing loss investigation. At one point she had grommets inserted on the basis of a flat tympanogram but with no effect. All hearing tests, including electrocochleography and distraction tests, revealed normal hearing thresholds. At the age of three years and three months, and on direct questioning of the parents, we discovered that the child responded remarkably well to music. Paediatric neurologists made the diagnosis of verbal auditory agnosia. The condition is very similar to another acquired language disorder called Landau-Kleffner syndrome. It is unusual for such a case to present primarily to an ENT surgeon. PMID:7798001

  19. Healthcare Reform and Preparing the Future Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Workforce.

    PubMed

    Janicke, David M; Fritz, Alyssa M; Rozensky, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare environment is undergoing important changes for both patients and providers, in part due to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Ultimately the healthcare delivery system will function very differently by the end of this decade. These changes will have important implications for the education, training, scientific inquiry, and practice of clinical child and adolescent psychologists. In this article we provide a brief description of the fundamental features of the ACA, with a specific focus on critical components of the act that have important, specific implications for clinical child and adolescents psychologists. We then provide recommendations to help position our field to thrive in the evolving healthcare environment to help facilitate further awareness and promote discussion of both challenges and opportunities that face our field in this evolving health care environment. PMID:26158589

  20. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India. PMID:27570336

  1. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India. PMID:27570336

  2. Corporal punishment: mother's disciplinary behavior and child's psychological profile in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A

    2009-01-01

    Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p < 0.01), rural origin of the father (p= 0.02), the mother's bad history of rearing experience (p < 0.01), and poor interparental relationship (p= 0.02). The relation between corporal punishment of children and their self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p < 0.05). Corporal punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse

  3. Perceived Parent-Child Relational Qualities and Parental Behavioral and Psychological Control in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perceived parent-child relational qualities (parental trust of the child, child's trust of parents, child's readiness to communicate with parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), parental behavioral control (including indicators of…

  4. Psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  5. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    PubMed

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed. PMID:12836581

  6. An Approach to Assessing "Accountability" in Implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: Implications for School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; Briggs, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    Together, the UN Convention on Rights of the Child and the USA's National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP) Principles for Professional Ethics (2010a) serve as aspirational documents that place a child's right to healthy development as the ultimate priority, regardless of the child's circumstances. This article…

  7. Does endorsement of physical discipline matter? Assessing moderating influences on the maternal and child psychological correlates of physical discipline in African American families.

    PubMed

    McLoyd, Vonnie C; Kaplan, Rachel; Hardaway, Cecily R; Wood, Dana

    2007-06-01

    Using longitudinal data from a subsample of 890 African American families in the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examined whether maternal endorsement of physical discipline moderates the link between (a) maternal psychological distress and spanking frequency and (b) spanking frequency and child depressive symptoms. As predicted, physical discipline administered by nonendorsing mothers was more strongly linked to maternal psychological distress than physical discipline administered by endorsing mothers. Also in keeping with the authors' hypothesis, the relation between spanking frequency and child-reported depressive symptoms was stronger for children of nonendorsing mothers than for children of endorsing mothers. In particular, the positive relation between physical discipline and children's depressive symptoms was significant only for children of nonendorsing mothers. These findings suggest that within-group variation in African American mothers' attitudes about physical discipline partially regulates the conditions under which these mothers use physical discipline and the probability that physical discipline contributes to depressive symptoms in children. Conclusions and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:17605539

  8. Neurobehaviour between birth and 40 weeks’ gestation in infants born <30 weeks’ gestation and parental psychological wellbeing: predictors of brain development and child outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants born <30 weeks’ gestation are at increased risk of long term neurodevelopmental problems compared with term born peers. The predictive value of neurobehavioural examinations at term equivalent age in very preterm infants has been reported for subsequent impairment. Yet there is little knowledge surrounding earlier neurobehavioural development in preterm infants prior to term equivalent age, and how it relates to perinatal factors, cerebral structure, and later developmental outcomes. In addition, maternal psychological wellbeing has been associated with child development. Given the high rate of psychological distress reported by parents of preterm children, it is vital we understand maternal and paternal wellbeing in the early weeks and months after preterm birth and how this influences the parent–child relationship and children’s outcomes. Therefore this study aims to examine how 1) early neurobehaviour and 2) parental mental health relate to developmental outcomes for infants born preterm compared with infants born at term. Methods/Design This prospective cohort study will describe the neurobehaviour of 150 infants born at <30 weeks’ gestational age from birth to term equivalent age, and explore how early neurobehavioural deficits relate to brain growth or injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging, perinatal factors, parental mental health and later developmental outcomes measured using standardised assessment tools at term, one and two years’ corrected age. A control group of 150 healthy term-born infants will also be recruited for comparison of outcomes. To examine the effects of parental mental health on developmental outcomes, both parents of preterm and term-born infants will complete standardised questionnaires related to symptoms of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress at regular intervals from the first week of their child’s birth until their child’s second birthday. The parent–child relationship will be

  9. Child-Rearing and Development: Comparisons between Japanese and Americans Based upon the Psychological-Anthropological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Michio; Kajiwara, Yasuko

    Discussed are: (1) historical and cultural backgrounds of the Japanese style of child rearing; (2) differences of child rearing style between Japan and the United States; (3) the hidden curriculum at school and home. Content explores the recent controversy in Japan over "Amae," or the Japanese infant's craving for close contact with its mother and…

  10. Psychology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  11. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... permanent memorialization of the crimes committed against them. Studies indicate that child victims endure depression, withdrawal, anger, and other psychological disorders. Victims also experience feelings ...

  12. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  13. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  14. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  15. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  16. When Diagnosis Is Uncertain: Variation in Conclusions after Psychological Assessment of a Six-Year-Old Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Norwich, Brahm; Gwernan-Jones, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    A six-year-old child was independently assessed by three licensed educational (school) psychologists and one interdisciplinary team in the UK. All but one of these practitioners believed their assessment to be the first. The aim was to compare the practice of assessors and their conclusions especially in diagnostic categorisation. The methods of…

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family. PMID:24259184

  19. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  20. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  2. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  3. Secondary traumatic stress, psychological distress, sharing of traumatic reminiscences, and marital quality among spouses of Holocaust child survivors.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, R; Amir, M

    2001-10-01

    In this study, we examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during the World War II. STS is defined as comprising the same components as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), except that the person evidencing the symptoms has not actually been exposed to the traumatic event(s), but has developed them as a result of caring for someone with PTSD. Participants were 90 couples who completed self-report questionnaires regarding posttraumatic symptoms, psychological distress, and marital quality. The results showed that about one-third of the spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms. Secondary traumatic stress symptoms and psychological distress among spouses were significantly related to hostility, anger, paranoia, and interpersonal sensitivity in the survivor, but unrelated to whether the survivor had shared his/her reminiscences with the spouse. Female spouses were found to suffer more distress than male spouses, especially when their partner suffered high levels of PTSD. The results suggest that STS is, to a large degree, related to the demands of living with a symptomatic survivor, possibly more than to the empathic element thought to be central to this syndrome. PMID:11594012

  4. Non-replication of the association between 5HTTLPR and response to psychological therapy for child anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Wong, Chloe C. Y.; Xu, Xiaohui; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Heiervang, Einar R.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; McKinnon, Anna; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Smith, Patrick; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Eley, Thalia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety (Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT outcome. Aims To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2, n = 829). Method Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both cohorts were performed. Results There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2. Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45, P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder outcomes. Conclusions The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous samples. PMID:26294368

  5. Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    De Giacomo, A; Fombonne, E

    1998-09-01

    In order to identify factors associated with the early detection and referral of children with pervasive developmental disorders, a sample of 82 consecutive referrals to an outpatient diagnostic service was studied. All children were thoroughly assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI), standardized psychological tests and direct observations. Data from the ADI on the first symptoms to arouse parental concern and on the first professional advice sought were analyzed. The mean age of children was 19.1 months (SD = 9.4) when the parents first became concerned, and the first professional advice was sought when children were 24.1 months old (SD = 11.7). The most common parental concerns were for speech and language development, followed by abnormal socio-emotional response, and medical problem or delay in milestone. In both bivariate and multiple regression analyses, the mean age of children at first parental concern and professional advice was significantly lower in the presence of mental retardation in the child, of an older sibling in the family, and of first parental concerns for medical problem/delay in milestone. More specific autistic behaviours, child's gender, social class and place of residence did not influence the age of recognition of the disorder in this sample. Health visitors and general practitioners were the first professionals contacted by parents. The implications of these findings for early detection and diagnosis of autism are discussed. PMID:9826299

  6. The Psychology of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  7. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  8. Differences in early parent-child conversations about negative versus positive emotions: implications for the development of psychological understanding.

    PubMed

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Wellman, Henry M

    2002-07-01

    The authors examined whether the quality and content of everyday parent-child conversations about negative emotions are the same or different from everyday talk about positive emotions. Extensive longitudinal speech samples of 6 children and their parents were analyzed for several critical features when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Results showed that children and parents talked about past emotions, the causes of emotions, and connections between emotions and other mental states at higher rates during conversations about negative emotions than during conversations about positive emotions. Discourse about negative emotions also included a larger emotion vocabulary, more open-ended questions, and more talk about other people. These differences appeared before the children's 3rd birthdays and remained consistent through the preschool years. The findings strengthen and clarify current understanding of young children's articulation and knowledge about people's minds, lives, and emotions. PMID:12090486

  9. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  10. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging for the noninvasive diagnosis of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in a child with Kawasaki disease--a case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hausdorf, G.; Nienaber, C.A.; Spielman, R.P.

    1988-02-01

    The mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (Kawasaki disease) is of increasing importance for the pediatric cardiologist, for coronary aneurysms with the potential of thrombosis and subsequent stenosis can develop in the course of the disease. The authors report a 2 1/2-year-old female child in whom, fourteen months after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, myocardial infarction occurred. Biphasic thallium 201 SPECT-imaging using dipyridamole depicted anterior wall ischemia and inferolateral infarction. This case demonstrates that noninvasive vasodilation-redistribution thallium 201 SPECT-imaging has the potential to predict reversible myocardial perfusion defects and myocardial necrosis, even in small infants with Kawasaki disease.

