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Sample records for abnormal default-mode network

  1. Abnormal Default-Mode Network Homogeneity in First-Episode, Drug-Naive Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Liuyu; Liu, Jianrong; Chen, Huafu; Xiao, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Default mode network (DMN) is one of the most commonly recognized resting-state networks in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the homogeneity of this network in MDD is poorly understood. As such, this study was conducted to determine whether or not an abnormal network homogeneity (NH) of DMN is observed in patients with first-episode and drug-naive MDD. Methods Twenty-four first-episode drug-naive patients with MDD and twenty-four healthy control subjects participated in the study. NH and independent component analysis (ICA) methods were used to analyze data. Results Depressed patients exhibited a significantly increased NH in the left dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and decreased NH in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) compared with the healthy control subjects. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were analyzed and results revealed that the NH values of MPFC and ITG could be applied as candidate markers with relatively high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects. No correlation was observed between the NH values of the two regions and clinical variables. Conclusions Our findings suggested that an abnormal DMN homogeneity could be observed in MDD, which highlight the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of MDD. PMID:24609111

  2. Abnormal functional connectivity of default mode sub-networks in autism spectrum disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince D; Miller, Laura; Stevens, Michael C; Sahl, Robert; O'Boyle, Jacqueline G; Schultz, Robert T; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2010-10-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in social and communication processes. Recent data suggest that altered functional connectivity (FC), i.e. synchronous brain activity, might contribute to these deficits. Of specific interest is the FC integrity of the default mode network (DMN), a network active during passive resting states and cognitive processes related to social deficits seen in ASD, e.g. Theory of Mind. We investigated the role of altered FC of default mode sub-networks (DM-SNs) in 16 patients with high-functioning ASD compared to 16 matched healthy controls of short resting fMRI scans using independent component analysis (ICA). ICA is a multivariate data-driven approach that identifies temporally coherent networks, providing a natural measure of FC. Results show that compared to controls, patients showed decreased FC between the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, DMN core areas, and other DM-SNs areas. FC magnitude in these regions inversely correlated with the severity of patients' social and communication deficits as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Importantly, supplemental analyses suggest that these results were independent of treatment status. These results support the hypothesis that DM-SNs under-connectivity contributes to the core deficits seen in ASD. Moreover, these data provide further support for the use of data-driven analysis with resting-state data for illuminating neural systems that differ between groups. This approach seems especially well suited for populations where compliance with and performance of active tasks might be a challenge, as it requires minimal cooperation. PMID:20621638

  3. Abnormal functional connectivity of default mode sub-networks in autism spectrum disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince D.; Miller, Laura; Stevens, Michael C.; Sahl, Robert; O'Boyle, Jacqueline G.; Schultz, Robert T.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in social and communication processes. Recent data suggest that altered functional connectivity (FC), i.e. synchronous brain activity, might contribute to these deficits. Of specific interest is the FC integrity of the default mode network (DMN), a network active during passive resting states and cognitive processes related to social deficits seen in ASD, e.g. Theory of Mind. We investigated the role of altered FC of default mode sub-networks (DM-SNs) in 16 patients with high-functioning ASD compared to 16 matched healthy controls of short resting fMRI scans using independent component analysis (ICA). ICA is a multivariate data-driven approach that identifies temporally coherent networks, providing a natural measure of FC. Results show that compared to controls, patients showed decreased FC between the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, DMN core areas, and other DM-SNs areas. FC magnitude in these regions inversely correlated with the severity of patients' social and communication deficits as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Importantly, supplemental analyses suggest that these results were independent of treatment status. These results support the hypothesis that DM-SNs under-connectivity contributes to the core deficits seen in ASD. Moreover, these data provide further support for the use of data-driven analysis with resting-state data for illuminating neural systems that differ between groups. This approach seems especially well suited for populations where compliance with and performance of active tasks might be a challenge, as it requires minimal cooperation. PMID:20621638

  4. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity within the default mode network subregions in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Jun; Nie, Xiao; Gong, Hong-Han; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Si; Peng, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the central executive network and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported. However, the effect of OSA on rs-FC within the DMN subregions remains uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the rs-FC within the DMN subregions was disrupted and determine its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with OSA. Methods Forty male patients newly diagnosed with severe OSA and 40 male education- and age-matched good sleepers (GSs) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations and clinical and neuropsychologic assessments. Seed-based region of interest rs-FC method was used to analyze the connectivity between each pair of subregions within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), hippocampus formation (HF), inferior parietal cortices (IPC), and medial temporal lobe (MTL). The abnormal rs-FC strength within the DMN subregions was correlated with clinical and neuropsychologic assessments using Pearson correlation analysis in patients with OSA. Results Compared with GSs, patients with OSA had significantly decreased rs-FC between the right HF and the PCC, MPFC, and left MTL. However, patients with OSA had significantly increased rs-FC between the MPFC and left and right IPC, and between the left IPC and right IPC. The rs-FC between the right HF and left MTL was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (r=0.335, P=0.035). The rs-FC between the PCC and right HF was negatively correlated with delayed memory (r=-0.338, P=0.033). Conclusion OSA selectively impairs the rs-FC between right HF and PCC, MPFC, and left MTL within the DMN subregions, and provides an imaging indicator for assessment of cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients. PMID:26855576

  5. Abnormal Brain Activation in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Link between Visual Processing and the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Violante, Inês R.; Ribeiro, Maria J.; Cunha, Gil; Bernardino, Inês; Duarte, João V.; Ramos, Fabiana; Saraiva, Jorge; Silva, Eduardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common single gene disorders affecting the human nervous system with a high incidence of cognitive deficits, particularly visuospatial. Nevertheless, neurophysiological alterations in low-level visual processing that could be relevant to explain the cognitive phenotype are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study early cortical visual pathways in children and adults with NF1. We employed two distinct stimulus types differing in contrast and spatial and temporal frequencies to evoke relatively different activation of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways. Hemodynamic responses were investigated in retinotopically-defined regions V1, V2 and V3 and then over the acquired cortical volume. Relative to matched control subjects, patients with NF1 showed deficient activation of the low-level visual cortex to both stimulus types. Importantly, this finding was observed for children and adults with NF1, indicating that low-level visual processing deficits do not ameliorate with age. Moreover, only during M-biased stimulation patients with NF1 failed to deactivate or even activated anterior and posterior midline regions of the default mode network. The observation that the magnocellular visual pathway is impaired in NF1 in early visual processing and is specifically associated with a deficient deactivation of the default mode network may provide a neural explanation for high-order cognitive deficits present in NF1, particularly visuospatial and attentional. A link between magnocellular and default mode network processing may generalize to neuropsychiatric disorders where such deficits have been separately identified. PMID:22723888

  6. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-08-26

    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments. PMID:23707901

  7. The salience network causally influences default mode network activity during moral reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; D’Esposito, Mark; Kayser, Andrew S.; Grossman, Scott N.; Poorzand, Pardis; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale brain networks are integral to the coordination of human behaviour, and their anatomy provides insights into the clinical presentation and progression of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease, which targets the default mode network, and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, which targets a more anterior salience network. Although the default mode network is recruited when healthy subjects deliberate about ‘personal’ moral dilemmas, patients with Alzheimer’s disease give normal responses to these dilemmas whereas patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia give abnormal responses to these dilemmas. We hypothesized that this apparent discrepancy between activation- and patient-based studies of moral reasoning might reflect a modulatory role for the salience network in regulating default mode network activation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize network activity of patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and healthy control subjects, we present four converging lines of evidence supporting a causal influence from the salience network to the default mode network during moral reasoning. First, as previously reported, the default mode network is recruited when healthy subjects deliberate about ‘personal’ moral dilemmas, but patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia producing atrophy in the salience network give abnormally utilitarian responses to these dilemmas. Second, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia have reduced recruitment of the default mode network compared with healthy control subjects when deliberating about these dilemmas. Third, a Granger causality analysis of functional neuroimaging data from healthy control subjects demonstrates directed functional connectivity from nodes of the salience network to nodes of the default mode network during moral reasoning. Fourth, this Granger causal influence is diminished in

  8. The default mode network and altered consciousness in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Nathan B; Guo, Jennifer N; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2011-01-01

    The default mode network has been hypothesized based on the observation that specific regions of the brain are consistently activated during the resting state and deactivated during engagement with task. The primary nodes of this network, which typically include the precuneus/posterior cingulate, the medial frontal and lateral parietal cortices, are thought to be involved in introspective and social cognitive functions. Interestingly, this same network has been shown to be selectively impaired during epileptic seizures associated with loss of consciousness. Using a wide range of neuroimaging and electrophysiological modalities, decreased activity in the default mode network has been confirmed during complex partial, generalized tonic-clonic, and absence seizures. In this review we will discuss these three seizure types and will focus on possible mechanisms by which decreased default mode network activity occurs. Although the specific mechanisms of onset and propagation differ considerably across these seizure types, we propose that the resulting loss of consciousness in all three types of seizures is due to active inhibition of subcortical arousal systems that normally maintain default mode network activity in the awake state. Further, we suggest that these findings support a general "network inhibition hypothesis", by which active inhibition of arousal systems by seizures in certain cortical regions leads to cortical deactivation in other cortical areas. This may represent a push-pull mechanism similar to that seen operating between cortical networks under normal conditions. PMID:21447899

  9. Disrupted default mode network connectivity in migraine without aura

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has demonstrated disrupted default mode network (DMN) connectivity in a number of pain conditions, including migraine. However, the significance of altered resting-state brain functional connectivity in migraine is still unknown. The present study is aimed to explore DMN functional connectivity in patients with migraine without aura (MwoA) and investigate its clinical significance. Methods To calculate and compare the resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN in 20 patients with MwoA, during the interictal period, and 20 gender- and age-matched HC, Brain Voyager QX was used. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess whether between-group differences in DMN functional connectivity were related to structural differences. Secondary analyses explored associations between DMN functional connectivity, clinical and neuropsychological features of migraineurs. Results In comparison to HC, patients with MwoA showed decreased connectivity in prefrontal and temporal regions of the DMN. Functional abnormalities were unrelated to detectable structural abnormalities or clinical and neuropsychological features of migraineurs. Conclusions Our study provides further evidence of disrupted DMN connectivity in patients with MwoA. We hypothesize that a DMN dysfunction may be related to behavioural processes such as a maladaptive response to stress which seems to characterize patients with migraine. PMID:24207164

  10. Default Mode Network Mechanisms of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Liston, Conor; Chen, Ashley C.; Zebley, Benjamin D.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Gordon, Rebecca; Leuchter, Bruce; Voss, Henning U.; Casey, B.J.; Etkin, Amit; Dubin, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is an established treatment for depression, but its underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. Abnormalities in two large-scale neuronal networks—the frontoparietal central executive network (CEN) and the medial prefrontal-medial parietal default mode network (DMN)—are consistent findings in depression and potential therapeutic targets for TMS. Here, we assessed the impact of TMS on activity in these networks and their relation to treatment response. Methods We used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to measure functional connectivity within and between the DMN and CEN in 17 depressed patients, before and after a five-week course of TMS. Motivated by prior reports, we focused on connectivity seeded from the DLPFC and the subgenual cingulate, a key region closely aligned with the DMN in depression. Connectivity was also compared to a cohort of 35 healthy controls. Results Prior to treatment, functional connectivity in depressed patients was abnormally elevated within the DMN and diminished within the CEN, and connectivity between these two networks was altered. TMS normalized depression-related subgenual hyperconnectivity in the DMN but did not alter connectivity in the CEN. TMS also induced anticorrelated connectivity between the DLPFC and medial prefrontal DMN nodes. Baseline subgenual connectivity predicted subsequent clinical improvement. Conclusions TMS selectively modulates functional connectivity both within and between the CEN and DMN, and modulation of subgenual cingulate connectivity may play an important mechanistic role in alleviating depression. The results also highlight potential neuroimaging biomarkers for predicting treatment response. PMID:24629537

  11. Decoupling of the brain's default mode network during deep sleep

    PubMed Central

    Horovitz, Silvina G.; Braun, Allen R.; Carr, Walter S.; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    The recent discovery of a circuit of brain regions that is highly active in the absence of overt behavior has led to a quest for revealing the possible function of this so-called default-mode network (DMN). A very recent study, finding similarities in awake humans and anesthetized primates, has suggested that DMN activity might not simply reflect ongoing conscious mentation but rather a more general form of network dynamics typical of complex systems. Here, by performing functional MRI in humans, it is shown that a natural, sleep-induced reduction of consciousness is reflected in altered correlation between DMN network components, most notably a reduced involvement of frontal cortex. This suggests that DMN may play an important role in the sustenance of conscious awareness. PMID:19549821

  12. Antidepressants Normalize the Default Mode Network in Patients With Dysthymia

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Hellerstein, David J.; Gat, Inbal; Mechling, Anna; Klahr, Kristin; Wang, Zhishun; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The default mode network (DMN) is a collection of brain regions that reliably deactivate during goal-directed behaviors and is more active during a baseline, or so-called resting, condition. Coherence of neural activity, or functional connectivity, within the brain’s DMN is increased in major depressive disorder relative to healthy control (HC) subjects; however, whether similar abnormalities are present in persons with dysthymic disorder (DD) is unknown. Moreover, the effect of antidepressant medications on DMN connectivity in patients with DD is also unknown. Objective To use resting-state functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study (1) the functional connectivity of the DMN in subjects with DD vs HC participants and (2) the effects of antidepressant therapy on DMN connectivity. Design After collecting baseline MRI scans from subjects with DD and HC participants, we enrolled the participants with DD into a 10-week prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine and collected MRI scans again at the conclusion of the study. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2011. Setting University research institute. Participants Volunteer sample of 41 subjects with DD and 25 HC participants aged 18 to 53 years. Control subjects were group matched to patients with DD by age and sex. Main Outcome Measures We used resting-state functional-connectivity MRI to measure the functional connectivity of the brain’s DMN in persons with DD compared with HC subjects, and we examined the effects of treatment with duloxetine vs placebo on DMN connectivity. Results Of the 41 subjects with DD, 32 completed the clinical trial and MRI scans, along with the 25 HC participants. At baseline, we found that the coherence of neural activity within the brain’s DMN was greater in persons with DD compared with HC subjects. Following a 10-week clinical trial, we found that treatment with duloxetine, but not placebo, normalized DMN connectivity

  13. Dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network during narrative comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Simony, Erez; Honey, Christopher J; Chen, Janice; Lositsky, Olga; Yeshurun, Yaara; Wiesel, Ami; Hasson, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Does the default mode network (DMN) reconfigure to encode information about the changing environment? This question has proven difficult, because patterns of functional connectivity reflect a mixture of stimulus-induced neural processes, intrinsic neural processes and non-neuronal noise. Here we introduce inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC), which isolates stimulus-dependent inter-regional correlations between brains exposed to the same stimulus. During fMRI, we had subjects listen to a real-life auditory narrative and to temporally scrambled versions of the narrative. We used ISFC to isolate correlation patterns within the DMN that were locked to the processing of each narrative segment and specific to its meaning within the narrative context. The momentary configurations of DMN ISFC were highly replicable across groups. Moreover, DMN coupling strength predicted memory of narrative segments. Thus, ISFC opens new avenues for linking brain network dynamics to stimulus features and behaviour. PMID:27424918

  14. Identification of the Default Mode Network with electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Fomina, Tatiana; Hohmann, Matthias; Scholkopf, Bernhard; Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz

    2015-08-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) is a brain resting-state network that is closely linked to consciousness and neuropsychiatric disorders. The DMN is routinely identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or positron emission tomography (PET). However, both of these methods impose restrictions on the groups of patients that can be examined. We show that the DMN can also be identified by electroencephalography (EEG). Instructing subjects to alternate between self-referential memory recall and focusing on their breathing induces a spatial pattern of spectral band power modulation in the θ- and α-band (4-16 Hz) that is consistent with the DMN pattern observed with PET and fMRI. Since EEG is a portable, cheap, and safe technology, our work enables the characterization of DMN alterations in patient groups that are difficult to study with fMRI or PET. PMID:26738043

  15. Dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network during narrative comprehension.

    PubMed

    Simony, Erez; Honey, Christopher J; Chen, Janice; Lositsky, Olga; Yeshurun, Yaara; Wiesel, Ami; Hasson, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Does the default mode network (DMN) reconfigure to encode information about the changing environment? This question has proven difficult, because patterns of functional connectivity reflect a mixture of stimulus-induced neural processes, intrinsic neural processes and non-neuronal noise. Here we introduce inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC), which isolates stimulus-dependent inter-regional correlations between brains exposed to the same stimulus. During fMRI, we had subjects listen to a real-life auditory narrative and to temporally scrambled versions of the narrative. We used ISFC to isolate correlation patterns within the DMN that were locked to the processing of each narrative segment and specific to its meaning within the narrative context. The momentary configurations of DMN ISFC were highly replicable across groups. Moreover, DMN coupling strength predicted memory of narrative segments. Thus, ISFC opens new avenues for linking brain network dynamics to stimulus features and behaviour. PMID:27424918

  16. Magnetic vestibular stimulation modulates default mode network fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Boegle, Rainer; Stephan, Thomas; Ertl, Matthias; Glasauer, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2016-02-15

    Strong magnetic fields (>1 Tesla) can cause dizziness and it was recently shown that healthy subjects (resting in total darkness) developed a persistent nystagmus even when remaining completely motionless within a MR tomograph. Consequently, it was speculated that this magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) might influence fMRI results, as nystagmus is indicative of an imbalance in the vestibular system, potentially influencing other systems via multisensory vestibular interactions. The objective of our study was to investigate whether MVS does indeed modulate BOLD signal fluctuations. We recorded eye movements, as well as, resting-state fMRI of 30 volunteers in darkness at 1.5 T and 3.0 T to answer the question whether MVS modulated parts of the default mode resting-state network (DMN) in accordance with the Lorentz-force model for MVS, while distinguishing this from the known signal increase due to field strength related imaging effects. Our results showed that modulation of the default mode network occurred mainly in areas associated with vestibular and ocular motor function, and was in accordance with the Lorentz-force model, i.e., double than the expected signal scaling due to field strength alone. We discuss the implications of our findings for the interpretation of studies using resting-state fMRI, especially those concerning vestibular research. We conclude that MVS needs to be considered in vestibular research to avoid biased results, but it might also offer the possibility of manipulating network dynamics and may thus help in studying the brain as a dynamical system. PMID:26666898

  17. LORETA EEG phase reset of the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Robert W.; North, Duane M.; Biver, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore phase reset of 3-dimensional current sources in Brodmann areas located in the human default mode network (DMN) using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Methods: The EEG was recorded from 19 scalp locations from 70 healthy normal subjects ranging in age from 13 to 20 years. A time point by time point computation of LORETA current sources were computed for 14 Brodmann areas comprising the DMN in the delta frequency band. The Hilbert transform of the LORETA time series was used to compute the instantaneous phase differences between all pairs of Brodmann areas. Phase shift and lock durations were calculated based on the 1st and 2nd derivatives of the time series of phase differences. Results: Phase shift duration exhibited three discrete modes at approximately: (1) 25 ms, (2) 50 ms, and (3) 65 ms. Phase lock duration present primarily at: (1) 300–350 ms and (2) 350–450 ms. Phase shift and lock durations were inversely related and exhibited an exponential change with distance between Brodmann areas. Conclusions: The results are explained by local neural packing density of network hubs and an exponential decrease in connections with distance from a hub. The results are consistent with a discrete temporal model of brain function where anatomical hubs behave like a “shutter” that opens and closes at specific durations as nodes of a network giving rise to temporarily phase locked clusters of neurons for specific durations. PMID:25100976

  18. Constituents and functional implications of the rat default mode network.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ming; Liang, Xia; Gu, Hong; Brynildsen, Julia K; Stark, Jennifer A; Ash, Jessica A; Lin, Ching-Po; Lu, Hanbing; Rapp, Peter R; Stein, Elliot A; Yang, Yihong

    2016-08-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been suggested to support a variety of self-referential functions in humans and has been fractionated into subsystems based on distinct responses to cognitive tasks and functional connectivity architecture. Such subsystems are thought to reflect functional hierarchy and segregation within the network. Because preclinical models can inform translational studies of neuropsychiatric disorders, partitioning of the DMN in nonhuman species, which has previously not been reported, may inform both physiology and pathophysiology of the human DMN. In this study, we sought to identify constituents of the rat DMN using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging. After identifying DMN using a group-level independent-component analysis on the rs-fMRI data, modularity analyses fractionated the DMN into an anterior and a posterior subsystem, which were further segregated into five modules. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography demonstrates a close relationship between fiber density and the functional connectivity between DMN regions, and provides anatomical evidence to support the detected DMN subsystems. Finally, distinct modulation was seen within and between these DMN subcomponents using a neurocognitive aging model. Taken together, these results suggest that, like the human DMN, the rat DMN can be partitioned into several subcomponents that may support distinct functions. These data encourage further investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of DMN processing in preclinical models of both normal and disease states. PMID:27439860

  19. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  20. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network.

    PubMed

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated. PMID:26779054

  1. Gamification of Learning Deactivates the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Howard-Jones, Paul A.; Jay, Tim; Mason, Alice; Jones, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that embedding educational learning in a game would improve learning outcomes, with increased engagement and recruitment of cognitive resources evidenced by increased activation of working memory network (WMN) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) regions. In an fMRI study, we compared activity during periods of learning in three conditions that were increasingly game-like: Study-only (when periods of learning were followed by an exemplar question together with its correct answer), Self-quizzing (when periods of learning were followed by a multiple choice question in return for a fixed number of points) and Game-based (when, following each period of learning, participants competed with a peer to answer the question for escalating, uncertain rewards). DMN hubs deactivated as conditions became more game-like, alongside greater self-reported engagement and, in the Game-based condition, higher learning scores. These changes did not occur with any detectable increase in WMN activity. Additionally, ventral striatal activation was associated with responding to questions and receiving positive question feedback. Results support the significance of DMN deactivation for educational learning, and are aligned with recent evidence suggesting DMN and WMN activity may not always be anti-correlated. PMID:26779054

  2. Reduced default mode network connectivity following combat trauma.

    PubMed

    DiGangi, Julia A; Tadayyon, Armin; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy; Klumpp, Heide; Rauch, Sheila A M; Phan, K Luan

    2016-02-26

    Recent studies show decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in PTSD; however, few have directly examined combat trauma specifically. There is limited understanding of how combat itself may affect the DMN. Some literature suggests that trauma exposure, rather than PTSD, can disrupt the DMN. To further elucidate the effect of trauma and PTSD on the DMN, we investigated DMN functional connectivity during the resting-state in veterans with PTSD, combat-exposed controls, and never-traumatized healthy controls. Results revealed that DMN connectivity was reduced in veterans exposed to combat trauma with and without PTSD compared to healthy civilian controls. Specifically, both groups of veterans demonstrated weaker connectivity within a network involving the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right superior parietal lobule regardless of whether the mPFC or precuneus was chosen as a seed region. Findings suggest that the experience of trauma, rather than the pathology of PTSD, may be related to DMN changes. PMID:26797653

  3. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task. PMID:25904238

  4. Dynamic functional connectivity of the default mode network tracks daydreaming.

    PubMed

    Kucyi, Aaron; Davis, Karen D

    2014-10-15

    Humans spend much of their time engaged in stimulus-independent thoughts, colloquially known as "daydreaming" or "mind-wandering." A fundamental question concerns how awake, spontaneous brain activity represents the ongoing cognition of daydreaming versus unconscious processes characterized as "intrinsic." Since daydreaming involves brief cognitive events that spontaneously fluctuate, we tested the hypothesis that the dynamics of brain network functional connectivity (FC) are linked with daydreaming. We determined the general tendency to daydream in healthy adults based on a daydreaming frequency scale (DDF). Subjects then underwent both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and fMRI during sensory stimulation with intermittent thought probes to determine the occurrences of mind-wandering events. Brain regions within the default mode network (DMN), purported to be involved in daydreaming, were assessed for 1) static FC across the entire fMRI scans, and 2) dynamic FC based on FC variability (FCV) across 30s progressively sliding windows of 2s increments within each scan. We found that during both resting and sensory stimulation states, individual differences in DDF were negatively correlated with static FC between the posterior cingulate cortex and a ventral DMN subsystem involved in future-oriented thought. Dynamic FC analysis revealed that DDF was positively correlated with FCV within the same DMN subsystem in the resting state but not during stimulation. However, dynamic but not static FC, in this subsystem, was positively correlated with an individual's degree of self-reported mind-wandering during sensory stimulation. These findings identify temporal aspects of spontaneous DMN activity that reflect conscious and unconscious processes. PMID:24973603

  5. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, Kathleen A.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R. Todd; Brewer, Judson A.

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest despite other studies reporting differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, this study compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity, and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies have used small groups, whereas the current study tested these hypotheses in a larger group. Results indicate that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network relative to an active task in meditators compared to controls. Regions of the default mode showing a group by task interaction include the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task. PMID:25904238

  6. Modeling fluctuations in default-mode brain network using a spiking neural network.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Teruya; Liu, Jian-Qin; Nishimura, Haruhiko

    2012-08-01

    Recently, numerous attempts have been made to understand the dynamic behavior of complex brain systems using neural network models. The fluctuations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) brain signals at less than 0.1 Hz have been observed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for subjects in a resting state. This phenomenon is referred to as a "default-mode brain network." In this study, we model the default-mode brain network by functionally connecting neural communities composed of spiking neurons in a complex network. Through computational simulations of the model, including transmission delays and complex connectivity, the network dynamics of the neural system and its behavior are discussed. The results show that the power spectrum of the modeled fluctuations in the neuron firing patterns is consistent with the default-mode brain network's BOLD signals when transmission delays, a characteristic property of the brain, have finite values in a given range. PMID:22830966

  7. Imbalance of default mode and regulatory networks during externally focused processing in depression

    PubMed Central

    Belleau, Emily L.; Taubitz, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control difficulties likely underlie rumination, a core cognitive vulnerability in major depressive disorder (MDD). Abnormalities in the default mode, executive and salience networks are implicated in both rumination and attentional control difficulties in MDD. In the current study, individuals with MDD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 16) completed tasks designed to elicit self-focused (ruminative) and externally-focused thinking during fMRI scanning. The MDD group showed greater default mode network connectivity and less executive and salience network connectivity during the external-focus condition. Contrary to our predictions, there were no differences in connectivity between the groups during the self-focus condition. Thus, it appears that when directed to engage in self-referential thinking, both depressed and non-depressed individuals similarly recruit networks supporting this process. In contrast, when instructed to engage in non-self-focused thought, non-depressed individuals show a pattern of network connectivity indicative of minimized self-referential processing, whereas depressed individuals fail to reallocate neural resources in a manner consistent with effective down regulation of self-focused thought. This is consistent with difficulties in regulating self-focused thinking in order to engage in more goal-directed behavior that is seen in individuals with MDD. PMID:25274576

  8. Visual Network Asymmetry and Default Mode Network Function in ADHD: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Kaminsky, Olivia; Tung, Kelly L.; Wiley, Joshua F.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Kaplan, Jonas T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing body of research has identified abnormal visual information processing in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, slow processing speed and increased reliance on visuo-perceptual strategies have become evident. Objective: The current study used recently developed fMRI methods to replicate and further examine abnormal rightward biased visual information processing in ADHD and to further characterize the nature of this effect; we tested its association with several large-scale distributed network systems. Method: We examined fMRI BOLD response during letter and location judgment tasks, and directly assessed visual network asymmetry and its association with large-scale networks using both a voxelwise and an averaged signal approach. Results: Initial within-group analyses revealed a pattern of left-lateralized visual cortical activity in controls but right-lateralized visual cortical activity in ADHD children. Direct analyses of visual network asymmetry confirmed atypical rightward bias in ADHD children compared to controls. This ADHD characteristic was atypically associated with reduced activation across several extra-visual networks, including the default mode network (DMN). We also found atypical associations between DMN activation and ADHD subjects’ inattentive symptoms and task performance. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated rightward VNA in ADHD during a simple letter discrimination task. This result adds an important novel consideration to the growing literature identifying abnormal visual processing in ADHD. We postulate that this characteristic reflects greater perceptual engagement of task-extraneous content, and that it may be a basic feature of less efficient top-down task-directed control over visual processing. We additionally argue that abnormal DMN function may contribute to this characteristic. PMID:25076915

  9. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. PMID:25833189

  10. Damage to the Salience Network and Interactions with the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Jilka, Sagar R.; Scott, Gregory; Ham, Timothy; Pickering, Alan; Bonnelle, Valerie; Braga, Rodrigo M.; Leech, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between the Salience Network (SN) and the Default Mode Network (DMN) are thought to be important for cognitive control. However, evidence for a causal relationship between the networks is limited. Previously, we have reported that traumatic damage to white matter tracts within the SN predicts abnormal DMN function. Here we investigate the effect of this damage on network interactions that accompany changing motor control. We initially used fMRI of the Stop Signal Task to study response inhibition in humans. In healthy subjects, functional connectivity (FC) between the right anterior insula (rAI), a key node of the SN, and the DMN transiently increased during stopping. This change in FC was not seen in a group of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with impaired cognitive control. Furthermore, the amount of SN tract damage negatively correlated with FC between the networks. We confirmed these findings in a second group of TBI patients. Here, switching rather than inhibiting a motor response: (1) was accompanied by a similar increase in network FC in healthy controls; (2) was not seen in TBI patients; and (3) tract damage after TBI again correlated with FC breakdown. This shows that coupling between the rAI and DMN increases with cognitive control and that damage within the SN impairs this dynamic network interaction. This work provides compelling evidence for a model of cognitive control where the SN is involved in the attentional capture of salient external stimuli and signals the DMN to reduce its activity when attention is externally focused. PMID:25122883

  11. Default-Mode Network Functional Connectivity in Aphasia: Therapy-Induced Neuroplasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Karine; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on participants with aphasia has mainly been based on standard functional neuroimaging analysis. Recent studies have shown that functional connectivity analysis can detect compensatory activity, not revealed by standard analysis. Little is known, however, about the default-mode network in aphasia. In the current study, we studied…

  12. Default Mode Network Connectivity in Children with a History of Preschool Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.; Botteron, Kelly; Repovs, Grega; Barch, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Atypical Default Mode Network (DMN) functional connectivity has been previously reported in depressed adults. However, there is relatively little data informing the developmental nature of this phenomenon. The current case-control study examined the DMN in a unique prospective sample of school-age children with a previous history of…

  13. Functional connectivity of paired default mode network subregions in primary insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao; Shao, Yi; Liu, Si-yu; Li, Hai-jun; Wan, Ai-lan; Nie, Si; Peng, De-chang; Dai, Xi-jian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differences between the paired default mode network (DMN) subregions in patients with primary insomnia (PIs). Methods Forty-two PIs and forty-two age- and sex-matched good sleepers (GSs) were recruited. All subjects underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The seed-based region-to-region FC method was used to evaluate the abnormal connectivity within the DMN subregions between the PIs and the GSs. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the abnormal FC strength within the paired DMN subregions and the clinical features in PIs. Results Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, Self-Rating Depression Scale score, Self Rating Anxiety Scale score, Self-Rating Scale of Sleep score, and Profile of Mood States score (P<0.001). Compared with the GSs, the PIs showed significant decreased region-to-region FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and the right medial temporal lobe (t=−2.275, P=0.026), and between the left medial temporal lobe and the left inferior parietal cortices (t=−3.32, P=0.001). The abnormal FC strengths between the DMN subregions did not correlate with the clinical features. Conclusion PIs showed disrupted FC within the DMN subregions. PMID:26719693

  14. Depressive Rumination, the Default-Mode Network, and the Dark Matter of Clinical Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J. Paul; Farmer, Madison; Fogelman, Phoebe; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    The intuitive association between self-focused rumination in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the self-referential operations performed by the brain’s default-mode network (DMN) has prompted interest in examining the role of the DMN in MDD. In this paper we present meta-analytic findings showing reliably increased functional connectivity between the DMN and subgenual prefrontal cortex (sgPFC)—connectivity that often predicts levels of depressive rumination. We also present meta-analytic findings that, while there is reliably increased regional cerebral blood flow in sgPFC in MDD, no such abnormality has been reliably observed in nodes of the DMN. We then detail a model that integrates the body of research presented. In this model, we propose that increased functional connectivity between sgPFC and the DMN in MDD represents an integration of the self-referential processes supported by the DMN with the affectively laden, behavioral withdrawal processes associated with sgPFC—an integration that produces a functional neural ensemble well suited for depressive rumination and that, in MDD, abnormally taxes only sgPFC and not the DMN. This synthesis explains a broad array of existing data concerning the neural substrates of depressive rumination and provides an explicit account of functional abnormalities in sgPFC in MDD. PMID:25861700

  15. Depressive Rumination, the Default-Mode Network, and the Dark Matter of Clinical Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J Paul; Farmer, Madison; Fogelman, Phoebe; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-08-15

    The intuitive association between self-focused rumination in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the self-referential operations performed by the brain's default-mode network (DMN) has prompted interest in examining the role of the DMN in MDD. In this article, we present meta-analytic findings showing reliably increased functional connectivity between the DMN and subgenual prefrontal cortex (sgPFC)-connectivity that often predicts levels of depressive rumination. We also present meta-analytic findings that, while there is reliably increased regional cerebral blood flow in sgPFC in MDD, no such abnormality has been reliably observed in nodes of the DMN. We then detail a model that integrates the body of research presented. In this model, we propose that increased functional connectivity between sgPFC and the DMN in MDD represents an integration of the self-referential processes supported by the DMN with the affectively laden, behavioral withdrawal processes associated with sgPFC-an integration that produces a functional neural ensemble well suited for depressive rumination and that, in MDD, abnormally taxes only sgPFC and not the DMN. This synthesis explains a broad array of existing data concerning the neural substrates of depressive rumination and provides an explicit account of functional abnormalities in sgPFC in MDD. PMID:25861700

  16. Impaired functional default mode network in patients with mild neurological Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongsheng; Cheng, Hewei; Toledo, Jon B; Wang, Xun; Li, Bo; Han, Yongzhu; Wang, Kai; Fan, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by cognitive, psychiatric and motor signs and symptoms that are associated with structural and pathological brain abnormalities, in addition to liver changes. However, functional brain connectivity pattern of WD patients remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated functional brain connectivity pattern of WD patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Particularly, we studied default mode network (DMN) using posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) based seed functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretic functional brain network analysis tools, and investigated the relationship between the DMN's functional connectivity pattern of WD patients and their attention functions examined using the attention network test (ANT). Our results demonstrated that WD patients had altered DMN's functional connectivity and lower local and global network efficiency compared with normal controls (NCs). In addition, the functional connectivity between left inferior temporal cortex and right lateral parietal cortex was correlated with altering function, one of the attention functions, across WD and NC subjects. These findings indicated that the DMN's functional connectivity was altered in WD patients, which might be correlated with their attention dysfunction. PMID:27372239

  17. Altered functional connectivity of the default mode network in Williams syndrome: a multimodal approach.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Adriana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Osório, Ana; Magalhães, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Cristiana; Férnandez, Montse; Carracedo, Angel; Alegria, Joana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Soares, José Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Resting state brain networks are implicated in a variety of relevant brain functions. Importantly, abnormal patterns of functional connectivity (FC) have been reported in several neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, the Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be associated with social cognition. We hypothesize that the DMN may be altered in Williams syndrome (WS), a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by an unique cognitive and behavioral phenotype. In this study, we assessed the architecture of the DMN using fMRI in WS patients and typically developing matched controls (sex and age) in terms of FC and volumetry of the DMN. Moreover, we complemented the analysis with a functional connectome approach. After excluding participants due to movement artifacts (n = 3), seven participants with WS and their respective matched controls were included in the analyses. A decreased FC between the DMN regions was observed in the WS group when compared with the typically developing group. Specifically, we found a decreased FC in a posterior hub of the DMN including the precuneus, calcarine and the posterior cingulate of the left hemisphere. The functional connectome approach showed a focalized and global increased FC connectome in the WS group. The reduced FC of the posterior hub of the DMN in the WS group is consistent with immaturity of the brain FC patterns and may be associated with the singularity of their visual spatial phenotype. PMID:27412230

  18. The Default Mode Network is Disrupted in Parkinson's Disease with Visual Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nailin; Shek-Kwan Chang, Richard; Cheung, Charlton; Pang, Shirley; Lau, Kui Kai; Suckling, John; Rowe, James B; Yu, Kevin; Ka-Fung Mak, Henry; Chua, Siew-Eng; Ho, Shu Leong; McAlonan, Grainne M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visual hallucinations (VH) are one of the most striking nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), and predict dementia and mortality. Aberrant default mode network (DMN) is associated with other psychoses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMN dysfunction contributes to VH in PD. Methods: Resting state functional data was acquired from individuals with PD with VH (PDVH) and without VH (PDnonVH), matched for levodopa drug equivalent dose, and a healthy control group (HC). Independent component analysis was used to investigate group differences in functional connectivity within the DMN. In addition, we investigated whether the functional changes associated with hallucinations were accompanied by differences in cortical thickness. Results: There were no group differences in cortical thickness but functional coactivation within components of the DMN was significantly lower in both PDVH and PDnonVH groups compared to HC. Functional coactivation within the DMN was found to be greater in PDVH group relative to PDnonVH group. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates, for the first time that, within a functionally abnormal DMN in PD, relatively higher “connectivity” is associated with VH. We postulate that aberrant connectivity in a large scale network affects sensory information processing and perception, and contributes to “positive” symptom generation in PD. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5658–5666, 2014. © 2014 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24985056

  19. Hypnotic modulation of resting state fMRI default mode and extrinsic network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Demertzi, A; Soddu, A; Faymonville, M-E; Bahri, M A; Gosseries, O; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Phillips, C; Maquet, P; Noirhomme, Q; Luxen, A; Laureys, S

    2011-01-01

    Resting state fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) acquisitions are characterized by low-frequency spontaneous activity in a default mode network (encompassing medial brain areas and linked to self-related processes) and an anticorrelated "extrinsic" system (encompassing lateral frontoparietal areas and modulated via external sensory stimulation). In order to better determine the functional contribution of these networks to conscious awareness, we here sought to transiently modulate their relationship by means of hypnosis. We used independent component analysis (ICA) on resting state fMRI acquisitions during normal wakefulness, under hypnotic state, and during a control condition of autobiographical mental imagery. As compared to mental imagery, hypnosis-induced modulation of resting state fMRI networks resulted in a reduced "extrinsic" lateral frontoparietal cortical connectivity, possibly reflecting a decreased sensory awareness. The default mode network showed an increased connectivity in bilateral angular and middle frontal gyri, whereas its posterior midline and parahippocampal structures decreased their connectivity during hypnosis, supposedly related to an altered "self" awareness and posthypnotic amnesia. In our view, fMRI resting state studies of physiological (e.g., sleep or hypnosis), pharmacological (e.g., sedation or anesthesia), and pathological modulation (e.g., coma or related states) of "intrinsic" default mode and anticorrelated "extrinsic" sensory networks, and their interaction with other cerebral networks, will further improve our understanding of the neural correlates of subjective awareness. PMID:21854971

  20. Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

    Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

  1. Perturbed connectivity of the amygdala and its subregions with the central executive and default mode networks in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Oathes, Desmond; Hush, Julia; Darnall, Beth; Charvat, Mylea; Mackey, Sean; Etkin, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Maladaptive responses to pain-related distress, such as pain catastrophizing, amplify the impairments associated with chronic pain. Many of these aspects of chronic pain are similar to affective distress in clinical anxiety disorders. In light of the role of the amygdala in pain and affective distress, disruption of amygdalar functional connectivity in anxiety states, and its implication in the response to noxious stimuli, we investigated amygdala functional connectivity in 17 patients with chronic low back pain and 17 healthy comparison subjects, with respect to normal targets of amygdala subregions (basolateral vs centromedial nuclei), and connectivity to large-scale cognitive-emotional networks, including the default mode network, central executive network, and salience network. We found that patients with chronic pain had exaggerated and abnormal amygdala connectivity with central executive network, which was most exaggerated in patients with the greatest pain catastrophizing. We also found that the normally basolateral-predominant amygdala connectivity to the default mode network was blunted in patients with chronic pain. Our results therefore highlight the importance of the amygdala and its network-level interaction with large-scale cognitive/affective cortical networks in chronic pain, and help link the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive theories for pain with other clinical states of affective distress. PMID:27168362

  2. The default mode network as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Rozalyn; Engström, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a group of anatomically separate regions in the brain found to have synchronized patterns of activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Mentation associated with the DMN includes processes such as mind wandering, autobiographical memory, self-reflective thought, envisioning the future, and considering the perspective of others. Abnormalities in the DMN have been linked to symptom severity in a variety of mental disorders indicating that the DMN could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis. These correlations have also led to the use of DMN modulation as a biomarker for assessing pharmacological treatments. Concurrent research investigating the neural correlates of meditation, have associated DMN modulation with practice. Furthermore, meditative practice is increasingly understood to have a beneficial role in the treatment of mental disorders. Therefore we propose the use of DMN measures as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation practices in mental disorders. Recent findings support this perspective, and indicate the utility of DMN monitoring in understanding and developing meditative treatments for these debilitating conditions. PMID:26106351

  3. Musical Creativity “Revealed” in Brain Structure: Interplay between Motor, Default Mode, and Limbic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bashwiner, David M.; Wertz, Christopher J.; Flores, Ranee A.; Jung, Rex E.

    2016-01-01

    Creative behaviors are among the most complex that humans engage in, involving not only highly intricate, domain-specific knowledge and skill, but also domain-general processing styles and the affective drive to create. This study presents structural imaging data indicating that musically creative people (as indicated by self-report) have greater cortical surface area or volume in a) regions associated with domain-specific higher-cognitive motor activity and sound processing (dorsal premotor cortex, supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and planum temporale), b) domain-general creative-ideation regions associated with the default mode network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and temporal pole), and c) emotion-related regions (orbitofrontal cortex, temporal pole, and amygdala). These findings suggest that domain-specific musical expertise, default-mode cognitive processing style, and intensity of emotional experience might all coordinate to motivate and facilitate the drive to create music. PMID:26888383

  4. Musical Creativity "Revealed" in Brain Structure: Interplay between Motor, Default Mode, and Limbic Networks.

    PubMed

    Bashwiner, David M; Wertz, Christopher J; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2016-01-01

    Creative behaviors are among the most complex that humans engage in, involving not only highly intricate, domain-specific knowledge and skill, but also domain-general processing styles and the affective drive to create. This study presents structural imaging data indicating that musically creative people (as indicated by self-report) have greater cortical surface area or volume in a) regions associated with domain-specific higher-cognitive motor activity and sound processing (dorsal premotor cortex, supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas, and planum temporale), b) domain-general creative-ideation regions associated with the default mode network (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and temporal pole), and c) emotion-related regions (orbitofrontal cortex, temporal pole, and amygdala). These findings suggest that domain-specific musical expertise, default-mode cognitive processing style, and intensity of emotional experience might all coordinate to motivate and facilitate the drive to create music. PMID:26888383

  5. Contrasting variability patterns in the default mode and sensorimotor networks balance in bipolar depression and mania.

    PubMed

    Martino, Matteo; Magioncalda, Paola; Huang, Zirui; Conio, Benedetta; Piaggio, Niccolò; Duncan, Niall W; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Marozzi, Valentina; Wolff, Annemarie; Inglese, Matilde; Amore, Mario; Northoff, Georg

    2016-04-26

    Depressive and manic phases in bipolar disorder show opposite constellations of affective, cognitive, and psychomotor symptoms. At a neural level, these may be related to topographical disbalance between large-scale networks, such as the default mode network (DMN) and sensorimotor network (SMN). We investigated topographical patterns of variability in the resting-state signal-measured by fractional SD (fSD) of the BOLD signal-of the DMN and SMN (and other networks) in two frequency bands (Slow5 and Slow4) with their ratio and clinical correlations in depressed (n = 20), manic (n = 20), euthymic (n = 20) patients, and healthy controls (n = 40). After controlling for global signal changes, the topographical balance between the DMN and SMN, specifically in the lowest frequency band, as calculated by the Slow5 fSD DMN/SMN ratio, was significantly increased in depression, whereas the same ratio was significantly decreased in mania. Additionally, Slow5 variability was increased in the DMN and decreased in the SMN in depressed patients, whereas the opposite topographical pattern was observed in mania. Finally, the Slow5 fSD DMN/SMN ratio correlated positively with clinical scores of depressive symptoms and negatively with those of mania. Results were replicated in a smaller independent bipolar disorder sample. We demonstrated topographical abnormalities in frequency-specific resting-state variability in the balance between DMN and SMN with opposing patterns in depression and mania. The Slow5 DMN/SMN ratio was tilted toward the DMN in depression but was shifted toward the SMN in mania. The Slow5 fSD DMN/SMN pattern could constitute a state-biomarker in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27071087

  6. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  7. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  8. Disrupted functional connectivity of the default mode network due to acute vestibular deficit

    PubMed Central

    Klingner, Carsten M.; Volk, Gerd F.; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W.; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular neuritis is defined as a sudden unilateral partial failure of the vestibular nerve that impairs the forwarding of vestibular information from the labyrinth. The patient suffers from vertigo, horizontal nystagmus and postural instability with a tendency toward ipsilesional falls. Although vestibular neuritis is a common disease, the central mechanisms to compensate for the loss of precise vestibular information remain poorly understood. It was hypothesized that symptoms following acute vestibular neuritis originate from difficulties in the processing of diverging sensory information between the responsible brain networks. Accordingly an altered resting activity was shown in multiple brain areas of the task-positive network. Because of the known balance between the task-positive and task-negative networks (default mode network; DMN) we hypothesize that also the DMN is involved. Here, we employ functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state to investigate changes in the functional connectivity between the DMN and task-positive networks, in a longitudinal design combined with measurements of caloric function. We demonstrate an initially disturbed connectedness of the DMN after vestibular neuritis. We hypothesize that the disturbed connectivity between the default mode network and particular parts of the task-positive network might be related to a sustained utilization of processing capacity by diverging sensory information. The current results provide some insights into mechanisms of central compensation following an acute vestibular deficit and the importance of the DMN in this disease. PMID:25379422

  9. Enhanced default mode network connectivity with ventral striatum in subthreshold depression individuals.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J W; Xin, S C; Ou, Y M; Zhang, W Y; Liang, Y L; Chen, J; Yang, X Q; Chen, X Y; Guo, T W; Yang, X J; Ma, W H; Li, J; Zhao, B C; Tu, Y; Kong, J

    2016-05-01

    Subthreshold depression (StD) is a highly prevalent condition associated with increased service utilization and social morbidity. Nevertheless, due to limitations in current diagnostic systems that set the boundary for major depressive disorder (MDD), very few brain imaging studies on the neurobiology of StD have been carried out, and its underlying neurobiological mechanism remains unclear. In recent years, accumulating evidence suggests that the disruption of the default mode network (DMN), a network involved in self-referential processing, affective cognition, and emotion regulation, is involved in major depressive disorder. Using independent component analysis, we investigated resting-state default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity (FC) changes in two cohorts of StD patients with different age ranges (young and middle-aged, n = 57) as well as matched controls (n = 79). We found significant FC increase between the DMN and ventral striatum (key region in the reward network), in both cohorts of StD patients in comparison with controls. In addition, we also found the FC between the DMN and ventral striatum was positively and significantly associated with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), a measurement of depressive symptomatology. We speculate that this enhanced FC between the DMN and the ventral striatum may reflect a self-compensation to ameliorate the lowered reward function. PMID:26922247

  10. Temporal stability of network centrality in control and default mode networks: Specific associations with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Amaro, Edson; McGuire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal connectivity patterns have frequently been reported as involved in pathological mental states. However, most studies focus on "static," stationary patterns of connectivity, which may miss crucial biological information. Recent methodological advances have allowed the investigation of dynamic functional connectivity patterns that describe non-stationary properties of brain networks. Here, we introduce a novel graphical measure of dynamic connectivity, called time-varying eigenvector centrality (tv-EVC). In a sample 655 children and adolescents (7-15 years old) from the Brazilian "High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders" who were imaged using resting-state fMRI, we used this measure to investigate age effects in the temporal in control and default-mode networks (CN/DMN). Using support vector regression, we propose a network maturation index based on the temporal stability of tv-EVC. Moreover, we investigated whether the network maturation is associated with the overall presence of behavioral and emotional problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. As hypothesized, we found that the tv-EVC at each node of CN/DMN become more stable with increasing age (P < 0.001 for all nodes). In addition, the maturity index for this particular network is indeed associated with general psychopathology in children assessed by the total score of Child Behavior Checklist (P = 0.027). Moreover, immaturity of the network was mainly correlated with externalizing behavior dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in functional network dynamics during neurodevelopment may provide unique insights regarding pathophysiology. PMID:26350757

  11. Frequency shifts in the anterior default mode network and the salience network in chronic pain disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent functional imaging studies on chronic pain of various organic etiologies have shown significant alterations in both the spatial and the temporal dimensions of the functional connectivity of the human brain in its resting state. However, it remains unclear whether similar changes in intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) also occur in patients with chronic pain disorder, defined as persistent, medically unexplained pain. Methods We compared 21 patients who suffered from chronic pain disorder with 19 age- and gender-matched controls using 3T-fMRI. All neuroimaging data were analyzed using both independent component analysis (ICA) and power spectra analysis. Results In patients suffering from chronic pain disorder, the fronto-insular ‘salience’ network (FIN) and the anterior default mode network (aDMN) predominantly oscillated at higher frequencies (0.20 - 0.24 Hz), whereas no significant differences were observed in the posterior DMN (pDMN) and the sensorimotor network (SMN). Conclusions Our results indicate that chronic pain disorder may be a self-sustaining and endogenous mental process that affects temporal organization in terms of a frequency shift in the rhythmical dynamics of cortical networks associated with emotional homeostasis and introspection. PMID:23497482

  12. Default Mode and Executive Networks Areas: Association with the Serial Order in Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Jarmo; Numminen, Jussi; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Antell, Henrik; Taatila, Vesa; Suomala, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network. However, which neural networks contribute to the explicit mode of thinking during idea generation remains an open question. We employed an fMRI paradigm to examine which brain regions were activated when participants (n = 16) mentally generated alternative uses for everyday objects. Most previous creativity studies required participants to verbalize responses during idea generation, whereas in this study participants produced mental alternatives without verbalizing. This study found activation in the left anterior insula when contrasting idea generation and object identification. This finding suggests that the insula (part of the brain's salience network) plays a role in facilitating both the central executive and default mode networks to activate idea generation. We also investigated closely the effect of the serial order of idea being generated on brain responses: The amplitude of fMRI responses correlated positively with the serial order of idea being generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, which is part of the central executive network. Positive correlation with the serial order was also observed in the regions typically assigned to the default mode network: the precuneus/cuneus, inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex. These networks support the explicit mode of thinking and help the individual to convert conventional mental models to new ones. The serial order correlated

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity of the default mode network associated with happiness.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangmei; Kong, Feng; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting

    2016-03-01

    Happiness refers to people's cognitive and affective evaluation of their life. Why are some people happier than others? One reason might be that unhappy people are prone to ruminate more than happy people. The default mode network (DMN) is normally active during rest and is implicated in rumination. We hypothesized that unhappiness may be associated with increased default-mode functional connectivity during rest, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The hyperconnectivity of these areas may be associated with higher levels of rumination. One hundred forty-eight healthy participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. A group-independent component analysis identified the DMNs. Results indicated increased functional connectivity in the DMN was associated with lower levels of happiness. Specifically, relative to happy people, unhappy people exhibited greater functional connectivity in the anterior medial cortex (bilateral MPFC), posterior medial cortex regions (bilateral PCC) and posterior parietal cortex (left IPL). Moreover, the increased functional connectivity of the MPFC, PCC and IPL, correlated positively with the inclination to ruminate. These results highlight the important role of the DMN in the neural correlates of happiness, and suggest that rumination may play an important role in people's perceived happiness. PMID:26500289

  14. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population.

    PubMed

    Raji, Cyrus A; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A; Amen, Daniel G

    2015-09-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individuals with psychiatric disease. Inclusion criteria were peacetime or wartime veterans regardless of branch of service and included those for whom the traumatic brain injury was not service related. SPECT imaging was performed on this group both at rest and during a concentration task. These measures, as well as the baseline-concentration difference, were then inputted from DMN regions into separate binary logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, race, clinic site, co-morbid psychiatric diseases, TBI severity, whether or not the TBI was service related, and branch of armed service. Predicted probabilities were then inputted into a receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Compared to PSTD, persons with TBI were older, male, and had higher rates of bipolar and major depressive disorder (p < 0.05). Baseline quantitative regions with SPECT separated PTSD from TBI in the veterans with 92 % sensitivity, 85 % specificity, and 94 % accuracy. With concentration scans, there was 85 % sensitivity, 83 % specificity and 89 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration (the difference metric between the two scans) scans were 85 % sensitivity, 80 % specificity, and 87 % accuracy. In separating TBI from PTSD/TBI visual readings of baseline scans had 85 % sensitivity, 81 % specificity, and 83 % accuracy. Concentration scans had 80 % sensitivity, 65 % specificity, and 79 % accuracy. Baseline-concentration scans had 82

  15. Affective network and default mode network in depressive adolescents with disruptive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Young In; Son, Young Don; Chung, Un-Sun; Min, Kyung Joon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Aim Disruptive behaviors are thought to affect the progress of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. In resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies of MDD, the affective network (limbic network) and the default mode network (DMN) have garnered a great deal of interest. We aimed to investigate RSFC in a sample of treatment-naïve adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors. Methods Twenty-two adolescents with MDD and disruptive behaviors (disrup-MDD) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a seed-based correlation approach concerning two brain circuits including the affective network and the DMN, with two seed regions including the bilateral amygdala for the limbic network and the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for the DMN. We also observed a correlation between RSFC and severity of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors. Results The disrup-MDD participants showed lower RSFC from the amygdala to the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus compared to HC participants. Depression scores in disrup-MDD participants were negatively correlated with RSFC from the amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex. The disrup-MDD participants had higher PCC RSFC compared to HC participants in a cluster that included the left precentral gyrus, left insula, and left parietal lobe. Disruptive behavior scores in disrup-MDD patients were positively correlated with RSFC from the PCC to the left insular cortex. Conclusion Depressive mood might be correlated with the affective network, and disruptive behavior might be correlated with the DMN in adolescent depression. PMID:26770059

  16. Functional Reorganization of the Default Mode Network across Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N.; Mansour, Ali R.; Baria, Alex T.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is associated with neuronal plasticity. Here we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional changes in patients suffering from chronic back pain (CBP), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). We isolated five meaningful resting-state networks across the groups, of which only the default mode network (DMN) exhibited deviations from healthy controls. All patient groups showed decreased connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to the posterior constituents of the DMN, and increased connectivity to the insular cortex in proportion to the intensity of pain. Multiple DMN regions, especially the MPFC, exhibited increased high frequency oscillations, conjoined with decreased phase locking with parietal regions involved in processing attention. Both phase and frequency changes correlated to pain duration in OA and CBP patients. Thus chronic pain seems to reorganize the dynamics of the DMN and as such reflect the maladaptive physiology of different types of chronic pain. PMID:25180885

  17. Differential activation of the default mode network in jet lagged individuals.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Joana Fernandes; Gonçalves, Oscar Filipe; Maia, Liliana; Fernandes Vasconcelos, Cristiana; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Hernandez, Kristina; Oliveira-Silva, Patricia; Mesquita, Ana Raquel; Sampaio, Adriana

    2015-02-01

    Long-term exposure to transmeridian flights has been shown to impact cognitive functioning. Nevertheless, the immediate effects of jet lag in the activation of specific brain networks have not been investigated. We analyzed the impact of short-term jet lag on the activation of the default mode network (DMN). A group of individuals who were on a transmeridian flight and a control group went through a functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Statistical analysis was performed to test for differences in the DMN activation between groups. Participants from the jet lag group presented decreased activation in the anterior nodes of the DMN, specifically in bilateral medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. No areas of increased activation were observed for the jet lag group. These results may be suggestive of a negative impact of jet lag on important cognitive functions such as introspection, emotional regulation and decision making in a few days after individuals arrive at their destination. PMID:25180985

  18. The Significance of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Akansha; Roberto, Aaron J; Mohan, Abhishek; Lorenzo, Aileen; Jones, Kathryn; Carney, Martin J; Liogier-Weyback, Luis; Hwang, Soonjo; Lapidus, Kyle A B

    2016-03-01

    The relationship of cortical structure and specific neuronal circuitry to global brain function, particularly its perturbations related to the development and progression of neuropathology, is an area of great interest in neurobehavioral science. Disruption of these neural networks can be associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Herein we review activity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - TLE), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders. We discuss the implications of DMN disruptions and their relationship to the neurocognitive model of each disease entity, the utility of DMN assessment in clinical evaluation, and the changes of the DMN following treatment. PMID:27505016

  19. Childhood poverty and stress reactivity are associated with aberrant functional connectivity in default mode network.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-08-01

    Convergent research suggests that childhood poverty is associated with perturbation in the stress response system. This might extend to aberrations in the connectivity of large-scale brain networks, which subserve key cognitive and emotional functions. Resting-state brain activity was measured in adults with a documented history of childhood poverty (n=26) and matched controls from middle-income families (n=26). Participants also underwent a standard laboratory social stress test and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Childhood poverty was associated with reduced default mode network (DMN) connectivity. This, in turn, was associated with higher cortisol levels in anticipation of social stress. These results suggest a possible brain basis for exaggerated stress sensitivity in low-income individuals. Alterations in DMN may be associated with less efficient cognitive processing or greater risk for development of stress-related psychopathology among individuals who experienced the adversity of chronic childhood poverty. PMID:24675708

  20. The Significance of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Akansha; Roberto, Aaron J.; Mohan, Abhishek; Lorenzo, Aileen; Jones, Kathryn; Carney, Martin J.; Liogier-Weyback, Luis; Hwang, Soonjo; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of cortical structure and specific neuronal circuitry to global brain function, particularly its perturbations related to the development and progression of neuropathology, is an area of great interest in neurobehavioral science. Disruption of these neural networks can be associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Herein we review activity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy (Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - TLE), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and mood disorders. We discuss the implications of DMN disruptions and their relationship to the neurocognitive model of each disease entity, the utility of DMN assessment in clinical evaluation, and the changes of the DMN following treatment.

  1. Reduced Functional Connectivity of Default Mode and Set-Maintenance Networks in Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Washington, Stuart D.; Sprouse, Courtney; Helman, Guy; Gropman, Andrea L.; VanMeter, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is an X-chromosome linked urea cycle disorder (UCD) that causes hyperammonemic episodes leading to white matter injury and impairments in executive functioning, working memory, and motor planning. This study aims to investigate differences in functional connectivity of two resting-state networks—default mode and set-maintenance—between OTCD patients and healthy controls. Methods Sixteen patients with partial OTCD and twenty-two control participants underwent a resting-state scan using 3T fMRI. Combining independent component analysis (ICA) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses, we identified the nodes that comprised each network in each group, and assessed internodal connectivity. Results Group comparisons revealed reduced functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) of OTCD patients, particularly between the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) node and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), as well as between the ACC/mPFC node and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) node. Patients also showed reduced connectivity in the set-maintenance network, especially between right anterior insula/frontal operculum (aI/fO) node and bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), as well as between the right aI/fO and ACC and between the ACC and right SFG. Conclusion Internodal functional connectivity in the DMN and set-maintenance network is reduced in patients with partial OTCD compared to controls, most likely due to hyperammonemia-related white matter damage. Because several of the affected areas are involved in executive functioning, it is postulated that this reduced connectivity is an underlying cause of the deficits OTCD patients display in this cognitive domain. PMID:26067829

  2. Cannabis, cigarettes, and their co-occurring use: disentangling differences in default mode network functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Fang, Zhuo; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Childress, Anna Rose; Rao, Hengyi; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Resting-state functional connectivity is a noninvasive, neuroimaging method for assessing neural network function. Altered functional connectivity among regions of the default-mode network have been associated with both nicotine and cannabis use; however, less is known about co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Methods We used posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses to examine default mode network (DMN) connectivity strength differences between four groups: 1) individuals diagnosed with cannabis dependence who do not smoke tobacco (n=19; ages 20–50), 2) cannabis-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (n=23, ages 21–52), 3) cannabis-naïve, nicotine-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (n=24, ages 21–57), and 4) cannabis- and tobacco-naïve healthy controls (n=21, ages 21–50), controlling for age, sex, and alcohol use. We also explored associations between connectivity strength and measures of cannabis and tobacco use. Results PCC seed-based analyses identified the core nodes of the DMN (i.e., PCC, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and temporal cortex). In general, the cannabis-dependent, nicotine-dependent, and co-occurring use groups showed lower DMN connectivity strengths than controls, with unique group differences in connectivity strength between the PCC and the cerebellum, medial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, and anterior insula. In cannabis-dependent individuals, PCC-right anterior insula connectivity strength correlated with duration of cannabis use. Conclusions This study extends previous research that independently examined the differences in resting-state functional connectivity among individuals who smoke cannabis and tobacco by including an examination of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use and provides further evidence that cannabis and tobacco exposure is associated with alterations in DMN connectivity. PMID:26094186

  3. Breakdown of long-range temporal dependence in default mode and attention networks during deep sleep

    PubMed Central

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; von Wegner, Frederic; Morzelewski, Astrid; Brodbeck, Verena; Jahnke, Kolja; Laufs, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The integration of segregated brain functional modules is a prerequisite for conscious awareness during wakeful rest. Here, we test the hypothesis that temporal integration, measured as long-term memory in the history of neural activity, is another important quality underlying conscious awareness. For this aim, we study the temporal memory of blood oxygen level-dependent signals across the human nonrapid eye movement sleep cycle. Results reveal that this property gradually decreases from wakefulness to deep nonrapid eye movement sleep and that such decreases affect areas identified with default mode and attention networks. Although blood oxygen level-dependent spontaneous fluctuations exhibit nontrivial spatial organization, even during deep sleep, they also display a decreased temporal complexity in specific brain regions. Conversely, this result suggests that long-range temporal dependence might be an attribute of the spontaneous conscious mentation performed during wakeful rest. PMID:24003146

  4. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN. PMID:26209847

  5. Impaired language function in generalized epilepsy: inadequate suppression of the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Gauffin, Helena; van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ulrici, Daniel; McAllister, Anita; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to study the effect of a potential default mode network (DMN) dysfunction on language performance in epilepsy. Language dysfunction in focal epilepsy has previously been connected to brain damage in language-associated cortical areas. In this work, we studied generalized epilepsy (GE) without focal brain damage to see if the language function was impaired. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if the DMN was involved. Eleven persons with GE and 28 healthy controls were examined with fMRI during a sentence-reading task. We demonstrated impaired language function, reduced suppression of DMN, and, specifically, an inadequate suppression of activation in the left anterior temporal lobe and the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as an aberrant activation in the right hippocampal formation. Our results highlight the presence of language decline in people with epilepsy of not only focal but also generalized origin. PMID:23648277

  6. Development of the Default Mode and Central Executive Networks Across Early Adolescence: a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Lauren E.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Masten, Carrie L.; McNealy, Kristin; Dapretto, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    The mature brain is organized into distinct neural networks defined by regions demonstrating correlated activity during task performance as well as rest. While research has begun to examine differences in these networks between children and adults, little is known about developmental changes during early adolescence. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we examined the Default Mode Network (DMN) and the Central Executive Network (CEN) at ages 10 and 13 in a longitudinal sample of 45 participants. In the DMN, participants showed increasing integration (i.e., stronger within-network correlations) between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex. During this time frame participants also showed increased segregation (i.e., weaker between-network correlations) between the PCC and the CEN. Similarly, from age 10 to 13, participants showed increased connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and other CEN nodes, as well as increasing DMN segregation. IQ was significantly positively related to CEN integration at age 10, and between-network segregation at both ages. These findings highlight early adolescence as a period of significant maturation for the brain’s functional architecture and demonstrate the utility of longitudinal designs to investigate neural network development. PMID:25282602

  7. Persistent Operational Synchrony within Brain Default-Mode Network and Self-Processing Operations in Healthy Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concepts, we hypothesized that the spatio-temporal pattern of functional connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) should persist unchanged across a variety of different cognitive tasks or acts, thus being task-unrelated. This supposition is in contrast with current understanding…

  8. Characterizing structure connectivity correlation with the default mode network in Alzheimer's patients and normal controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng; Song, Chao; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a kind of effective measure to do non-invasive investigation on brain fiber structure at present. Studies of fiber tracking based on DTI showed that there was structural connection of white matter fiber among the nodes of resting-state functional network, denoting that the connection of white matter was the basis of gray matter regions in functional network. Nevertheless, relationship between these structure connectivity regions and functional network has not been clearly indicated. Moreover, research of fMRI found that activation of default mode network (DMN) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was significantly descended, especially in hippocampus and posterior cingulated cortex (PCC). The relationship between this change of DMN activity and structural connection among functional networks needs further research. In this study, fast marching tractography (FMT) algorithm was adopted to quantitative calculate fiber connectivity value between regions, and hippocampus and PCC which were two important regions in DMN related with AD were selected to compute white matter connection region between them in elderly normal control (NC) and AD patient. The fiber connectivity value was extracted to do the correlation analysis with activity intensity of DMN. Results showed that, between PCC and hippocampus of NC, there exited region with significant high connectivity value of white matter fiber whose performance has relatively strong correlation with the activity of DMN, while there was no significant white matter connection region between them for AD patient which might be related with reduced network activation in these two regions of AD.