  11. Parent-child conflict and psychological maladjustment: a mediational analysis with reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Tsao, Wei-Chun; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2010-04-01

    Empirical research has shown that parent-child conflict is positively related to poor adjustment in adolescents; however, the underlying processes have not been adequately examined. To explore the possible mediating pathways, reciprocal filial belief and perceived threat were chosen to represent two likely mechanisms accounting for how parent-child conflict harms adolescents' perceptions of their relationship with their parents and their self-perceptions within their cognitive-appraisal framework. The former operates by attenuating children's affection towards their parents and the latter by lowering their self-perceptions. This study also distinguishes internalizing from externalizing problems in order to examine whether lower reciprocal filial belief more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' externalizing problems and whether perceived threat more strongly mediates the relation between conflict with parents and adolescents' internalizing problems. Hypotheses are as follows: (1) the more parent-child conflict adolescents report, the less reciprocal filial belief they recognize, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially externalizing ones; (2) the more parent-child conflicts adolescents report, the more threat they perceive, which, in turn, leads to more maladjustments, especially internalizing ones. Participants consisted of 603 Taiwanese adolescents (226 males and 377 females) aged 15 to 19 (average age = 16.95; SD = 0.78). Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed the hypotheses. However, the three direct effects of conflict on internalizing problems, aggression, and deviant behaviour were still significant. In addition, a greater effect of the paternal than the maternal role on the link between conflict and attenuated reciprocal filial belief, and between perceived threat and internalizing problems, was identified. Implications for understanding the mediation processes responsible for all indirect

  12. Interaction of child disability and stressful life events in predicting maternal psychological health. Results of an area-based study of very preterm infants at two years corrected age.

    PubMed

    Cacciani, Laura; Di Lallo, Domenico; Piga, Simone; Corchia, Carlo; Carnielli, Virgilio; Chiandotto, Valeria; Fertz, Mariacristina; Miniaci, Silvana; Rusconi, Franca; Caravale, Barbara; Cuttini, Marina

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at exploring the relationship between severe neuromotor and/or sensory disability in very preterm infants assessed at 2 years corrected age and their mothers' psychological health. Data on 581 Italian singletons born at 22-31 weeks of gestation in five Italian regions and their mothers were analyzed. Maternal psychological distress was measured through the General Health Questionnaire short version (GHQ-12). The prevalence of any maternal distress (GHQ scores ≥ 2) and of clinical distress (scores ≥ 5) were 31.3% and 8.1% respectively. At multivariable analysis, we found a statistically significant association between child's disability and mothers' GHQ scoring ≥ 5 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.07-11.15). Also lower maternal education appeared to increase the likelihood of psychological distress (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.66). The impact of child disability was weaker in women who had experienced additional stressful life events since delivery, pointing to the existence of a "ceiling" effect. Maternal psychological assessment and support should be included in follow-up programs targeting very preterm infants. PMID:23920026

  13. Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Nastassja; Brittain, Kirsty; Donald, Kirsten A.; Barnett, Whitney; Koopowitz, Sheri; Maré, Karen; Zar, Heather J.; Stein, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal–fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. Objective We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. Methods Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES), and depression. Results A total of 544 mother–infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5) in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores) at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. Conclusions In this exploratory study, maternal trauma and

  14. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  15. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... published Aug. 18 in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry . SOURCES: Edward Barker, Ph.D., director, ... N.Y.; Aug. 18, 2016, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All ...

  16. Simplification in Child Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oller, Kimbrough

    The pronunciations of children do not merely represent accidental misses with respect to adult pronunciation. Children employ substitutions and deletions in highly systematic ways; child pronunciations reflect a set of simplification strategies. The major common processes of both normal and abnormal child phonology result in simplification of…

  17. Early functional, esthetic, and psychological rehabilitation of preschool child with nonsyndromic oligodontia and anodontia in mixed dentition stage through conservative systematic approach: A case report with 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Dua, Madhuri; Yadav, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Missing teeth are a common developmental abnormality in humans. It may manifest as absence of varying numbers of primary and/or secondary teeth. Early treatment and follow-up are the key to successful rehabilitation of young patients with congenitally missing teeth. It is critical that oral rehabilitation is started early to maintain and correct the oral functions. Mucosa borne removable prostheses are the commonly selected treatment options for the young patients who present with oligodontia or anodontia. This clinical report describes esthetic, functional, and psychological rehabilitation of a young boy with severe oligodontia in maxillary arch and anodontia in mandibular arch. The individualized conservative graded approach in prosthetic rehabilitation with removable acrylic prosthesis helped to achieve esthetics, functionality, and psychological benefits. PMID:27307674

  18. In the long run...longitudinal studies of psychopathology in children. Committee on Child Psychology. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. Report no.143.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are difficult to do well. Too short a study and the results may be meaningless. Too long a study and the subjects cannot be found, money runs out, and research methods become seriously out of date. Despite these problems, there have been some longitudinal studies done that have greatly advanced our understanding of the nature and the treatment of psychopathology in childhood. Without these studies, much less would be known about the clinical course of important disorders, the effects of treatments, and the various risk and protective factors. None of these studies has been perfect. Some longitudinal studies did not focus on quite the right questions, some produced contradictory results, and others produced results that were hard to interpret. What have we learned from the longitudinal studies reviewed in this Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) report? Many of the things that we have learned have been surprising--even counterintuitive. Pre- and perinatal insults need not necessarily lead to serious consequences in later life. Premature infants, if raised in nondeprived settings, are not likely to be mentally retarded or learning disabled. Today, of course, premature infants who would not have been kept alive 15 years ago are surviving. Will this advancement led to an untoward outcome? We do not know. New longitudinal studies need to be done. Certain serious illnesses emerging later in childhood may be associated with a greater risk of psychopathology. This risk is true at least for those with asthma. Psychological factors, such as psychological stress, also may lead to exacerbation of asthmatic attacks. Whether other illnesses are associated with a greater risk of psychopathology simply has not been studied adequately. Infant temperamental characteristics can be classified and measured; however, they appear to predict little in terms of later personality development or psychopathology. Although temperamental characteristics measured

  19. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  20. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  1. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  2. Involving Fathers in Psychological Services for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a commentary of the special series on involving fathers in psychological services for children. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to father involvement; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and…

  3. A Clinical Psychology Training Program Interfaces with the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Alvin E.

    This paper describes how clinical child psychologists are trained in a pediatric psychology program and emphasizes their interface with the school. The need for clinical child psychology training is stressed, and training programs for pediatric psychologists and clinical child psychologists are compared. The collaborative pediatric psychology…

  4. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity. PMID:23766572

  5. School Psychology Review: 2006-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The vision for "School Psychology Review" for the 2006-2010 editorial term is described, and five major goals are outlined. These goals include (a) addressing issues of critical importance to school psychology and the broader domains of child-oriented psychology and education; (b) promoting intervention and prevention research and publishing this…

  6. HIV Disease in the Psychology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Ann R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides ideas for relating HIV topics to psychology content. Suggests three methods of curriculum integration: (1) using traditional course content (research methods, abnormal psychology, health psychology, gender and ethnic studies, drugs and behavior); (2) exploring diversity issues; and (3) challenging students' critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  7. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  8. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L; Knodt, Annchen R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such “stress sensitization,” little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life stress, gender, and age is associated with reduced structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a major white matter pathway between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in young adults. We further demonstrate that individuals with lower uncinate fasciculus integrity at baseline who subsequently experience stressful life events report higher levels of internalizing symptomatology at follow-up. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological mechanism linking child maltreatment with later internalizing symptoms, specifically altered structural connectivity within the brain’s threat-detection and emotion regulation circuitry. PMID:26535947

  9. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Knodt, Annchen R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such "stress sensitization," little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life stress, gender, and age is associated with reduced structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a major white matter pathway between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in young adults. We further demonstrate that individuals with lower uncinate fasciculus integrity at baseline who subsequently experience stressful life events report higher levels of internalizing symptomatology at follow-up. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological mechanism linking child maltreatment with later internalizing symptoms, specifically altered structural connectivity within the brain's threat-detection and emotion-regulation circuitry. PMID:26535947

  10. Reasons for Having an Only Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni

    1978-01-01

    Reports the situational and psychological reasons why parents have just one child. The situational reasons include biological factors and marital stability. Psychological reasons concern factors in the decision-making process that lead individuals to have an only child. (Author/MA)

  11. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  12. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Cases Referred for Psychological Services in Hong Kong: A Comparison between Multiple Incident versus Single Incident Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ellen Yee-man; Yau, Delphine Cheuk-wai; Ng, Wun-wai; Tong, Sau-lan

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 58 sexually abused children referred for clinical psychological services in 1999 in Hong Kong and compared the characteristics and disclosure patterns between those with multiple incidents of abuse and those with single incident. The former group was more likely to have been abused by a family member, took a longer time to…

  13. A Developmental Psychology Perspective in Germany: Co-Construction of Transitions between Family and Education System by the Child, Parents and Pedagogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griebel, Wilfried; Niesel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, there exists a traditional gap between kindergarten and primary school. Transition research has led to a new understanding of the need for cooperation between different educational institutions and the family at this time. This article emphasises that educational transitions affect not only the child but also the parents, who actively…

  14. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  15. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    1998-01-01

    Includes materials on: (1) abnormal and clinical psychology, and personality; (2) career issues; (3) cognition and learning; (4) educational technology; (5) faculty evaluation; (6) graduate education; (7) high school instruction; (8) history of psychology; (9) introductory psychology; (10) perception, and physiological and comparative psychology;…

  16. Psychological adjustment of children with congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria as related to parental psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Jusiene, Roma; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2004-01-01

    Phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism are the inherited metabolic diseases that can be diagnosed and successfully treated early from birth. Nevertheless, children with phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism are found to be in the risk for psychological maladjustment. Parental adjustment - as significant condition for child's psychological adjustment--and related factors are explored in this study. Parents of 63 children with congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria (age 2 to 14 years) answered the Child Behavior Checklist, Coping Strategies Questionnaire and the questionnaire on reactions to child's disease, relations with a sick child, with the spouse and other people. Severity of the disease and child's age are considered as well. Results of the study show that parental emotional (maladaptive) coping and indulgence of a sick child account for the higher rates of internalizing problems of children with phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism. In addition, the higher rates of children's psychological problems are related to parental feelings of guilt as a reaction to child's disease. PMID:15252232

  17. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  18. What Are Good Child Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Evans, V. Jeffery; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Roth, Jodie

    This paper considers the question "What are good child outcomes?" from the perspectives of developmental psychology, economics, and sociology. Section 1 of the paper examines good child outcomes as characteristics of stage-salient tasks of development. Section 2 emphasizes the acquisition of "human capital," the development of productive traits…

  19. Psychological and social consequences of losing a child in a natural or human-made disaster: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yao; Herrman, Helen; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fisher, Jane