  9. Development of the brain's default mode network from wakefulness to slow wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Sämann, Philipp G; Wehrle, Renate; Hoehn, David; Spoormaker, Victor I; Peters, Henning; Tully, Carolin; Holsboer, Florian; Czisch, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Falling asleep is paralleled by a loss of conscious awareness and reduced capacity to process external stimuli. Little is known on sleep-associated changes of spontaneously synchronized anatomical networks as detected by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We employed functional connectivity analysis of rs-fMRI series obtained from 25 healthy participants, covering all non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages. We focused on the default mode network (DMN) and its anticorrelated network (ACN) that are involved in internal and external awareness during wakefulness. Using independent component analysis, cross-correlation analysis (CCA), and intraindividual dynamic network tracking, we found significant changes in DMN/ACN integrity throughout the NREM sleep. With increasing sleep depth, contributions of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/retrosplenial cortex (RspC), parahippocampal gyrus, and medial prefrontal cortex to the DMN decreased. CCA revealed a breakdown of corticocortical functional connectivity, particularly between the posterior and anterior midline node of the DMN and the DMN and the ACN. Dynamic tracking of the DMN from wakefulness into slow wave sleep in a single subject added insights into intraindividual network fluctuations. Results resonate with a role of the PCC/RspC for the regulation of consciousness. We further submit that preserved corticocortical synchronization could represent a prerequisite for maintaining internal and external awareness. PMID:21330468

  10. Static and dynamic posterior cingulate cortex nodal topology of default mode network predicts attention task performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pan; Yang, Yong; Jovicich, Jorge; De Pisapia, Nicola; Wang, Xiang; Zuo, Chun S; Levitt, James Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of the default mode network (DMN) as a complex network of functionally interacting dynamic systems has received great interest for the study of DMN neural mechanisms. In particular, understanding the relationship of intrinsic resting-state DMN brain network with cognitive behaviors is an important issue in healthy cognition and mental disorders. However, it is still unclear how DMN functional connectivity links to cognitive behaviors during resting-state. In this study, we hypothesize that static and dynamic DMN nodal topology is associated with upcoming cognitive task performance. We used graph theory analysis in order to understand better the relationship between the DMN functional connectivity and cognitive behavior during resting-state and task performance. Nodal degree of the DMN was calculated as a metric of network topology. We found that the static and dynamic posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) nodal degree within the DMN was associated with task performance (Reaction Time). Our results show that the core node PCC nodal degree within the DMN was significantly correlated with reaction time, which suggests that the PCC plays a key role in supporting cognitive function. PMID:25904156

  11. Interactions between the salience and default-mode networks are disrupted in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xia; He, Yong; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Yang, Yihong

    2015-05-27

    Cocaine dependence is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder manifested as dysregulation of multiple behavioral, emotional, and cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging studies have begun to identify specific neurobiological circuit impairments in cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals that may underlie these symptoms. However, whether, where, and how the interactions within and between these circuits are disrupted remain largely unknown. We used resting-state fMRI and modularity network analysis to identify brain modules of a priori interest (default-mode network [DMN], salience network [SN], executive control network [ECN], medial temporal lobe [MTL], and striatum) in 47 CD and 47 matched healthy control (HC) participants and explored alterations within and between these brain modules as a function of addiction. At the module level, intermodule connectivity decreased between DMN and SN in CD. At the nodal level, several regions showed decreased connections with multiple modules in CD: the rostral anterior cingulate connection strength was reduced with SN and MTL; the posterior cingulate had reduced connections with ECN; and the bilateral insula demonstrated decreased connections with DMN. Furthermore, alexithymia, a personality trait previously associated with addiction, correlated negatively with intramodule connectivity within SN only in cocaine users. Our results indicate that cocaine addiction is associated with disrupted interactions among DMN, MTL, and SN, which have been implicated, respectively, in self-referential functions, emotion and memory, and coordinating between internal and external stimuli, providing novel and important insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine addiction. PMID:26019326

  12. Interactions between the Salience and Default-Mode Networks Are Disrupted in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xia; He, Yong; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Gu, Hong; Stein, Elliot A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder manifested as dysregulation of multiple behavioral, emotional, and cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging studies have begun to identify specific neurobiological circuit impairments in cocaine-dependent (CD) individuals that may underlie these symptoms. However, whether, where, and how the interactions within and between these circuits are disrupted remain largely unknown. We used resting-state fMRI and modularity network analysis to identify brain modules of a priori interest (default-mode network [DMN], salience network [SN], executive control network [ECN], medial temporal lobe [MTL], and striatum) in 47 CD and 47 matched healthy control (HC) participants and explored alterations within and between these brain modules as a function of addiction. At the module level, intermodule connectivity decreased between DMN and SN in CD. At the nodal level, several regions showed decreased connections with multiple modules in CD: the rostral anterior cingulate connection strength was reduced with SN and MTL; the posterior cingulate had reduced connections with ECN; and the bilateral insula demonstrated decreased connections with DMN. Furthermore, alexithymia, a personality trait previously associated with addiction, correlated negatively with intramodule connectivity within SN only in cocaine users. Our results indicate that cocaine addiction is associated with disrupted interactions among DMN, MTL, and SN, which have been implicated, respectively, in self-referential functions, emotion and memory, and coordinating between internal and external stimuli, providing novel and important insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine addiction. PMID:26019326

  13. Establishing task- and modality-dependent dissociations between the semantic and default mode networks

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Hoffman, Paul; Visser, Maya; Binney, Richard J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) and semantic network (SN) are two of the most extensively studied systems, and both are increasingly used as clinical biomarkers in neurological studies. There are strong theoretical reasons to assume a relationship between the networks, as well as anatomical evidence that they might rely on overlapping cortical regions, such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) or angular gyrus (AG). Despite these strong motivations, the relationship between the two systems has received minimal attention. We directly compared the SN and DMN using a large (n = 69) distortion-corrected functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, spanning a range of semantic and nonsemantic tasks that varied input modality. The results showed that both networks fractionate depending on the semantic nature of the task, stimulus type, modality, and task difficulty. Furthermore, despite recent claims that both AG and ATL are semantic hubs, the two areas responded very differently, with results supporting the role of ATL, but not AG, in semantic representation. Specifically, the left ATL was positively activated for all semantic tasks, but deactivated during nonsemantic task performance. In contrast, the left AG was deactivated for all tasks, with the level of deactivation related to task difficulty. Thus, ATL and AG do not share a common interest in semantic tasks, but, rather, a common “disinterest” in nonsemantic tasks. The implications for the variability in the DMN, its cognitive coherence, and interpretation of resting-state fMRI data are discussed. PMID:26056304

  14. Establishing task- and modality-dependent dissociations between the semantic and default mode networks.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Gina F; Hoffman, Paul; Visser, Maya; Binney, Richard J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-06-23

    The default mode network (DMN) and semantic network (SN) are two of the most extensively studied systems, and both are increasingly used as clinical biomarkers in neurological studies. There are strong theoretical reasons to assume a relationship between the networks, as well as anatomical evidence that they might rely on overlapping cortical regions, such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) or angular gyrus (AG). Despite these strong motivations, the relationship between the two systems has received minimal attention. We directly compared the SN and DMN using a large (n = 69) distortion-corrected functional MRI (fMRI) dataset, spanning a range of semantic and nonsemantic tasks that varied input modality. The results showed that both networks fractionate depending on the semantic nature of the task, stimulus type, modality, and task difficulty. Furthermore, despite recent claims that both AG and ATL are semantic hubs, the two areas responded very differently, with results supporting the role of ATL, but not AG, in semantic representation. Specifically, the left ATL was positively activated for all semantic tasks, but deactivated during nonsemantic task performance. In contrast, the left AG was deactivated for all tasks, with the level of deactivation related to task difficulty. Thus, ATL and AG do not share a common interest in semantic tasks, but, rather, a common "disinterest" in nonsemantic tasks. The implications for the variability in the DMN, its cognitive coherence, and interpretation of resting-state fMRI data are discussed. PMID:26056304

  15. Disruption of Functional Connectivity of the Default-Mode Network in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2011-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) comprises brain structures maximally active at rest. Disturbance of network nodes or their connections occurs with some neuropsychiatric conditions and may underlie associated dysfunction. DMN connectivity has not been examined in alcoholism, which is marked by compromised DMN nodes and impaired spatial working memory. To test whether performance would be related to DMN integrity, we examined DMN functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and graph theory analysis. We assumed that disruption of short paths between network nodes would attenuate processing efficiency. Alcoholics and controls were scanned at rest and during a spatial working memory task. At rest, the spontaneous slow fluctuations of fMRI signals in the posterior cingulate and cerebellar regions in alcoholics were less synchronized than in controls, indicative of compromised functional connectivity. Graph theory analysis indicated that during rest, alcoholics had significantly lower efficiency indices than controls between the posterior cingulate seed and multiple cerebellar sites. Greater efficiency in several connections correlated with longer sobriety in alcoholics. During the task, on which alcoholics performed on par with controls, connectivity between the left posterior cingulate seed and left cerebellar regions was more robust in alcoholics than controls and suggests compensatory networking to achieve normal performance. PMID:21368086

  16. Relationships between default-mode network connectivity, medial temporal lobe structure, and age-related memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew M; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Huijbers, Willem; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Sperling, Reisa A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced aging negatively impacts memory performance. Brain aging has been associated with shrinkage in medial temporal lobe structures essential for memory--including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex--and with deficits in default-mode network connectivity. Yet, whether and how these imaging markers are relevant to age-related memory deficits remains a topic of debate. Using a sample of 182 older (age 74.6 ± 6.2 years) and 66 young (age 22.2 ± 3.6 years) participants, this study examined relationships among memory performance, hippocampus volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, and default-mode network connectivity across aging. All imaging markers and memory were significantly different between young and older groups. Each imaging marker significantly mediated the relationship between age and memory performance and collectively accounted for most of the variance in age-related memory performance. Within older participants, default-mode connectivity and hippocampus volume were independently associated with memory. Structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data within older participants suggest that entorhinal thinning may occur before reduced default-mode connectivity and hippocampal volume loss, which in turn lead to deficits in memory performance. PMID:25113793

  17. A multiscale method for a robust detection of the default mode network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero, Katherine; Gómez, Francisco; Cifuentes, Christian; Guldenmund, Pieter; Demertzi, Athena; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Gosseries, Olivia; Tshibanda, Jean-Flory; Noirhomme, Quentin; Laureys, Steven; Soddu, Andrea; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) is a resting state network widely used for the analysis and diagnosis of mental disorders. It is normally detected in fMRI data, but for its detection in data corrupted by motion artefacts or low neuronal activity, the use of a robust analysis method is mandatory. In fMRI it has been shown that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the detection sensitivity of neuronal regions is increased with di erent smoothing kernels sizes. Here we propose to use a multiscale decomposition based of a linear scale-space representation for the detection of the DMN. Three main points are proposed in this methodology: rst, the use of fMRI data at di erent smoothing scale-spaces, second, detection of independent neuronal components of the DMN at each scale by using standard preprocessing methods and ICA decomposition at scale-level, and nally, a weighted contribution of each scale by the Goodness of Fit measurement. This method was applied to a group of control subjects and was compared with a standard preprocesing baseline. The detection of the DMN was improved at single subject level and at group level. Based on these results, we suggest to use this methodology to enhance the detection of the DMN in data perturbed with artefacts or applied to subjects with low neuronal activity. Furthermore, the multiscale method could be extended for the detection of other resting state neuronal networks.

  18. Functional Connectivity with the Default Mode Network Is Altered in Fibromyalgia Patients.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Nicholas; Chiu, Yee; Nurmikko, Turo; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients show altered connectivity with the network maintaining ongoing resting brain activity, known as the default mode network (DMN). The connectivity patterns of DMN with the rest of the brain in FMS patients are poorly understood. This study employed seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity with DMN structures in FMS. Sixteen female FMS patients and 15 age-matched, healthy control subjects underwent T2-weighted resting-state MRI scanning and functional connectivity analyses using DMN network seed regions. FMS patients demonstrated alterations to connectivity between DMN structures and anterior midcingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and left inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis showed that reduced functional connectivity between the DMN and the right parahippocampal gyrus was associated with longer duration of symptoms in FMS patients, whereas augmented connectivity between the anterior midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with tenderness and depression scores. Our findings demonstrate alterations to functional connectivity between DMN regions and a variety of regions which are important for pain, cognitive and emotional processing in FMS patients, and which may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic symptoms in FMS. PMID:27442504

  19. Cortical morphometry in frontoparietal and default mode networks in math-gifted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Navas-Sánchez, Francisco J; Carmona, Susana; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Sánchez-González, Javier; Guzmán-de-Villoria, Juan; Franco, Carolina; Robles, Olalla; Arango, Celso; Desco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Math-gifted subjects are characterized by above-age performance in intelligence tests, exceptional creativity, and high task commitment. Neuroimaging studies reveal enhanced functional brain organization and white matter microstructure in the frontoparietal executive network of math-gifted individuals. However, the cortical morphometry of these subjects remains largely unknown. The main goal of this study was to compare the cortical morphometry of math-gifted adolescents with that of an age- and IQ-matched control group. We used surface-based methods to perform a vertex-wise analysis of cortical thickness and surface area. Our results show that math-gifted adolescents present a thinner cortex and a larger surface area in key regions of the frontoparietal and default mode networks, which are involved in executive processing and creative thinking, respectively. The combination of reduced cortical thickness and larger surface area suggests above-age neural maturation of these networks in math-gifted individuals. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1893-1902, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26917433

  20. Self-Processing and the Default Mode Network: Interactions with the Mirror Neuron System

    PubMed Central

    Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence for the fractionation of the default mode network (DMN) into functionally distinguishable subdivisions with unique patterns of connectivity calls for a reconceptualization of the relationship between this network and self-referential processing. Advances in resting-state functional connectivity analyses are beginning to reveal increasingly complex patterns of organization within the key nodes of the DMN – medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex – as well as between these nodes and other brain systems. Here we review recent examinations of the relationships between the DMN and various aspects of self-relevant and social-cognitive processing in light of emerging evidence for heterogeneity within this network. Drawing from a rapidly evolving social-cognitive neuroscience literature, we propose that embodied simulation and mentalizing are processes which allow us to gain insight into another’s physical and mental state by providing privileged access to our own physical and mental states. Embodiment implies that the same neural systems are engaged for self- and other-understanding through a simulation mechanism, while mentalizing refers to the use of high-level conceptual information to make inferences about the mental states of self and others. These mechanisms work together to provide a coherent representation of the self and by extension, of others. Nodes of the DMN selectively interact with brain systems for embodiment and mentalizing, including the mirror neuron system, to produce appropriate mappings in the service of social-cognitive demands. PMID:24062671

  1. Functional Connectivity with the Default Mode Network Is Altered in Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yee; Nurmikko, Turo; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients show altered connectivity with the network maintaining ongoing resting brain activity, known as the default mode network (DMN). The connectivity patterns of DMN with the rest of the brain in FMS patients are poorly understood. This study employed seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity with DMN structures in FMS. Sixteen female FMS patients and 15 age-matched, healthy control subjects underwent T2-weighted resting-state MRI scanning and functional connectivity analyses using DMN network seed regions. FMS patients demonstrated alterations to connectivity between DMN structures and anterior midcingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and left inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis showed that reduced functional connectivity between the DMN and the right parahippocampal gyrus was associated with longer duration of symptoms in FMS patients, whereas augmented connectivity between the anterior midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with tenderness and depression scores. Our findings demonstrate alterations to functional connectivity between DMN regions and a variety of regions which are important for pain, cognitive and emotional processing in FMS patients, and which may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic symptoms in FMS. PMID:27442504

  2. Aberrant topographical organization of the default mode network underlying the cognitive impairment of remitted late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yingying; Wang, Zan; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-08-26

    To investigate the alteration of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and topological organization of the default mode network (DMN), and their contribution to the cognitive impairment in remitted late-onset depression (rLOD) patients. Thirty-three rLOD patients and thirty-one healthy controls underwent clinical and cognitive evaluations as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) scans. The FC networks were constructed by thresholding Pearson correlation metrics of the DMN regions, and their topological properties were analyzed using graph theory-based approaches. Nonparametric permutation tests were further used for group comparisons of topological metrics. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the network measures and cognitive performances. Patients displayed universally decreased FC of DMN and abnormal global topology of the DMN (i.e., increased characteristic path length Lp and reduced global efficiency Eglob) compared with healthy controls. According to the distance-dependent FC results, the long-distance connections were mainly involved in the connectivity between anterior and posterior hubs, and the short-distance connections were primarily located in the frontal lobe. There were significant correlations between the global topology and the episodic memory performance in rLOD patients. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the disrupted topological organization of the DMN might be considered as a potential biomarker of the episodic memory deficits in rLOD patients. PMID:27365133

  3. Increased default mode network activity in socially anxious individuals during reward processing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social anxiety has been associated with potentiated negative affect and, more recently, with diminished positive affect. It is unclear how these alterations in negative and positive affect are represented neurally in socially anxious individuals and, further, whether they generalize to non-social stimuli. To explore this, we used a monetary incentive paradigm to explore the association between social anxiety and both the anticipation and consumption of non-social incentives. Eighty-four individuals from a longitudinal community sample underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. The MID task consisted of alternating cues indicating the potential to win or prevent losing varying amounts of money based on the speed of the participant’s response. We examined whether self-reported levels of social anxiety, averaged across approximately 7 years of data, moderated brain activity when contrasting gain or loss cues with neutral cues during the anticipation and outcome phases of incentive processing. Whole brain analyses and analyses restricted to the ventral striatum for the anticipation phase and the medial prefrontal cortex for the outcome phase were conducted. Results Social anxiety did not associate with differences in hit rates or reaction times when responding to cues. Further, socially anxious individuals did not exhibit decreased ventral striatum activity during anticipation of gains or decreased MPFC activity during the outcome of gain trials, contrary to expectations based on literature indicating blunted positive affect in social anxiety. Instead, social anxiety showed positive associations with extensive regions implicated in default mode network activity (for example, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and parietal lobe) during anticipation and receipt of monetary gain. Social anxiety was further linked with decreased activity in the ventral striatum during anticipation

  4. What we talk about when we talk about the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Callard, Felicity; Margulies, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been widely defined as a set of brain regions that are engaged when people are in a "resting state" (left to themselves in a scanner, with no explicit task instruction). The network emerged as a scientific object in the early twenty-first century, and in just over a decade has become the focus of intense empirical and conceptual neuroscientific inquiry. In this Perspective, we contribute to the work of critical neuroscience by providing brief reflections on the birth, working life, and future of the DMN. We consider: how the DMN emerged through the convergence of distinct lines of scientific investigation; controversies surrounding the definition, function and localization of the DMN; and the lines of interdisciplinary investigation that the DMN has helped to enable. We conclude by arguing that one of the most pressing issues in the field in 2014 is to understand how the mechanisms of thought are related to the function of brain dynamics. While the DMN has been central in allowing the field to reach this point, it is not inevitable that the DMN itself will remain at the heart of future investigations of this complex problem. PMID:25202250

  5. What we talk about when we talk about the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been widely defined as a set of brain regions that are engaged when people are in a “resting state” (left to themselves in a scanner, with no explicit task instruction). The network emerged as a scientific object in the early twenty-first century, and in just over a decade has become the focus of intense empirical and conceptual neuroscientific inquiry. In this Perspective, we contribute to the work of critical neuroscience by providing brief reflections on the birth, working life, and future of the DMN. We consider: how the DMN emerged through the convergence of distinct lines of scientific investigation; controversies surrounding the definition, function and localization of the DMN; and the lines of interdisciplinary investigation that the DMN has helped to enable. We conclude by arguing that one of the most pressing issues in the field in 2014 is to understand how the mechanisms of thought are related to the function of brain dynamics. While the DMN has been central in allowing the field to reach this point, it is not inevitable that the DMN itself will remain at the heart of future investigations of this complex problem. PMID:25202250

  6. Metabolic mapping reveals sex-dependent involvement of default mode and salience network in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Colic, L; Demenescu, L R; Li, M; Kaufmann, J; Krause, A L; Metzger, C; Walter, M

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia, a personality construct marked by difficulties in processing one's emotions, has been linked to the altered activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Although longitudinal studies reported sex differences in alexithymia, what mediates them is not known. To investigate sex-specific associations of alexithymia and neuronal markers, we mapped metabolites in four brain regions involved differentially in emotion processing using a point-resolved spectroscopy MRS sequence in 3 Tesla. Both sexes showed negative correlations between alexithymia and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in pregenual ACC (pgACC). Women showed a robust negative correlation of the joint measure of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) to NAA in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas men showed a weak positive association of Glx to NAA in dorsal ACC (dACC). Our results suggest that lowered neuronal integrity in pgACC, a region of the default mode network (DMN), might primarily account for the general difficulties in emotional processing in alexithymia. Association of alexithymia in women extends to another region in the DMN-PCC, while in men a region in the salience network (SN) was involved. These observations could be representative of sex specific regulation strategies that include diminished internal evaluation of feelings in women and cognitive emotion suppression in men. PMID:26341904

  7. The brain on art: intense aesthetic experience activates the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Vessel, Edward A.; Starr, G. Gabrielle; Rubin, Nava

    2012-01-01

    Aesthetic responses to visual art comprise multiple types of experiences, from sensation and perception to emotion and self-reflection. Moreover, aesthetic experience is highly individual, with observers varying significantly in their responses to the same artwork. Combining fMRI and behavioral analysis of individual differences in aesthetic response, we identify two distinct patterns of neural activity exhibited by different sub-networks. Activity increased linearly with observers' ratings (4-level scale) in sensory (occipito-temporal) regions. Activity in the striatum (STR) also varied linearly with ratings, with below-baseline activations for low-rated artworks. In contrast, a network of frontal regions showed a step-like increase only for the most moving artworks (“4” ratings) and non-differential activity for all others. This included several regions belonging to the “default mode network” (DMN) previously associated with self-referential mentation. Our results suggest that aesthetic experience involves the integration of sensory and emotional reactions in a manner linked with their personal relevance. PMID:22529785

  8. The Psychedelic State Induced by Ayahuasca Modulates the Activity and Connectivity of the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Andrade, Katia C.; Tofoli, Luis F.; Santos, Antonio C.; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Araujo, Draulio B.

    2015-01-01

    The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects. Ayahuasca is a potion traditionally used by Amazonian Amerindians composed by a mixture of compounds that increase monoaminergic transmission. In particular, we examined whether Ayahuasca changes the activity and connectivity of the DMN and the connection between the DMN and the task-positive network (TPN). Ayahuasca caused a significant decrease in activity through most parts of the DMN, including its most consistent hubs: the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC)/Precuneus and the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). Functional connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca intake. No significant change was observed in the DMN-TPN orthogonality. Altogether, our results support the notion that the altered state of consciousness induced by Ayahuasca, like those induced by psilocybin (another serotonergic psychedelic), meditation and sleep, is linked to the modulation of the activity and the connectivity of the DMN. PMID:25693169

  9. Increased Cerebellar-Default-Mode-Network Connectivity in Drug-Naive Major Depressive Disorder at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianrong; Yu, Miaoyu; Zhang, Zhikun; Liu, Guiying; Xiao, Changqing; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The default-mode network (DMN) has been implicated in the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), and the cerebellum is suggested to be involved in high-order cognitive network such as the DMN. However, the specific contribution of the cerebellum to the DMN alterations remains equivocal. This study was conducted to examine the cerebellar-DMN connectivity in drug-naive MDD directly by using the cerebellum Crus I as seeds. Forty-four drug-naive MDD patients and 44 healthy controls participated in the resting-state scan. Functional connectivity (FC) was applied to analyze the images. Significantly increased FCs were observed between the right Crus I and the right inferior frontal cortex (orbital part)/superior temporal pole, bilateral MPFC (orbital part), and left middle temporal gyrus in the patients compared with the controls. There was a significantly positive correlation between the z values of the right Crus I–bilateral MPFC (orbital part) connectivity and the scores of Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire in the patients (r = 0.329, P = 0.029). The findings reveal that depressed patients have increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity with clinical significance, and thus highlight the contribution of the cerebellum to the DMN alterations in neurobiology of MDD. PMID:25738471

  10. Increased Default Mode Network Connectivity in Individuals at High Familial Risk for Depression.

    PubMed

    Posner, Jonathan; Cha, Jiook; Wang, Zhishun; Talati, Ardesheer; Warner, Virginia; Gerber, Andrew; Peterson, Bradley S; Weissman, Myrna

    2016-06-01

    Research into the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has focused largely on individuals already affected by MDD. Studies have thus been limited in their ability to disentangle effects that arise as a result of MDD from precursors of the disorder. By studying individuals at high familial risk for MDD, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers indexing risk for developing MDD, a critical step toward advancing prevention and early intervention. Using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) and diffusion MRI (tractography), we examined connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and between the DMN and the central executive network (CEN) in 111 individuals, aged 11-60 years, at high and low familial risk for depression. Study participants were part of a three-generation longitudinal, cohort study of familial depression. Based on rs-fcMRI, individuals at high vs low familial risk for depression showed increased DMN connectivity, as well as decreased DMN-CEN-negative connectivity. These findings remained significant after excluding individuals with a current or lifetime history of depression. Diffusion MRI measures based on tractography supported the findings of decreased DMN-CEN-negative connectivity. Path analyses indicated that decreased DMN-CEN-negative connectivity mediated a relationship between familial risk and a neuropsychological measure of impulsivity. Our findings suggest that DMN and DMN-CEN connectivity differ in those at high vs low risk for depression and thus suggest potential biomarkers for identifying individuals at risk for developing MDD. PMID:26593265

  11. Multimodal Imaging of Alzheimer Pathophysiology in the Brain's Default Mode Network

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shin, Jonghan; Kepe, Vladimir; Small, Gary W.; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial correlations between the brain's default mode network (DMN) and the brain regions known to develop pathophysiology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have recently attracted much attention. In this paper, we compare results of different functional and structural imaging modalities, including MRI and PET, and highlight different patterns of anomalies observed within the DMN. Multitracer PET imaging in subjects with and without dementia has demonstrated that [C-11]PIB- and [F-18]FDDNP-binding patterns in patients with AD overlap within nodes of the brain's default network including the prefrontal, lateral parietal, lateral temporal, and posterior cingulate cortices, with the exception of the medial temporalmore » cortex (especially, the hippocampus) where significant discrepancy between increased [F-18]FDDNP binding and negligible [C-11]PIB-binding was observed. [F-18]FDDNP binding in the medial temporal cortex—a key constituent of the DMN—coincides with both the presence of amyloid and tau pathology, and also with cortical areas with maximal atrophy as demonstrated by T1-weighted MR imaging of AD patients.« less

  12. Brains striving for coherence: Long-term cumulative plot formation in the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Tylén, K; Christensen, P; Roepstorff, A; Lund, T; Østergaard, S; Donald, M

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities, such as engaging in conversation or listening to a story, require us to sustain attention over a prolonged period of time while integrating and synthesizing complex episodic content into a coherent mental model. Humans are remarkably capable of navigating and keeping track of all the parallel social activities of everyday life even when confronted with interruptions or changes in the environment. However, the underlying cognitive and neurocognitive mechanisms of such long-term integration and profiling of information remain a challenge to neuroscience. While brain activity is generally traceable within the short time frame of working memory (milliseconds to seconds), these integrative processes last for minutes, hours or even days. Here we report two experiments on story comprehension. Experiment I establishes a cognitive dissociation between our comprehension of plot and incidental facts in narratives: when episodic material allows for long-term integration in a coherent plot, we recall fewer factual details. However, when plot formation is challenged, we pay more attention to incidental facts. Experiment II investigates the neural underpinnings of plot formation. Results suggest a central role for the brain's default mode network related to comprehension of coherent narratives while incoherent episodes rather activate the frontoparietal control network. Moreover, an analysis of cortical activity as a function of the cumulative integration of narrative material into a coherent story reveals to linear modulations of right hemisphere posterior temporal and parietal regions. Together these findings point to key neural mechanisms involved in the fundamental human capacity for cumulative plot formation. PMID:26216276

  13. The psychedelic state induced by ayahuasca modulates the activity and connectivity of the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Andrade, Katia C; Tofoli, Luis F; Santos, Antonio C; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C; Ribeiro, Sidarta; de Araujo, Draulio B

    2015-01-01

    The experiences induced by psychedelics share a wide variety of subjective features, related to the complex changes in perception and cognition induced by this class of drugs. A remarkable increase in introspection is at the core of these altered states of consciousness. Self-oriented mental activity has been consistently linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a set of brain regions more active during rest than during the execution of a goal-directed task. Here we used fMRI technique to inspect the DMN during the psychedelic state induced by Ayahuasca in ten experienced subjects. Ayahuasca is a potion traditionally used by Amazonian Amerindians composed by a mixture of compounds that increase monoaminergic transmission. In particular, we examined whether Ayahuasca changes the activity and connectivity of the DMN and the connection between the DMN and the task-positive network (TPN). Ayahuasca caused a significant decrease in activity through most parts of the DMN, including its most consistent hubs: the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC)/Precuneus and the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). Functional connectivity within the PCC/Precuneus decreased after Ayahuasca intake. No significant change was observed in the DMN-TPN orthogonality. Altogether, our results support the notion that the altered state of consciousness induced by Ayahuasca, like those induced by psilocybin (another serotonergic psychedelic), meditation and sleep, is linked to the modulation of the activity and the connectivity of the DMN. PMID:25693169

  14. The Structural Connectivity Pattern of the Default Mode Network and Its Association with Memory and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yan; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Jin; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is one of the most widely studied resting state functional networks. The structural basis for the DMN is of particular interest and has been studied by several researchers using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Most of these previous studies focused on a few regions or white matter tracts of the DMN so that the global structural connectivity pattern and network properties of the DMN remain unclear. Moreover, evidences indicate that the DMN is involved in both memory and emotion, but how the DMN regulates memory and anxiety from the perspective of the whole DMN structural network remains unknown. We used multimodal neuroimaging methods to investigate the structural connectivity pattern of the DMN and the association of its network properties with memory and anxiety in 205 young healthy subjects with age ranging from 18 to 29 years old. The Group ICA method was used to extract the DMN component from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and a probabilistic fiber tractography technique based on DTI data was applied to construct the global structural connectivity pattern of the DMN. Then we used the graph theory method to analyze the DMN structural network and found that memory quotient (MQ) score was significantly positively correlated with the global and local efficiency of the DMN whereas anxiety was found to be negatively correlated with the efficiency. The strong structural connectivity between multiple brain regions within DMN may reflect that the DMN has certain structural basis. Meanwhile, the results we found that the network efficiency of the DMN were related to memory and anxiety measures, indicated that the DMN may play a role in the memory and anxiety. PMID:26635544

  15. Activation and Connectivity within the Default Mode Network Contribute Independently to Future-Oriented Thought

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Hong; Lei, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Future-oriented thought, a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event, has been linked to default mode network (DMN). Previous studies showed that the DMN was generally divided into two subsystems: anterior part (aDMN) and posterior part (pDMN). The former is mostly related to self-referential mental thought and latter engages in episodic memory retrieval and scene construction. However, functional contribution of these two subsystems and functional connectivity between them during future-oriented thought has rarely been reported. Here, we investigated these issues by using an experimental paradigm that allowed prospective, episodic decisions concerning one’s future (Future Self) to be compared with self-referential decisions about one’s immediate present state (Present Self). Additionally, two parallel control conditions that relied on non-personal semantic knowledge (Future Non-Self Control and Present Non-Self Control) were conducted. Our results revealed that the aDMN was preferentially activated when participants reflected on their present states, whereas the pDMN exhibited preferentially activation when participants reflected on their personal future. Intriguingly, significantly decreased aDMN-pDMN connectivity was observed when thinking about their future relative to other conditions. These results support the notion that activation within these subsystems and connectivity between them contribute differently to future-oriented thought. PMID:26867499

  16. Altered effective connectivity within default mode network in major depression disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Linchuan; Cui, Longbiao; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the neural basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is important for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. The default mode network (DMN) is considered to be highly involved in the MDD. To find directed interaction between DMN regions associated with the development of MDD, the effective connectivity within the DMN of the MDD patients and matched healthy controls was estimated by using a recently developed spectral dynamic causal modeling. Sixteen patients with MDD and sixteen matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. While the control group underwent the resting state fMRI scan just once, all patients underwent resting state fMRI scans before and after two months' treatment. The spectral dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate directed connections between four DMN nodes. Statistical analysis on connection strengths indicated that efferent connections from the medial frontal cortex (MFC) to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and to right parietal cortex (RPC) were significant higher in pretreatment MDD patients than those of the control group. After two-month treatment, the efferent connections from the MFC decreased significantly, while those from the left parietal cortex (LPC) to MFC, PCC and RPC showed a significant increase. These findings suggest that the MFC may play an important role for inhibitory conditioning of the DMN, which was disrupted in MDD patients. It also indicates that disrupted suppressive function of the MFC could be effectively restored after two-month treatment.