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to natural and human-made disasters is associated with long-term health consequences, including for mental health. Parents who have lost children, particularly their only children, in any circumstances are also at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence about the psychological and social consequences for parents who had faced these circumstances simultaneously through losing children in a disaster. Systematic searching of the English and Chinese language literatures about the psychological and social functioning of bereaved parents after disasters revealed that a small number of studies met inclusion criteria. The results showed that bereaved parents had more mental health problems than bereaved spouses and non-bereaved parents, and mothers appeared to be more vulnerable to mental health problems than fathers. Potential protective factors for bereaved parents' mental health included having psychological interventions, having adequate social support, seeing their children's bodies and having a subsequent baby. Although the literature was modest and methodologically diverse, there was a consistent finding that parents who have lost children in disasters were at high risk of suffering mental health problems, especially bereaved mothers. As there was little evidence, further studies are needed to understand the best advice and interventions to offer bereaved parents and provide enhanced mental health care of such bereaved populations after disasters. PMID:23857912

  20. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  1. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  2. Sensitivity and Specificity in Child Abuse Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, George A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses legal and psychological issues involved in erroneous reporting of child abuse. Addresses whether the child protection field will have the vision and initiative to address the problem proactively from within or whether regulation and restriction of activity will be imposed from without. Explores ideas to make child abuse detection more…

  3. Child Psychopathology, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Barkley, Russell A.

    This text integrates state-of-the-art theory and empirical research on a wide range of child and adolescent disorders. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and clinicians, the volume provides comprehensive coverage of the biological, psychological, and social-contextual determinants of childhood problems. Each chapter focuses on a…

  4. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  6. Promoting Writing among Psychology Students and Faculty: An Interview with Dana S. Dunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Perilou

    2002-01-01

    Perilou Goddard is a professor of psychology at Northern Kentucky University (NKU), where she teaches introductory and abnormal psychology as well as courses in writing in psychology and drug policy. She was chosen as NKU's outstanding professor in 1999. Dana S. Dunn is a professor of psychology and former chair of the Department of Psychology at…

  7. The Empirical Interests of Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Kenneth O.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classification system for developmental psychology that was constructed by means of a survey of articles published in the journals "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" in 1969 and 1987. The survey found that eight empirical questions encompassed the full range of empirical interests expressed by developmental…

  8. Teaching Pediatric Psychology Concepts to Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, William A.

    The psychiatric/behavioral science component of the medical school curriculum at Texas A&M University, which involves a pediatric psychology rotation, is described. The content areas of pediatric psychology includes the basic curriculum areas of child/adolescent psychodiagnostic categories, behavioral/developmental disorders, and knowledge of…

  9. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  10. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  11. The Priority of Description in Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Argues that there are significant ways in which neither Piaget nor his successors in developmental psychology have adequately described the child's mind and how it changes. Proposes alternative guidelines for research that aims more directly at identifying essential constituent features of the child's mental reality. (PCB)

  12. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  14. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon*

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Priyvadan C.

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. ‘Meanings’ have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades. PMID:25838721

  15. Child: A Learning Model and a Bi-directional Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Priyvadan C

    2015-01-01

    Forty-five years of work with children has enriched my knowledge. Child development and psychology has made basic concepts of general psychology and abnormal psychology clearer. 'Meanings' have become more meaningful. It has made me a better professional; large number of communication and teaching skill has been the end result of such a long association with diverse groups of children who needed special care. Apart from professional skills as a clinician and as a teacher, it has made me a better person and a better parent. I have been fortunate to work with a large number and different groups of children who were in some way very special. Some were classified under various disabilities or diagnosed under different categories. I also had the privilege of working with different institutions, e.g., child guidance clinics run by a paediatrics department and a psychiatry department of a general hospital and a teaching hospital. Years of association with College of Special Work and Institute of Social Science have made me understand the very important facet of sociocultural influence on the development of human behaviour. I was further fortunate to work with children in closed and open institutions, residential care units and day care units, institutions where court committed children were observed, treated, trained and cared for, destitute children and delinquent children in remand homes, rescue homes and custodial care homes. I was fortunate to be part of the group which dealt with children who were in conflict with the law, belonging to diverse categories like street children, working children, child sex workers and sexually abused children. This paper is a reflection on experience gained over the decades. PMID:25838721

  16. Psychological Dynamics of Adolescent Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Anthony R.; Story, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to describe the psychological processes that predispose an individual to adopt a Satanic belief system. Describes processes in terms of child-parent relationships and the developmental tasks of adolescence. Proposes a model called the web of psychic tension to represent the process of Satanic cult adoption. Describes techniques for…

  17. Psychological Principles in Materials Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cynthia M.

    Those psychological principles which might aid the teacher in the selection of instructional materials are examined. Since learning is a process which builds sequentially on past learning, beginning reading materials should include words that have personal relevance for the individual child. Meaningful material is learned more quickly than…

  18. Causal Inference and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether…

  19. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  20. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  3. Child abuse in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeahialam, T C

    1984-01-01

    Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976

  4. Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychological revolution.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher D

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. PMID:19203139

  5. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  6. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  7. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  8. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  9. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  12. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  13. The child in hospital*

    PubMed Central

    1955-01-01

    In 1951 the WHO Regional Office for Europe as a part of its long-term activities in child health initiated plans for a meeting between paediatricians and child psychiatrists, at which they could discuss their respective roles and the co-ordination of their work. Early in 1953 an ad hoc committee was called together to discuss the possibility of holding a conference which would delineate the role of the paediatrician in the management of psychosomatic and behaviour disorders in young children. This committee, consisting of leading specialists in paediatrics and child psychiatry, under the chairmanship of Professor R. Debré (France), felt that any wider conference should be devoted to considering more fully the inter-relation of somatic and psychological processes in sick children, the respective roles of paediatricians and child psychiatrists in their treatment, and the working relations between the different disciplines responsible for the care of children. In order to avoid diffusion of effort, and to arrive as far as possible at practical conclusions, the study group that was subsequently convened in Stockholm concentrated on one important aspect of child care—the child in hospital. PMID:14364192

  14. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  15. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  16. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  17. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  18. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  19. Gary B. Melton: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2014 recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Gary B. Melton. Melton was selected for his "influential scholarship on critical topics in psychology in the public interest, especially child and family law and policy, forensic mental health services, child advocacy, rural psychology, research ethics, and child abuse and neglect." Melton's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486149

  20. Cross-Cultural Child Rearing Practices: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escovar, Peggy L.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    The knowledge of cross-cultural child-rearing practices to aid school psychologists is illustrated in this paper. A literature review of child-rearing practices is provided, focusing on: (1) children's social, cultural, and psychological development; (2) the school psychologist's identification of culturally bound aspects of child development; and…

  1. Parents' Perceptions of Their Child's Resilience and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Riitta; Raty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parental views of their child's educability through the parents' perceptions of their child's resilience. The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine psychometric properties of the rating scale created to measure parental views of their child's educational and psychological resilience, (2) to explore whether the parents'…

  2. Summary of the Child Custody Laws for the Fifty States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Robert J.; Toepke, Kate E.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes the essential stipulations in laws relating to custody determination in table form. Issues of joint or shared custody, the principle of the best interests of the child, Uniform Child Custody Act, and the acceptance of psychological investigations of the child and his or her family are discussed. (Author/JAC)

  3. Education and the Child Labor Paradox Today. Essay Review of "Children on the Streets of the Americas" (Roslyn A. Mickelson, editor); "The Policy Analysis of Child Labor: A Comparative Study" (Christiaan Grootaert, Harry Anthony Patrinos); "What Works for Working Children?" (Jo Boyden, Birgitta Ling, William Myers); "Child Employment in Britain: A Social and Psychological Analysis" (Sandy Hobbs, Jim McKechnie); and "Bud, Not Buddy" (Christopher Paul Curtis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, David

    2001-01-01

    Reviews five books on child labor, published 1997-2000, with reference to the International Labour Organization's 1999 convention that retreats from its previous hard stance on child labor. Discusses street children; public policy on child labor, child welfare, and school attendance; types of children's work; and working children as agents…

  4. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  5. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  6. Some Abnormal Psychical Conditions in Children: Excerpts from Three Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, George F.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents excerpts of the three lectures delivered by George F. Still on March 4, 1902, March 6, 1902, and March 11, 1902. In the first lecture, Still discussed several points in the psychology and development of social control in the normal child and considered the occurrence of defective moral control in in association with general…

  7. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  8. Child life services.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  9. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... go to the caregiver's home. Finally, there are child care centers. You need to choose the one that works for your family. It is important to get to know your child's caregivers. They will be a big part of ...

  10. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of " ...

  11. PSYCHOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA

    PubMed Central

    Selesnick, Sheldon T.; Friedman, David Belais; Augenbraun, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Over-emphasis on physical factors in asthma probably has come about because psychological factors have seemed elusive, difficult to define and often misleading. Several concepts of classic causes of emotional disturbances that abet asthmatic attacks in children may be helpful in management of the patient and his environs. The first concept has to do with feelings of inadequacy in the mother which lead her to place the burden of decision-making upon the child. She is thus able to give the child very little support and communicates to him her anxiety. Often encouragement to the mother, through the physician's pointing out her very real capacities and achievements can be helpful to the child. The second concept has to do with the asthmatic child's character structure and his assumption of a pseudo-mature position. Among the things the physician can do is to advise the parents as to what is age-appropriate behavior for the child and instruct them in ways to make the child recognize his position of dependence. The third concept concerns threat of separation as a precipitant to the asthma attack. To deal with such a situation the physician may make a number of recommendations of methods for alleviating such a threat. In some families, the degree of disturbance is so great that the parents cannot respond to the physician's advice and may need psychiatric referral. Clues for recognizing such a situation are given along with recommendations on how to make a successful referral. PMID:14154286

  12. [Psychological consequences of multiple births].

    PubMed

    Garel, M; Charlemaine, E; Blondel, B

    2006-11-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the number of multiple births has dramatically increased in our country and most European countries. This paper summarizes the psychological consequences of multiple births based on a review of the literature and on our clinical experience. During pregnancy mothers experience great physical problems linked with increased medical risks for themselves and for the children. These risks cause psychological difficulties: hospitalisation and separation from the family, fear of a premature delivery and anxiety for the children. After delivery the children are often hospitalized, which makes the attachment process difficult. The mortality of multiple children is high and mourning for one child creates particular problems for parents who simultaneously face grieving and attachment processes. After hospital discharge, the overload of work mothers experience leads to physical and nervous fatigue, which does not make easier individual relationship with the children. Mothers have a high level of psychological vulnerability and an increased risk of depression. The satisfactory development of each twin or triplet child requires individualized relationship with his/her mother and his/her father. That is how he/she will be able to build his/her identity and future autonomy. It is important to be aware of the problems experienced by the families and to improve the way material help and psychological support are provided to them. PMID:17055318

  13. Making It Applicable: Using Introspective Essays in Abnormal Psychology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. M., III; Stukenberg, Karl W.; Laffoon, Anthony T.