  17. Activation and Connectivity within the Default Mode Network Contribute Independently to Future-Oriented Thought.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Hong; Lei, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Future-oriented thought, a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event, has been linked to default mode network (DMN). Previous studies showed that the DMN was generally divided into two subsystems: anterior part (aDMN) and posterior part (pDMN). The former is mostly related to self-referential mental thought and latter engages in episodic memory retrieval and scene construction. However, functional contribution of these two subsystems and functional connectivity between them during future-oriented thought has rarely been reported. Here, we investigated these issues by using an experimental paradigm that allowed prospective, episodic decisions concerning one's future (Future Self) to be compared with self-referential decisions about one's immediate present state (Present Self). Additionally, two parallel control conditions that relied on non-personal semantic knowledge (Future Non-Self Control and Present Non-Self Control) were conducted. Our results revealed that the aDMN was preferentially activated when participants reflected on their present states, whereas the pDMN exhibited preferentially activation when participants reflected on their personal future. Intriguingly, significantly decreased aDMN-pDMN connectivity was observed when thinking about their future relative to other conditions. These results support the notion that activation within these subsystems and connectivity between them contribute differently to future-oriented thought. PMID:26867499

  18. Impact of meditation training on the default mode network during a restful state

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Véronique A.; Daneault, Véronique; Grant, Joshua; Scavone, Geneviève; Breton, Estelle; Roffe-Vidal, Sébastien; Courtemanche, Jérôme; Lavarenne, Anaïs S.; Marrelec, Guillaume; Benali, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been shown to promote emotional stability. Moreover, during the processing of aversive and self-referential stimuli, mindful awareness is associated with reduced medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) activity, a central default mode network (DMN) component. However, it remains unclear whether mindfulness practice influences functional connectivity between DMN regions and, if so, whether such impact persists beyond a state of meditation. Consequently, this study examined the effect of extensive mindfulness training on functional connectivity within the DMN during a restful state. Resting-state data were collected from 13 experienced meditators (with over 1000 h of training) and 11 beginner meditators (with no prior experience, trained for 1 week before the study) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pairwise correlations and partial correlations were computed between DMN seed regions’ time courses and were compared between groups utilizing a Bayesian sampling scheme. Relative to beginners, experienced meditators had weaker functional connectivity between DMN regions involved in self-referential processing and emotional appraisal. In addition, experienced meditators had increased connectivity between certain DMN regions (e.g. dorso-medial PFC and right inferior parietal lobule), compared to beginner meditators. These findings suggest that meditation training leads to functional connectivity changes between core DMN regions possibly reflecting strengthened present-moment awareness. PMID:22446298

  19. Alteration of the Intra- and Cross- Hemisphere Posterior Default Mode Network in Frontal Lobe Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haosu; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Chengjun; Tang, Weijun; Yao, Demin; Zhang, Chenxi; Wang, Manning; Wu, Jinsong; Song, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe gliomas often experience neurocognitive dysfunctions before surgery, which affects the default mode network (DMN) to different degrees. This study quantitatively analyzed this effect from the perspective of cerebral hemispheric functional connectivity (FC). We collected resting-state fMRI data from 20 frontal lobe glioma patients before treatment and 20 healthy controls. All of the patients and controls were right-handed. After pre-processing the images, FC maps were built from the seed defined in the left or right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the target regions determined in the left or right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), respectively. The intra- and cross-group statistical calculations of FC strength were compared. The conclusions were as follows: (1) the intra-hemisphere FC strength values between the PCC and TPJ on the left and right were decreased in patients compared with controls; and (2) the correlation coefficients between the FC pairs in the patients were increased compared with the corresponding controls. When all of the patients were grouped by their tumor’s hemispheric location, (3) the FC of the subgroups showed that the dominant hemisphere was vulnerable to glioma, and (4) the FC in the dominant hemisphere showed a significant correlation with WHO grade. PMID:27248706

  20. Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B; Duran-Jordan, Kelly; Magerman, Adam B; Schmader, Toni; Allen, John J B

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed whether individual differences in self-oriented neural processing were associated with performance perceptions of minority students under stereotype threat. Resting electroencephalographic activity recorded in white and minority participants was used to predict later estimates of task errors and self-doubt on a presumed measure of intelligence. We assessed spontaneous phase-locking between dipole sources in left lateral parietal cortex (LPC), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (P/PCC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); three regions of the default mode network (DMN) that are integral for self-oriented processing. Results revealed that minorities with greater LPC-P/PCC phase-locking in the theta band reported more accurate error estimations. All individuals experienced less self-doubt to the extent they exhibited greater LPC-MPFC phase-locking in the alpha band but this effect was driven by minorities. Minorities also reported more self-doubt to the extent they overestimated errors. Findings reveal novel neural moderators of stereotype threat effects on subjective experience. Spontaneous synchronization between DMN regions may play a role in anticipatory coping mechanisms that buffer individuals from stereotype threat. PMID:25398433

  1. Changes in default mode network as automaticity develops in a categorization task.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Farzin; Helie, Sebastien

    2016-10-15

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions in which blood oxygen level dependent signal is suppressed during attentional focus on the external environment. Because automatic task processing requires less attention, development of automaticity in a rule-based categorization task may result in less deactivation and altered functional connectivity of the DMN when compared to the initial learning stage. We tested this hypothesis by re-analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging data of participants trained in rule-based categorization for over 10,000 trials (Helie et al., 2010) [12,13]. The results show that some DMN regions are deactivated in initial training but not after automaticity has developed. There is also a significant decrease in DMN deactivation after extensive practice. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses with the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (two important DMN regions) and Brodmann area 6 (an important region in automatic categorization) were also performed. The results show increased functional connectivity with both DMN and non-DMN regions after the development of automaticity, and a decrease in functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these results further support the hypothesis of a strategy shift in automatic categorization and bridge the cognitive and neuroscientific conceptions of automaticity in showing that the reduced need for cognitive resources in automatic processing is accompanied by a disinhibition of the DMN and stronger functional connectivity between DMN and task-related brain regions. PMID:27457134

  2. Dysfunctional Default Mode Network in Methadone Treated Patients Who Have a Higher Heroin Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Defeng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Zhu, Jia; Li, Yongbin; Yan, Xuejiao; Chen, Jiajie; Ye, Jianjun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether heroin relapse is associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of chronic heroin relapsers (HR) (12 males, 1 female, age: 36.1 ± 6.9 years) and abstainers (HA) (11males, 2 female; age: 42.1 ± 8.1 years) were investigated with an independent component analysis to address the functional connectivity of their DMN. Group comparison was then performed between the relapsers and abstainers. Our study found that the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right superior occipital gyrus associated with DMN showed decreased functional connectivity in HR when compared with HA, while the left precuneus and the right middle cingulum had increased functional connectivity. Mean intensity signal, extracted from left inferior temporal gyrus of HR patients, showed a significant negative correlation corresponding to the degree of heroin relapse. These findings suggest that altered functional connectivity of DMN may contribute to the potential neurobiological mechanism(s) of heroin relapse and have a predictive value concerning heroin relapse under MMT. PMID:26469876

  3. Acupuncture induce the different modulation patterns of the default mode network: an fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yi

    2009-02-01

    According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and certain clinical treatment reports, the sustained effects of acupuncture indeed exist, which may last several minutes or hours. Furthermore, increased attention has fallen on the sustained effects of acupuncture. Recently, it is reported that the sustained acupuncture effects may alter the default mode network (DMN). It raises interesting questions: whether the modulations of acupuncture effects to the DMN are still detected at other acupoints and whether the modulation patterns are different induced by different acupoints. In the present study, we wanted to investigate the questions. An experiment fMRI design was carried out on 36 subjects with the electroacupuncture stimulation (EAS) at the three acupoints: Guangming (GB37), Kunlun (BL60) and Jiaoxin (KI8) on the left leg. The data sets were analyzed by a data driven method named independent component analysis (ICA). The results indicated that the three acupoints stimulations may modulate the DMN. Moreover, the modulation patterns were distinct. We suggest the different modulation patterns on the DMN may attribute to the distinct functional effects of acupoints.

  4. Variation of the default mode network with altered alertness levels induced by propofol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyuan; Li, Huandong; Luo, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Han, Ruquan; Wang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Background The default mode network (DMN) is closely associated with the maintenance of alertness and cognitive functions. This study aimed to observe the changes in DMN induced by increasing doses of propofol and progressively deepening sedation. Methods Twelve healthy subjects were selected; they received target-controlled infusion of propofol (1.0 and 3.0 μg/mL of plasma) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before sedation and when they achieved light and deep sedation states. The average degree, average shortest path length, global efficiency, local efficiency, and clustering coefficient of DMN were assessed to study the overall and internal changes of DMN with gradual changes in alertness level, as well as the relationship between thalamus and DMN. Meanwhile, basic vital signs and respiratory inhibition were recorded. Results DMN parameters were gradually inhibited with decreasing level of alertness, the differences were significant between light sedation and awake states (all P<0.01), but not between deep and light sedation states. However, the shortest path lengths of the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortexes in the DMN were significantly increased under deep sedation. Conclusion Overall, DMN is propofol-sensitive. A small dose of propofol can significantly inhibit the DMN, affecting the level of alertness. The posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortexes in the DMN are less sensitive to propofol, and could be significantly inhibited by a higher concentration of propofol, further reducing the level of alertness. PMID:26504389

  5. Effects of Subconcussive Head Trauma on the Default Mode Network of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Thomas; Gay, Michael; Hallett, Mark; Slobounov, Semyon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although they are less severe than a full blown concussive episodes, subconcussive impacts happen much more frequently and current research has suggested this form of head trauma may have an accumulative effect and lead to neurological impairment later in life. To investigate the acute effects that subconcussive head trauma may have on the default mode network of the brain resting-state, functional magnetic resonance was performed. Twenty-four current collegiate rugby players were recruited and all subjects underwent initial scanning 24 h prior to a scheduled full contact game to provide a baseline. Follow-up scanning of the rugby players occurred within 24 h following that game to assess acute effects from subconcussive head trauma. Differences between pre-game and post-game scans showed both increased connectivity from the left supramarginal gyrus to bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and decreased connectivity from the retrosplenial cortex and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. To assess whether or not a history of previous concussion may lead to a differential response following subconcussive impacts, subjects were further divided into two subgroups based upon history of previous concussion. Individuals with a prior history of concussion exhibited only decreased functional connectivity following exposure to subconcussive head trauma, while those with no history showed increased connectivity. Even acute exposure to subconcussive head trauma demonstrates the ability to alter functional connectivity and there is possible evidence of a differential response in the brain for those with and without a history of concussion. PMID:25010992

  6. Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Jordan B.; Duran-Jordan, Kelly; Magerman, Adam B.; Schmader, Toni; Allen, John J. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether individual differences in self-oriented neural processing were associated with performance perceptions of minority students under stereotype threat. Resting electroencephalographic activity recorded in white and minority participants was used to predict later estimates of task errors and self-doubt on a presumed measure of intelligence. We assessed spontaneous phase-locking between dipole sources in left lateral parietal cortex (LPC), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (P/PCC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); three regions of the default mode network (DMN) that are integral for self-oriented processing. Results revealed that minorities with greater LPC-P/PCC phase-locking in the theta band reported more accurate error estimations. All individuals experienced less self-doubt to the extent they exhibited greater LPC-MPFC phase-locking in the alpha band but this effect was driven by minorities. Minorities also reported more self-doubt to the extent they overestimated errors. Findings reveal novel neural moderators of stereotype threat effects on subjective experience. Spontaneous synchronization between DMN regions may play a role in anticipatory coping mechanisms that buffer individuals from stereotype threat. PMID:25398433

  7. Mathematics anxiety reduces default mode network deactivation in response to numerical tasks

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda; Kronbichler, Martin; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Kerschbaum, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety is negatively related to mathematics performance, thereby threatening the professional success. Preoccupation with the emotional content of the stimuli may consume working memory resources, which may be reflected in decreased deactivation of areas associated with the default mode network (DMN) activated during self-referential and emotional processing. The common problem is that math anxiety is usually associated with poor math performance, so that any group differences are difficult to interpret. Here we compared the BOLD-response of 18 participants with high (HMAs) and 18 participants with low mathematics anxiety (LMAs) matched for their mathematical performance to two numerical tasks (number comparison, number bisection). During both tasks, we found stronger deactivation within the DMN in LMAs compared to HMAs, while BOLD-response in task-related activation areas did not differ between HMAs and LMAs. The difference in DMN deactivation between the HMA and LMA group was more pronounced in stimuli with additional requirement on inhibitory functions, but did not differ between number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. PMID:25954179

  8. Serotonergic modulation of resting state default mode network connectivity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Helmbold, K; Zvyagintsev, M; Dahmen, B; Biskup, C S; Bubenzer-Busch, S; Gaber, T J; Klasen, M; Eisert, A; Konrad, K; Habel, U; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2016-04-01

    The default mode network (DMN) plays a central role in intrinsic thought processes. Altered DMN connectivity has been linked to diminished cerebral serotonin synthesis. Diminished brain serotonin synthesis is further associated with a lack of impulse control and various psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the serotonergic modulation of intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN in healthy adult females, controlling for the menstrual cycle phase. Eighteen healthy women in the follicular phase (aged 20-31 years) participated in a double-blind controlled cross-over study of serotonin depletion. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and a balanced amino acid load (BAL), used as the control condition, were applied on two separate days of assessment. Neural resting state data using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and individual trait impulsivity scores were obtained. ATD compared with BAL significantly reduced FC with the DMN in the precuneus (associated with self-referential thinking) and enhanced FC with the DMN in the frontal cortex (associated with cognitive reasoning). Connectivity differences with the DMN between BAL and ATD in the precentral gyrus were significantly correlated with the magnitude of serotonin depletion. Right medial frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus connectivity differences with the DMN were inversely correlated with trait impulsivity. These findings partially deviate from previous findings obtained in males and underline the importance of gender-specific studies and controlling for menstrual cycle to further elucidate the mechanism of ATD-induced changes within intrinsic thought processes. PMID:26767373

  9. Default mode network connectivity and reciprocal social behavior in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Matthew J.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Chow, Carolyn; Congdon, Eliza; Jalbrzikowski, Maria

    2014-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic mutation associated with disorders of cortical connectivity and social dysfunction. However, little is known about the functional connectivity (FC) of the resting brain in 22q11DS and its relationship with social behavior. A seed-based analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was used to investigate FC associated with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in (26) youth with 22qDS and (51) demographically matched controls. Subsequently, the relationship between PCC connectivity and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores was examined in 22q11DS participants. Relative to 22q11DS participants, controls showed significantly stronger FC between the PCC and other default mode network (DMN) nodes, including the precuneus, precentral gyrus and left frontal pole. 22q11DS patients did not show age-associated FC changes observed in typically developing controls. Increased connectivity between PCC, medial prefrontal regions and the anterior cingulate cortex, was associated with lower SRS scores (i.e. improved social competence) in 22q11DS. DMN integrity may play a key role in social information processing. We observed disrupted DMN connectivity in 22q11DS, paralleling reports from idiopathic autism and schizophrenia. Increased strength of long-range DMN connectivity was associated with improved social functioning in 22q11DS. These findings support a ‘developmental-disconnection’ hypothesis of symptom development in this disorder. PMID:23912681

  10. Investigating Default Mode and Sensorimotor Network Connectivity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chenji, Sneha; Jha, Shankar; Lee, Dawon; Brown, Matthew; Seres, Peter; Mah, Dennell; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMN) arising from the motor cortex in the brain and lower motor neurons (LMN) in the brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral changes create differences in brain activity captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), including the spontaneous and simultaneous activity occurring between regions known as the resting state networks (RSNs). Progressive neurodegeneration as observed in ALS may lead to a disruption of RSNs which could provide insights into the disease process. Previous studies have reported conflicting findings of increased, decreased, or unaltered RSN functional connectivity in ALS and do not report the contribution of UMN changes to RSN connectivity. We aimed to bridge this gap by exploring two networks, the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network (SMN), in 21 ALS patients and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. An UMN score dichotomized patients into UMN+ and UMN- groups. Subjects underwent resting state fMRI scan on a high field MRI operating at 4.7 tesla. The DMN and SMN changes between subject groups were compared. Correlations between connectivity and clinical measures such as the ALS Functional Rating Scale—Revised (ALSFRS-R), disease progression rate, symptom duration, UMN score and finger tapping were assessed. Significant group differences in resting state networks between patients and controls were absent, as was the dependence on degree of UMN burden. However, DMN connectivity was increased in patients with greater disability and faster progression rate, and SMN connectivity was reduced in those with greater motor impairment. These patterns of association are in line with literature supporting loss of inhibitory interneurons. PMID:27322194

  11. Investigating Default Mode and Sensorimotor Network Connectivity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chenji, Sneha; Jha, Shankar; Lee, Dawon; Brown, Matthew; Seres, Peter; Mah, Dennell; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMN) arising from the motor cortex in the brain and lower motor neurons (LMN) in the brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral changes create differences in brain activity captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), including the spontaneous and simultaneous activity occurring between regions known as the resting state networks (RSNs). Progressive neurodegeneration as observed in ALS may lead to a disruption of RSNs which could provide insights into the disease process. Previous studies have reported conflicting findings of increased, decreased, or unaltered RSN functional connectivity in ALS and do not report the contribution of UMN changes to RSN connectivity. We aimed to bridge this gap by exploring two networks, the default mode network (DMN) and the sensorimotor network (SMN), in 21 ALS patients and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. An UMN score dichotomized patients into UMN+ and UMN- groups. Subjects underwent resting state fMRI scan on a high field MRI operating at 4.7 tesla. The DMN and SMN changes between subject groups were compared. Correlations between connectivity and clinical measures such as the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), disease progression rate, symptom duration, UMN score and finger tapping were assessed. Significant group differences in resting state networks between patients and controls were absent, as was the dependence on degree of UMN burden. However, DMN connectivity was increased in patients with greater disability and faster progression rate, and SMN connectivity was reduced in those with greater motor impairment. These patterns of association are in line with literature supporting loss of inhibitory interneurons. PMID:27322194

  12. Increased resting state functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal and default mode network in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Ilka; Geisler, Daniel; King, Joseph A.; Ritschel, Franziska; Seidel, Maria; Deza Araujo, Yacila; Petermann, Juliane; Lohmeier, Heidi; Weiss, Jessika; Walter, Martin; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is poorly understood. Results from functional brain imaging studies investigating the neural profile of AN using cognitive and emotional task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Task-related imaging studies often require a high level of compliance and can only partially explore the distributed nature and complexity of brain function. In this study, resting state functional connectivity imaging was used to investigate well-characterized brain networks potentially relevant to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the symptomatology and etiology of AN. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was obtained from 35 unmedicated female acute AN patients and 35 closely matched healthy controls female participants (HC) and decomposed using spatial group independent component analyses (ICA). Using validated templates, we identified components covering the fronto-parietal “control” network, the default mode network (DMN), the salience network, the visual and the sensory-motor network. Group comparison revealed an increased functional connectivity between the angular gyrus and the other parts of the fronto-parietal network in patients with AN in comparison to HC. Connectivity of the angular gyrus was positively associated with self-reported persistence in HC. In the DMN, AN patients also showed an increased functional connectivity strength in the anterior insula in comparison to HC. Anterior insula connectivity was associated with self-reported problems with interoceptive awareness. This study, with one of the largest sample to date, shows that acute AN is associated with abnormal brain connectivity in two major resting state networks (RSN). The finding of an increased functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network adds novel support for the notion of AN as a disorder of excessive cognitive control, whereas the elevated functional connectivity of the anterior insula with the DMN may reflect the high

  13. Default Mode Network Connectivity as a Function of Familial and Environmental Risk for Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Sanne C. T.; van de Ven, Vincent; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M; Patel, Ameera X.; Habets, Petra; Goebel, Rainer; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Background Research suggests that altered interregional connectivity in specific networks, such as the default mode network (DMN), is associated with cognitive and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. In addition, frontal and limbic connectivity alterations have been associated with trauma, drug use and urban upbringing, though these environmental exposures have never been examined in relation to DMN functional connectivity in psychotic disorder. Methods Resting-state functional MRI scans were obtained from 73 patients with psychotic disorder, 83 non-psychotic siblings of patients with psychotic disorder and 72 healthy controls. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed-based correlation analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity within the DMN. DMN functional connectivity was examined in relation to group (familial risk), group × environmental exposure (to cannabis, developmental trauma and urbanicity) and symptomatology. Results There was a significant association between group and PCC connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), the precuneus (PCu) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Compared to controls, patients and siblings had increased PCC connectivity with the IPL, PCu and MPFC. In the IPL and PCu, the functional connectivity of siblings was intermediate to that of controls and patients. No significant associations were found between DMN connectivity and (subclinical) psychotic/cognitive symptoms. In addition, there were no significant interactions between group and environmental exposures in the model of PCC functional connectivity. Discussion Increased functional connectivity in individuals with (increased risk for) psychotic disorder may reflect trait-related network alterations. The within-network “connectivity at rest” intermediate phenotype was not associated with (subclinical) psychotic or cognitive symptoms. The association between familial risk and DMN connectivity was not conditional on environmental exposure. PMID

  14. Temporal Dynamics of the Default Mode Network Characterize Meditation-Induced Alterations in Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Rajanikant; Bharath, Rose D.; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Mangalore, Sandhya; Chennu, Srivas; Rao, Shobini L.

    2016-01-01

    Current research suggests that human consciousness is associated with complex, synchronous interactions between multiple cortical networks. In particular, the default mode network (DMN) of the resting brain is thought to be altered by changes in consciousness, including the meditative state. However, it remains unclear how meditation alters the fast and ever-changing dynamics of brain activity within this network. Here we addressed this question using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the spatial extents and temporal dynamics of the DMN during rest and meditation. Using fMRI, we identified key reductions in the posterior cingulate hub of the DMN, along with increases in right frontal and left temporal areas, in experienced meditators during rest and during meditation, in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). We employed the simultaneously recorded EEG data to identify the topographical microstate corresponding to activation of the DMN. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of this microstate revealed that the average duration and frequency of occurrence of DMN microstate was higher in meditators compared to HCs. Both these temporal parameters increased during meditation, reflecting the state effect of meditation. In particular, we found that the alteration in the duration of the DMN microstate when meditators entered the meditative state correlated negatively with their years of meditation experience. This reflected a trait effect of meditation, highlighting its role in producing durable changes in temporal dynamics of the DMN. Taken together, these findings shed new light on short and long-term consequences of meditation practice on this key brain network. PMID:27499738

  15. Temporal Dynamics of the Default Mode Network Characterize Meditation-Induced Alterations in Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rajanikant; Bharath, Rose D; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Mangalore, Sandhya; Chennu, Srivas; Rao, Shobini L

    2016-01-01

    Current research suggests that human consciousness is associated with complex, synchronous interactions between multiple cortical networks. In particular, the default mode network (DMN) of the resting brain is thought to be altered by changes in consciousness, including the meditative state. However, it remains unclear how meditation alters the fast and ever-changing dynamics of brain activity within this network. Here we addressed this question using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the spatial extents and temporal dynamics of the DMN during rest and meditation. Using fMRI, we identified key reductions in the posterior cingulate hub of the DMN, along with increases in right frontal and left temporal areas, in experienced meditators during rest and during meditation, in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). We employed the simultaneously recorded EEG data to identify the topographical microstate corresponding to activation of the DMN. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of this microstate revealed that the average duration and frequency of occurrence of DMN microstate was higher in meditators compared to HCs. Both these temporal parameters increased during meditation, reflecting the state effect of meditation. In particular, we found that the alteration in the duration of the DMN microstate when meditators entered the meditative state correlated negatively with their years of meditation experience. This reflected a trait effect of meditation, highlighting its role in producing durable changes in temporal dynamics of the DMN. Taken together, these findings shed new light on short and long-term consequences of meditation practice on this key brain network. PMID:27499738

  16. Large-scale topology and the default mode network in the mouse connectome.

    PubMed

    Stafford, James M; Jarrett, Benjamin R; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Mills, Brian D; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Lahvis, Garet P; Lattal, K Matthew; Mitchell, Suzanne H; David, Stephen V; Fryer, John D; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-12-30

    Noninvasive functional imaging holds great promise for serving as a translational bridge between human and animal models of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, despite a depth of knowledge of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of atypical processes in mouse models, little is known about the large-scale functional architecture measured by functional brain imaging, limiting translation to human conditions. Here, we provide a robust processing pipeline to generate high-resolution, whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) images in the mouse. Using a mesoscale structural connectome (i.e., an anterograde tracer mapping of axonal projections across the mouse CNS), we show that rs-fcMRI in the mouse has strong structural underpinnings, validating our procedures. We next directly show that large-scale network properties previously identified in primates are present in rodents, although they differ in several ways. Last, we examine the existence of the so-called default mode network (DMN)--a distributed functional brain system identified in primates as being highly important for social cognition and overall brain function and atypically functionally connected across a multitude of disorders. We show the presence of a potential DMN in the mouse brain both structurally and functionally. Together, these studies confirm the presence of basic network properties and functional networks of high translational importance in structural and functional systems in the mouse brain. This work clears the way for an important bridge measurement between human and rodent models, enabling us to make stronger conclusions about how regionally specific cellular and molecular manipulations in mice relate back to humans. PMID:25512496

  17. Large-scale topology and the default mode network in the mouse connectome

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, James M.; Jarrett, Benjamin R.; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Mills, Brian D.; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Lahvis, Garet P.; Lattal, K. Matthew; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; David, Stephen V.; Fryer, John D.; Nigg, Joel T.; Fair, Damien A.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive functional imaging holds great promise for serving as a translational bridge between human and animal models of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, despite a depth of knowledge of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of atypical processes in mouse models, little is known about the large-scale functional architecture measured by functional brain imaging, limiting translation to human conditions. Here, we provide a robust processing pipeline to generate high-resolution, whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) images in the mouse. Using a mesoscale structural connectome (i.e., an anterograde tracer mapping of axonal projections across the mouse CNS), we show that rs-fcMRI in the mouse has strong structural underpinnings, validating our procedures. We next directly show that large-scale network properties previously identified in primates are present in rodents, although they differ in several ways. Last, we examine the existence of the so-called default mode network (DMN)—a distributed functional brain system identified in primates as being highly important for social cognition and overall brain function and atypically functionally connected across a multitude of disorders. We show the presence of a potential DMN in the mouse brain both structurally and functionally. Together, these studies confirm the presence of basic network properties and functional networks of high translational importance in structural and functional systems in the mouse brain. This work clears the way for an important bridge measurement between human and rodent models, enabling us to make stronger conclusions about how regionally specific cellular and molecular manipulations in mice relate back to humans. PMID:25512496

  18. Hippocampal Sharp-Wave Ripples Influence Selective Activation of the Default Mode Network.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Raphael; Adhikari, Mohit H; Hindriks, Rikkert; Mantini, Dante; Murayama, Yusuke; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a commonly observed resting-state network (RSN) that includes medial temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions involved in episodic memory [1-3]. The behavioral relevance of endogenous DMN activity remains elusive, despite an emerging literature correlating resting fMRI fluctuations with memory performance [4, 5]-particularly in DMN regions [6-8]. Mechanistic support for the DMN's role in memory consolidation might come from investigation of large deflections (sharp-waves) in the hippocampal local field potential that co-occur with high-frequency (>80 Hz) oscillations called ripples-both during sleep [9, 10] and awake deliberative periods [11-13]. Ripples are ideally suited for memory consolidation [14, 15], since the reactivation of hippocampal place cell ensembles occurs during ripples [16-19]. Moreover, the number of ripples after learning predicts subsequent memory performance in rodents [20-22] and humans [23], whereas electrical stimulation of the hippocampus after learning interferes with memory consolidation [24-26]. A recent study in macaques showed diffuse fMRI neocortical activation and subcortical deactivation specifically after ripples [27]. Yet it is unclear whether ripples and other hippocampal neural events influence endogenous fluctuations in specific RSNs-like the DMN-unitarily. Here, we examine fMRI datasets from anesthetized monkeys with simultaneous hippocampal electrophysiology recordings, where we observe a dramatic increase in the DMN fMRI signal following ripples, but not following other hippocampal electrophysiological events. Crucially, we find increases in ongoing DMN activity after ripples, but not in other RSNs. Our results relate endogenous DMN fluctuations to hippocampal ripples, thereby linking network-level resting fMRI fluctuations with behaviorally relevant circuit-level neural dynamics. PMID:26898464

  19. Hippocampal Sharp-Wave Ripples Influence Selective Activation of the Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Raphael; Adhikari, Mohit H.; Hindriks, Rikkert; Mantini, Dante; Murayama, Yusuke; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The default mode network (DMN) is a commonly observed resting-state network (RSN) that includes medial temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions involved in episodic memory [1, 2, 3]. The behavioral relevance of endogenous DMN activity remains elusive, despite an emerging literature correlating resting fMRI fluctuations with memory performance [4, 5]—particularly in DMN regions [6, 7, 8]. Mechanistic support for the DMN’s role in memory consolidation might come from investigation of large deflections (sharp-waves) in the hippocampal local field potential that co-occur with high-frequency (>80 Hz) oscillations called ripples—both during sleep [9, 10] and awake deliberative periods [11, 12, 13]. Ripples are ideally suited for memory consolidation [14, 15], since the reactivation of hippocampal place cell ensembles occurs during ripples [16, 17, 18, 19]. Moreover, the number of ripples after learning predicts subsequent memory performance in rodents [20, 21, 22] and humans [23], whereas electrical stimulation of the hippocampus after learning interferes with memory consolidation [24, 25, 26]. A recent study in macaques showed diffuse fMRI neocortical activation and subcortical deactivation specifically after ripples [27]. Yet it is unclear whether ripples and other hippocampal neural events influence endogenous fluctuations in specific RSNs—like the DMN—unitarily. Here, we examine fMRI datasets from anesthetized monkeys with simultaneous hippocampal electrophysiology recordings, where we observe a dramatic increase in the DMN fMRI signal following ripples, but not following other hippocampal electrophysiological events. Crucially, we find increases in ongoing DMN activity after ripples, but not in other RSNs. Our results relate endogenous DMN fluctuations to hippocampal ripples, thereby linking network-level resting fMRI fluctuations with behaviorally relevant circuit-level neural dynamics. PMID:26898464

  20. Default Mode Network Connectivity Encodes Clinical Pain: An Arterial Spin Labeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Loggia, Marco L.; Kim, Jieun; Gollub, Randy L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Kirsch, Irving; Kong, Jian; Wasan, Ajay D.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have suggested the presence of alterations in the anatomo-functional properties of the brain of patients with chronic pain. However, investigation of the brain circuitry supporting the perception of clinical pain presents significant challenges, particularly when using traditional neuroimaging approaches. While potential neuroimaging markers for clinical pain have included resting brain connectivity, these cross-sectional studies have not examined sensitivity to within-subject exacerbation of pain. We used the dual regression probabilistic Independent Component Analysis approach to investigate resting-state connectivity on Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) data. Brain connectivity was compared between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and healthy controls, before and after the performance of maneuvers aimed at exacerbating clinical pain levels in the patients. Our analyses identified multiple resting state networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN). At baseline, patients demonstrated stronger DMN connectivity to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), left inferior parietal lobule and right insula (rINS). Patients’ baseline clinical pain correlated positively with connectivity strength between the DMN and right insula (DMN-rINS). The performance of calibrated physical maneuvers induced changes in pain, which were paralleled by changes in DMN-rINS connectivity. Maneuvers also disrupted the DMN-pgACC connectivity, which at baseline was anti-correlated with pain. Finally, baseline DMN connectivity predicted maneuver-induced changes in both pain and DMN-rINS connectivity. Our results support the use of ASL to evaluate clinical pain, and the use of resting DMN connectivity as a potential neuroimaging biomarker for chronic pain perception. PMID:23111164

  1. Default Mode Network in Concussed Individuals in Response to the YMCA Physical Stress Test

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Johnson, Brian; Gay, Michael; Horovitz, Silvina G.; Hallett, Mark; Sebastianelli, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesize that the evolution of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may be related to differential effects of a concussive blow on the functional integrity of the brain default mode network (DMN) at rest and/or in response to physical stress. Accordingly, in this resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined 14 subjects 10±2 days post-sports-related mTBI and 15 age-matched normal volunteers (NVs) to investigate the possibility that the integrity of the DMN is disrupted at the resting state and/or following the physical stress test. First, all mTBI subjects were asymptomatic based upon clinical evaluation and neuropsychological (NP) assessments prior to the MRI session. Second, the functional integrity within the DMN, a main resting-state network, remained resilient to a single concussive blow. Specifically, the major regions of interest (ROIs) constituting the DMN (e.g., the posterior cingulate cortex [PCC]/precuneus area, the medial prefrontal cortex [MPFC], and left and right lateral parietal cortices [LLP and RLP]) and the connectivity within these four ROIs was similar between NVs and mTBI subjects prior to the YMCA physical stress test. However, the YMCA physical stress test disrupted the DMN, significantly reducing the magnitude of the connection between the PCC and left lateral parietal ROI, and PCC and right lateral parietal ROI, as well as between the PCC and MPFC in mTBI subjects. Thus while the DMN remained resilient to a single mTBI without exertion at 10 days post-injury, it was altered in response to limited physical stress. This may explain some clinical features of mTBI and provide some insight into its mechanism. This important finding should be considered by clinical practitioners when making decisions regarding return-to-play and clearing mTBI athletes for sports participation. PMID:22040294

  2. Cognitive stimulation of the default-mode network modulates functional connectivity in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Matteo; Meneghello, Francesca; Duzzi, Davide; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Venneri, Annalena

    2016-03-01

    A cognitive-stimulation tool was created to regulate functional connectivity within the brain Default-Mode Network (DMN). Computerized exercises were designed based on the hypothesis that repeated task-dependent coactivation of multiple DMN regions would translate into regulation of resting-state network connectivity. Forty seniors (mean age: 65.90 years; SD: 8.53) were recruited and assigned either to an experimental group (n=21) who received one month of intensive cognitive stimulation, or to a control group (n=19) who maintained a regime of daily-life activities explicitly focused on social interactions. An MRI protocol and a battery of neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and at the end of the study. Changes in the DMN (measured via functional connectivity of posterior-cingulate seeds), in brain volumes, and in cognitive performance were measured with mixed models assessing group-by-timepoint interactions. Moreover, regression models were run to test gray-matter correlates of the various stimulation tasks. Significant associations were found between task performance and gray-matter volume of multiple DMN core regions. Training-dependent up-regulation of functional connectivity was found in the posterior DMN component. This interaction was driven by a pattern of increased connectivity in the training group, while little or no up-regulation was seen in the control group. Minimal changes in brain volumes were found, but there was no change in cognitive performance. The training-dependent regulation of functional connectivity within the posterior DMN component suggests that this stimulation program might exert a beneficial impact in the prevention and treatment of early AD neurodegeneration, in which this neurofunctional pathway is progressively affected by the disease. PMID:26688237

  3. Reduced default mode network suppression during a working memory task in remitted major depression

    PubMed Central

    Bartova, Lucie; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Diers, Kersten; Rabl, Ulrich; Scharinger, Christian; Popovic, Ana; Pail, Gerald; Kalcher, Klaudius; Boubela, Roland N.; Huemer, Julia; Mandorfer, Dominik; Windischberger, Christian; Sitte, Harald H.; Kasper, Siegfried; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Moser, Ewald; Brocke, Burkhard; Pezawas, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient default mode network (DMN) suppression was linked to increased rumination in symptomatic Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Since rumination is known to predict relapse and a more severe course of MDD, we hypothesized that similar DMN alterations might also exist during full remission of MDD (rMDD), a condition known to be associated with increased relapse rates specifically in patients with adolescent onset. Within a cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study activation and functional connectivity (FC) were investigated in 120 adults comprising 78 drug-free rMDD patients with adolescent- (n = 42) and adult-onset (n = 36) as well as 42 healthy controls (HC), while performing the n-back task. Compared to HC, rMDD patients showed diminished DMN deactivation with strongest differences in the anterior-medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), which was further linked to increased rumination response style. On a brain systems level, rMDD patients showed an increased FC between the amPFC and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which constitutes a key region of the antagonistic working-memory network. Both whole-brain analyses revealed significant differences between adolescent-onset rMDD patients and HC, while adult-onset rMDD patients showed no significant effects. Results of this study demonstrate that reduced DMN suppression exists even after full recovery of depressive symptoms, which appears to be specifically pronounced in adolescent-onset MDD patients. Our results encourage the investigation of DMN suppression as a putative predictor of relapse in clinical trials, which might eventually lead to important implications for antidepressant maintenance treatment. PMID:25801734

  4. The Default Mode Network and EEG Regional Spectral Power: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Cornelius J.; Hitz, Konrad; Boers, Frank; Kawohl, Wolfram; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies have been linked to specific functions as an “electrophysiological signature” of a function. A combination of oscillatory rhythms has also been described for specific functions, with or without predominance of one specific frequency-band. In a simultaneous fMRI-EEG study at 3 T we studied the relationship between the default mode network (DMN) and the power of EEG frequency bands. As a methodological approach, we applied Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components (MELODIC) and dual regression analysis for fMRI resting state data. EEG power for the alpha, beta, delta and theta-bands were extracted from the structures forming the DMN in a region-of-interest approach by applying Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). A strong link between the spontaneous BOLD response of the left parahippocampal gyrus and the delta-band extracted from the anterior cingulate cortex was found. A positive correlation between the beta-1 frequency power extracted from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the spontaneous BOLD response of the right supplementary motor cortex was also established. The beta-2 frequency power extracted from the PCC and the precuneus showed a positive correlation with the BOLD response of the right frontal cortex. Our results support the notion of beta-band activity governing the “status quo” in cognitive and motor setup. The highly significant correlation found between the delta power within the DMN and the parahippocampal gyrus is in line with the association of delta frequencies with memory processes. We assumed “ongoing activity” during “resting state” in bringing events from the past to the mind, in which the parahippocampal gyrus is a relevant structure. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations within the DMN are associated with different EEG-bands and strengthen the conclusion that this network is characterized by a specific

  5. Altered resting perfusion and functional connectivity of default mode network in youth with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Hernandez, Leanna M; Beck-Pancer, Devora; McCarron, Rosemary; Smith, Robert X; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies can shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies of the resting brain have shown both altered baseline metabolism from PET/SPECT and altered functional connectivity (FC) of intrinsic brain networks based on resting-state fMRI. To date, however, no study has investigated these two physiological parameters of resting brain function jointly, or explored the relationship between these measures and ASD symptom severity. Methods Here, we used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling with 3D background-suppressed GRASE to assess resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and FC in 17 youth with ASD and 22 matched typically developing (TD) children. Results A pattern of altered resting perfusion was found in ASD versus TD children including frontotemporal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. We found increased local FC in the anterior module of the default mode network (DMN) accompanied by decreased CBF in the same area. In our cohort, both alterations were associated with greater social impairments as assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-total T scores). While FC was correlated with CBF in TD children, this association between FC and baseline perfusion was disrupted in children with ASD. Furthermore, there was reduced long-range FC between anterior and posterior modules of the DMN in children with ASD. Conclusion Taken together, the findings of this study – the first to jointly assess resting CBF and FC in ASD – highlight new avenues for identifying novel imaging markers of ASD symptomatology. PMID:26445698

  6. Differential Deactivation during Mentalizing and Classification of Autism Based on Default Mode Network Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Murdaugh, Donna L.; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Deshpande, Hrishikesh R.; Wang, Jing; Pennick, Mark R.; Kana, Rajesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a collection of brain areas found to be consistently deactivated during task performance. Previous neuroimaging studies of resting state have revealed reduced task-related deactivation of this network in autism. We investigated the DMN in 13 high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 14 typically developing control participants during three fMRI studies (two language tasks and a Theory-of-Mind (ToM) task). Each study had separate blocks of fixation/resting baseline. The data from the task blocks and fixation blocks were collated to examine deactivation and functional connectivity. Deficits in the deactivation of the DMN in individuals with ASD were specific only to the ToM task, with no group differences in deactivation during the language tasks or a combined language and self-other discrimination task. During rest blocks following the ToM task, the ASD group showed less deactivation than the control group in a number of DMN regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate gyrus/precuneus. In addition, we found weaker functional connectivity of the MPFC in individuals with ASD compared to controls. Furthermore, we were able to reliably classify participants into ASD or typically developing control groups based on both the whole-brain and seed-based connectivity patterns with accuracy up to 96.3%. These findings indicate that deactivation and connectivity of the DMN were altered in individuals with ASD. In addition, these findings suggest that the deficits in DMN connectivity could be a neural signature that can be used for classifying an individual as belonging to the ASD group. PMID:23185536

  7. Resting spontaneous activity in the default mode network predicts performance decline during prolonged attention workload.

    PubMed

    Gui, Danyang; Xu, Sihua; Zhu, Senhua; Fang, Zhuo; Spaeth, Andrea M; Xin, Yuanyuan; Feng, Tingyong; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-10-15

    After continuous and prolonged cognitive workload, people typically show reduced behavioral performance and increased feelings of fatigue, which are known as "time-on-task (TOT) effects". Although TOT effects are pervasive in modern life, their underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we induced TOT effects by administering a 20-min continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to a group of 16 healthy adults and used resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine spontaneous brain activity changes associated with fatigue and performance. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust TOT effects, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction times as the test progressed and higher self-reported mental fatigue ratings after the 20-min PVT. Compared to pre-test measurements, subjects exhibited reduced amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the default mode network (DMN) and increased ALFF in the thalamus after the test. Subjects also exhibited reduced anti-correlations between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right middle prefrontal cortex after the test. Moreover, pre-test resting ALFF in the PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (MePFC) predicted subjects' subsequent performance decline; individuals with higher ALFF in these regions exhibited more stable reaction times throughout the 20-min PVT. These results support the important role of both task-positive and task-negative networks in mediating TOT effects and suggest that spontaneous activity measured by resting-state BOLD fMRI may be a marker of mental fatigue. PMID:26196666

  8. Hyperdeactivation of the Default Mode Network in People With Schizophrenia When Focusing Attention in Space.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Britta; Harvey, Alexander N; Gold, James M; Fischer, Bernard A; Keller, William R; Ross, Thomas J; Stein, Elliot A

    2016-09-01

    When studying selective attention in people with schizophrenia (PSZ), a counterintuitive but replicated finding has been that PSZ display larger performance benefits than healthy control subjects (HCS) by cues that predicts the location of a target stimulus relative to non-predictive cues. Possible explanations are that PSZ hyperfocus attention in response to predictive cues, or that an inability to maintain a broad attentional window impairs performance when the cue is non-predictive. Over-recruitment of regions involved in top-down focusing of spatial attention in response to predictive cues would support the former possibility, and an inappropriate recruitment of these regions in response to non-predictive cues the latter. We probed regions of the dorsal attention network while PSZ (N = 20) and HCS (N = 20) performed a visuospatial attention task. A central cue either predicted at which of 4 peripheral locations a target signal would appear, or it gave no information about the target location. As observed previously, PSZ displayed a larger reaction time difference between predictive and non-predictive cue trials than HCS. Activity in frontoparietal and occipital regions was greater for predictive than non-predictive cues. This effect was almost identical between PSZ and HCS. There was no sign of over-recruitment when the cue was predictive, or of inappropriate recruitment when the cue was non-predictive. However, PSZ differed from HCS in their cue-dependent deactivation of the default mode network. Unexpectedly, PSZ displayed significantly greater deactivation than HCS in predictive cue trials, which may reflect a tendency to expend more processing resources when focusing attention in space. PMID:26926831

  9. Impaired consciousness is linked to changes in effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Schurz, Matthias; Höller, Yvonne; Bergmann, Jürgen; Monti, Martin; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network has been associated with the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. Especially medial parietal regions are considered to be highly involved in impaired consciousness. To better understand what aspect of this intrinsic architecture is linked to consciousness, we applied spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess effective connectivity within the default mode network in patients with disorders of consciousness. We included 12 controls, 12 patients in minimally conscious state and 13 in vegetative state in this study. For each subject, we first defined the four key regions of the default mode network employing a subject-specific independent component analysis approach. The resulting regions were then included as nodes in a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis in order to assess how the causal interactions across these regions as well as the characteristics of neuronal fluctuations change with the level of consciousness. The resulting pattern of interaction in controls identified the posterior cingulate cortex as the main driven hub with positive afferent but negative efferent connections. In patients, this pattern appears to be disrupted. Moreover, the vegetative state patients exhibit significantly reduced self-inhibition and increased oscillations in the posterior cingulate cortex compared to minimally conscious state and controls. Finally, the degree of self-inhibition and strength of oscillation in this region is correlated with the level of consciousness. These findings indicate that the equilibrium between excitatory connectivity towards posterior cingulate cortex and its feedback projections is a key aspect of the relationship between alterations in consciousness after severe brain injury and the intrinsic functional architecture of the default mode network. This impairment might be principally due to the disruption of the mechanisms underlying self-inhibition and neuronal

  10. Relationship between the anterior forebrain mesocircuit and the default mode network in the structural bases of disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Lant, Nicholas D.; Gonzalez-Lara, Laura E.; Owen, Adrian M.; Fernández-Espejo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The specific neural bases of disorders of consciousness (DOC) are still not well understood. Some studies have suggested that functional and structural impairments in the default mode network may play a role in explaining these disorders. In contrast, others have proposed that dysfunctions in the anterior forebrain mesocircuit involving striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus may be the main underlying mechanism. Here, we provide the first report of structural integrity of fiber tracts connecting the nodes of the mesocircuit and the default mode network in 8 patients with DOC. We found evidence of significant damage to subcortico-cortical and cortico-cortical fibers, which were more severe in vegetative state patients and correlated with clinical severity as determined by Coma Recovery Scale—Revised (CRS-R) scores. In contrast, fiber tracts interconnecting subcortical nodes were not significantly impaired. Lastly, we found significant damage in all fiber tracts connecting the precuneus with cortical and subcortical areas. Our results suggest a strong relationship between the default mode network – and most importantly the precuneus – and the anterior forebrain mesocircuit in the neural basis of the DOC. PMID:26693399

  11. Dopamine Transporters in Striatum Correlated with Deactivation in the Default Mode Network during Visuospatial Attention

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, D.; Fowler, J.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.L.; Telang, F.; Wang, Chang, L.; Ernst, T.; /Fowler, J.S.

    2009-06-01

    Dopamine and dopamine transporters (DAT, which regulate extracellular dopamine in the brain) are implicated in the modulation of attention but their specific roles are not well understood. Here we hypothesized that dopamine modulates attention by facilitation of brain deactivation in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, higher striatal DAT levels, which would result in an enhanced clearance of dopamine and hence weaker dopamine signals, would be associated to lower deactivation in the DMN during an attention task. For this purpose we assessed the relationship between DAT in striatum (measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]cocaine used as DAT radiotracer) and brain activation and deactivation during a parametric visual attention task (measured with blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging) in healthy controls. We show that DAT availability in caudate and putamen had a negative correlation with deactivation in ventral parietal regions of the DMN (precuneus, BA 7) and a positive correlation with deactivation in a small region in the ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24/32). With increasing attentional load, DAT in caudate showed a negative correlation with load-related deactivation increases in precuneus. These findings provide evidence that dopamine transporters modulate neural activity in the DMN and anterior cingulate gyrus during visuospatial attention. Our findings suggest that dopamine modulates attention in part by regulating neuronal activity in posterior parietal cortex including precuneus (region involved in alertness) and cingulate gyrus (region deactivated in proportion to emotional interference). These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of stimulant medications (increase dopamine by blocking DAT) in inattention reflect in part their ability to facilitate the deactivation of the DMN.

  12. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  13. The default mode network and social understanding of others: what do brain connectivity studies tell us.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanqing; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC) in the cortical midline structures (CMS) and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are primarily related to the understanding of other's mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others. PMID:24605094

  14. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades.

    PubMed

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R; Price, Larry R; McKay, D Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C; Fox, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20-29 to 70-79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  15. The default mode network and EEG α oscillations: an independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Slobodskoj-Plusnin, Jaroslav Y; Bocharov, Andrey V; Pylkova, Liudmila V

    2011-07-21

    The default mode network (DMN) has been principally investigated using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and has received mixed support in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies. In particular, the existing evidence is too inconsistent to allow formulation of specific hypotheses linking DMN activity to traditional EEG frequency bands. In this study, we aimed to test whether blind decomposition methods are able to identify in EEG data spatial patterns resembling the DMN as it is described in PET and fMRI studies. Further we aimed to test a degree of task-relatedness of DMN patterns identified in the traditional EEG frequency bands. To answer these questions we collected data both in a resting state and during performance of two experimental tasks: an explicit judgment of facial affect and a social game task. Individual differences in amount of self-referential thoughts during the resting state were measured by a short self-report scale. Only alpha band spatial patterns simultaneously showed a considerable overlap with the DMN and high correlations with presumptive DMN function-related outcomes both in the resting state and during the social game task. Spontaneous self-referential thoughts were associated with enhanced alpha activity in the posterior DMN hub, whereas processing of DMN function-related external stimuli disrupted this activity and simultaneously caused partial alpha phase-locking to external events. This evidence implies that synchronization of internal mental processes, as opposed to the processing of external stimuli, might be the primary function of alpha oscillations which is bound to be related to activity of the DMN. PMID:21683942

  16. How do you make me feel better? Social cognitive emotion regulation and the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiyao; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Schmid, Gabriele; Meng, Chun; Doll, Anselm; Wohlschläger, Afra; Finke, Kathrin; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Pekrun, Reinhard; Schilbach, Leonhard; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Socially-induced cognitive emotion regulation (Social-Reg) is crucial for emotional well-being and social functioning; however, its brain mechanisms remain poorly understood. Given that both social cognition and cognitive emotion regulation engage key regions of the default-mode network (DMN), we hypothesized that Social-Reg would rely on the DMN, and that its effectiveness would be associated with social functioning. During functional MRI, negative emotions were elicited by pictures, and - via short instructions - a psychotherapist either down-regulated participants' emotions by employing reappraisal (Reg), or asked them to simply look at the pictures (Look). Adult Attachment Scale was used to measure social functioning. Contrasting Reg versus Look, aversive emotions were successfully reduced during Social-Reg, with increased activations in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, precuneus and the left temporo-parietal junction. These activations covered key nodes of the DMN and were associated with Social-Reg success. Furthermore, participants' attachment security was positively correlated with both Social-Reg success and orbitofrontal cortex involvement during Social-Reg. In addition, specificity of the neural correlates of Social-Reg was confirmed by comparisons with participants' DMN activity at rest and their brain activations during a typical emotional self-regulation task based on the same experimental paradigm without a psychotherapist. Our results provide first evidence for the specific involvement of the DMN in Social-Reg, and the association of Social-Reg with individual differences in attachment security. The findings suggest that DMN dysfunction, found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, may impair the ability to benefit from Social-Reg. PMID:27095057

  17. Art reaches within: aesthetic experience, the self and the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Vessel, Edward A; Starr, G Gabrielle; Rubin, Nava

    2013-01-01

    In a task of rating images of artworks in an fMRI scanner, regions in the medial prefrontal cortex that are known to be part of the default mode network (DMN) were positively activated on the highest-rated trials. This is surprising given the DMN's original characterization as the set of brain regions that show greater fMRI activity during rest periods than during performance of tasks requiring focus on external stimuli. But further research showed that DMN regions could be positively activated also in structured tasks, if those tasks involved self-referential thought or self-relevant information. How may our findings be understood in this context? Although our task had no explicit self-referential aspect and the stimuli had no a priori self-relevance to the observers, the experimental design we employed emphasized the personal aspects of aesthetic experience. Observers were told that we were interested in their individual tastes, and asked to base their ratings on how much each artwork "moved" them. Moreover, we used little-known artworks that covered a wide range of styles, which led to high individual variability: each artwork was rated highly by some observers and poorly by others. This means that rating-specific neural responses cannot be attributed to the features of any particular artworks, but rather to the aesthetic experience itself. The DMN activity therefore suggests that certain artworks, albeit unfamiliar, may be so well-matched to an individual's unique makeup that they obtain access to the neural substrates concerned with the self-access which other external stimuli normally do not get. This mediates a sense of being "moved," or "touched from within." This account is consistent with the modern notion that individuals' taste in art is linked with their sense of identity, and suggests that DMN activity may serve to signal "self-relevance" in a broader sense than has been thought so far. PMID:24415994

  18. Default mode network connectivity in stable vs progressive mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, F.C.; Prince, S.E.; Calhoun, V.D.; Doraiswamy, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Dysfunction of the default mode network (DMN) has been identified in prior cross-sectional fMRI studies of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, no studies have examined its utility in predicting future cognitive decline. Methods: fMRI scans during a face–name memory task were acquired from a cohort of 68 subjects (25 normal control, 31 MCI, and 12 AD). Subjects with MCI were followed for 2.4 years (±0.8) to determine progression to AD. Maps of DMN connectivity were compared with a template DMN map constructed from elderly normal controls to obtain goodness-of-fit (GOF) indices of DMN expression. Indices were compared between groups and correlated with cognitive decline. Results: GOF indices were highest in normal controls, intermediate in MCI, and lowest in AD (p < 0.0001). In a predictive model (that included baseline GOF indices, age, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and an index of DMN gray matter volume), the effect of GOF index on progression from MCI to dementia was significant. In MCI, baseline GOF indices were correlated with change from baseline in functional status (Clinical Dementia Rating–sum of boxes) (r = −0.40, p < 0.04). However, there was no additional predictive value for DMN connectivity when baseline delayed recall was included in the models. Conclusions: fMRI connectivity indices distinguish patients with MCI who undergo cognitive decline and conversion to AD from those who remain stable over a 2- to 3-year follow-up period. Our data support the notion of different functional brain connectivity endophenotypes for “early” vs “late” MCI, which are associated with different baseline memory scores and different rates of progression and conversion. PMID:21228297

  19. APOE Polymorphism Affects Brain Default Mode Network in Healthy Young Adults: A STROBE Article.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun Yan; Liang, Xue; Schoepf, U Joseph; Varga-Szemes, Akos; West, Henry C; Qi, Rongfeng; Kong, Xiang; Chen, Hui Juan; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism on the resting-state brain function, structure, and blood flow in healthy adults younger than 35 years, using multimodality magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.Seventy-six healthy adults (34 men, 23.7 ± 2.8 y; 31 APOE ε4/ε3 carriers, 31 ε3/ε3 carriers, and 14 ε2/ε3 carriers) were included. For resting-state functional MRI data, default mode network (DMN) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation maps were extracted and analyzed. Voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging from structural imaging, and cerebral blood flow based on arterial spin labeling MR imaging were also analyzed. Correlation analysis was performed between the above mentioned brain parameters and neuropsychological tests.There were no differences in neuropsychological performances, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, gray/white matter volumes, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, or whole brain cerebral blood flow among the 3 groups. As for DMN, the ε4/ε3 group showed increased functional connectivities (FCs) in the left medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus compared with the ε3/ε3 group, and increased FCs in the left medial prefrontal cortex and right temporal lobe compared with the ε2/ε3 group (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). No differences of DMN FCs were found between the ε2/ε3 and ε3/ε3 groups. FCs in the right temporal lobe positively correlated with the performances of vocabulary learning, delayed recall, and graph recall in all participants (P < 0.05).APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significantly increased DMN FCs when compared with ε3 and ε2 carriers. The ε4 affects DMN FCs before brain structure and blood flow in cognitively intact young patients, suggesting DMN FC may serve as a potential biomarker for the detection of early manifestations of genetic effect. PMID:26717353

  20. Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain's default mode network.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Andrew C; Lagopoulos, Jim; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron; Hickie, Ian B; Batchelor, Jennifer; Lewis, Simon J G; Duffy, Shantel; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to those with MCI and no sleep disturbance. A control group was included to aid in identifying DMN changes specific to MCI. A cross-sectional, single-center study was performed at the Brain and Mind Research Centre in Sydney, Australia. Participants (95 adults over the age of 65: 38 controls and 57 meeting criteria for MCI) underwent resting-state functional MRI along with comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric assessment. Self-report data were collected including sleep quality assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total score of greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to signify the presence of significant sleep disturbance, as per commonly used methodology. Using this criterion, 53% (n = 30) of our MCI group were classified as sleep-disturbed. Whereas the total group of MCI subjects and controls demonstrated no significant differences, sleep-disturbed MCIs demonstrated increased connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, and decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction relative to sleep-disturbed controls. Relative to those MCIs without sleep disturbance, sleep-disturbed MCI participants demonstrated significantly diminished DMN connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, a finding that was particularly pronounced in amnestic MCI. Sleep disturbance in MCI is associated with distinct alterations in DMN functional connectivity in brain regions underpinning salient memory and sleep systems. Future studies may build on these results via experimental manipulation and objective measurement of sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963234

  1. Progressive Bidirectional Age-Related Changes in Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity across Six Decades

    PubMed Central

    Li, Karl; Laird, Angela R.; Price, Larry R.; McKay, D. Reese; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C.; Fox, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of regions that is tonically engaged during the resting state and exhibits task-related deactivation that is readily reproducible across a wide range of paradigms and modalities. The DMN has been implicated in numerous disorders of cognition and, in particular, in disorders exhibiting age-related cognitive decline. Despite these observations, investigations of the DMN in normal aging are scant. Here, we used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during rest to investigate age-related changes in functional connectivity of the DMN in 120 healthy normal volunteers comprising six, 20-subject, decade cohorts (from 20–29 to 70–79). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess age-related changes in inter-regional connectivity within the DMN. SEM was applied both using a previously published, meta-analytically derived, node-and-edge model, and using exploratory modeling searching for connections that optimized model fit improvement. Although the two models were highly similar (only 3 of 13 paths differed), the sample demonstrated significantly better fit with the exploratory model. For this reason, the exploratory model was used to assess age-related changes across the decade cohorts. Progressive, highly significant changes in path weights were found in 8 (of 13) paths: four rising, and four falling (most changes were significant by the third or fourth decade). In all cases, rising paths and falling paths projected in pairs onto the same nodes, suggesting compensatory increases associated with age-related decreases. This study demonstrates that age-related changes in DMN physiology (inter-regional connectivity) are bidirectional, progressive, of early onset and part of normal aging. PMID:27378909

  2. Dynamic Coupling Between the Lateral Occipital-Cortex, Default-Mode, and Frontoparietal Networks During Bistable Perception

    PubMed Central

    Karten, Ariel; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Khalil, David; Zhang, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The lateral occipital cortex (LOC), a visual area known to be involved in object recognition, was dynamically coupled with each of two distributed patterns of neural activity depending upon the percept (default or alternative) elicited by a bistable figure. The two distributed patterns included core nodes of the default-mode and frontoparietal networks (FPN), and they were most highly coupled to each other during the alternative percept, whereas they were less coupled during the default percept. Surprisingly, the regions associated with the nonengaged percept exhibited the highest connectivity to the LOC. Together, these findings reveal a dynamic organization between the default mode and the FPNs, and the incoming bottom-up visual stream during perceptual binding of visual images. PMID:23510237

  3. The Self-Pleasantness Judgment Modulates the Encoding Performance and the Default Mode Network Activity.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Cerles, Melanie; Ramdeen, Kylee T; Boudiaf, Naila; Pichat, Cedric; Hot, Pascal; Baciu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal) thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN) activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention) but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention). To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding (SE) activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding (UE) recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU). A region of interest (ROI) analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region's involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal) processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful) and pleasantness was observed for the PCC, PCU and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Overall, our

  4. Default mode network connectivity in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hui Ming; Kishima, Haruhiko; Tani, Naoki; Oshino, Satoru; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Hosomi, Koichi; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Kazui, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Shimokawa, Toshio; Aso, Toshihiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Yamashita, Fumio; Saitoh, Youichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological disorder characterized by gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and incontinence. It is unclear whether the pathophysiology of iNPH is associated with alterations in the default mode network (DMN). The authors investigated alterations in the DMN of patients with iNPH and sought to determine whether a relationship exists between the resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN and a patient's clinical symptoms. METHODS Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) was performed in 16 preoperative patients with iNPH and 15 neurologically healthy control subjects of a similar age. Independent component and dual-regression analyses were used to quantify DMN connectivity. The patients' clinical symptoms were rated according to the iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS). Each of their specific clinical symptoms were rated according to the cognitive, gait, and urinary continence domains of iNPHGS, and neurocognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Trail Making Test Part A. The strength of DMN connectivity was compared between patients and controls, and the correlation between DMN connectivity and iNPHGS was examined using both region of interest (ROI)-based analysis and voxel-based analysis. The correlation between DMN connectivity and each of the specific clinical symptoms, as well as neurocognitive status, was examined using voxel-based analysis. RESULTS Both ROI-based and voxel-based analyses revealed reduced DMN connectivity in patients with iNPH. ROI-based analysis showed increased DMN connectivity with worsening clinical symptoms of iNPH. Consistently, voxel-based analyses revealed that DMN connectivity correlated positively with the iNPHGS score, as well as the cognitive and urinary continence domain scores, and negatively with the FAB score. The significant peak in correlation in each case was localized to the precuneus. CONCLUSIONS This

  5. Art reaches within: aesthetic experience, the self and the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Vessel, Edward A.; Starr, G. Gabrielle; Rubin, Nava

    2013-01-01

    In a task of rating images of artworks in an fMRI scanner, regions in the medial prefrontal cortex that are known to be part of the default mode network (DMN) were positively activated on the highest-rated trials. This is surprising given the DMN's original characterization as the set of brain regions that show greater fMRI activity during rest periods than during performance of tasks requiring focus on external stimuli. But further research showed that DMN regions could be positively activated also in structured tasks, if those tasks involved self-referential thought or self-relevant information. How may our findings be understood in this context? Although our task had no explicit self-referential aspect and the stimuli had no a priori self-relevance to the observers, the experimental design we employed emphasized the personal aspects of aesthetic experience. Observers were told that we were interested in their individual tastes, and asked to base their ratings on how much each artwork “moved” them. Moreover, we used little-known artworks that covered a wide range of styles, which led to high individual variability: each artwork was rated highly by some observers and poorly by others. This means that rating-specific neural responses cannot be attributed to the features of any particular artworks, but rather to the aesthetic experience itself. The DMN activity therefore suggests that certain artworks, albeit unfamiliar, may be so well-matched to an individual's unique makeup that they obtain access to the neural substrates concerned with the self—access which other external stimuli normally do not get. This mediates a sense of being “moved,” or “touched from within.” This account is consistent with the modern notion that individuals' taste in art is linked with their sense of identity, and suggests that DMN activity may serve to signal “self-relevance” in a broader sense than has been thought so far. PMID:24415994

  6. The Self-Pleasantness Judgment Modulates the Encoding Performance and the Default Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Cerles, Melanie; Ramdeen, Kylee T.; Boudiaf, Naila; Pichat, Cedric; Hot, Pascal; Baciu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated the effect of self-relevance on cerebral activity and behavioral performance during an incidental encoding task. Recent findings suggest that pleasantness judgments reliably induce self-oriented (internal) thoughts and increase default mode network (DMN) activity. We hypothesized that this increase in DMN activity would relate to increased memory recognition for pleasantly-judged stimuli (which depend on internally-oriented attention) but decreased recognition for unpleasantly-judged items (which depend on externally-oriented attention). To test this hypothesis, brain activity was recorded from 21 healthy participants while they performed a pleasantness judgment requiring them to rate visual stimuli as pleasant or unpleasant. One hour later, participants performed a surprise memory recognition test outside of the scanner. Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding. The behavioral results showed that memory recognition was better for items rated as pleasant than items rated as unpleasant. The whole brain analysis indicated that successful encoding (SE) activates the inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices, whereas unsuccessful encoding (UE) recruits two key medial posterior DMN regions, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus (PCU). A region of interest (ROI) analysis including classic DMN areas, revealed significantly greater involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in pleasant compared to unpleasant judgments, suggesting this region’s involvement in self-referential (i.e., internal) processing. This area may be responsible for the greater recognition performance seen for pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, a significant interaction between the encoding performance (successful vs. unsuccessful) and pleasantness was observed for the PCC, PCU and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Overall, our

  7. Morphologic and Functional Connectivity Alterations of Corticostriatal and Default Mode Network in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jingming; Song, Lingheng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Daiquan; Qu, Wei; Guo, Junwei; Gu, Shanshan; He, Mei; Xie, Bing; Li, Haitao

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that structural deficits and functional connectivity imbalances might underlie the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of the present study was to investigate gray matter deficits and abnormal resting-state networks in patients with OCD and further investigate the association between the anatomic and functional alterations and clinical symptoms. Methods Participants were 33 treatment-naïve OCD patients and 33 matched healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormalities and resting-state functional connectivity analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Results Compared with healthy controls, patients with OCD showed significantly increased gray matter volume in the left caudate, left thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex, as well as decreased gray matter volume in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal gyrus. By using the above morphologic deficits areas as seed regions, functional connectivity analysis found abnormal functional integration in the cortical-striatum-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits and default mode network. Subsequent correlation analyses revealed that morphologic deficits in the left thalamus and increased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuits positively correlated with the total Y-BOCS score. Conclusion This study provides evidence that morphologic and functional alterations are seen in CSTC circuits and default mode network in treatment-naïve OCD patients. The association between symptom severity and the CSTC circuits suggests that anatomic and functional alterations in CSTC circuits are especially important in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:24358320

  8. Specific default mode subnetworks support mentalizing as revealed through opposing network recruitment by social and semantic FMRI tasks.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Christopher J; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Assaf, Michal

    2015-08-01

    The ability to attribute mental states to others, or "mentalizing," is posited to involve specific subnetworks within the overall default mode network (DMN), but this question needs clarification. To determine which default mode (DM) subnetworks are engaged by mentalizing processes, we assessed task-related recruitment of DM subnetworks. Spatial independent component analysis (sICA) applied to fMRI data using relatively high-order model (75 components). Healthy participants (n = 53, ages 17-60) performed two fMRI tasks: an interactive game involving mentalizing (Domino), a semantic memory task (SORT), and a resting state fMRI scan. sICA of the two tasks split the DMN into 10 subnetworks located in three core regions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; five subnetworks), posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PrC; three subnetworks), and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Mentalizing events increased recruitment in five of 10 DM subnetworks, located in all three core DMN regions. In addition, three of these five DM subnetworks, one dmPFC subnetwork, one PCC/PrC subnetwork, and the right TPJ subnetwork, showed reduced recruitment by semantic memory task events. The opposing modulation by the two tasks suggests that these three DM subnetworks are specifically engaged in mentalizing. Our findings, therefore, suggest the unique involvement of mentalizing processes in only three of 10 DM subnetworks, and support the importance of the dmPFC, PCC/PrC, and right TPJ in mentalizing as described in prior studies. PMID:25950551

  9. Investigating the functional heterogeneity of the default mode network using coordinate-based meta-analytic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Li, Karl; Robin, Donald A.; Glahn, David C.; Fox, Peter T.

    2010-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) comprises a set of regions that exhibit ongoing, intrinsic activity in the resting state and task-related decreases in activity across a range of paradigms. However, DMN regions have also been reported as task-related increases, either independently or coactivated with other regions in the network. Cognitive subtractions and the use of low-level baseline conditions have generally masked the functional nature of these regions. Using a combination of activation likelihood estimation, which assesses statistically significant convergence of neuroimaging results, and tools distributed with the BrainMap database, we identified core regions in the DMN and examined their functional heterogeneity. Meta-analytic coactivation maps of task-related increases were independently generated for each region, which included both within-DMN and non-DMN connections. Their functional properties were assessed using behavioral domain metadata in BrainMap. These results were integrated to determine a DMN connectivity model that represents the patterns of interactions observed in task-related increases in activity across diverse tasks. Sub-network components of this model were identified, and behavioral domain analysis of these cliques yielded discrete functional properties, demonstrating that components of the DMN are differentially specialized. Affective and perceptual cliques of the DMN were identified, as well as the cliques associated with a reduced preference for motor processing. In summary, we used advanced coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques to explicate behavior and connectivity in the default mode network; future work will involve applying this analysis strategy to other modes of brain function, such as executive function or sensorimotor systems. PMID:19923283

  10. Enhanced Power Within the Default Mode Network in Normal Subjects with Elevated Scores on an Egocentric Scale

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Mark W.G; Persinger, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Integrated global power from the primary structures that composed the Default Mode Network (DMN) and from a random collection of other structures were measured by sLORETA (standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography) for young university volunteers who had completed an inventory that contained a subscale by which egocentricity has been inferred. Subjects who exhibited higher scores for egocentricity displayed significantly more power within the DMN structures relative to comparison areas. This was not observed for individuals whose egocentricity scores were lowest where the power differences between the DMN and comparison structures were not significant statistically. DMN power was greater in the right hemisphere than the left for men but greater in the left hemisphere than the right for women. The results are consistent with our operating metaphor that elevation of power or activity within the DMN is associated with greater affiliation with the self and its cognitive contents. PMID:25419254

  11. Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiana M; Chaim, Khallil T; Sanchez, Tiago A; de Araujo, Draulio B

    2016-01-01

    The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation) and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration). We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN) midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC). It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may

  12. Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fabiana M.; Chaim, Khallil T.; Sanchez, Tiago A.; de Araujo, Draulio B.