    2014-01-01

    In the quest for new and effective teaching methods, there is little doubt that activities and lessons which bring course material to students in an applied way that is relevant and pertinent to their lives and interests help to foster more effective learning and retention. A prominent pedagogical tool for this is the use of reflective writing.…

  14. Incorporating Published Autobiographies into the Abnormal Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcross, John C.; Sommer, Robert; Clifford, Jennifer S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores six methods for incorporating into courses published autobiographies written by individuals suffering from mental disorders: (1) outside readings; (2) examples for classroom lectures; (3) primary texts for discussion sections; (4) remedial or extra-credit assignments; (5) information resources; and (6) source books for topical seminars.…

  15. Children's Rights and School Psychology: An Introduction to the Multiple Journal Series Honoring the 25th Anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Hart, Stuart N.

    2014-01-01

    This year, 2014, is the 25th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child--the world's "positive ideology" and its clearest statement of commitments to and respect and aspirations for the dignity of the child. To commemorate this landmark, a program of articles by respected experts has been organized to…

  16. A Further Examination of the Distinction between Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Parental Psychological Control: Psychometric Properties of the DAPCS with French-Speaking Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzouranis, Gregory; Zimmermann, Gregoire; Mahaim, Elodie Biermann; Favez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Psychological control refers to parental behaviors that intrude on the psychological and emotional development of the child. In 2010, Soenens et al. proposed a distinction between two domain-specific expressions of psychological control, that is, Dependency-oriented Psychological Control (DPC) and Achievement-oriented Psychological Control (APC).…

  17. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  18. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  19. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  20. Sensory-Perceptual Abnormalities in Autism: A Case for More Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Meena; Jones, Robert S. P.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sensory-perceptual abnormalities in people with autism from published firsthand accounts and existing psychological research evidence. A range of abnormalities, including hyper- and hyposensitivity, sensory distortion and overload, and multichannel receptivity and processing difficulties, are described and the limitations of clinical and…

  1. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  2. Battered Child Syndrome; a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Pezeshki, Arastoo; Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Fekri, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those brought to the emergency department with trauma. In this report, we described a patient complained of dysphagia following a falling from a height and multiple epidural hematomas and final diagnosis of battered child syndrome. PMID:26495388

  3. Measuring Psychological and Physical Abuse of Children with the Conflict Tactics Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    Application of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) to the assessment of child abuse is described. The CTS is a brief instrument designed to measure three aspects of parent-to-child behavior: (1) reasoning; (2) psychological aggression; and (3) physical aggression. The psychological and physical aggression indexes are intended to measure the…

  4. Psychological Experience of Parents of Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Robin; Jaser, Sarah; Chao, Ariana; Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the prevalence of psychological distress in parents of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), the relationship between parental psychological distress and health outcomes, and parents’ psychological experience of having a child with T1DM. Clinical and research implications are presented. Method A systematic mixed-studies review was undertaken to review the quantitative and qualitative research on the parental experience of having a child with T1DM. A total of 34 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Results The prevalence of parental psychological distress across all studies ranged from 10% to 74%, with an average of 33.5% of parents reporting distress at diagnosis and 19% of parents reporting distress 1 to 4 years after diagnosis. Parental psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM, regardless of how it was defined, was associated with higher child self-report of stress and depressive symptoms, more problematic child behavior, and lower child self-report of quality of life. Parental psychological distress also had negative effects on diabetes management. Themes of the qualitative synthesis indicated that parents perceived T1DM as a difficult diagnosis that contributed to significant family disruption. Adjustment occurred over time; however, ongoing stress was experienced. Conclusions Screening for psychological distress in parents of children with T1DM is indicated, and preventive interventions are needed. PMID:22581804

  5. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  6. The psychological maltreatment of children--technical report.

    PubMed

    Kairys, Steven W; Johnson, Charles F

    2002-04-01

    Psychological maltreatment is a common consequence of physical and sexual abuse but also may occur as a distinct entity. Until recently, there has been controversy regarding the definition and consequences of psychological maltreatment. Sufficient research and consensus now exist about the incidence, definition, risk factors, and consequences of psychological maltreatment to bring this form of child maltreatment to the attention of pediatricians. This technical report provides practicing pediatricians with definitions and risk factors for psychological maltreatment and details how pediatricians can prevent, recognize, and report psychological maltreatment. Contemporary references and resources are provided for pediatricians and parents PMID:11927741

  7. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  8. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  9. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  12. How Much Do Students Remember from an Introductory Psychology Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 100 students were given a Pre-Test in psychology on the first day of class without warning in order to assess their knowledge of basic course content derived from the prerequisites of the course (PSYC-100 Introduction to Psychology or PSYC-220 Child Development) and other life experiences. This was intended as a low-stakes testing…

  13. Using Online Psychological Consultation in Early Childhood Student Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann; Dygdon, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of online psychological consultation regarding child behavior in an early childhood teacher education program. The authors discuss psychological consultation in terms of current theory and philosophy in early childhood teacher education in general, and in terms of the professional objectives of this specific…

  14. Psychological and Pedagogic Support of Children with Health Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezhovkina, Elena Vasilyevna; Ryabova, Natalia Vladimirovna

    2015-01-01

    The article represented theoretic analysis of the literature on the problem of psychological and pedagogic support of disabled children. It defined the following terms: a successfully adapting disabled child, a model, interaction of specialists, psychological and pedagogic support. The article also determined the key components of a successfully…

  15. Effects of Psychology Courseware Use on Computer Anxiety in Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Matthew E.; Lenthall, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that examined the relationship between computer anxiety and the use of psychology courseware in an undergraduate abnormal psychology class using four computerized case simulations. Comparisons of pretest and posttest computer anxiety measures are described, and the relationship between computer anxiety/attitudes and computer use is…

  16. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  17. Brief-Term Psychological Adjustment of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, William G.

    1991-01-01

    In this study of brief-term concomitant of child sexual abuse, children's reports of self-concept and depression, and parents' ratings of their children's depressive symptomology, were examined for child victims of molestation or sexual abuse outside the family, and for nonabused children whose parents sought psychological services for them. (BB)

  18. Surrogate Motherhood and Abortion for Fetal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ruth; van Zyl, Liezl

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of fetal abnormality presents parents with a difficult - even tragic - moral dilemma. Where this diagnosis is made in the context of surrogate motherhood there is an added difficulty, namely that it is not obvious who should be involved in making decisions about abortion, for the person who would normally have the right to decide - the pregnant woman - does not intend to raise the child. This raises the question: To what extent, if at all, should the intended parents be involved in decision-making? In commercial surrogacy it is thought that as part of the contractual agreement the intended parents acquire the right to make this decision. By contrast, in altruistic surrogacy the pregnant woman retains the right to make these decisions, but the intended parents are free to decide not to adopt the child. We argue that both these strategies are morally unsound, and that the problems encountered serve to highlight more fundamental defects within the commercial and altruistic models, as well as in the legal and institutional frameworks that support them. We argue in favour of the professional model, which acknowledges the rights and responsibilities of both parties and provides a legal and institutional framework that supports good decision-making. In particular, the professional model acknowledges the surrogate's right to decide whether to undergo an abortion, and the intended parents' obligation to accept legal custody of the child. While not solving all the problems that arise in surrogacy, the model provides a framework that supports good decision-making. PMID:25688455

  19. The relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior: confirming shared environmental mediation.

    PubMed

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Rueter, Martha A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Burt, S Alexandra

    2011-07-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of rater bias. As the presence of significant shared environmental effects has often been attributed to rater bias in the past (Baker et al. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 16:219-235, 2007; Bartels et al. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42:1351-1359, 2003, Twin Research 7:162-175, 2004; Hewitt et al. Behavior Genetics 22:293-317, 1992), it would be important to confirm that findings of shared environmental mediation persist when even examining (presumably more objective) observer-ratings of these constructs. The current study thus examined the origins of the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent acting-out behavior, as measured using both observer-ratings and various informant-reports. Participants included 1,199 adopted and non-adopted adolescents in 610 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results indicated that parent-child conflict consistently predicts acting-out behavior in adopted adolescents, and moreover, that this association is equivalent to that in biologically-related adolescents. Most importantly, these findings did not vary across parent- and adolescent-reported or observer-ratings of parent-child conflict and acting-out behavior. Such findings argue strongly against rater bias as a primary explanation of shared environmental mediation of the association between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior. PMID:21484334

  20. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  1. Psychological Testing: Misdiagnosis and Half-Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutson, Barbara A.

    1974-01-01

    Delineates a model of the complete diagnosis process which is motivated by concern that every child achieve the potential he possesses. Discusses the usual functions of diagnosis, the nature of psychological-educational diagnosis, the effects of inaccurate or inadequate diagnosis, and implication for a more adequate process. (Author/PC)

  2. Psychological assessment for adults and children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychological factors play a significant role in many nutritional abnormalities. These factors include mood (e.g., depression, anger, and anxiety), emotional eating, distorted body image, low self-esteem, poor self-efficacy and quality of life, dietary restraint, stress, susceptibility to external c...

  3. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  4. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    PubMed

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies. PMID:26826981

  5. Enhancing the Benefits of Service-Learning in Undergraduate Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey

    The benefits of including service-learning in courses were studied with 35 students enrolled in each of 2 classes in child psychology, 15 students in each of 2 courses on substance abuse, and 16 first-year students in 1 introductory psychology class. Service-learning placements for the psychology courses included school tutoring programs for…

  6. Mothers' violence victimization and child behavior problems: examining the link.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard

    2007-04-01

    The current study examined the link between parents' experience of violence victimization and child outcomes, in 197 mother-child dyads recruited from low-income urban neighborhoods. At recruitment (when children were between 6 and 18 months old), demographic factors, child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, mothers' psychosocial functioning, and mothers' history of violence victimization were assessed. Child behavioral outcomes, mother-child interactions, and mothers' psychosocial functioning were assessed again at age 4. Mothers' history of victimization as children (but not as adults) uniquely predicted child behavior problems at age 4. Three classes of possible mediators were examined: demographics, maternal psychosocial functioning, and mother-child interactions. Of these, only mother psychological aggression toward child met preliminary criteria for mediation; it partially mediated the link between mother childhood victimization and child behavioral outcomes. Maternal depressive symptoms and young age at child's birth independently predicted child behavior problems, but did not act as mediators. Mothers' early experiences with violence victimization appear to exert an important influence on child behavioral outcomes; this influence appears to be mediated, in part, by mothers' psychological aggression toward their children. PMID:17535128

  7. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  8. Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158709.html Harsh Parenting May Harm a Child's Physical Health Problems might ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Harsh parenting may leave more than psychological scars, it might ...

  9. [The child's voice through drawings in cross-cultural psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The drawing is a valuable mediation tool to encourage the active participation of the child in the cross-cultural group psychotherapeutic process. It enables the therapists and, ultimately, the family, to take into account their psychological movements. PMID:27015697

  10. Nurturing Your Child's Development from 24 to 36 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... of 17 leading professionals with backgrounds in neuroscience, psychology, child development, economics, education, pediatrics, psychiatry and public ... 12 Months Learn how to nurture your baby's social emotional, intellectual, language, and motor development from 9 ...

  11. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  12. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  13. Ischial hypoplasia, tibial hypoplasia and facial abnormalities: a new syndrome?

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Haga, Y; Aoki, K; Hasegawa, T

    1998-12-01

    A child with facial abnormalities, short stature and a variety of skeletal alterations is reported. The facial abnormalities comprised low-set ears, short nose with a long philtrum, micrognathia and cleft palate. The skeletal alterations included ischial hypoplasia, malformations of the cervical spine, hypoplasia of the lesser trochanters, tibial hypoplasia with bowing of the lower legs, tibio-fibular diastasis with malformed distal tibial epiphyses, clubfeet and brachymesophalangy. The constellation of clinical and radiological findings in the present patient do not fit any known malformation syndrome. PMID:9880644

  14. [Child-to-parent violence and its association with exposure to marital violence and parent-to-child violence].

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the relationships between the exposure to different types of family violence (intraparental violence and parent-to-child aggression) and the perpetration of child-to-parent violence (CPV); (b) to analyze sex differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 1681 Spanish university students who reported the exposure to different types of family violence during their childhood. Both psychological and physical family violence were analyzed separately. Results showed that both witnessing marital psychological violence and parent-to-child psychological aggression are related to CPV. Furthermore, psychological and physical parent-to-child aggression as well as witnessing physical aggression between parents was associated with physical CPV. Multigroup analyses showed that the relationships among variables were not significantly different as a function of sex. This finding suggests that the relation between exposure to family violence and CPV is similar for men and women. PMID:22420357

  15. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  16. Methodological diversity of research published in selected psychological journals in 1999.

    PubMed

    Munley, Patrick H; Anderson, Mary Z; Briggs, Denise; Devries, Michael R; Forshee, Wade J; Whisner, Emily A

    2002-10-01

    454 papers appearing in 10 journals published by the American Psychological Association during 1999 were reviewed to consider the frequency of publication of qualitative research. Journals reviewed included Health Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Family Psychology, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Psychological Assessment, and Psychology and Aging. Papers were classified as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed qualitative/quantitative studies. Quantitative papers were also dichotomously classified as either primarily descriptive or experimental. Qualitative studies were classified by type of qualitative methods specified by the authors. Most papers (97.6.%) were classified as quantitative. Only three journals reviewed published qualitative studies. PMID:12416829

  17. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  18. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make ... and unable to feel pain during the operation. During ...

  19. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  20. Abnormal Presentation of Choriocarcinoma and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Zohreh; Mottaghi, Mansorhe; Rezaei, Alireza; Ghasemian, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms have highly been malignant potential, which usually occurred in child-bearing age women. Unusual feature of this malignancy would be rare, it was important to take in mind the possibility of GTN in different manifestation. Based on the above mentioned, the aim of this presentation would be the management and outcome of a case series of choriocarcinoma patients with abnormal manifestation. Case Presentation We have presented four patients, first who initially manifestation with signs of septic shock, the second case with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, the third case with postpartum infection and the forth case was a postmenopausal bleeding patient. Conclusions In case of metastatic choriocarcinoma with precise history, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment have led us to curable results. PMID:27482332

  1. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  3. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  4. Behavioural consequences of child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  5. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA. PMID:23558712

  6. Give Sorrow Words: Working with a Dying Child. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Dorothy

    Efforts to alleviate the emotional pain of terminally ill children and their parents have led many physicians to turn to child psychiatrists for psychological support and treatment services. This book, written by a child psychotherapist, offers an overview of children's attitudes to death and considers the moral and ethical issues raised by…

  7. Effectiveness of Child Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in a Clinical Outpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Elisabeth Kuhn; Tiellet Nunes, Maria Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of child psychoanalytic psychotherapy in a clinical outpatient setting in a city in southern Brazil. Three psychological tests (Rorschach, Bender and WISC III) were administered to 23 children, aged 6-11 years old, and the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) was completed by the parents. All…

  8. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  10. Bullying in Schools: A Form of Child Abuse in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluedse, Oyaziwo

    2006-01-01

    Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…

  11. A child in detention: dilemmas faced by health professionals.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Karen J; Herzberg, Brenda; Dossetor, David; Field, Jyotsna

    2003-09-15

    A 6-year-old child, held in detention with his parents pending the outcome of their application for refugee status, manifested psychological distress by repeated episodes of refusing to eat or drink. This case presented clinical and ethical dilemmas for health professionals who were constrained from acting in the child's best interests by government policy of mandatory detention. PMID:12964917

  12. Child-to-Parent Violence: Emotional and Behavioral Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Child-to-parent violence (CPV) includes acts committed by a child to intentionally cause physical, psychological, or financial pain to a parent. Available data indicate increasing rates of CPV in Spain, which have been attributed to a tendency toward more permissive parenting styles and changes in the power cycles within the families. The primary…

  13. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  14. A Review of Recent Literature on Child Abuse and Sequelae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John L.

    This paper addresses moderate- to long-term psychological effects of child abuse. It begins by discussing characteristics of effective and ineffective parenting to provide a background of potential contributors to child abuse within the family system. Belsky's (1984) developmental model of determinants of parenting behavior is explained and his…

  15. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  16. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendless, or even suicidal If your family has developed a pattern of responding to disagreements with physical or emotional abuse If you or your spouse or child use alcohol or other drugs to feel better ...

  17. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may ...

  18. Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lindi; Zhao, Zhimin; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health issue around the globe. Previous studies regarding IAD were mainly focused on associated psychological examinations. However, there are few studies on brain structure and function about IAD. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter integrity in adolescents with IAD. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen IAD subjects and sixteen healthy controls without IAD participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal white matter regions between groups. TBSS demonstrated that IAD had significantly lower FA than controls throughout the brain, including the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corona radiation, internal and external capsules, while exhibiting no areas of higher FA. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in the regions showing FA abnormalities. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by an increase in radial diffusivity while no changes in axial diffusivity. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures within the IAD group. Significantly negative correlations were found between FA values in the left genu of the corpus callosum and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and between FA values in the left external capsule and the Young's Internet addiction scale. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IAD demonstrated widespread reductions of FA in major white matter pathways and such abnormal white matter structure may be linked to some behavioral impairments. In addition, white matter integrity may serve as a potential new treatment target and FA may be as a qualified biomarker to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of injury or to

  19. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  2. A Statewide Study of the Public Attitudes toward Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooper, Surjit Singh; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 742 Kentucky adults revealed that they had a good understanding of the characteristics of abused children and child abusers, but a majority considered abusers as abnormal and intractable. Only a third of those aware of instances of child abuse actually reported it to authorities. (Author/JDD)

  3. Evolution of the Cranial Computed Tomography Scan in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical charts for 34 children with a diagnosis of child abuse, who had cranial computed tomography scans performed, revealed that some scans initially interpreted as normal were subsequently reinterpreted as abnormal, and some children's repeat scannings were interpreted as abnormal, modifying the medical and legal…

  4. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  5. My Child Redeems My Broken Dreams: On Parents Transferring Their Unfulfilled Ambitions onto Their Child

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Slagt, Meike; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Bushman, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual. When parents see their child as part of themselves, their child’s achievements may easily come to function as a surrogate for parents’ own unfulfilled ambitions. In the present experiment, 73 parents (89% women, Mage = 43 years) were randomly assigned to reflect on either their own or others’ unfulfilled ambitions. Results showed that, when faced with their own unfulfilled ambitions, parents who see their child as part of themselves want their child to fulfill their unfulfilled ambitions. This study provides the first experimental evidence to suggest that parents may desire their child to redeem their broken dreams. PMID:23840325

  6. Child Maltreatment: Responsibilities and Responses of the Schools. Policy Issue Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart; Maxson, Suzanne

    Child maltreatment, defined as acts of commission or omission that harm a child physically or psychologically, adversely affects millions of children nationwide. Since almost two-thirds of these children are of school age, schools could be among the best resources available to combat child maltreatment. This paper examines the responsibilities and…

  7. Child Rearing and Neuroticization of Parenting: The Case of The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenendijk, Leendert F.; Bakker, Nelleke

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the history and outcomes of psychoanalysis and child rearing practices in the 1950s Netherlands to present. Depicts the 20th century as a century of child rearing experts with parents blamed for all that was wrong with their child. States the dynamics of psychology has undermined society's self-supporting and self-healing capacity. (KDR)

  8. The Inclusion of Fathers in the Empirical Investigation of Child Psychopathology: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael; Adrian, Molly; Veits, Gina; Zeman, Janice

    2006-01-01

    This investigation provides an update on the inclusion of fathers in child psychopathology research. Articles published from January 1992 to January 2005 that examined parental contributions to child psychological maladjustment were identified. Each article was coded for child age, parental race, how parent gender was analyzed, type of journal,…

  9. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  10. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  11. Waldorf Schools: A Child-Centered System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…

  12. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  13. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  14. Parent-Child Relations Throughout Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl, Ed.; McCartney, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using an interdisciplinary perspective that combines research in psychology, sociology, and anthropology, this book examines the composition and role of the family with respect to young children, adolescents, and adult children of elderly parents. Following a preface discussing the major themes of the book--parent-child attachment, transitions and…

  15. Child Abuse: Differential Diagnosis, Differential Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Helen M.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the relationship between treatment intensity and rehabilitation of 89 child abusers whose MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) profiles revealed high levels of psychological distress. The relationship was positive and statistically significant. The client receiving intense weekly treatment for longer durations was assessed…

  16. Parental Injury and Psychological Health of Children

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Carolyn A.; Shandro, Jamie; Wang, Jin; Zatzick, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how parental injury affects the psychological health and functioning of injured as well as uninjured children. METHODS: We recruited 175 parent-child dyads treated at a regional trauma center in 4 groups: parent and child both injured in the same event, child-only injured, parent-only injured, and neither parent nor child met criteria for significant injury. The preinjury health and functioning of parents and children were assessed with follow-up at 5 and 12 months. RESULTS: Parents who were injured themselves showed higher levels of impairment in activities of daily living, quality of life, and depression at both follow-up assessments than parents who were not injured. Children in dyads with both parent and child injured had the highest proportion of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at both 5 and 12 months. In addition, children with an injured parent but who were not injured themselves were more likely to report PTSD symptoms at 5 months. CONCLUSIONS: There were bidirectional effects of parental and child injury on the outcomes of each other. Injuries to the parent negatively affected the health-related quality of life of the injured children, over and above the effect of the injury itself on the child. Of great concern is the effect of parental injury on risk of stress and PTSD among uninjured children in the home. PMID:24918226

  17. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  19. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  20. Rett's Syndrome in an Australian Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, E. J. R.; Callaghan, C.