    2016-01-01

    The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation) and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration). We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN) midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC). It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may

  13. Effects of Cognitive Training on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weifang; Cao, Xinyi; Hou, Changyue; Li, Ting; Cheng, Yan; Jiang, Lijuan; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chunbo; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented that aging can disrupt certain higher cognitive systems such as the default mode network (DMN), the salience network and the central executive network (CEN). The effect of cognitive training on higher cognitive systems remains unclear. This study used a 1-year longitudinal design to explore the cognitive training effect on three higher cognitive networks in healthy older adults. The community-living healthy older adults were divided into two groups: the multi-domain cognitive training group (24 sessions of cognitive training over a 3-months period) and the wait-list control group. All subjects underwent cognitive measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and at 1 year after the training ended. We examined training-related changes in functional connectivity (FC) within and between three networks. Compared with the baseline, we observed maintained or increased FC within all three networks after training. The scans after training also showed maintained anti-correlation of FC between the DMN and CEN compared to the baseline. These findings demonstrated that cognitive training maintained or improved the functional integration within networks and the coupling between the DMN and CEN in older adults. Our findings suggested that multi-domain cognitive training can mitigate the aging-related dysfunction of higher cognitive networks. PMID:27148042

  14. Effects of Cognitive Training on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Default Mode, Salience, and Central Executive Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Weifang; Cao, Xinyi; Hou, Changyue; Li, Ting; Cheng, Yan; Jiang, Lijuan; Luo, Cheng; Li, Chunbo; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented that aging can disrupt certain higher cognitive systems such as the default mode network (DMN), the salience network and the central executive network (CEN). The effect of cognitive training on higher cognitive systems remains unclear. This study used a 1-year longitudinal design to explore the cognitive training effect on three higher cognitive networks in healthy older adults. The community-living healthy older adults were divided into two groups: the multi-domain cognitive training group (24 sessions of cognitive training over a 3-months period) and the wait-list control group. All subjects underwent cognitive measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and at 1 year after the training ended. We examined training-related changes in functional connectivity (FC) within and between three networks. Compared with the baseline, we observed maintained or increased FC within all three networks after training. The scans after training also showed maintained anti-correlation of FC between the DMN and CEN compared to the baseline. These findings demonstrated that cognitive training maintained or improved the functional integration within networks and the coupling between the DMN and CEN in older adults. Our findings suggested that multi-domain cognitive training can mitigate the aging-related dysfunction of higher cognitive networks. PMID:27148042

  15. Topologically Reorganized Connectivity Architecture of Default-Mode, Executive-Control, and Salience Networks across Working Memory Task Loads.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xia; Zou, Qihong; He, Yong; Yang, Yihong

    2016-04-01

    The human brain is topologically organized into a set of spatially distributed, functionally specific networks. Of these networks, the default-mode network (DMN), executive-control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) have received the most attention recently for their vital roles in cognitive functions. However, very little is known about whether and how the interactions within and between these 3 networks would be modulated by cognitive demands. Here, we employed graph-based modularity analysis to identify the DMN, ECN, and SN during an N-back working memory (WM) task and further investigated the modulation of intra- and inter-network interactions at different cognitive loads. As the task load elevated, functional connectivity decreased within the DMN while increased within the ECN, and the SN connected more with both the DMN and ECN. Within-network connectivity of the ventral and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex was differentially modulated by cognitive load. Further, the superior parietal regions in the ECN showed increased internetwork connections at higher WM loads, and these increases correlated positively with WM task performance. Together, these findings advance our understanding of dynamic integrations of specialized brain systems in response to cognitive demands and may serve as a baseline for assessing potential disruptions of these interactions in pathological conditions. PMID:25596593

  16. Sex Differences in the Default Mode Network with Regard to Autism Spectrum Traits: A Resting State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minyoung; Mody, Maria; Saito, Daisuke N; Tomoda, Akemi; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum traits exist on a continuum and are more common in males than in females, but the basis for this sex difference is unclear. To this end, the present study draws on the extreme male brain theory, investigating the relationship between sex difference and the default mode network (DMN), both known to be associated with autism spectrum traits. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out in 42 females (mean age ± standard deviation, 22.4 ± 4.2 years) and 43 males (mean age ± standard deviation, 23.8 ± 3.9 years) with typical development. Using a combination of different analyses (viz., independent component analysis (ICA), fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and seed-based analyses), we examined sex differences in the DMN and the relationship to autism spectrum traits as measured by autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores. We found significant differences between female and male subjects in DMN brain regions, with seed-based analysis revealing a significant negative correlation between default-mode resting state functional connectivity of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex seed (aMPFC) and AQ scores in males. However, there were no relationships between DMN sex differences and autism spectrum traits in females. Our findings may provide important insight into the skewed balance of functional connectivity in males compared to females that could serve as a potential biomarker of the degree of autism spectrum traits in line with the extreme male brain theory. PMID:26600385

  17. Loss of functional connectivity is greater outside the default mode network in nonfamilial early-onset Alzheimer's disease variants.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Manja; Madison, Cindee; Ghosh, Pia M; Miller, Zachary A; Greicius, Michael D; Kramer, Joel H; Coppola, Giovanni; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Seeley, William W; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-10-01

    The common and specific involvement of brain networks in clinical variants of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not well understood. We performed task-free ("resting-state") functional imaging in 60 nonfamilial AD patients, including 20 early-onset AD (age at onset <65 years, amnestic/dysexecutive deficits), 24 logopenic aphasia (language deficits), and 16 posterior cortical atrophy patients (visual deficits), as well as 60 healthy controls. Seed-based connectivity analyses were conducted to assess differences between groups in 3 default mode network (DMN) components (anterior, posterior, and ventral) and 4 additional non-DMN networks: left and right executive-control, language, and higher visual networks. Significant decreases in connectivity were found across AD variants compared with controls in the non-DMN networks. Within the DMN components, patients showed higher connectivity in the anterior DMN, in particular in logopenic aphasia. No significant differences were found for the posterior and ventral DMN. Our findings suggest that loss of functional connectivity is greatest in networks outside the DMN in early-onset and nonamnestic AD variants and may thus be a better biomarker in these patients. PMID:26242705

  18. An Exploratory Investigation of Functional Network Connectivity of Empathy and Default Mode Networks in a Free-Viewing Task.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Kavita; Surampudi, Bapi Raju

    2015-08-01

    This study reports dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analysis on time courses of putative empathy networks-cognitive, emotional, and motor-and the default mode network (DMN) identified from independent components (ICs) derived by the group independent component analysis (ICA) method. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 15 subjects watching movies of three genres, an animation (S1), Indian Hindi (S2), and a Hollywood English (S3) movie. The hypothesis of the study is that empathic engagement in a movie narrative would modulate the activation with the DMN. The clippings were individually rated for emotional expressions, context, and empathy self-response by the fMRI subjects post scanning and by 40 participants in an independent survey who rated at four time intervals in each clipping. The analysis illustrates the following: (a) the ICA method separated ICs with areas reported for empathy response and anterior/posterior DMNs. An IC indicating insula region activation reported to be crucial for the emotional empathy network was separated for S2 and S3 movies only, but not for S1, (b) the dFNC between DMN and ICs corresponding to cognitive empathy network showed higher positive periodical fluctuating correlations for all three movies, while ICs with areas crucial to motor or emotional empathy display lower positive or negative correlation values with no distinct periodicity. A possible explanation for the lower values and anticorrelation between the DMN and emotional empathy networks could possibly be inhibition due to internal self-reflections, attributed to DMN, while processing and preparing a response to external emotional content. The positive higher correlation values for cognitive empathy networks may reflect a functional overlap with DMN for enhanced internal self-reflections, inferring beliefs and intentions about the 'other', all triggered by the external stimuli. The findings are useful in the study of

  19. Transient suppression of broadband gamma power in the default-mode network is correlated with task complexity and subject performance.

    PubMed

    Ossandón, Tomas; Jerbi, Karim; Vidal, Juan R; Bayle, Dimitri J; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Jung, Julien; Minotti, Lorella; Bertrand, Olivier; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-10-12

    Task performance is associated with increased brain metabolism but also with prominent deactivation in specific brain structures known as the default-mode network (DMN). The role of DMN deactivation remains enigmatic in part because its electrophysiological correlates, temporal dynamics, and link to behavior are poorly understood. Using extensive depth electrode recordings in humans, we provide first electrophysiological evidence for a direct correlation between the dynamics of power decreases in the DMN and individual subject behavior. We found that all DMN areas displayed transient suppressions of broadband gamma (60-140 Hz) power during performance of a visual search task and, critically, we show for the first time that the millisecond range duration and extent of the transient gamma suppressions are correlated with task complexity and subject performance. In addition, trial-by-trial correlations revealed that spatially distributed gamma power increases and decreases formed distinct anticorrelated large-scale networks. Beyond unraveling the electrophysiological basis of DMN dynamics, our results suggest that, rather than indicating a mere switch to a global exteroceptive mode, DMN deactivation encodes the extent and efficiency of our engagement with the external world. Furthermore, our findings reveal a pivotal role for broadband gamma modulations in the interplay between task-positive and task-negative networks mediating efficient goal-directed behavior and facilitate our understanding of the relationship between electrophysiology and neuroimaging studies of intrinsic brain networks. PMID:21994368

  20. Dysregulation of working memory and default-mode networks in schizophrenia during a Sternberg item recognition paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D.; Manoach, D. S.; Mathalon, D.; Turner, J.; Mannell, M.; Brown, G.; Ford, J. M.; Gollub, R.; White, T.; Wible, C.; Belger, A.; Bockholt, H. J.; Clark, V. P.; Lauriello, J; O’ Leary, D.; Mueller, B.; Lim, K.; Andreasen, N.; Potkin, S.; Calhoun, V. D.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) are a consistent neurocognitive marker for schizophrenia. Previous studies have suggested that WM is the product of coordinated activity in distributed functionally connected brain regions. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a data driven approach that can identify temporally coherent networks that underlie fMRI activity. We applied ICA to an fMRI dataset for 115 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 130 healthy controls performing the Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm. Here, we describe the first results using ICA to identify differences in the function of WM networks in schizophrenia compared to controls. ICA revealed six networks that showed significant differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Four of these networks were negatively task-correlated and showed deactivation across the posterior cingulate, precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobules, and parahippocampus. These networks comprise brain regions known as the default-mode network (DMN), a well-characterized set of regions shown to be active during internal modes of cognition and implicated in schizophrenia. Two networks were positively task-correlated, with one network engaging WM regions such as bilateral DLPFC and inferior parietal lobules while the other network engaged primarily the cerebellum. Our results suggest that DLPFC dysfunction in schizophrenia might be lateralized to the left and intrinsically tied to other regions such as the inferior parietal lobule and cingulate gyrus. Furthermore, we found that DMN dysfunction in schizophrenia exists across multiple subnetworks of the DMN and that these subnetworks are individually relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In summary, this large multsite study identified multiple temporally coherent networks which are aberrant in schizophrenia versus healthy controls and suggests both task correlated and task anticorrelated networks may serve

  1. Functional connectivity comparison of the default mode network in non-depressed Parkinson disease and depressed Parkinson disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuan; Li, Rui; Liu, Jiangtao; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Examining the spontaneous activity to understand the neural mechanism of brain disorders and establish neuroimaging-based disease-related biomarkers is a focus in recent resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies. The present study hypothesized that resting activity in the default mode network (DMN), which was used for characterizing the resting-state human brain might be different in patients with depressed Parkinson disease (dPD) compared with non-depressed Parkinson disease (ndPD) patients. To test the hypothesis, we firstly employed the Group independent component analysis (ICA) approach to isolate the DMN for the two groups by analyzing the resting-state fMRI data from a group of 12 patients with dPD and a group of 12 age-matched ndPD subjects. Between-group comparison of the functional connectivity in the DMN was then performed to examine the impact of depression on the intrinsic activity in PD. We found 1) the core region from the network the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show significant decreased activity in dPD group compared with ndPD group; 2) the activity in MPFC has significant negative correlation with behavioral measure; 3) the resting activity intensity of MPFC is suggested to be a promising biomarker for distinguishing dPD from ndPD.

  2. Recovery of the default mode network after demanding neurofeedback training occurs in spatio-temporally segregated subnetworks.

    PubMed

    Van De Ville, Dimitri; Jhooti, Permi; Haas, Tanja; Kopel, Rotem; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Scheffler, Klaus; Haller, Sven

    2012-12-01

    The default mode (DM) network is a major large-scale cerebral network that can be identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during resting state. Most studies consider functional connectivity networks as stationary phenomena. Consequently, the transient behavior of the DM network and its subnetworks is still largely unexplored. Most functional connectivity fMRI studies assess the steady state of resting without any task. To specifically investigate the recovery of the DM network during the transition from activation to rest, we implemented a cognitively demanding real-time fMRI neurofeedback task that targeted down-regulation of the primary auditory cortex. Each of twelve healthy subjects performed 16 block-design fMRI runs (4 runs per day repeated on 4 days) resulting 192 runs in total. The analysis included data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) and high-resolution latency estimation between the four components that corresponded to subnetworks of the DM network. These different subnetworks reemerged after regulation with an average time lag or 3.3s and a time lag of 4.4s between the first and fourth components; i.e., the DM recovery first shifts from anterior to posterior, and then gradually focuses on the ventral part of the posterior cingulate cortex, which is known to be implicated in internally directed cognition. In addition, we found less reactivation in the early anterior subnetwork as regulation strength increased, but more reactivation with larger regulation for the late subnetwork that encompassed the ventral PCC. This finding confirms that the level of task engagement influences inversely the subsequent recovery of regions related to attention compared to those related to internally directed cognition. PMID:22960086

  3. Metabolic and structural connectivity within the default mode network relates to working memory performance in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Chételat, Gael; Fischer, Florian U; Landeau, Brigitte; Bastin, Christine; Scheurich, Armin; Perrotin, Audrey; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Drzezga, Alexander; Eustache, Francis; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Salmon, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Studies of functional connectivity suggest that the default mode network (DMN) might be relevant for cognitive functions. Here, we examined metabolic and structural connectivity between major DMN nodes, the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), in relation to normal working memory (WM). DMN was captured using independent component analysis of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data from 35 young healthy adults (27.1 ± 5.1 years). Metabolic connectivity, a correlation between FDG uptake in PCC and MPFC, was examined in groups of subjects with (relative to median) low (n=18) and high (n=17) performance on digit span backward test as an index of verbal WM. In addition, fiber tractography based on PCC and MPFC nodes as way points was performed in a subset of subjects. FDG uptake in the DMN nodes did not differ between high and low performers. However, significantly (p=0.01) lower metabolic connectivity was found in the group of low performers. Furthermore, as compared to high performers, low performers showed lower density of the left superior cingulate bundle. Verbal WM performance is related to metabolic and structural connectivity within the DMN in young healthy adults. Metabolic connectivity as quantified with FDG-PET might be a sensitive marker of the normal variability in some cognitive functions. PMID:23631988

  4. Default mode network alterations during implicit emotional faces processing in first-episode, treatment-naive major depression patients

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huqing; Wang, Xiang; Yi, Jinyao; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yang, Juan; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on resting-state default mode network (DMN) alterations in the development and maintenance of depression; however, only a few studies have addressed DMN changes during task-related processing and their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we explored DMN patterns in young adult patients with first-episode, treatment-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) performing an implicit emotional processing task. Patients with MDD (N = 29) and healthy controls (N = 33) were subjected to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest and while performing a gender judgment task. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify DMN component under task state for both groups. The DMN of participants with MDD had decreased functional connectivity in bilateral prefrontal areas compared to controls. Right prefrontal gyrus connectivity for MDD patients correlated negatively with scores on maladaptive scales of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). Our findings suggest that depressed people have altered DMN patterns during implicit emotional processing, which might be related to impaired internal monitoring and emotional regulation ability. PMID:26322003

  5. Spatial Disassociation of Disrupted Functional Connectivity for the Default Mode Network in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhanhong; Zong, Xiaopeng; Dong, Jianwei; Zhan, Wenfeng; Xu, Yikai; Li, Zibo; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the aberrant functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their clinical relevance. Materials and Methods Resting-state functional MRI data were collected from 31 patients with ESRD (24 men, 24–61 years) and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs, 21 men, 26-61years). A whole-brain seed-based functional connectivity analysis of these collected R-fMRI data was performed by locating the seeds in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to investigate the functional connectivity of the posterior and anterior DMN over the whole brain, respectively. Results Compared to the HCs, the patients exhibited significantly decreased functional connectivity with the PCC in the left middle temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate gyrus, and the bilateral medial superior frontal gyrus. For the vmPFC seed, only the right thalamus showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the patients with ESRD compared to HCs. Interestingly, functional connectivity between the PCC and right medial superior frontal gyrus exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the hemoglobin level in the patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest a spatially specific disruption of functional connectivity in the DMN in patients with ESRD, thereby providing novel insights into our understanding of the neurophysiology mechanism that underlies the disease. PMID:27560146

  6. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression

    PubMed Central

    Schilbach, L.; Hoffstaedter, F.; Müller, V.; Cieslik, E.C.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Trost, S.; Sorg, C.; Riedl, V.; Jardri, R.; Sommer, I.; Kogler, L.; Derntl, B.; Gruber, O.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN) hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression. PMID:26904405

  7. Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide.

    PubMed

    Speth, Jana; Speth, Clemens; Kaelen, Mendel; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the effects of LSD on mental time travel during spontaneous mentation. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled crossover study, incorporating intravenous administration of LSD (75 μg) and placebo (saline) prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Six independent, blind judges analysed mentation reports acquired during structured interviews performed shortly after the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (approximately 2.5 h post-administration). Within each report, specific linguistic references to mental spaces for the past, present and future were identified. Results revealed significantly fewer mental spaces for the past under LSD and this effect correlated with the general intensity of the drug's subjective effects. No differences in the number of mental spaces for the present or future were observed. Consistent with the previously proposed role of the default-mode network (DMN) in autobiographical memory recollection and ruminative thought, decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the DMN correlated with decreased mental time travel to the past. These results are discussed in relation to potential therapeutic applications of LSD and related psychedelics, e.g. in the treatment of depression, for which excessive reflection on one's past, likely mediated by DMN functioning, is symptomatic. PMID:26979587

  8. The Neural Correlates of Optimistic and Depressive Tendencies of Self-Evaluations and Resting-State Default Mode Network

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinfeng; Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yu; Huang, Junfeng; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Unrealistic optimism is common among people making self-evaluations while reduced optimism has been linked to increased depressive symptoms. Given the importance of optimism for adaptive functioning, surprisingly little is known about resting brain states underlying optimistic and depressive tendencies. In the current study, two resting-state indices were used to examine neural correlates of the default mode network (DMN) associated with optimistic and depressive self-evaluation tendencies in a non-clinical young adult sample (N = 49). The analysis was constrained due to the self-referential nature of the DMN. Across different indices, bilateral superior frontal gyri of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral superior medial frontal gyri of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) played a key role in maintaining spontaneous optimistic self-evaluative tendencies. Conversely, decreased activity in the DLPFC and bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) were related to accentuated depressive symptoms. Together, results highlight the pivotal roles of the DLPFC and DMPFC in mediating valences of self-referential content. PMID:26635573

  9. Increased Intrinsic Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence from Resting-State MEG Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Fu-Jung; Yu, Hsiang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ta; Kwan, Shang-Yeong; Chen, Chien; Yen, Der-Jen; Yiu, Chun-Hing; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The electrophysiological signature of resting state oscillatory functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) during spike-free periods in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, this study investigated how the connectivity within the DMN was altered in TLE, and we examined the effect of lateralized TLE on functional connectivity. Sixteen medically intractable TLE patients and 22 controls participated in this study. Whole-scalp 306-channel MEG epochs without interictal spikes generated from both MEG and EEG data were analyzed using a minimum norm estimate (MNE) and source-based imaginary coherence analysis. With this processing, we obtained the cortical activation and functional connectivity within the DMN. The functional connectivity was increased between DMN and the right medial temporal (MT) region at the delta band and between DMN and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regions at the theta band. The functional change was associated with the lateralization of TLE. The right TLE showed enhanced DMN connectivity with the right MT while the left TLE demonstrated increased DMN connectivity with the bilateral MT. There was no lateralization effect of TLE upon the DMN connectivity with ACC. These findings suggest that the resting-state functional connectivity within the DMN is reinforced in temporal lobe epilepsy during spike-free periods. Future studies are needed to examine if the altered functional connectivity can be used as a biomarker for treatment responses, cognitive dysfunction and prognosis in patients with TLE. PMID:26035750

  10. Default-Mode Network Changes in Huntington’s Disease: An Integrated MRI Study of Functional Connectivity and Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Quarantelli, Mario; Salvatore, Elena; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; Filla, Alessandro; Cervo, Amedeo; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Cocozza, Sirio; Massarelli, Marco; Brunetti, Arturo; De Michele, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Previous MRI studies of functional connectivity in pre-symptomatic mutation carriers of Huntington’s disease (HD) have shown dysfunction of the Default-Mode Network (DMN). No data however are currently available on the DMN alterations in the symptomatic stages of the disease, which are characterized by cortical atrophy involving several DMN nodes. We assessed DMN integrity and its possible correlations with motor and cognitive symptoms in 26 symptomatic HD patients as compared to 22 normal volunteers, by analyzing resting state functional MRI data, using the Precuneal Cortex/Posterior Cingulate Cortices (PC/PCC) as seed, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Direct correlation with PC/PCC was decreased, without correlation with atrophy, in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (including anterior cingulate and subgenual cortex), right dorso-medial prefrontal cortex, and in the right inferior parietal cortex (mainly involving the angular gyrus). Negative correlations with PC/PCC were decreased bilaterally in the inferior parietal cortices, while a cluster in the right middle occipital gyrus presented increased correlation with PC/PCC. DMN changes in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex significantly correlated with the performance at the Stroop test (p = .0002). Widespread DMN changes, not correlating with the atrophy of the involved nodes, are present in symptomatic HD patients, and correlate with cognitive disturbances. PMID:23977239

  11. Cognition and the Default Mode Network in Children with Sickle Cell Disease: A Resting State Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Montanaro, Maria; Rampazzo, Patrizia; Ermani, Mario; Talenti, Giacomo; Baracchini, Claudio; Favero, Angela; Basso, Giuseppe; Manara, Renzo; Sainati, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications are frequent events in children with sickle cell disease, yet routinely used techniques such as Transcranial Doppler (TCD), Magnetic Resonance (MRI) and Angiography (MRA), insufficiently explain the cause of poor cognitive performances. Forty children with SS-Sβ° (mean age 8 years) underwent neurocognitive evaluation and comprehensive brain imaging assessment with TCD, MRI, MRA, Resting State (RS) Functional MRI with evaluation of the Default Mode Network (DMN). Sixteen healthy age-matched controls underwent MRI, MRA and RS functional MRI.Children with SCD display increased brain connectivity in the DMN even in the absence of alterations in standard imaging techniques. Patients with low neurocognitive scores presented higher brain connectivity compared to children without cognitive impairment or controls, suggesting an initial compensatory mechanism to maintain performances. In our cohort steady state haemoglobin level was not related to increased brain connectivity, but SatO2<97% was. Our findings provide novel evidence that SCD is characterized by a selective disruption of connectivity among relevant regions of the brain, potentially leading to reduced cognition and altered functional brain dynamics. RS functional MRI could be used as a useful tool to evaluate cognition and cerebral damage in SCD in longitudinal trials. PMID:27281287

  12. Altered effective connectivity patterns of the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yufang; Huang, Liyu; Cai, Suping; Zhang, Yun; von Deneen, Karen M; Ren, Aifeng; Ren, Junchan

    2014-08-22

    The aim of this work is to investigate the differences of effective connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC). The technique of independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to identify DMN components and multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) was used to explore an effective connectivity pattern. We found that: (i) connections in AD were decreased than those in NC, in terms of intensity and quantity. Posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) exhibited significant activity in NC as it connected with most of the other regions within the DMN. Besides, the PCC was the convergence center which only received interactions from other regions; (ii) right inferior temporal cortex (rITC) in the NC exhibited stronger interactions with other regions within the DMN compared with AD patients; and (iii) interactions between medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in the NC were weaker than those in AD patients. These findings may implicate a brain dysfunction in AD patients and reveal more pathophysiological characteristics of AD. PMID:24996191

  13. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Schilbach, L; Hoffstaedter, F; Müller, V; Cieslik, E C; Goya-Maldonado, R; Trost, S; Sorg, C; Riedl, V; Jardri, R; Sommer, I; Kogler, L; Derntl, B; Gruber, O; Eickhoff, S B

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN) hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression. PMID:26904405

  14. Increased Intrinsic Connectivity of the Default Mode Network in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence from Resting-State MEG Recordings.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fu-Jung; Yu, Hsiang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ta; Kwan, Shang-Yeong; Chen, Chien; Yen, Der-Jen; Yiu, Chun-Hing; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The electrophysiological signature of resting state oscillatory functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) during spike-free periods in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings, this study investigated how the connectivity within the DMN was altered in TLE, and we examined the effect of lateralized TLE on functional connectivity. Sixteen medically intractable TLE patients and 22 controls participated in this study. Whole-scalp 306-channel MEG epochs without interictal spikes generated from both MEG and EEG data were analyzed using a minimum norm estimate (MNE) and source-based imaginary coherence analysis. With this processing, we obtained the cortical activation and functional connectivity within the DMN. The functional connectivity was increased between DMN and the right medial temporal (MT) region at the delta band and between DMN and the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regions at the theta band. The functional change was associated with the lateralization of TLE. The right TLE showed enhanced DMN connectivity with the right MT while the left TLE demonstrated increased DMN connectivity with the bilateral MT. There was no lateralization effect of TLE upon the DMN connectivity with ACC. These findings suggest that the resting-state functional connectivity within the DMN is reinforced in temporal lobe epilepsy during spike-free periods. Future studies are needed to examine if the altered functional connectivity can be used as a biomarker for treatment responses, cognitive dysfunction and prognosis in patients with TLE. PMID:26035750

  15. Long-term meditation training induced changes in the operational synchrony of default mode network modules during a resting state.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja

    2016-02-01

    Using theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concept and experimental evidence on the brain default mode network (DMN) that constitutes the neural signature of self-referential processes, we hypothesized that the anterior and posterior subnets comprising the DMN should show differences in their integrity as a function of meditation training. Functional connectivity within DMN and its subnets (measured by operational synchrony) has been measured in ten novice meditators using an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in a pre-/post-meditation intervention design. We have found that while the whole DMN was clearly suppressed, different subnets of DMN responded differently after 4 months of meditation training: The strength of EEG operational synchrony in the right and left posterior modules of the DMN decreased in resting post-meditation condition compared to a pre-meditation condition, whereas the frontal DMN module on the contrary exhibited an increase in the strength of EEG operational synchrony. These findings combined with published data on functional-anatomic heterogeneity within the DMN and on trait subjective experiences commonly found following meditation allow us to propose that the first-person perspective and the sense of agency (the witnessing observer) are presented by the frontal DMN module, while the posterior modules of the DMN are generally responsible for the experience of the continuity of 'I' as embodied and localized within bodily space. Significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:26525051

  16. Reduced resting-state brain activity in the default mode network in children with (central) auditory processing disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been a growing interest in Central Auditory Processing Disorder (C)APD. However, the neural correlates of (C)APD are poorly understood. Previous neuroimaging experiments have shown changes in the intrinsic activity of the brain in various cognitive deficits and brain disorders. The present study investigated the spontaneous brain activity in (C)APD subjects with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). Methods Thirteen children diagnosed with (C)APD and fifteen age and gender-matched controls participated in a rs-fMRI study during which they were asked to relax keeping their eyes open. Two different techniques of the rs-fMRI data analysis were used: Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), which approach is rare. Results Both methods of data analysis showed comparable results in the pattern of DMN activity within groups. Additionally, ReHo analysis revealed increased co-activation of the superior frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex/the precuneus in controls, compared to the (C)APD group. ICA yielded inconsistent results across groups. Conclusions Our ReHo results suggest that (C)APD children seem to present reduced regional homogeneity in brain regions considered a part of the default mode network (DMN). These findings might contribute to a better understanding of neural mechanisms of (C)APD. PMID:25261349

  17. Multivariate analysis reveals genetic associations of the resting default mode network in psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Ruaño, Gualberto; Windemuth, Andreas; O’Neil, Kasey; Berwise, Clifton; Dunn, Sabra M.; Boccaccio, Leah E.; Narayanan, Balaji; Kocherla, Mohan; Sprooten, Emma; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The brain’s default mode network (DMN) is highly heritable and is compromised in a variety of psychiatric disorders. However, genetic control over the DMN in schizophrenia (SZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBP) is largely unknown. Study subjects (n = 1,305) underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and were analyzed by a two-stage approach. The initial analysis used independent component analysis (ICA) in 324 healthy controls, 296 SZ probands, 300 PBP probands, 179 unaffected first-degree relatives of SZ probands (SZREL), and 206 unaffected first-degree relatives of PBP probands to identify DMNs and to test their biomarker and/or endophenotype status. A subset of controls and probands (n = 549) then was subjected to a parallel ICA (para-ICA) to identify imaging–genetic relationships. ICA identified three DMNs. Hypo-connectivity was observed in both patient groups in all DMNs. Similar patterns observed in SZREL were restricted to only one network. DMN connectivity also correlated with several symptom measures. Para-ICA identified five sub-DMNs that were significantly associated with five different genetic networks. Several top-ranking SNPs across these networks belonged to previously identified, well-known psychosis/mood disorder genes. Global enrichment analyses revealed processes including NMDA-related long-term potentiation, PKA, immune response signaling, axon guidance, and synaptogenesis that significantly influenced DMN modulation in psychoses. In summary, we observed both unique and shared impairments in functional connectivity across the SZ and PBP cohorts; these impairments were selectively familial only for SZREL. Genes regulating specific neurodevelopment/transmission processes primarily mediated DMN disconnectivity. The study thus identifies biological pathways related to a widely researched quantitative trait that might suggest novel, targeted drug treatments for these diseases. PMID:24778245

  18. Detection of short-term activity avalanches in human brain default mode network with ultrafast MR encephalography.

    PubMed

    Rajna, Zalán; Kananen, Janne; Keskinarkaus, Anja; Seppänen, Tapio; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies pinpoint visually cued networks of avalanches with MEG/EEG data. Co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis can be used to detect single brain volume activity profiles and hemodynamic fingerprints of neuronal avalanches as sudden high signal activity peaks in classical fMRI data. In this study, we aimed to detect dynamic patterns of brain activity spreads with the use of ultrafast MR encephalography (MREG). MREG achieves 10 Hz whole brain sampling, allowing the estimation of spatial spread of an avalanche, even with the inherent hemodynamic delay of the BOLD signal. We developed a novel computational method to separate avalanche type fast activity spreads from motion artifacts, vasomotor fluctuations, and cardio-respiratory noise in human brain default mode network (DMN). Reproducible and classical DMN sources were identified using spatial ICA prior to advanced noise removal in order to assure that ICA converges to reproducible networks. Brain activity peaks were identified from parts of the DMN, and normalized MREG data around each peak were extracted individually to show dynamic avalanche type spreads as video clips within the DMN. Individual activity spread video clips of specific parts of the DMN were then averaged over the group of subjects. The experiments show that the high BOLD values around the peaks are mostly spreading along the spatial pattern of the particular DMN segment detected with ICA. With also the spread size and lifetime resembling the expected power law distributions, this indicates that the detected peaks are parts of activity avalanches, starting from (or crossing) the DMN. Furthermore, the split, one-sided sub-networks of the DMN show different spread directions within the same DMN framework. The results open possibilities to follow up brain activity avalanches in the hope to understand more about the system wide properties of diseases related to DMN dysfunction. PMID:26321936

  19. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  20. Magnetoencephalographic alpha band connectivity reveals differential default mode network interactions during focused attention and open monitoring meditation

    PubMed Central

    Marzetti, Laura; Di Lanzo, Claudia; Zappasodi, Filippo; Chella, Federico; Raffone, Antonino; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    According to several conceptualizations of meditation, the interplay between brain systems associated to self-related processing, attention and executive control is crucial for meditative states and related traits. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate such interplay in a highly selected group of “virtuoso” meditators (Theravada Buddhist monks), with long-term training in the two main meditation styles: focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation. Specifically, we investigated the differences between FA meditation, OM meditation and resting state in the coupling between the posterior cingulate cortex, core node of the Default Mode Network (DMN) implicated in mind wandering and self-related processing, and the whole brain, with a recently developed phase coherence approach. Our findings showed a state dependent coupling of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to nodes of the DMN and of the executive control brain network in the alpha frequency band (8–12 Hz), related to different attentional and cognitive control processes in FA and OM meditation, consistently with the putative role of alpha band synchronization in the functional mechanisms for attention and consciousness. The coupling of PCC with left medial prefrontal cortex (lmPFC) and superior frontal gyrus characterized the contrast between the two meditation styles in a way that correlated with meditation expertise. These correlations may be related to a higher mindful observing ability and a reduced identification with ongoing mental activity in more expert meditators. Notably, different styles of meditation and different meditation expertise appeared to modulate the dynamic balance between fronto-parietal (FP) and DMN networks. Our results support the idea that the interplay between the DMN and the FP network in the alpha band is crucial for the transition from resting state to different meditative states. PMID:25360102

  1. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  2. Aberrant Functional Connectivity in the Default Mode and Central Executive Networks in Subjects with Schizophrenia – A Whole-Brain Resting-State ICA Study

    PubMed Central

    Littow, Harri; Huossa, Ville; Karjalainen, Sami; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Haapea, Marianne; Miettunen, Jouko; Tervonen, Osmo; Isohanni, Matti; Nikkinen, Juha; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurophysiological changes of schizophrenia are currently linked to disturbances in connectivity between functional brain networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on schizophrenia have focused on a few selected networks. Also previously, it has not been possible to discern whether the functional alterations in schizophrenia originate from spatial shifting or amplitude alterations of functional connectivity. In this study, we aim to discern the differences in schizophrenia patients with respect to spatial shifting vs. signal amplitude changes in functional connectivity in the whole-brain connectome. We used high model order-independent component analysis to study some 40 resting-state networks (RSN) covering the whole cortex. Group differences were analyzed with dual regression coupled with y-concat correction for multiple comparisons. We investigated the RSNs with and without variance normalization in order to discern spatial shifting from signal amplitude changes in 43 schizophrenia patients and matched controls from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Voxel-level correction for multiple comparisons revealed 18 RSNs with altered functional connectivity, 6 of which had both spatial and signal amplitude changes. After adding the multiple comparison, y-concat correction to the analysis for including the 40 RSNs as well, we found that four RSNs showed still changes. These robust changes actually seem encompass parcellations of the default mode network and central executive networks. These networks both have spatially shifted connectivity and abnormal signal amplitudes. Interestingly the networks seem to mix their functional representations in areas like left caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These changes overlapped with areas that have been related to dopaminergic alterations in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls. PMID:25767449

  3. Working memory in preterm-born adults: load-dependent compensatory activity of the posterior default mode network.

    PubMed

    Daamen, Marcel; Bäuml, Josef G; Scheef, Lukas; Sorg, Christian; Busch, Barbara; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Boecker, Henning