    1987-01-01

    Following a literature review on Rett's Syndrome, a case study is presented of a 15-year-old girl with normal development during the first months of life followed by manifestation of behavior abnormalities and deterioration of intellectual level. The child's medical history and the mother's description of the girl's development are included.…

  1. Causal inference and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael

    2010-11-01

    Causal inference is of central importance to developmental psychology. Many key questions in the field revolve around improving the lives of children and their families. These include identifying risk factors that if manipulated in some way would foster child development. Such a task inherently involves causal inference: One wants to know whether the risk factor actually causes outcomes. Random assignment is not possible in many instances, and for that reason, psychologists must rely on observational studies. Such studies identify associations, and causal interpretation of such associations requires additional assumptions. Research in developmental psychology generally has relied on various forms of linear regression, but this methodology has limitations for causal inference. Fortunately, methodological developments in various fields are providing new tools for causal inference-tools that rely on more plausible assumptions. This article describes the limitations of regression for causal inference and describes how new tools might offer better causal inference. This discussion highlights the importance of properly identifying covariates to include (and exclude) from the analysis. This discussion considers the directed acyclic graph for use in accomplishing this task. With the proper covariates having been chosen, many of the available methods rely on the assumption of "ignorability." The article discusses the meaning of ignorability and considers alternatives to this assumption, such as instrumental variables estimation. Finally, the article considers the use of the tools discussed in the context of a specific research question, the effect of family structure on child development. PMID:20677855

  2. Individual Therapy With a Child of Divorced Parents.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Pauline H

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the literature on divorce as a risk factor in children's psychological development; describes common themes expressed by children presenting in treatment; and highlights the unique challenges for the child therapist working with a child of divorce, particularly those with high parental conflict and court involvement. Then, using a case example, the article describes therapeutic strategies and a treatment structure that, consistent with the ethical guidelines of the American Psychological Association (2010), focuses on developing and maintaining the therapeutic relationship to support the psychological growth of the child. Finally, the article discusses the ethical challenges inherent in providing therapeutic intervention for this type of child and the implications for this type of therapeutic approach. PMID:26859228

  3. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  4. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  5. Longitudinal Pathways to Competence and Psychological Adjustment among African American Children Living in Rural Single-Parent Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride; Kim, Sooyeon; Brown, Anita C.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between maternal psychological functioning and child competence and psychological adjustment among black families with 11-year-old children. Found a chain of influences over a 3-year period in which maternal education and income were linked with maternal psychological functioning, which predicted competence-promoting…

  6. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... may also do the procedure using a special video camera. A surgical cut in the back is ...

  7. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & ... Your Child's Checkup: 13 Years Your Child's Checkup: 14 Years Your Child's Checkup: 15 Years Your Child's ...

  8. Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.

    PubMed

    Minucci, Daria

    2013-12-01

    Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989

  9. Pregnancy and Psychological Preparation for Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Tudiver, Fred; Tudiver, Judy

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that pregnancy is a normal developmental period requiring psychological adaptation by the new parents. This period involves upheavals in emotions, relationships, values and roles which demand considerable attention. Studies have shown that unsuccessful resolution of these upheavals has been associated with difficulties of pregnancy and delivery, postpartum depression and child abuse and neglect. The family physician is in a key position to observe adaptations to pregnancy, to facilitate such adaptations and to intervene when necessary. PMID:21286516

  10. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    PubMed

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests. PMID:24388247

  11. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  12. Child Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your child's plate fruits and vegetables Choose healthy sources of protein, such as lean meat, nuts, and eggs Serve whole-grain breads and cereals because they are high in fiber. Reduce refined grains. Broil, grill, or steam foods instead of frying them Limit fast food and ...

  13. Child CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  14. Abnormal eating attitudes in young insulin-dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Steel, J M; Young, R J; Lloyd, G G; Macintyre, C C

    1989-10-01

    All insulin-dependent diabetics between the ages of 16 and 25 years attending the diabetic clinic at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, (152 women and 139 men) were asked to complete the EAT, the EDI, and the GHQ, and to provide a control subject (sibling or close friend) of similar age who would do likewise. Marked differences were found between diabetic women (but not men) and their controls in eating attitudes, in many of the psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders, and in GHQ scores. Although some of the women had classic anorexia nervosa or bulimia, others with abnormal eating attitudes did not fulfil the formal criteria. Overall, diabetics were significantly heavier than controls but the differences in eating attitudes were not eliminated by correcting for overweight. Abnormal scores were associated with high HbA1 levels and independently with retinopathy. The weight gain and psychological effects of diabetes are identified as probably of aetiological importance in the abnormal eating attitudes of young diabetic women. PMID:2611574

  15. Legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse: a primer and discussion of relevant research.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout, including research on investigator training, forensic interviewing techniques, children's suggestibility, jurors' perceptions of child witnesses, and courtroom accommodations for child witnesses. PMID:19856733

  16. Unexplained Facial Scar: Child Abuse or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shapouri, Javad; Masjedi, Mohsen; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse. PMID:25535610

  17. Child murder committed by severely mentally III mothers: an examination of mothers found not guilty by reason of insanity. 2005 Honorable Mention/Richard Rosner Award for the best paper by a fellow in forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hrouda, Debra R; Holden, Carol E; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Resnick, Phillip J

    2005-11-01

    Forensic hospital records of 39 severely mentally ill mothers adjudicated Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity for filicide (child murder by parents) were analyzed to describe characteristics preceding this tragedy and to suggest prevention strategies. Almost three-quarters of the mothers (72%) had previous mental health treatment. Over two thirds (69%) of the mothers were experiencing auditory hallucinations, most frequently command hallucinations, and half (49%) were depressed at the time of the offense. Over one third (38%) of the filicides occurred during pregnancy or the postpartum period, and many had a history of postpartum psychosis. Almost three-quarters (72%) of the mothers had experienced considerable developmental stressors, such as death of their own mother or incest. Maternal motives for filicide were predominantly "altruistic" (meaning murder out of love) or "acutely psychotic" (occurring in the throes of psychosis, without rational motive). Psychiatrists should perform careful risk assessments for filicide in mothers with mental illnesses. PMID:16382847

  18. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD. PSYCHOANALYTIC STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES, VOLUME 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EISSLER, RUTH S., ED.; AND OTHERS

    TWENTY ARTICLES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME, THE 22ND IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CHILD SERIES. PAPERS ON PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THERAPY INTERPRET LOSING AND BEING LOST, OBSTACLES TO PSYCHOANALYTIC CURE, AND AFFECT CONTROL. ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY CONSIDERED ARE FREUD'S CONCEPT OF PRIMAL REPRESSION, CONCEPTS OF STRUCTURE AND…

  19. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  20. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  1. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  2. Community interaction and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur. PMID:23981436

  3. Enhancing the child survival agenda to promote, protect, and support early child development.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Bouhouch, Raschida R; Walson, Judd L; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bahl, Rajiv; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dua, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    High rates of child mortality and lost developmental potential in children under 5 years of age remain important challenges and drivers of inequity in the developing world. Substantive progress has been made toward Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 to improve child survival, but as we move into the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much more work is needed to ensure that all children can realize their full and holistic physical, cognitive, psychological, and socio-emotional development potential. This article presents child survival and development as a continuous and multifaceted process and suggests that a life-course perspective of child development should be at the core of future policy making, programming, and research. We suggest that increased attention to child development, beyond child survival, is key to operationalize the sustainable development goals (SDGs), address inequities, build on the demographic dividend, and maximize gains in human potential. An important step toward implementation will be to increase integration of existing interventions for child survival and child development. Integrated interventions have numerous potential benefits, including optimization of resource use, potential additive impacts across multiple domains of health and development, and opportunity to realize a more holistic approach to client-centered care. However, a notable challenge to integration is the continued division between the health sector and other sectors that support child development. Despite these barriers, empirical evidence is available to suggest that successful multisectoral coordination is feasible and leads to improved short- and long-term outcomes in human, social, and economic development. PMID:26234921

  4. Patterns of psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant's life. Mothers of preterm infants (N=232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment during the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive sub-groups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  5. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group. PMID:16225232

  6. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  8. The Relationship between Parental Abuse and Psychological Safety of the Children at the City of Amman and the Central Valleys of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Anani, Hanan Abd Al-Hameed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the degree of parental abuse and psychological security of the child, as well as the degree differences of these variables, based on the gender, the age and place of residency. The aim of this study also was to detect the relationship between parental abuse and the psychological security of the child. The…

  9. Influencia de la Edad y de la Preparacion Psicologica en Ninos Sometidos a Cirugia (The Influence of Age and Psychological Preparation on Children Entering Surgery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros Z., Douglas A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study confirmed the notion that preparing a child psychologically for surgery benefits not only the child but also the entire medical process. The study also confirmed significant statistical reduction of fear resulting from the effectiveness of psychological preparation and the use of films showing the surgical procedure. (Author/LB)

  10. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

  11. Marginalization of Vocational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Although vocational psychology has diverse theoretical models and an empirical tradition, it is marginalized within counseling psychology. Its vitality is weakened by those who take a dabbler, pundit, or booster approach to scholarship. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  12. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  13. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  14. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  15. Cardiac abnormalities in end stage renal failure and anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, K P; Skinner, J R; Wren, C; Hunter, S; Coulthard, M G

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen anaemic children on dialysis were assessed to determine the incidence of cardiac changes in end stage renal failure. Nine children had an increased cardiothoracic ratio on radiography. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in every case but no child had left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by voltage criteria. However, left ventricular hypertrophy, often gross, was found on echocardiography in 12 children and affected the interventricular septum disproportionately. Cardiac index was increased in 10 patients as a result of an increased left ventricular stroke volume rather than heart rate. Left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly greater in those on treatment for hypertension and in those with the highest cardiac index. Abnormal diastolic ventricular function was found in 6/11 children. Children with end stage renal failure have significant cardiac abnormalities that are likely to contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality in this group. Anaemia and hypertension, or its treatment, probably contribute to these changes. Voltage criteria on electrocardiogram are of no value in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography must be performed, with the results corrected for age and surface area, in order to detect and follow these abnormalities. Images PMID:8323332

  16. Psychological Aggression by American Parents: National Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, and Severity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.; Field, Carolyn J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the prevalence of psychological aggression in a nationally representative sample of 991 parents. Prevalence rates greater than 90% and the absence of differences according to child or family characteristics suggests that psychological aggression is a near universal disciplinary tactic of American parents. Discusses the implications of…

  17. Children's Rights and School Psychology: Historical Perspective and Implications for the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Hart, Brannon W.