    2015-03-01

    Premature birth is associated with an increased risk of cognitive performance deficits that are dependent on working memory (WM) load in childhood. Less clear is whether preterm-born adults show similar WM impairments, or develop compensatory brain mechanisms that help to overcome prematurity-related functional deficits, for example, by a workload-dependent over-recruitment of WM-typical areas, and/or engagement of alternative brain networks. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 73 adults born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) and 73 term-born controls (CON, mean age: 26.5 years) performed a verbal N-Back paradigm with varying workload (0-back, 1-back, 2-back). Generally, both groups showed similar performance accuracy and task-typical patterns of brain activations (especially in fronto-cingulo-parietal, thalamic, and cerebellar areas) and deactivations (especially in mesial frontal and parietal aspects of the default mode network [DMN]). However, VP/VLBW adults showed significantly stronger deactivations (P < 0.05, cluster-level corrected) than CON in posterior DMN regions, including right ventral precuneus, and right parahippocampal areas (with adjacent cerebellar areas), which were specific for the most demanding 2-back condition. Consistent with a workload-dependent effect, VP/VLBW adults with stronger deactivations (1-back > 2-back) in the parahippocampal/cerebellar cluster also presented a greater slowing of response latencies with increasing WM load (2-back > 1-back), indicative of higher effort. In conclusion, VP/VLBW adults recruited similar anatomical networks as controls during N-back performance, but showed an enhanced suppression of posterior DMN regions during higher workload, which may reflect a temporary suppression of stimulus-independent thoughts that helps to maintain adequate task performance with increasing attentional demands. PMID:25413496

  4. Developing Neuroimaging Phenotypes of the Default Mode Network in PTSD: Integrating the Resting State, Working Memory, and Structural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Noah S.; Carpenter, S. Louisa; Sweet, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Complementary structural and functional neuroimaging techniques used to examine the Default Mode Network (DMN) could potentially improve assessments of psychiatric illness severity and provide added validity to the clinical diagnostic process. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that DMN processes may be disrupted in a number of stress-related psychiatric illnesses, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although specific DMN functions remain under investigation, it is generally thought to be involved in introspection and self-processing. In healthy individuals it exhibits greatest activity during periods of rest, with less activity, observed as deactivation, during cognitive tasks, e.g., working memory. This network consists of the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, lateral parietal cortices and medial temporal regions. Multiple functional and structural imaging approaches have been developed to study the DMN. These have unprecedented potential to further the understanding of the function and dysfunction of this network. Functional approaches, such as the evaluation of resting state connectivity and task-induced deactivation, have excellent potential to identify targeted neurocognitive and neuroaffective (functional) diagnostic markers and may indicate illness severity and prognosis with increased accuracy or specificity. Structural approaches, such as evaluation of morphometry and connectivity, may provide unique markers of etiology and long-term outcomes. Combined, functional and structural methods provide strong multimodal, complementary and synergistic approaches to develop valid DMN-based imaging phenotypes in stress-related psychiatric conditions. This protocol aims to integrate these methods to investigate DMN structure and function in PTSD, relating findings to illness severity and relevant clinical factors. PMID:25046537

  5. Implication of the Slow-5 Oscillations in the Disruption of the Default-Mode Network in Healthy Aging and Stroke.

    PubMed

    La, Christian; Nair, Veena A; Mossahebi, Pouria; Young, Brittany M; Chacon, Marcus; Jensen, Matthew; Birn, Rasmus M; Meyerand, Mary E; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-07-01

    The processes of normal aging and aging-related pathologies subject the brain to an active re-organization of its brain networks. Among these, the default-mode network (DMN) is consistently implicated with a demonstrated reduction in functional connectivity within the network. However, no clear stipulation on the underlying mechanisms of the de-synchronization has yet been provided. In this study, we examined the spectral distribution of the intrinsic low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) of the DMN sub-networks in populations of young normals, older subjects, and acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients. The DMN sub-networks were derived using a mid-order group independent component analysis with 117 eyes-closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) sessions from volunteers in those population groups, isolating three robust components of the DMN among other resting-state networks. The posterior component of the DMN presented noticeable differences. Measures of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) of the network component demonstrated a decrease in resting-state cortical oscillation power in the elderly (normal and patient), specifically in the slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) range of oscillations. Furthermore, the contribution of the slow-5 oscillations during the resting state was diminished for a greater influence of the slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations in the subacute stroke group, not only suggesting a vulnerability of the slow-5 oscillations to disruption but also indicating a change in the distribution of the oscillations within the resting-state frequencies. The reduction of network slow-5 fALFF in the posterior DMN component was found to present a potential association with behavioral measures, suggesting a brain-behavior relationship to those oscillations, with this change in behavior potentially resulting from an altered network integrity induced by a weakening of the slow-5 oscillations during

  6. Impact of functional MRI data preprocessing pipeline on default-mode network detectability in patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Andronache, Adrian; Rosazza, Cristina; Sattin, Davide; Leonardi, Matilde; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Minati, Ludovico

    2013-01-01

    An emerging application of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is the study of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC), where integrity of default-mode network (DMN) activity is associated to the clinical level of preservation of consciousness. Due to the inherent inability to follow verbal instructions, arousal induced by scanning noise and postural pain, these patients tend to exhibit substantial levels of movement. This results in spurious, non-neural fluctuations of the rs-fMRI signal, which impair the evaluation of residual functional connectivity. Here, the effect of data preprocessing choices on the detectability of the DMN was systematically evaluated in a representative cohort of 30 clinically and etiologically heterogeneous DoC patients and 33 healthy controls. Starting from a standard preprocessing pipeline, additional steps were gradually inserted, namely band-pass filtering (BPF), removal of co-variance with the movement vectors, removal of co-variance with the global brain parenchyma signal, rejection of realignment outlier volumes and ventricle masking. Both independent-component analysis (ICA) and seed-based analysis (SBA) were performed, and DMN detectability was assessed quantitatively as well as visually. The results of the present study strongly show that the detection of DMN activity in the sub-optimal fMRI series acquired on DoC patients is contingent on the use of adequate filtering steps. ICA and SBA are differently affected but give convergent findings for high-grade preprocessing. We propose that future studies in this area should adopt the described preprocessing procedures as a minimum standard to reduce the probability of wrongly inferring that DMN activity is absent. PMID:23986694

  7. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E.; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A.; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR*D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD. PMID:27445670

  8. White matter microstructure contributes to age-related declines in task-induced deactivation of the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher A; Hakun, Jonathan G; Zhu, Zude; Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Task-induced deactivations within the brain's default mode network (DMN) are thought to reflect suppression of endogenous thought processes to support exogenous goal-directed task processes. Older adults are known to show reductions in deactivation of the DMN compared to younger adults. However, little is understood about the mechanisms contributing to functional dysregulation of the DMN in aging. Here, we explored the relationships between functional modulation of the DMN and age, task performance and white matter (WM) microstructure. Participants were 117 adults ranging from 25 to 83 years old who completed an fMRI task switching paradigm, including easy (single) and difficult (mixed) conditions, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The fMRI results revealed an age by condition interaction (β = -0.13, t = -3.16, p = 0.002) such that increasing age affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = -0.29, t = -3.24 p = 0.002) but not the single condition (p = 0.58). Additionally, there was a WM by condition interaction (β = 0.10, t = 2.33, p = 0.02) such that decreasing WM microstructure affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = 0.30, t = 3.42 p = 0.001) but not the single condition (p = 0.17). Critically, mediation analyses indicated that age-related reductions in WM microstructure accounted for the relationship between age and DMN deactivation in the more difficult mixed condition. These findings suggest that age-related declines in anatomical connectivity between DMN regions contribute to functional dysregulation within the DMN in older adults. PMID:26500549

  9. Functional dissociation of ventral frontal and dorsomedial default mode network components during resting state and emotional autobiographical recall

    PubMed Central

    Bado, Patricia; Engel, Annerose; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei E; Paiva, Fernando F; Basilio, Rodrigo; Sato, João R; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Humans spend a substantial share of their lives mind-wandering. This spontaneous thinking activity usually comprises autobiographical recall, emotional, and self-referential components. While neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a specific brain “default mode network” (DMN) is consistently engaged by the “resting state” of the mind, the relative contribution of key cognitive components to DMN activity is still poorly understood. Here we used fMRI to investigate whether activity in neural components of the DMN can be differentially explained by active recall of relevant emotional autobiographical memories as compared with the resting state. Our study design combined emotional autobiographical memory, neutral memory and resting state conditions, separated by a serial subtraction control task. Shared patterns of activation in the DMN were observed in both emotional autobiographical and resting conditions, when compared with serial subtraction. Directly contrasting autobiographical and resting conditions demonstrated a striking dissociation within the DMN in that emotional autobiographical retrieval led to stronger activation of the dorsomedial core regions (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), whereas the resting state condition engaged a ventral frontal network (ventral striatum, subgenual and ventral anterior cingulate cortices) in addition to the IPL. Our results reveal an as yet unreported dissociation within the DMN. Whereas the dorsomedial component can be explained by emotional autobiographical memory, the ventral frontal one is predominantly associated with the resting state proper, possibly underlying fundamental motivational mechanisms engaged during spontaneous unconstrained ideation. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3302–3313, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25050426

  10. White matter microstructure contributes to age-related declines in task-induced deactivation of the default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Hakun, Jonathan G.; Zhu, Zude; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Task-induced deactivations within the brain’s default mode network (DMN) are thought to reflect suppression of endogenous thought processes to support exogenous goal-directed task processes. Older adults are known to show reductions in deactivation of the DMN compared to younger adults. However, little is understood about the mechanisms contributing to functional dysregulation of the DMN in aging. Here, we explored the relationships between functional modulation of the DMN and age, task performance and white matter (WM) microstructure. Participants were 117 adults ranging from 25 to 83 years old who completed an fMRI task switching paradigm, including easy (single) and difficult (mixed) conditions, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The fMRI results revealed an age by condition interaction (β = −0.13, t = −3.16, p = 0.002) such that increasing age affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = −0.29, t = −3.24 p = 0.002) but not the single condition (p = 0.58). Additionally, there was a WM by condition interaction (β = 0.10, t = 2.33, p = 0.02) such that decreasing WM microstructure affected deactivation magnitude during the mixed condition (β = 0.30, t = 3.42 p = 0.001) but not the single condition (p = 0.17). Critically, mediation analyses indicated that age-related reductions in WM microstructure accounted for the relationship between age and DMN deactivation in the more difficult mixed condition. These findings suggest that age-related declines in anatomical connectivity between DMN regions contribute to functional dysregulation within the DMN in older adults. PMID:26500549

  11. Causal relationship between effective connectivity within the default mode network and mind-wandering regulation and facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Shogo; Kochiyama, Takanori; Nakai, Ryusuke; Abe, Nobuhito; Nomura, Michio

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate mind wandering, which is a shift in the contents of thought away from an ongoing task and/or from events in the external environment to self-generated thoughts and feelings. Although modulation of the mind-wandering propensity is thought to be associated with neural alterations of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and regions in the default mode network (DMN), the precise neural mechanisms remain unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the causal relationships among tDCS (one electrode placed over the right IPL, which is a core region of the DMN, and another placed over the left LPFC), stimulation-induced directed connection alterations within the DMN, and modulation of the mind-wandering propensity. At the behavioral level, anodal tDCS on the right IPL (with cathodal tDCS on the left LPFC) reduced mind wandering compared to the reversed stimulation. At the neural level, the anodal tDCS on the right IPL decreased the afferent connections of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) from the right IPL and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that the changes in the connections from the right IPL and mPFC correlated with the facilitation and inhibition of mind wandering, respectively. These effects are the result of the heterogeneous function of effective connectivity: the connection from the right IPL to the PCC inhibits mind wandering, whereas the connection from the mPFC to the PCC facilitates mind wandering. The present study is the first to demonstrate the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS modulation of mind-wandering propensity. PMID:26975555

  12. Amplitude variability over trials in hemodynamic responses in adolescents with ADHD: The role of the anterior default mode network and the non-specific role of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L; Eichele, T; van Wageningen, H; Plessen, K J; Stevens, M C

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance on attention and other cognitive tasks might be a cognitive endophenotype in individuals with ADHD. Despite robust IIV findings in behavioral data, only sparse data exist on how what type of brain dysfunction underlies variable response times. In this study, we asked whether ADHD IIV in reaction time on a commonly-used test of attention might be related to variation in hemodynamic responses (HRs) observed trial-to-trial. Based on previous studies linking IIV to regions within the "default mode" network (DMN), we predicted that adolescents with ADHD would have higher HR variability in the DMN compared with controls, and this in turn would be related to behavioral IIV. We also explored the influence of social anxiety on HR variability in ADHD as means to test whether higher arousal associated with high trait anxiety would affect the neural abnormalities. We assessed single-trial variability of HRs, estimated from fMRI event-related responses elicited during an auditory oddball paradigm in adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls (11-18 years old; N = 46). Adolescents with ADHD had higher HR variability compared with controls in anterior regions of the DMN. This effect was specific to ADHD and not associated with traits of age, IQ and anxiety. However, an ADHD effect of higher HR variability also appeared in a basal ganglia network, but for these brain regions the relationships of HR variability and social anxiety levels were more complex. Performance IIV correlated significantly with variability of HRs in both networks. These results suggest that assessment of trial-to-trial HR variability in ADHD provides information beyond that detectable through analysis of behavioral data and average brain activation levels, revealing specific neural correlates of a possible ADHD IIV endophenotype. PMID:27622136

  13. Modulation of the Default Mode Network in First-Episode, Drug-Naïve Major Depressive Disorder via Acupuncture at Baihui (GV20) Acupoint

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Demao; Liao, Hai; Duan, Gaoxiong; Liu, Yanfei; He, Qianchao; Liu, Huimei; Tang, Lijun; Pang, Yong; Tao, Jien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that acupuncture modulates the default mode network (DMN) in healthy subjects and patients with certain disorder. However, few studies have been performed to investigate whether or not acupuncture might modulate the DMN in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Thereby, the aim of the present study was to assess alterations of the DMN induced by acupuncture stimulation in patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD. Materials and Methods: Twenty nine patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD and 29 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All the healthy subjects underwent 6-min resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) scan. While patients underwent acupuncture stimulation for 20-min electro-acupuncture stimulation (EAS) at Baihui acupoint (GV20) and two 6-min R-fMRI scans before and after EAS. Based on the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC) as the seed region, functional connectivity (FC) method was adopted to examine abnormal DMN in patients by comparing with healthy subjects and to evaluate the influence of EAS on intrinsic connectivity within the DMN in patients with MDD. Results: Compared to healthy subjects, MDD patients had abnormal DMN. Moreover, results showed that EAS at GV20 induced increased FC between the PC/PCC and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and decreased FC between the PC/PCC and left middle prefrontal cortex, left angualr gyrus and bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampus (HIPP/paraHIPP) in patients with MDD, which were the main brain regions showing significant differences between the patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion: Our findings provide imaging evidence to support that GV20-related acupuncture stimulation may modulate the DMN in patients with first-episode, drug-naïve MDD. This study may partly interpret the neural mechanisms of acupuncture at GV20 which is used to treat patients with MDD in clinical. PMID:27242492

  14. Impairment of functional integration of the default mode network correlates with cognitive outcome at three months after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalia; Graña, Manuel; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Fernández-Andújar, Marina; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Clemente, Immaculada; Toran, Pera; Forés, Rosa; Dávalos, Antoni; Auer, Tibor; Mataró, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state studies conducted with stroke patients are scarce. The study of brain activity and connectivity at rest provides a unique opportunity for the investigation of brain rewiring after stroke and plasticity changes. This study sought to identify dynamic changes in the functional organization of the default mode network (DMN) of stroke patients at three months after stroke. Eleven patients (eight male and three female; age range: 48–72) with right cortical and subcortical ischemic infarctions and 17 controls (eleven males and six females; age range: 57–69) were assessed by neurological and neuropsychological examinations and scanned with resting-state functional magnetic ressonance imaging. First, we explored group differences in functional activity within the DMN by means of probabilistic independent component analysis followed by a dual regression approach. Second, we estimated functional connectivity between 11 DMN nodes both locally by means of seed-based connectivity analysis, as well as globally by means of graph-computation analysis. We found that patients had greater DMN activity in the left precuneus and the left anterior cingulate gyrus when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected). Seed-based connectivity analysis showed that stroke patients had significant impairment (P = 0.014; threshold = 2.00) in the connectivity between the following five DMN nodes: left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG) and posterior cingulate cortex (t = 2.01); left parahippocampal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus (t = 2.11); left parahippocampal gyrus and lSFG (t = 2.39); right parietal and lSFG (t = 2.29). Finally, mean path length obtained from graph-computation analysis showed positive correlations with semantic fluency test (rs = 0.454; P = 0.023), phonetic fluency test (rs = 0.523; P = 0.007) and the mini mental state examination (rs = 0.528; P = 0.007). In conclusion, the ability

  15. Impairment of functional integration of the default mode network correlates with cognitive outcome at three months after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalia; Graña, Manuel; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Fernández-Andújar, Marina; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Clemente, Immaculada; Toran, Pera; Forés, Rosa; Dávalos, Antoni; Auer, Tibor; Mataró, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Resting-state studies conducted with stroke patients are scarce. The study of brain activity and connectivity at rest provides a unique opportunity for the investigation of brain rewiring after stroke and plasticity changes. This study sought to identify dynamic changes in the functional organization of the default mode network (DMN) of stroke patients at three months after stroke. Eleven patients (eight male and three female; age range: 48-72) with right cortical and subcortical ischemic infarctions and 17 controls (eleven males and six females; age range: 57-69) were assessed by neurological and neuropsychological examinations and scanned with resting-state functional magnetic ressonance imaging. First, we explored group differences in functional activity within the DMN by means of probabilistic independent component analysis followed by a dual regression approach. Second, we estimated functional connectivity between 11 DMN nodes both locally by means of seed-based connectivity analysis, as well as globally by means of graph-computation analysis. We found that patients had greater DMN activity in the left precuneus and the left anterior cingulate gyrus when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05 family-wise error corrected). Seed-based connectivity analysis showed that stroke patients had significant impairment (P = 0.014; threshold = 2.00) in the connectivity between the following five DMN nodes: left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG) and posterior cingulate cortex (t = 2.01); left parahippocampal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus (t = 2.11); left parahippocampal gyrus and lSFG (t = 2.39); right parietal and lSFG (t = 2.29). Finally, mean path length obtained from graph-computation analysis showed positive correlations with semantic fluency test (r(s)  = 0.454; P = 0.023), phonetic fluency test (r(s)  = 0.523; P = 0.007) and the mini mental state examination (r(s)  = 0.528; P = 0.007). In conclusion, the

  16. Clinical significance of increased cerebellar default-mode network connectivity in resting-state patients with drug-naive somatization disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The cerebellum has been proven to be connected to the brain network, as in the default-mode network (DMN), among healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders. However, whether or not abnormal cerebellar DMN connectivity exists and what its clinical significance is among drug-naive patients with somatization disorder (SD) at rest remain unclear. A total of 25 drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, patients with SD showed increased left/right Crus I-left/right angular gyrus (AG) connectivity and Lobule IX-left superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) connectivity. The FC values of the left/right Crus I-right AG connectivity of the patients were positively correlated with their scores in the somatization subscale of the symptom checklist-90 (Scl-90). A trend level of correlations was observed between the FC values of the left Crus I-left AG connectivity of the patients and their scores for the somatization subscale of Scl-90, as well as between the FC values of their Lobule IX-left superior MPFC connectivity and their scores for the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) extraversion. Our findings show the increased cerebellar DMN connectivity in patients with SD and therefore highlight the importance of the DMN in the neurobiology of SD. Increased cerebellar DMN connectivities are also correlated with their somatization severity and personality, both of which bear clinical significance. PMID:27428190

  17. Atypical coupling between posterior regions of the default mode network in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pharmaco-magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, John D.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; White, Matthew L.; Wetzel, Martin W.; Knott, Nichole L.; Wilson, Tony W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysfunction in the default mode network (DMN), a group of cortical areas more active during the resting state, has been linked to attentional deficits and symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prior imaging studies have shown decreased functional connectivity between DMN nodes in patients with ADHD, primarily between anterior and posterior regions. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we evaluated phase coherence (i.e., functional connectivity) among regions of the DMN in healthy controls and adults with ADHD before and after stimulant therapy. Methods We obtained a resting-state MEG recording for all participants. Magnetoencephalography data were transformed into a ~30 node regional source model using inverse spatial filtering, including regions corresponding to the DMN. We computed the zero-lag phase coherence between these regions pairwise for 5 distinct frequency bands, and we assessed group and medication effects. Results Twelve adults with and 13 without ADHD participated in our study. Functional connectivity was stronger between particular node pairs and showed frequency-specific effects. Unmedicated patients showed reduced phase locking between posterior cingulate/precuneus regions (PCC) and right inferior parietal cortices (RIPL), and between medial prefrontal regions (MPFC) and the left inferior parietal region (LIPL) and the PCC. Unmedicated patients had increased phase locking between the RIPL and LIPL regions compared with controls. Administration of stimulants improved phase locking abnormalities along the MPFC–PCC and LIPL–RIPL pathways in patients with ADHD. Limitations Modest sample size and lack of duration of patient treatment history may limit the generalizability of our findings. Conclusion Adults with ADHD exhibit hyper- and hypoconnectivity between regions of the DMN during rest, which were suppressed after stimulant medication administration. PMID:23611175

  18. Dementia and the default mode.

    PubMed

    Beason-Held, L L

    2011-06-01

    Changes in regional activity levels and network connectivity occur across the lifespan within the default mode network (DMN) of resting brain function. Changes with age are noted in most components of the DMN, especially in medial frontal/anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate/precuneus regions. Individuals with age-related disease such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrate additional default-related changes particularly in posterior cingulate/precuneus and hippocampal regions. As these regions are areas of known pathologic change in both normal aging and age-related disease, examining DMN activity may allow future studies to more fully assess the relationship between pathology and function in these regions. The ability to form this structure-function link could allow us to determine critical factors involved in the decline or preservation of function in the presence of age-related neuropathology. PMID:21222595

  19. The CB1 Neutral Antagonist Tetrahydrocannabivarin Reduces Default Mode Network and Increases Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rzepa, Ewelina; Tudge, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cannabinoid cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) neutral antagonist tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv) has been suggested as a possible treatment for obesity, but without the depressogenic side-effects of inverse antagonists such as Rimonabant. However, how THCv might affect the resting state functional connectivity of the human brain is as yet unknown. Method: We examined the effects of a single 10mg oral dose of THCv and placebo in 20 healthy volunteers in a randomized, within-subject, double-blind design. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed-based connectivity analyses, we selected the amygdala, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as regions of interest. Mood and subjective experience were also measured before and after drug administration using self-report scales. Results: Our results revealed, as expected, no significant differences in the subjective experience with a single dose of THCv. However, we found reduced resting state functional connectivity between the amygdala seed region and the default mode network and increased resting state functional connectivity between the amygdala seed region and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and between the dmPFC seed region and the inferior frontal gyrus/medial frontal gyrus. We also found a positive correlation under placebo for the amygdala-precuneus connectivity with the body mass index, although this correlation was not apparent under THCv. Conclusion: Our findings are the first to show that treatment with the CB1 neutral antagonist THCv decreases resting state functional connectivity in the default mode network and increases connectivity in the cognitive control network and dorsal visual stream network. This effect profile suggests possible therapeutic activity of THCv for obesity, where functional connectivity has been found to be altered in these regions. PMID:26362774

  20. The posterior medial cortex in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome: detachment from default mode network-a resting-state study from the MAPP Research Network.

    PubMed

    Martucci, Katherine T; Shirer, William R; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Johnson, Kevin A; Farmer, Melissa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Apkarian, A Vania; Deutsch, Georg; Harris, Richard E; Mayer, Emeran A; Clauw, Daniel J; Greicius, Michael D; Mackey, Sean C

    2015-09-01

    Altered resting-state (RS) brain activity, as a measure of functional connectivity (FC), is commonly observed in chronic pain. Identifying a reliable signature pattern of altered RS activity for chronic pain could provide strong mechanistic insights and serve as a highly beneficial neuroimaging-based diagnostic tool. We collected and analyzed RS functional magnetic resonance imaging data from female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (N = 45) and matched healthy participants (N = 45) as part of an NIDDK-funded multicenter project (www.mappnetwork.org). Using dual regression and seed-based analyses, we observed significantly decreased FC of the default mode network to 2 regions in the posterior medial cortex (PMC): the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the left precuneus (threshold-free cluster enhancement, family-wise error corrected P < 0.05). Further investigation revealed that patients demonstrated increased FC between the PCC and several brain regions implicated in pain, sensory, motor, and emotion regulation processes (eg, insular cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, amygdala, hippocampus). The left precuneus demonstrated decreased FC to several regions of pain processing, reward, and higher executive functioning within the prefrontal (orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal) and parietal cortices (angular gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules). The altered PMC connectivity was associated with several phenotype measures, including pain and urologic symptom intensity, depression, anxiety, quality of relationships, and self-esteem levels in patients. Collectively, these findings indicate that in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome, regions of the PMC are detached from the default mode network, whereas neurological processes of self-referential thought and introspection may be joined to pain and emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26010458

  1. Motor Readiness Increases Brain Connectivity Between Default-Mode Network and Motor Cortex: Impact on Sampling Resting Periods from fMRI Event-Related Studies.

    PubMed

    Bazán, Paulo Rodrigo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Sato, João Ricardo; Amaro, Edson

    2015-12-01

    The default-mode network (DMN) has been implicated in many conditions. One particular function relates to its role in motor preparation. However, the possibly complex relationship between DMN activity and motor preparation has not been fully explored. Dynamic interactions between default mode and motor networks may compromise the ability to evaluate intrinsic connectivity using resting period data extracted from task-based experiments. In this study, we investigated alterations in connectivity between the DMN and the motor network that are associated with motor readiness during the intervals between motor task trials. fMRI data from 20 normal subjects were acquired under three conditions: pure resting state; resting state interleaved with brief, cued right-hand movements at constant intervals (lower readiness); and resting state interleaved with the same movements at unpredictable intervals (higher readiness). The functional connectivity between regions of motor and DMNs was assessed separately for movement periods and intertask intervals. We found a negative relationship between the DMN and the left sensorimotor cortex during the task periods for both motor conditions. Furthermore, during the intertask intervals of the unpredictable condition, the DMN showed a positive relationship with right sensorimotor cortex and a negative relation with the left sensorimotor cortex. These findings indicate a specific modulation on motor processing according to the state of motor readiness. Therefore, connectivity studies using task-based fMRI to probe DMN should consider the influence of motor system modulation when interpreting the results. PMID:26414865

  2. Cerebral Blood Flow in Posterior Cortical Nodes of the Default Mode Network Decreases with Task Engagement but Remains Higher than in Most Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Chanraud, Sandra; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Müller-Oehring, Eva; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Alsop, David C.; Rohlfing, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies provide converging evidence for existence of intrinsic brain networks activated during resting states and deactivated with selective cognitive demands. Whether task-related deactivation of the default mode network signifies depressed activity relative to the remaining brain or simply lower activity relative to its resting state remains controversial. We employed 3D arterial spin labeling imaging to examine regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) during rest, a spatial working memory task, and a second rest. Change in regional CBF from rest to task showed significant normalized and absolute CBF reductions in posterior cingulate, posterior-inferior precuneus, and medial frontal lobes . A Statistical Parametric Mapping connectivity analysis, with an a priori seed in the posterior cingulate cortex, produced deactivation connectivity patterns consistent with the classic “default mode network” and activation connectivity anatomically consistent with engagement in visuospatial tasks. The large task-related CBF decrease in posterior-inferior precuneus relative to its anterior and middle portions adds evidence for the precuneus' heterogeneity. The posterior cingulate and posterior-inferior precuneus were also regions of the highest CBF at rest and during task performance. The difference in regional CBF between intrinsic (resting) and evoked (task) activity levels may represent functional readiness or reserve vulnerable to diminution by conditions affecting perfusion. PMID:20484322

  3. Investigating the relationship between subjective drug craving and temporal dynamics of the default mode network, executive control network, and salience network in methamphetamine dependents using rsfMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Somayyeh; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Shahbabaie, Alireza; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) studies using fMRI provides a great deal of knowledge on the spatiotemporal organization of the brain. The relationships between and within a number of resting state functional networks, namely the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN) have been intensely studied in basic and clinical cognitive neuroscience [1]. However, the presumption of spatial and temporal stationarity has mostly restricted the assessment of rsFC [1]. In this study, sliding window correlation analysis and k-means clustering were exploited to examine the temporal dynamics of rsFC of these three networks in 24 abstinent methamphetamine dependents. Afterwards, using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) the possible relationship between the level of self-reported craving and the temporal dynamics was examined. Results indicate that the rsFC transits between 6 discrete "FC states" in the meth dependents. CCA results show that higher levels of craving are associated with higher probability of transiting from state 4 to 6 (positive FC of DMN-ECN getting weak and negative FC of DMN-SN appearing) and staying in state 4 (positive FC of DMN-ECN), lower probability of staying in state 2 (negative FC of DMN-ECN), transiting from state 4 to 2 (change of positive FC of DMN-ECN to negative FC), and transiting from state 3 to 5 (appearance of negative FC of DMN-SN and positive FC of DMN-ECN with the presence of negative FC of SN-ECN). Quantitative measures of temporal dynamics in large-scale brain networks could bring new added values to increase potentials for applications of rsfMRI in addiction medicine.

  4. Probabilistic atlases of default mode, executive control and salience network white matter tracts: an fMRI-guided diffusion tensor imaging and tractography study

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Teresa D.; Bhullar, Navdeep; Courtney, Susan M.; Figley, Chase R.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful MRI technique that can be used to estimate both the microstructural integrity and the trajectories of white matter pathways throughout the central nervous system. This fiber tracking (aka, “tractography”) approach is often carried out using anatomically-defined seed points to identify white matter tracts that pass through one or more structures, but can also be performed using functionally-defined regions of interest (ROIs) that have been determined using functional MRI (fMRI) or other methods. In this study, we performed fMRI-guided DTI tractography between all of the previously defined nodes within each of six common resting-state brain networks, including the: dorsal Default Mode Network (dDMN), ventral Default Mode Network (vDMN), left Executive Control Network (lECN), right Executive Control Network (rECN), anterior Salience Network (aSN), and posterior Salience Network (pSN). By normalizing the data from 32 healthy control subjects to a standard template—using high-dimensional, non-linear warping methods—we were able to create probabilistic white matter atlases for each tract in stereotaxic coordinates. By investigating all 198 ROI-to-ROI combinations within the aforementioned resting-state networks (for a total of 6336 independent DTI tractography analyses), the resulting probabilistic atlases represent a comprehensive cohort of functionally-defined white matter regions that can be used in future brain imaging studies to: (1) ascribe DTI or other white matter changes to particular functional brain networks, and (2) compliment resting state fMRI or other functional connectivity analyses. PMID:26578930

  5. Modulation of the default-mode network and the attentional network by self-referential processes in patients with disorder of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Castro, Mariana; Olmos, Lisandro; Leiguarda, Ramón; Villarreal, Mirta

    2016-02-01

    Disorders of consciousness (DOC) are related to an altered capacity of the brain to successfully integrate and segregate information. Alterations in brain functional networks structure have been found in fMRI studies, which could account for the incapability of the brain to efficiently manage internally and externally generated information. Here we assess the modulation of neural activity in areas of the networks related to active introspective or extrospective processing in 9 patients with DOC and 17 controls using fMRI. In addition, we assess the functional connectivity between those areas in resting state. Patients were experimentally studied in an early phase after the event of brain injury (3±1 months after the event) and subsequently in a second session 4±1 months after the first session. The results showed that the concerted modulation of the default mode network (DMN) and attentional network (AN) in response to the active involvement in the task improved with the level of consciousness, reflecting an integral recovery of the brain in its ability to be engaged in cognitive processes. In addition, functional connectivity decreased between the DMN and AN with recovery. Our results help to further understand the neural underpins of the disorders of consciousness. PMID:26796715

  6. Sex commonalities and differences in the relationship between resilient personality and the intrinsic connectivity of the salience and default mode networks.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Istrin, Joshua J; Gupta, Arpana; Naliboff, Bruce D; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S; Mayer, Emeran A

    2015-12-01

    Increased resilience is associated with better health outcomes and reduced morbidity in response to injury and homeostatic perturbations. Proper functioning of the salience network (SN) and modulation of the default mode network (DMN) by SN may play a role in adaptively responding to stress. Here, we demonstrate that resilient personality in healthy subjects is associated with SN and DMN connectivity patterns and that these patterns are influenced by sex. While connectivity of SN with several brain regions including right anterior insula was significantly associated with resilient personality in both men and women, results suggest that increased functional integration of anterior DMN preferentially benefits women while increased functional integration of posterior DMN preferentially benefits men in terms of resilience. These findings may relate to previous demonstrations that men and women engage different information processing and behavioral strategies to achieve resilience and highlight the importance of considering sex in resilience research. PMID:26440126

  7. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli. PMID:26260900

  8. Functional Connectivity of the Default Mode Network and Its Association With Pain Networks in Irritable Bowel Patients Assessed via Lidocaine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Letzen, Janelle E.; Craggs, Jason G.; Perlstein, William M.; Price, Donald D.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN), a group of brain regions implicated in passive thought processes, has been proposed as a potentially informative neural marker to aid in novel treatment development. However, the DMN’s internal connectivity and its temporal relationship (ie, functional network connectivity) with pain-related neural networks in chronic pain conditions is poorly understood, as is the DMN’s sensitivity to analgesic effects. The current study assessed how DMN functional connectivity and its temporal association with 3 pain-related networks changed after rectal lidocaine treatment in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Eleven females with irritable bowel syndrome underwent a rectal balloon distension paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 2 conditions: natural history (ie, baseline) and lidocaine. Results showed increased DMN connectivity with pain-related regions during natural history and increased within-network connectivity of DMN structures under lidocaine. Further, there was a significantly greater lag time between 2 of the pain networks, those involved in cognitive and in affective pain processes, comparing lidocaine to natural history. These findings suggest that 1) DMN plasticity is sensitive to analgesic effects, and 2) reduced pain ratings via analgesia reflect DMN connectivity more similar to pain-free individuals. Findings show potential implications of this network as an approach for understanding clinical pain management techniques. Perspective This study shows that lidocaine, a peripheral analgesic, significantly altered DMN connectivity and affected its relationship with pain-related networks. These findings suggest that the DMN, which is hypothesized to represent non-goal-oriented activity, is sensitive to analgesic effects and could be useful to understand pain treatment mechanisms. PMID:23743257