    2014-01-01

    School psychology and children's rights have great potential, well beyond what has been realized, for advancing the best interests of children, their communities, and societies. A child rights approach infused into school psychology can significantly contribute to the fulfillment of this potential. To respect and illuminate these factors and…

  18. Health Care Psychology: Prospects for the Well-Being of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1979-01-01

    Health care psychology is distinguished from traditional child psychology in that it emphasizes clinical application and is concerned with primary mental health care. Diagnosis, classification, prediction, and treatment and control strategies in the field offer definite solutions to problems such as tracheotomy addiction, encopresis, psychogenic…

  19. Bringing Psychology to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes a set of exercises called Bringing Psychology to Life (BPL), which is designed to engage introductory psychology students in learning course and textbook content by having them develop psychological explanations for events in their lives. Maintains that BPL is an excellent icebreaker for graduate teaching assistants and a vehicle for…

  20. Psychology: Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human Development";…

  1. Teaching of Psychology Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Douglas A., Ed.

    Produced by and for members of Division Two, American Psychological Association, this newsletter regularly contains: 1) reports on division meetings; 2) activities of its committees, such as those on pre-college psychology, adult education, course outlines, psychology in professional schools; 3) articles and studies; and, 4) reports on studies and…

  2. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  3. Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  4. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  5. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  6. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  7. Psychology and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  8. The Treatment of Psychological Problems Experienced by the Children of Police Officers in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alastair

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent establishment of the Police Rehabilitation and Retraining Trust's Child and Adolescent Therapy Service. This service was set up in response to an expressed need within the police family to provide evidenced-based psychological therapies for child and adolescent psychopathology caused either directly by…

  9. Psychological Masculinity and Femininity in Children and Its Relationship to Trait Stereotypes and Toy Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Janet T.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship of psychological masculinity and feminity in children to trait stereotyping and toy preferences. Subjects (157 boys and 157 girls in Grades K-4) were tested on a Child Test Battery, including the Child's Personal Attributes Questionnaire based on the adult PAQ (Spence, Helmreich & Stapp, 1974, 1975), the…

  10. Long-Term Influences of Intergenerational Ambivalence on Midlife Parents' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt, K. Jill; Blieszner, Rosemary; Savla, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated changes in midlife parents' intergenerational ambivalence toward a focal child and its influence on their psychological well-being over 14 years, as the focal child moved from adolescence into young adulthood. We estimated growth curve models using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,510…

  11. Differential Effects of Psychological Maltreatment on Children of Mothers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…

  12. Foundations of Child Psychiatry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Emanuel, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight papers examine basic theories and clinical methods in child psychiatry. Theories and methods discussed concern child psychiatry and the World Health Organization, pediatrics, child disturbances, observation, the psychodiagnostic approach, longitudinal research in child development, the comparative approach to early child development,…

  13. Understanding the effects of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Warner, S L

    1977-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children. PMID:331392

  14. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  15. Psychological aspects of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Food allergies may impact the emotions of patients through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Direct mechanisms include the effects on the central nervous system from biologic mediators released during an allergic reaction to food. Indirect mechanisms include the stress of coping with a food allergy--for example, food preparation and avoidance--as well as managing the fear of the potential consequences of ingesting the food. Indirect effects may also be mediated through family members--for example, the impact of a parent's stress on the child. These relationships are difficult to study, in part because many patients who report food allergy symptoms do not have objective symptoms when challenged with the offending food. Symptoms may be misinterpreted as food allergy more often by patients with certain psychological profiles. In this paper, relevant literature is reviewed, and clinical treatment designed to minimize the emotional suffering of patients and their families is presented through the description of a case vignette. PMID:12542993

  16. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. PMID:26346388

  17. The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…

  18. Mystery in Milwaukee: Early Intervention, IQ, and Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…

  19. 77 FR 10759 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... of Child Health and Human Development. Dates and Times: March 7, 2012, at 3 p.m. Place: American Psychological Association, 750 First Street NE., 6th Floor Conference Room, Washington, DC 20002. Agenda:...

  20. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000069.htm Ileostomy and your child To use the sharing features on this page, ... health counselor may help you. Caring for Your Child's Ileostomy Your child will need help and support. ...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  2. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected With Enews Subscribe Child Care Aware® of America Overview Vision & Mission Audience Partners Child Care Providers ... Public Policy Agenda 2016-2017 Child Care in America: 2016 State Fact Sheets We Can Do Better – ...

  3. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  4. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  5. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  6. The Impact of Child Problem Behaviors of Children with ASD on Parent Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Acceptance and Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; MacMullin, Jennifer Anne; Viecili, Michelle; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Raising a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often been associated with higher levels of parenting stress and psychological distress, and a number of studies have examined the role of psychological processes as mediators of the impact of child problem behavior on parent mental health. The current study examined the relations among…

  7. Child Behavior Problems and Parental Well-Being in Families of Children with Autism: The Mediating Role of Mindfulness and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leah; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Totsika, Vasiliki; Keane, Lisa; Rhule, Neisha

    2014-01-01

    Few research studies have explored how the level of a child's behavior problems leads to psychological distress in parents of children with autism. The authors explored whether psychological acceptance and mindfulness mediated this relationship between child behavior and parental distress. Seventy-one mothers and 39 fathers of children with…

  8. Stepping Stones Triple P: An RCT of a Parenting Program with Parents of a Child Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Whilst the Triple P Positive Parenting Program has a large evidence base (Sanders, "Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review" 2:71-90, 1999; Sanders, "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" 68:624-640, 2000) and preliminary evidence indicates that Stepping Stones Triple P is also efficacious (Roberts, "Journal of Clinical Child and…

  9. A Theoretical Upgrade of the Concept of Parental Psychological Control: Proposing New Insights on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Psychological control refers to manipulative parental behavior that intrudes upon the child's psychological world. During the past decade, socialization research has consistently demonstrated the negative effects of psychologically controlling parenting on children's and adolescents' development. However, there has been relatively little advance…

  10. The psychological abuse of latency age children: a survey.

    PubMed

    Burnett, B B

    1993-01-01

    Most states have included sections on psychological abuse or emotional maltreatment in their child abuse statutes, however, interest in this type of abuse has lagged in litigation, treatment, or research. Lack of public sanctions to examine or prosecute these cases may be a reason for this reluctance. This research project aimed at identifying potential definitions of psychological abuse, by submitting vignettes with adult behaviors to be rated as abuse or not by a group of citizens and also comparing these results with a professional social work cohort. Both groups identified nine types of adult behavior to be abuse. There was no difference on the ratings between respondent groups (citizen-social work; age groups, experience with child abuse, and parenthood), except for gender. Female respondents rated the vignettes to be child abuse, serious, and wanted more drastic intervention than male respondents. Support existed for intervention in these cases. PMID:8402247

  11. Donor conception from the viewpoint of the child: positives, negatives, and promoting the welfare of the child.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, Julianne E

    2015-09-01

    Use of donor egg and donor sperm has made parenthood a possibility for many who could not achieve it through natural conception. The use of donor gametes may also permit prospective parents to mitigate a number of health problems for the hoped-for child. Promoting the welfare of the hoped-for child, however, includes not only the consideration of good physical health but also necessitates consideration of psychological, emotional, and social well-being. This paper will review the impact of donor conception from the viewpoint of the resulting child including the psychological, emotional, and social well-being of donor-conceived children. It will discuss the topic of disclosure and closely consider the expansion of donor conception to older parents from the viewpoint of the child. PMID:26158907

  12. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  13. Child Welfare Workers, Police, and Child Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Uses three different samples of child abuse and neglect complaints drawn from the files of a juvenile court, a child welfare agency, and a police department, to investigate the factors which contribute to the decision to remove a child from his/her family. (Author/CM)

  14. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. PMID:23975849

  15. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  16. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  17. What Do Students in Psychology Courses Know about Clinical Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jon B.; Cantrell, Peggy J.

    This study examined what psychology students know about clinical psychology as most students with declared majors in psychology state that they have career plans to work in applied psychology. A five-item questionnaire was administered to 162 undergraduates in three introductory and upper level psychology courses. The questionnaire asked students…

  18. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  19. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  20. Child Maltreatment History among Newlywed Couples: A Longitudinal Study of Marital Outcomes and Mediating Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Peugh, James; Walsh, Kate; Panuzio, Jillian; Trask, Emily; Evans, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse,…

  1. Child abuse: concerns for oral health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are prevalent issues that permeate all ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic segments of society. Parents of abused children frequently change physicians in order to prevent detection, but they are more likely to continue to visit the child's dentist. Most states recognize four major types of maltreatment: neglect; physical abuse; psychological maltreatment; and sexual abuse. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines dental neglect as "the willful failure of parent or guardian to seek and follow through with treatment necessary to ensure a level of oral health essential for adequate function and freedom from pain and infection." The oral health practitioner must uphold his or her legal and ethical responsibility if there is suspicion, record and report the incidence. It may help save a child from further abuse. PMID:24027895

  2. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  3. Child Support Report, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  4. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  5. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information on events…

  6. Child Support Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2002 of the Child Support Report, which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  7. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  8. THE DIFFICULT CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROUCEK, JOSEPH S.

    THIS BOOK CONSISTS OF 16 ESSAYS BY SPECIALISTS ON PROBLEMS WHICH MAY MAKE A CHILD DIFFICULT. EACH AUTHOR DISCUSSES ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND HOW DIFFICULTIES MAY BE REDUCED. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE CREATIVE CHILD" BY E.P. TORRANCE, (2) "THE INATTENTIVE CHILD" BY I.W. SCHERER, (3) "THE CHILD WITH LANGUAGE…

  9. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

  10. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  11. THE THORNY CHILD

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, James L.

    1962-01-01

    Too many physicians—and parents—hide behind the overworked excuse that “Johnny is just going through a stage.” If the remark is inaccurate a great disservice can be done to both mother and child, and ultimately to society. The well oriented physician would no more permit a young mother to unwittingly feel “guilty” because her two-year-old “little stinker” behaves like a two-year-old little stinker than he would casually reassure when a ten-year-old behaves as though he were two. Actually much of the unpleasant behavior of children is quite normal. If physicians would help all young mothers to recognize this without dismissing abnormal behavior, it would do much to avert the overwhelming sense of inadequacy that so many modern young mothers feel—especially with their first baby. If they can be made comfortable with their first the others usually come easily. Many physicians who care for children are not trained in the rudiments of developmental behavior. By means of a simple outline and drawing of “the thorny child” even the least of the experts can better understand some of the chronologic variations in developmental behavior. PMID:13885463

  12. Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Le, Brenda; Hanson, R. Karl; Baker, Charlene K.; McMahon, Pam M.; Ryan, Gail; Klein, Alisa; Rice, Deborah Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Since the late 1980s, there has been a strong theoretical focus on psychological and social influences of perpetration of child sexual abuse. This paper presents the results of a review and meta-analysis of studies examining risk factors for perpetration of child sexual abuse published since 1990. Method: Eighty-nine studies published…

  13. Treatment of a Psychotic Trainable Retarded Child in a Day Hospital for Children with Average Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Louis C.; Cohen, Jonathan L.

    The case study describes the progress of a psychotic trainable mentally retarded child who at age seven entered a day psychiatric hospital for disturbed children with average intelligence. The boy's therapist describes changes in the child's peer interaction, academic performance, group psychotherapy participation, and psychological test…

  14. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  15. Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Mother-Child Dyads: Implications for Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…

  16. Demographic and Personality Characteristics of Internet Child Pornography Downloaders in Comparison to Other Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijnen, Lotte; Bulten, Erik; Nijman, Henk

    2009-01-01

    This research study was conducted to map out the demographic and psychological aspects of Internet child pornography offenders. The backgrounds, characteristics, and MMPI profiles of 22 Internet child pornography offenders were statistically compared to those of 112 perpetrators of other offenses. In comparison to the other sexual offenders, the…

  17. Factors of Compliance of a Child with Rules in a Russian Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayanova, Larisa F.; Mustafin, Timur R.

    2016-01-01

    The article covers the analysis of the child's psychology compliance with culture rules--the cultural congruence. The description of the technique aimed to detect the cultural congruence of five- to six-year-old children is presented. The technique is made on the basis of the revealed range of rules of a child's and adult's interaction in a social…

  18. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  19. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  20. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  1. First Steps in Parenting the Child Who Hurts: Tiddlers and Toddlers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Caroline

    Based on the view that every adopted child will have been exposed to psychological pain as a result of separation or other hurtful experiences, this book examines issues relating to adoption, attachment, and child development. The book offers guidance to adoptive and foster parents on helping their children through separation, loss, and trauma in…

  2. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  3. Child care subsidies, maternal health, and child-parent interactions: evidence from three nationally representative datasets.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Chris M; Tekin, Erdal

    2014-08-01

    A complete account of the US child care subsidy system requires an understanding of its implications for both parental and child well-being. Although the effects of child care subsidies on maternal employment and child development have been recently studied, many other dimensions of family well-being have received little attention. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the impact of child care subsidy receipt on maternal health and the quality of child-parent interactions. The empirical analyses use data from three nationally representative surveys, providing access to numerous measures of family well-being. In addition, we attempt to handle the possibility of non-random selection into subsidy receipt by using several identification strategies both within and across the surveys. Our results consistently indicate that child care subsidies are associated with worse maternal health and poorer interactions between parents and their children. In particular, subsidized mothers report lower levels of overall health and are more likely to show symptoms consistent with anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. Such mothers also reveal more psychological and physical aggression toward their children and are more likely to utilize spanking as a disciplinary tool. Together, these findings suggest that work-based public policies aimed at economically disadvantaged mothers may ultimately undermine family well-being. PMID:23832797

  4. Counseling Psychology in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthei, Bob

    The history of counseling psychology in Australia, which has been marked by confusion and uncertainty about the distinction between it and other applied areas such as clinical psychology, community psychology, educational psychology, and psychotherapy, is discussed in this paper. The development of the Division of Counselling Psychology within the…

  5. Estimating present and future damages following child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Corwin, David L; Keeshin, Brooks R

    2011-07-01

    The child psychiatric forensic evaluation of children and adolescents who are plaintiffs in civil lawsuits regarding their present and future damages from child maltreatment requires knowledge of current research findings on the short-term and long-term consequences of child maltreatment, evidence-based treatments for psychological trauma, and relevant professional guidelines, along with knowledge of the ethics and laws governing mental health expert practice and testimony in personal injury litigation. This article reviews current research and recommends an approach to these evaluations and expert testimony that is informed by current research findings, recently developed professional guidelines, and many years of professional experience. PMID:21683916

  6. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTION WITH PARENTS OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Nehra, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important component of management of autism is the role played by parents as active collaborators in the process. The case histories of 5 children with autism are described in this report. Psychological intervention carried out with parents of these children is detailed. The treatment package included a mix of behavioural, supportive and educational techniques, delivered in 3-6 sessions of 45- 60 minute each, in the setting of a child psychiatric clinic. Results showed that on the whole parents found this brief contact helpful. They rated emotional aspects of the support offered to be the most helpful. Child psychiatric clinics are often the first point of contact for parents with autistic children, and may have an important, primarily supportive role to play at this early stage of treatment. PMID:21206555

  8. Program Learning: Dealing with Common Problems in the Residential Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safian-Rush, Donna

    This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…

  9. Alex in the Middle: Inclusion of a Child with Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.

    This case study describes the 2-year process of moving a young child with severe disabilities and complex medical needs from a special school setting to a special class in a regular education setting. The child had Marshall-Smith Syndrome, characterized by respiratory, pulmonary, and skeletal abnormalities, and developmental delays due to the…

  10. Child labor: a forgotten focus for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Otis, J; Pasztor, E M; McFadden, E J

    2001-01-01

    Child labor is driven by child and family impoverishment, market forces, and political apathy concerning the rights of the child. Although a fundamental concern of the early 20th century child welfare system, today child labor is often seen as outside the scope of child welfare and child protective services. Making child labor a focus of child advocacy activity once again could do much to better the lives of children. PMID:11678418

  11. Determinants of child-bearing intentions of low-income women: attitudes versus life circumstances.

    PubMed

    Radecki, S E; Beckman, L J

    1992-04-01

    Surveys of low-income women in Los Angeles County in 1985 and 1986 were used to examine the relative impact of child-bearing motivations versus life circumstances on the intention to have a(nother) child. Future child-bearing intentions are strongly related to current parity level regardless of marital status, race/ethnicity or economic status. Psychological motivating factors predict child-bearing intentions of nulliparous women, but not those of parous women. Multivariate analyses showed that motivation for parenthood and life circumstances combined predicted women's child-bearing intentions 88.6% of the time for nulliparous women, but 73.7% for parous women. These findings suggest that, in a low-income population, the onset of parenthood reduces the relationship between specific motivations for child-bearing and actual child-bearing intentions, and diminishes the ability to predict child-bearing intentions based on both attitudinal and social/structural factors. PMID:1583030

  12. Obtaining the child testimony in the criminal proceedings.

    PubMed

    Marinović, Dunja; Palijan, Tija Zarković; Marinović, Marin; Krpina, Milena Gasparović; Piglić, Iva; Nikolić, Harry

    2010-04-01

    Children fall under the special category of vulnerable witnesses. Children's vulnerability is the reason that we must approach obtaining the child's testimony in the criminal proceedings with special attention. It is important to take the child's testimony as soon as possible and to avoid the repetition of interrogation. The criminal proceedings law and the juvenile court law enable children interrogation through the professional person without the presence of other parties in the procedure and enable the recording of such interrogation by audio-video link which considerably diminish the secondary victimization. The professionals who obtain the testimony must be well acquainted with children's psychological development. Knowledge of psychological development is of major importance in order to make the quality arrangements for interrogation and to interrogate the child and to achieve positive social contact between the examiner and the examinee and it is also of great importance for the credibility evaluation of the child's testimony. The adequate way of children interrogation will enable the child to say the correct information and to recognize the perpetrator. The forensic interview is well elaborated and child adapted technique of interrogation. Respecting the rules of forensic interview will enable the child's testimony on court to be relevant evidence. PMID:21302728

  13. [Child dyspnea].

    PubMed

    Levieux, Karine; Bihouée, Tiphaine

    2015-05-01

    The management of children dyspnea depends on the severity and symptomatology. The severity assessment requires knowledge of the standards of respiratory rate by age and signs of failure ventilatory mechanics. Recognize the time of dyspnea is important because it guides the diagnosis. Inspiratory dyspnea is most often due to viral laryngitis but an age of less than 6 months or no vaccination against Haemophilus should suggest other urgent diagnostics. Dyspnea with inspiratory and expiratory wheeze is a sign of tracheal damage and needs specialized hospital care. Expiratory dyspnea is the sign of a lower airway affection. A first episode of wheezing during epidemics sign acute bronchiolitis whose support is purely symptomatic with DRP and nutritional splitting. Corticosteroids, bronchodilators and chest physiotherapy are not indicated. Asthma attack is defined as a third episode of wheezing, that requires the administration of salbutamol with an inhalation room, and even oral corticosteroids. Febrile dyspnea must seek auscultatory or radiological abnormalities confirming pneumonia to be treated by a probabilistic and emergency antibiotherapy. PMID:26165098

  14. Michael E. Lamb: Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2015 co-recipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is Michael E. Lamb. Lamb was selected because his "work profoundly shaped the fields of developmental psychology, social welfare, child and family policy, and law." Lamb's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618955

  15. The Psychology of Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas

    A basic quality of the open classroom is that children are encouraged to make choices. Psychological rationales for allowing children to make choices are taken from psychological theory: (1) the objective of education, stated by Piaget and others, is to develop creative and independent thinkers; (2) children are intrinsically motivated to learn:…

  16. Psychological Dynamics of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the branch of sport and exercise science that focuses on the psychological aspects of human behavior. Part I presents a general orientation to the field, including an introduction and description of sport psychology and a discussion of the history and current status of the field. Individual differences…

  17. Psychology for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  18. Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

  19. The Psychology of Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…

  20. Rehabilitation: Psychology's Greatest Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how psychologists have established themselves as integral health care providers in rehabilitation. Discusses how psychologists and the psychological associations have failed to recognize the importance of public policy for the practice of psychology. Explores the role of Medicare, and the effects of the inclusion of psychologists in…