  9. Inter-Strain Differences in Default Mode Network: A Resting State fMRI Study on Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat and Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Yi-Ling; Peng, Shin-Lei; Peng, Hsu-Hsia; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ho, Kung-Chu; Wang, Fu-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Genetic divergences among mammalian strains are presented phenotypically in various aspects of physical appearance such as body shape and facial features. Yet how genetic diversity is expressed in brain function still remains unclear. Functional connectivity has been shown to be a valuable approach in characterizing the relationship between brain functions and behaviors. Alterations in the brain default mode network (DMN) have been found in human neuropsychological disorders. In this study we selected the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY), two inbred rat strains with close genetic origins, to investigate variations in the DMN. Our results showed that the major DMN differences are the activities in hippocampal area and caudate putamen region. This may be correlated to the hyperactive behavior of the SHR strain. Advanced animal model studies on variations in the DMN may have potential to shed new light on translational medicine, especially with regard to neuropsychological disorders. PMID:26898170

  10. Altered functional connectivity in the brain default-mode network of earthquake survivors persists after 2 years despite recovery from anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Du, Ming-Ying; Liao, Wei; Lui, Su; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Fei; Kuang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jing; Chen, Hua-Fu; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2015-11-01

    Although acute impact of traumatic experiences on brain function in disaster survivors is similar to that observed in post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), little is known about the long-term impact of this experience. We have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate resting-state functional connectivity and gray and white matter (WM) changes occurring in the brains of healthy Wenchuan earthquake survivors both 3 weeks and 2 years after the disaster. Results show that while functional connectivity changes 3 weeks after the disaster involved both frontal-limbic-striatal and default-mode networks (DMN), at the 2-year follow-up only changes in the latter persisted, despite complete recovery from high initial levels of anxiety. No gray or WM volume changes were found at either time point. Taken together, our findings provide important new evidence that while altered functional connectivity in the frontal-limbic-striatal network may underlie the post-trauma anxiety experienced by survivors, parallel changes in the DMN persist despite the apparent absence of anxiety symptoms. This suggests that long-term changes occur in neural networks involved in core aspects of self-processing, cognitive and emotional functioning in disaster survivors which are independent of anxiety symptoms and which may also confer increased risk of subsequent development of PTSD. PMID:25862672

  11. The Default Mode Network is functionally and structurally disrupted in amnestic mild cognitive impairment — A bimodal MEG–DTI study

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Pilar; Ángel Pineda-Pardo, José; Canuet, Leonides; Aurtenetxe, Sara; López, Maria Eugenia; Marcos, Alberto; Yus, Miguel; Llanero-Luque, Marcos; del-Pozo, Francisco; Sancho, Miguel; Maestú, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Over the past years, several studies on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have reported Default Mode Network (DMN) deficits. This network is attracting increasing interest in the AD community, as it seems to play an important role in cognitive functioning and in beta amyloid deposition. Attention has been particularly drawn to how different DMN regions are connected using functional or structural connectivity. To this end, most studies have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). In this study we evaluated (1) functional connectivity from resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) and (2) structural connectivity from DTI in 26 MCI patients and 31 age-matched controls. Compared to controls, the DMN in the MCI group was functionally disrupted in the alpha band, while no differences were found for delta, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. In addition, structural disconnection could be assessed through a decreased fractional anisotropy along tracts connecting different DMN regions. This suggests that the DMN functional and anatomical disconnection could represent a core feature of MCI. PMID:25379433

  12. [Effective connectivity within the default mode network modulated by methylphenidate using dynamic causal modeling on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-Fang; Han, Lu; He, Hong-Jian; Zhu, Yi-Hong; Zhong, Jian-Hui

    2016-06-25

    The effective connectivity of default mode network (DMN) and its change after taking methylphenidate (MPH) were investigated in this study based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) was applied to compare the effective connectivity between the conditions of taking MPH and placebo for 18 healthy male volunteers. Started with the network structural basis provided by a recent literature, endogenous low frequency fluctuation signals (0.01-0.08 Hz) of each node of DMN were taken as the driving input, and thirty-two possible models were designed according to the modulation effect of MPH on different connections between nodes. Model fitting and Bayesian model selection were performed to find the winning model and corresponding parameters. Our results indicated that the effective connectivity from medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) to posterior cingulated cortex (PCC), from left/right inferior parietal lobule (L/RIPL) to MPFC, and from RIPL to PCC were excitatory, whereas the connectivity from LIPL to PCC was inhibitory. Further t-test statistics on connectivity parameters found that MPH significantly reduced the link from RIPL to MPFC in DMN (t = 2.724, P = 0.016) and changed the weak excitatory state to inhibitory state. However, it had no significant effect on other connections. In all, our results demonstrated that MPH modulates the effective connectivity within DMN in resting state. PMID:27350198

  13. Default Mode Dynamics for Global Functional Integration

    PubMed Central

    Menon, David K.; Manktelow, Anne E.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been traditionally assumed to hinder behavioral performance in externally focused, goal-directed paradigms and to provide no active contribution to human cognition. However, recent evidence suggests greater DMN activity in an array of tasks, especially those that involve self-referential and memory-based processing. Although data that robustly demonstrate a comprehensive functional role for DMN remains relatively scarce, the global workspace framework, which implicates the DMN in global information integration for conscious processing, can potentially provide an explanation for the broad range of higher-order paradigms that report DMN involvement. We used graph theoretical measures to assess the contribution of the DMN to global functional connectivity dynamics in 22 healthy volunteers during an fMRI-based n-back working-memory paradigm with parametric increases in difficulty. Our predominant finding is that brain modularity decreases with greater task demands, thus adapting a more global workspace configuration, in direct relation to increases in reaction times to correct responses. Flexible default mode regions dynamically switch community memberships and display significant changes in their nodal participation coefficient and strength, which may reflect the observed whole-brain changes in functional connectivity architecture. These findings have important implications for our understanding of healthy brain function, as they suggest a central role for the DMN in higher cognitive processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The default mode network (DMN) has been shown to increase its activity during the absence of external stimulation, and hence was historically assumed to disengage during goal-directed tasks. Recent evidence, however, implicates the DMN in self-referential and memory-based processing. We provide robust evidence for this network's active contribution to working memory by revealing dynamic reconfiguration in its

  14. Anatomical and functional connectivity in the default mode network of post-traumatic stress disorder patients after civilian and military-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Inbal; Bonne, Omer; Giesser, Ruti; Shragai, Tamir; Lazarovits, Gilad; Isserles, Moshe; Schreiber, Shaul; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by unwanted intrusive thoughts and hyperarousal at rest. As these core symptoms reflect disturbance in resting-state mechanisms, we investigated the functional and anatomical involvement of the default mode network (DMN) in this disorder. The relation between symptomatology and trauma characteristics was considered. Twenty PTSD patients and 20 matched trauma-exposed controls that were exposed to a similar traumatic event were recruited for this study. In each group, 10 patients were exposed to military trauma, and 10 to civilian trauma. PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptom severity were assessed. DMN maps were identified in resting-state scans using independent component analysis. Regions of interest (medial prefrontal, precuneus, and bilateral inferior parietal) were defined and average z-scores were extracted for use in the statistical analysis. The medial prefrontal and the precuneus regions were used for cingulum tractography whose integrity was measured and compared between groups. Similar functional and anatomical connectivity patterns were identified in the DMN of PTSD patients and trauma-exposed controls. In the PTSD group, functional and anatomical connectivity parameters were strongly correlated with clinical measures, and there was evidence of coupling between the anatomical and functional properties. Type of trauma and time from trauma were found to modulate connectivity patterns. To conclude, anatomical and functional connectivity patterns are related to PTSD symptoms and trauma characteristics influence connectivity beyond clinical symptoms. Hum Brain Mapp 37:589-599, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26536845

  15. Patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis shared increased cerebellar-default mode network connectivity at rest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Wang, Guodong; Lyu, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Chen, Jindong; Wang, Shuai; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Increased cerebellar-default mode network (DMN) connectivity has been observed in first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity starts earlier than disease onset. Thirty-four ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, 31 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, UHR subjects and patients with schizophrenia shared increased connectivity between the right Crus I and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and between Lobule IX and the left superior medial prefrontal cortex. There are positive correlations between the right Crus I-bilateral precuneus connectivity and clinical variables (Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes/Positive and Negative Symptom Scale negative symptoms/total scores) in the UHR subjects. Increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity shared by the UHR subjects and the patients not only highlights the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of psychosis but also may be a trait alteration for psychosis. PMID:27188233

  16. Effects of Ganglioside on Working Memory and the Default Mode Network in Individuals with Subjective Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yujin; Kim, Binna; Kim, Jieun E; Kim, Bori R; Ban, Soonhyun; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kwon, Oran; Rhie, Sandy Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether the administration of ganglioside, an active ingredient of deer bone extract, can improve working memory performance by increasing gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Seventy-five individuals with subjective cognitive impairment were chosen to receive either ganglioside (330[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day or 660[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks. Changes in working memory performance with treatment of either ganglioside or placebo were assessed as cognitive outcome measures. Using voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analyses, changes in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN were also assessed as brain outcome measures. Improvement in working memory performance was greater in the ganglioside group than in the placebo group. The ganglioside group, relative to the placebo group, showed greater increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN. A significant relationship between increased functional connectivity of the precuneus and improved working memory performance was observed in the ganglioside group. The current findings suggest that ganglioside has cognitive-enhancing effects in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Ganglioside-induced increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN may partly be responsible for the potential nootropic effects of ganglioside. The clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02379481). PMID:27109158

  17. Patients with first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis shared increased cerebellar-default mode network connectivity at rest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Wang, Guodong; Lyu, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Chen, Jindong; Wang, Shuai; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Increased cerebellar-default mode network (DMN) connectivity has been observed in first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity starts earlier than disease onset. Thirty-four ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, 31 first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, UHR subjects and patients with schizophrenia shared increased connectivity between the right Crus I and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and between Lobule IX and the left superior medial prefrontal cortex. There are positive correlations between the right Crus I-bilateral precuneus connectivity and clinical variables (Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes/Positive and Negative Symptom Scale negative symptoms/total scores) in the UHR subjects. Increased cerebellar-DMN connectivity shared by the UHR subjects and the patients not only highlights the importance of the DMN in the pathophysiology of psychosis but also may be a trait alteration for psychosis. PMID:27188233

  18. Interactions Among the Brain Default-Mode, Salience, and Central-Executive Networks During Perceptual Decision-Making of Moving Dots.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ganesh B; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2016-04-01

    Cognitively demanding goal-directed tasks in the human brain are thought to involve the dynamic interplay of several large-scale neural networks, including the default-mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central-executive network (CEN). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) studies have consistently shown that the CEN and SN negatively regulate activity in the DMN, and this switching is argued to be controlled by the right anterior insula (rAI) of the SN. However, what remains to be investigated is the pattern of directed network interactions during difficult perceptual decision-making tasks. We recorded fMRI data while participants categorized the left-right motion of moving dots. We defined regions of interest, extracted fMRI time series, and performed directed connectivity analysis using Granger causality techniques. Our analyses demonstrated that the slow oscillation (0.07-0.19 Hz) mediated the interactions within and between the DMN, SN, and CEN nodes both for easier and harder decision-making tasks. We found that the rAI, a key node of the SN, played a causal control over the DMN and CEN for easier decision-making tasks. The combined effort of the rAI and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of the SN had the causal control over the DMN and CEN for a harder task. These findings provide important insights into how a sensory signal organizes among the DMN, SN, and CEN during sensory information-guided, goal-directed tasks. PMID:26694702

  19. Spontaneous EEG alpha oscillation interacts with positive and negative BOLD responses in the visual-auditory cortices and default-mode network.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Stephen D; Ostwald, Dirk; Porcaro, Camillo; Bagshaw, Andrew P

    2013-08-01

    The human brain is continually, dynamically active and spontaneous fluctuations in this activity play a functional role in affecting both behavioural and neuronal responses. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs remain poorly understood. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI is a promising technique to study how spontaneous activity modulates the brain's response to stimulation, as temporal indices of ongoing cortical excitability can be integrated with spatially localised evoked responses. Here we demonstrate an interaction between the ongoing power of the electrophysiological alpha oscillation and the magnitude of both positive (PBR) and negative (NBR) fMRI responses to two contrasts of visual checkerboard reversal. Furthermore, the amplitude of pre-stimulus EEG alpha-power significantly modulated the amplitude and shape of subsequent PBR and NBR to the visual stimulus. A nonlinear reduction of visual PBR and an enhancement of auditory NBR and default-mode network NBR were observed in trials preceded by high alpha-power. These modulated areas formed a functionally connected network during a separate resting-state recording. Our findings suggest that the "baseline" state of the brain exhibits considerable trial-to-trial variability which arises from fluctuations in the balance of cortical inhibition/excitation that are represented by respective increases/decreases in the power of the EEG alpha oscillation. The consequence of this spontaneous electrophysiological variability is modulated amplitudes of both PBR and NBR to stimulation. Fluctuations in alpha-power may subserve a functional relationship in the visual-auditory network, acting as mediator for both short and long-range cortical inhibition, the strength of which is represented in part by NBR. PMID:23507378

  20. Resting-State Brain and the FTO Obesity Risk Allele: Default Mode, Sensorimotor, and Salience Network Connectivity Underlying Different Somatosensory Integration and Reward Processing between Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Gaia; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Larsen, Anna L; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Gustafsson, Veronica P; Titova, Olga E; Bandstein, Marcus; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity, but how these SNPs influence resting-state neural activation is unknown. Few brain-imaging studies have investigated the influence of obesity-related SNPs on neural activity, and no study has investigated resting-state connectivity patterns. We tested connectivity within three, main resting-state networks: default mode (DMN), sensorimotor (SMN), and salience network (SN) in 30 male participants, grouped based on genotype for the rs9939609 FTO SNP, as well as punishment and reward sensitivity measured by the Behavioral Inhibition (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaires. Because obesity is associated with anomalies in both systems, we calculated a BIS/BAS ratio (BBr) accounting for features of both scores. A prominence of BIS over BAS (higher BBr) resulted in increased connectivity in frontal and paralimbic regions. These alterations were more evident in the obesity-associated AA genotype, where a high BBr was also associated with increased SN connectivity in dopaminergic circuitries, and in a subnetwork involved in somatosensory integration regarding food. Participants with AA genotype and high BBr, compared to corresponding participants in the TT genotype, also showed greater DMN connectivity in regions involved in the processing of food cues, and in the SMN for regions involved in visceral perception and reward-based learning. These findings suggest that neural connectivity patterns influence the sensitivity toward punishment and reward more closely in the AA carriers, predisposing them to developing obesity. Our work explains a complex interaction between genetics, neural patterns, and behavioral measures in determining the risk for obesity and may help develop individually-tailored strategies for obesity prevention. PMID:26924971

  1. Resting-State Brain and the FTO Obesity Risk Allele: Default Mode, Sensorimotor, and Salience Network Connectivity Underlying Different Somatosensory Integration and Reward Processing between Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Gaia; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K.; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Larsen, Anna L.; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Gustafsson, Veronica P.; Titova, Olga E.; Bandstein, Marcus; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J.; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity, but how these SNPs influence resting-state neural activation is unknown. Few brain-imaging studies have investigated the influence of obesity-related SNPs on neural activity, and no study has investigated resting-state connectivity patterns. We tested connectivity within three, main resting-state networks: default mode (DMN), sensorimotor (SMN), and salience network (SN) in 30 male participants, grouped based on genotype for the rs9939609 FTO SNP, as well as punishment and reward sensitivity measured by the Behavioral Inhibition (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaires. Because obesity is associated with anomalies in both systems, we calculated a BIS/BAS ratio (BBr) accounting for features of both scores. A prominence of BIS over BAS (higher BBr) resulted in increased connectivity in frontal and paralimbic regions. These alterations were more evident in the obesity-associated AA genotype, where a high BBr was also associated with increased SN connectivity in dopaminergic circuitries, and in a subnetwork involved in somatosensory integration regarding food. Participants with AA genotype and high BBr, compared to corresponding participants in the TT genotype, also showed greater DMN connectivity in regions involved in the processing of food cues, and in the SMN for regions involved in visceral perception and reward-based learning. These findings suggest that neural connectivity patterns influence the sensitivity toward punishment and reward more closely in the AA carriers, predisposing them to developing obesity. Our work explains a complex interaction between genetics, neural patterns, and behavioral measures in determining the risk for obesity and may help develop individually-tailored strategies for obesity prevention. PMID:26924971

  2. Complexity of spontaneous BOLD activity in default mode network is correlated with cognitive function in normal male elderly: a multiscale entropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Albert C; Huang, Chu-Chung; Yeh, Heng-Liang; Liu, Mu-En; Hong, Chen-Jee; Tu, Pei-Chi; Chen, Jin-Fan; Huang, Norden E; Peng, Chung-Kang; Lin, Ching-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2013-02-01

    The nonlinear properties of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals remain unexplored. We test the hypothesis that complexity of BOLD activity is reduced with aging and is correlated with cognitive performance in the elderly. A total of 99 normal older and 56 younger male subjects were included. Cognitive function was assessed using Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument and Wechsler Digit Span Task. We employed a complexity measure, multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis, and investigated appropriate parameters for MSE calculation from relatively short BOLD signals. We then compared the complexity of BOLD signals between the younger and older groups, and examined the correlation between cognitive test scores and complexity of BOLD signals in various brain regions. Compared with the younger group, older subjects had the most significant reductions in MSE of BOLD signals in posterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampal cortex. For older subjects, MSE of BOLD signals from default mode network areas, including hippocampal cortex, cingulate cortex, superior and middle frontal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus, were found to be positively correlated with major cognitive functions, such as attention, orientation, short-term memory, mental manipulation, and language. MSE from subcortical regions, such as amygdala and putamen, were found to be positively correlated with abstract thinking and list-generating fluency, respectively. Our findings confirmed the hypothesis that complexity of BOLD activity was correlated with aging and cognitive performance based on MSE analysis, and may provide insights on how dynamics of spontaneous brain activity relates to aging and cognitive function in specific brain regions. PMID:22683008

  3. Increased functional connectivity in the default mode network in mild cognitive impairment: a maladaptive compensatory mechanism associated with poor semantic memory performance.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Simona; Venneri, Annalena; Sambataro, Fabio; Cuetos, Fernando; Fasano, Fabrizio; Marchi, Massimo; Crisi, Girolamo; Caffarra, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Semantic memory decline and changes of default mode network (DMN) connectivity have been reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Only a few studies, however, have investigated the role of changes of activity in the DMN on semantic memory in this clinical condition. The present study aimed to investigate more extensively the relationship between semantic memory impairment and DMN intrinsic connectivity in MCI. Twenty-one MCI patients and 21 healthy elderly controls matched for demographic variables took part in this study. All participants underwent a comprehensive semantic battery including tasks of category fluency, visual naming and naming from definition for objects, actions and famous people, word-association for early and late acquired words and reading. A subgroup of the original sample (16 MCI patients and 20 healthy elderly controls) was also scanned with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and DMN connectivity was estimated using a seed-based approach. Compared with healthy elderly, patients showed an extensive semantic memory decline in category fluency, visual naming, naming from definition, words-association, and reading tasks. Patients presented increased DMN connectivity between the medial prefrontal regions and the posterior cingulate and between the posterior cingulate and the parahippocampus and anterior hippocampus. MCI patients also showed a significant negative correlation of medial prefrontal gyrus connectivity with parahippocampus and posterior hippocampus and visual naming performance. Our findings suggest that increasing DMN connectivity may contribute to semantic memory deficits in MCI, specifically in visual naming. Increased DMN connectivity with posterior cingulate and medio-temporal regions seems to represent a maladaptive reorganization of brain functions in MCI, which detrimentally contributes to cognitive impairment in this clinical population. PMID:25547636

  4. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Salience and Default Mode Networks and Aberrant Social Processes in Youth at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Bernard, Jessica A.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Social processes are key to navigating the world, and investigating their underlying mechanisms and cognitive architecture can aid in understanding disease states such as schizophrenia, where social processes are highly impacted. Evidence suggests that social processes are impaired in individuals at ultra high-risk for the development of psychosis (UHR). Understanding these phenomena in UHR youth may clarify disease etiology and social processes in a period that is characterized by significantly fewer confounds than schizophrenia. Furthermore, understanding social processing deficits in this population will help explain these processes in healthy individuals. The current study examined resting state connectivity of the salience (SN) and default mode networks (DMN) in association with facial emotion recognition (FER), an integral aspect of social processes, as well as broader social functioning (SF) in UHR individuals and healthy controls. Consistent with the existing literature, UHR youth were impaired in FER and SF when compared with controls. In the UHR group, we found increased connectivity between the SN and the medial prefrontal cortex, an area of the DMN relative to controls. In UHR youth, the DMN exhibited both positive and negative correlations with the somatosensory cortex/cerebellum and precuneus, respectively, which was linked with better FER performance. For SF, results showed that sensory processing links with the SN might be important in allowing for better SF for both groups, but especially in controls where sensory processing is likely to be unimpaired. These findings clarify how social processing deficits may manifest in psychosis, and underscore the importance of SN and DMN connectivity for social processing more generally. PMID:26252525

  5. Longitudinal reproducibility of default-mode network connectivity in healthy elderly participants: A multicentric resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, Jorge; Minati, Ludovico; Marizzoni, Moira; Marchitelli, Rocco; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Fiedler, Ute; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Sein, Julien; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soricelli, Andrea; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Schönknecht, Peter; Hensch, Tilman; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kuijer, Joost P; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Barkhof, Frederik; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2016-01-01

    To date, limited data are available regarding the inter-site consistency of test-retest reproducibility of functional connectivity measurements, in particular with regard to integrity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in elderly participants. We implemented a harmonized resting-state fMRI protocol on 13 clinical scanners at 3.0T using vendor-provided sequences. Each site scanned a group of 5 healthy elderly participants twice, at least a week apart. We evaluated inter-site differences and test-retest reproducibility of both temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and functional connectivity measurements derived from: i) seed-based analysis (SBA) with seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ii) group independent component analysis (ICA) separately for each site (site ICA), and iii) consortium ICA, with group ICA across the whole consortium. Despite protocol harmonization, significant and quantitatively important inter-site differences remained in the tSNR of resting-state fMRI data; these were plausibly driven by hardware and pulse sequence differences across scanners which could not be harmonized. Nevertheless, the tSNR test-retest reproducibility in the consortium was high (ICC=0.81). The DMN was consistently extracted across all sites and analysis methods. While significant inter-site differences in connectivity scores were found, there were no differences in the associated test-retest error. Overall, ICA measurements were more reliable than PCC-SBA, with site ICA showing higher reproducibility than consortium ICA. Across the DMN nodes, the PCC yielded the most reliable measurements (≈4% test-retest error, ICC=0.85), the medial frontal cortex the least reliable (≈12%, ICC=0.82) and the lateral parietal cortices were in between (site ICA). Altogether these findings support usage of harmonized multisite studies of resting-state functional connectivity to characterize longitudinal effects in studies that assess disease progression and treatment response

  6. Strength of Default Mode Resting-State Connectivity Relates to White Matter Integrity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Evan M.; Lee, Philip S.; Maisog, Jose M.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; Billington, Michael E.; VanMeter, John; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2011-01-01

    A default mode network of brain regions is known to demonstrate coordinated activity during the resting state. While the default mode network is well characterized in adults, few investigations have focused upon its development. We scanned 9-13-year-old children with diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.…

  7. Alterations in default-mode network connectivity may be influenced by cerebrovascular changes within 1 week of sports related concussion in college varsity athletes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Militana, Adam R; Donahue, Manus J; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S; Gregory, Andrew J; Strother, Megan K; Morgan, Victoria L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p < 0.05) independently. The FC was increased in the concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01), with measures being linearly related to cerebrovascular reactivity in the hippocampus in the concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion. PMID:25972119

  8. scMRI Reveals Large-Scale Brain Network Abnormalities in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurological condition characterized by childhood onset of dysfunction in multiple cognitive domains including socio-emotional function, speech and language, and processing of internally versus externally directed stimuli. Although gross brain anatomic differences in autism are well established, recent studies investigating regional differences in brain structure and function have yielded divergent and seemingly contradictory results. How regional abnormalities relate to the autistic phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that autism exhibits distinct perturbations in network-level brain architecture, and that cognitive dysfunction may be reflected by abnormal network structure. Network-level anatomic abnormalities in autism have not been previously described. We used structural covariance MRI to investigate network-level differences in gray matter structure within two large-scale networks strongly implicated in autism, the salience network and the default mode network, in autistic subjects and age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls. We report specific perturbations in brain network architecture in the salience and default-mode networks consistent with clinical manifestations of autism. Extent and distribution of the salience network, involved in social-emotional regulation of environmental stimuli, is restricted in autism. In contrast, posterior elements of the default mode network have increased spatial distribution, suggesting a ‘posteriorization’ of this network. These findings are consistent with a network-based model of autism, and suggest a unifying interpretation of previous work. Moreover, we provide evidence of specific abnormalities in brain network architecture underlying autism that are quantifiable using standard clinical MRI. PMID:23185305

  9. Exploring Default Mode and Information Flow on the Web

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Mizuki; Ikegami, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Social networking services (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) are now major sources of World Wide Web (called “Web”) dynamics, together with Web search services (e.g., Google). These two types of Web services mutually influence each other but generate different dynamics. In this paper, we distinguish two modes of Web dynamics: the reactive mode and the default mode. It is assumed that Twitter messages (called “tweets”) and Google search queries react to significant social movements and events, but they also demonstrate signs of becoming self-activated, thereby forming a baseline Web activity. We define the former as the reactive mode and the latter as the default mode of the Web. In this paper, we investigate these reactive and default modes of the Web's dynamics using transfer entropy (TE). The amount of information transferred between a time series of 1,000 frequent keywords in Twitter and the same keywords in Google queries is investigated across an 11-month time period. Study of the information flow on Google and Twitter revealed that information is generally transferred from Twitter to Google, indicating that Twitter time series have some preceding information about Google time series. We also studied the information flow among different Twitter keywords time series by taking keywords as nodes and flow directions as edges of a network. An analysis of this network revealed that frequent keywords tend to become an information source and infrequent keywords tend to become sink for other keywords. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that frequent keywords form the Web's default mode, which becomes an information source for infrequent keywords that generally form the Web's reactive mode. We also found that the Web consists of different time resolutions with respect to TE among Twitter keywords, which will be another focal point of this paper. PMID:23637749

  10. Diagnostic classification of intrinsic functional connectivity highlights somatosensory, default mode, and visual regions in autism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Colleen P.; Keown, Christopher L.; Jahedi, Afrooz; Nair, Aarti; Pflieger, Mark E.; Bailey, Barbara A.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2015-01-01

    Despite consensus on the neurological nature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), brain biomarkers remain unknown and diagnosis continues to be based on behavioral criteria. Growing evidence suggests that brain abnormalities in ASD occur at the level of interconnected networks; however, previous attempts using functional connectivity data for diagnostic classification have reached only moderate accuracy. We selected 252 low-motion resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) including typically developing (TD) and ASD participants (n = 126 each), matched for age, non-verbal IQ, and head motion. A matrix of functional connectivities between 220 functionally defined regions of interest was used for diagnostic classification, implementing several machine learning tools. While support vector machines in combination with particle swarm optimization and recursive feature elimination performed modestly (with accuracies for validation datasets <70%), diagnostic classification reached a high accuracy of 91% with random forest (RF), a nonparametric ensemble learning method. Among the 100 most informative features (connectivities), for which this peak accuracy was achieved, participation of somatosensory, default mode, visual, and subcortical regions stood out. Whereas some of these findings were expected, given previous findings of default mode abnormalities and atypical visual functioning in ASD, the prominent role of somatosensory regions was remarkable. The finding of peak accuracy for 100 interregional functional connectivities further suggests that brain biomarkers of ASD may be regionally complex and distributed, rather than localized. PMID:26106547

  11. Voxelwise eigenvector centrality mapping of the human functional connectome reveals an influence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism on the default mode and somatomotor network.

    PubMed

    Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Heeren, Behrend; Saryiska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Weber, Bernd; Reuter, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Functional connections between brain regions constitute the substrate of the human functional connectome, whose topography has been discussed as an endophenotype for psychiatric disorders. Genetic influences on the entire connectome, however, have been rarely investigated so far. We tested for connectome-wide influences of the val158met (rs4860) polymorphism on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene by applying formal network analysis and eigenvector centrality mapping on the voxel level to resting-state functional magnetic imaging data. This approach finds brain regions that are central in the network by aggregating local and global connectivity patterns, most importantly without the requirement to select regions or networks of interest. The COMT variant linked to high enzyme activity increased network centrality in distributed brain areas that are known to constitute the brain's default mode network. Further results also indicated a COMT influence on areas implicated in the somatomotor network. These findings are in line with the polymorphism's alleged role in cognitive processing and its role in psychotic disorders. The study is the first to demonstrate the influence of a functional and behaviorally relevant genetic variant on connectome-wide functional connectivity and is an important step toward establishing the functional connectome as an endophenotype for psychiatric and behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26025199

  12. The Chief Role of Frontal Operational Module of the Brain Default Mode Network in the Potential Recovery of Consciousness from the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Comparison of Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of ‘I’ experience (including autobiographical memories) through embodiment and localization within bodily space, we have tested in this study the hypothesis that heterogeneity in the operational synchrony strength within the frontal DMN OM among patients who are in a vegetative state (VS) could inform about a stable self-consciousness recovery later in the course of disease (up to six years post-injury). Using EEG operational synchrony analysis we have demonstrated that among the three OMs of the DMN only the frontal OM showed important heterogeneity in VS patients as a function of later stable clinical outcome. We also found that the frontal DMN OM was characterized by the process of active uncoupling (stronger in persistent VS) of operations performed by the involved neuronal assemblies. PMID:27347264

  13. Reducing signal loss of the parahippocampal gyrus improves imaging of the default-mode network in 3.0-T MRI: the effect of susceptibility-induced field gradients.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Teng-Yi; Tsai, Shang-Yueh

    2015-12-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the default-mode network (DMN) is highly involved in memory processing in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHC). However, because of susceptibility-related signal loss, parahippocampal activation in the DMN is difficult to detect in resting-state functional MRI experiments that are conducted using a 3.0-T MRI scanner. This study investigated the magnetic field gradients of various brain regions and attempted to compensate for signal loss in the PHC using an optimized slice orientation. The field gradients, signal intensities and DMN functional connectivity (FC) of the PHC were investigated using datasets acquired from 18 healthy volunteers. The results show that the field gradient component parallel to the main magnetic field dominates the PHC. The results indicate that the signal intensities and FC of the DMN are significantly low in the PHC when the slice orientation of the imaging plane is transversal. Whether the voxel dimension is isotropic or anisotropic exerts a minimal effect in altering the slice orientation dependence. In conclusion, the results of this study support the selection of the coronal or sagittal planes for imaging of the DMN. PMID:26510634

  14. Abnormalities in large scale functional networks in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and effects of risperidone

    PubMed Central

    Kraguljac, Nina Vanessa; White, David Matthew; Hadley, Jennifer Ann; Visscher, Kristina; Knight, David; ver Hoef, Lawrence; Falola, Blessing; Lahti, Adrienne Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe abnormalities in large scale functional networks in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and to examine effects of risperidone on networks. Material and methods 34 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 34 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this longitudinal study. We collected resting state functional MRI data with a 3T scanner at baseline and six weeks after they were started on risperidone. In addition, a group of 19 healthy controls were scanned twice six weeks apart. Four large scale networks, the dorsal attention network, executive control network, salience network, and default mode network were identified with seed based functional connectivity analyses. Group differences in connectivity, as well as changes in connectivity over time, were assessed on the group's participant level functional connectivity maps. Results In unmedicated patients with schizophrenia we found resting state connectivity to be increased in the dorsal attention network, executive control network, and salience network relative to control participants, but not the default mode network. Dysconnectivity was attenuated after six weeks of treatment only in the dorsal attention network. Baseline connectivity in this network was also related to clinical response at six weeks of treatment with risperidone. Conclusions Our results demonstrate abnormalities in large scale functional networks in patients with schizophrenia that are modulated by risperidone only to a certain extent, underscoring the dire need for development of novel antipsychotic medications that have the ability to alleviate symptoms through attenuation of dysconnectivity. PMID:26793436

  15. Default Mode Connectivity in Youth With Perinatally Acquired HIV

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Uban, Kristina A.; Williams, Paige L.; Gautam, Prapti; Huo, Yanling; Malee, Kathleen; Yogev, Ram; Csernansky, John; Wang, Lei; Nichols, Sharon; Van Dyke, Russell; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Youth with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV+) survive longer with combination antiretroviral therapy, but remain at risk for poor cognitive outcomes. We evaluated whether markers of HIV disease severity relate to default mode resting-state functional connectivity in PHIV+ youth. We conducted resting-state functional neuroimaging and cognitive testing in a subset of 40 PHIV+ youth recruited from a single study site of the Adolescent Master Protocol study conducted by the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) network. Current and past HIV disease severity measures (nadir CD4 lymphocyte percentages and peak HIV RNA plasma levels) were obtained from medical charts. We evaluated associations of both HIV disease severity measures and cognitive functioning with between- and within- default mode network (DMN) connectivity using Analysis of Functional NeuroImaging multiple regression analyses, controlling for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 youth, 31 (mean age = 16.5 years) with minimal motion during scans were included. We observed global alterations in DMN within- and between-network connectivity, with significant associations between disease severity and DMN BOLD correlations. Furthermore, patterns of connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that varied as a function of peak HIV RNA were found to predict processing speed ability. Alterations in within- and between-network DMN connectivity in PHIV+ youth may reflect global reorganization of the DMN; this could lead to compensatory alterations in both the within- and between-connectivity of large-scale networks, which may ultimately relate to known cognitive processing difficulties in PHIV+ youth. PMID:26376381

  16. Test-retest reliability of the default mode network in a multi-centric fMRI study of healthy elderly: Effects of data-driven physiological noise correction techniques.

    PubMed

    Marchitelli, Rocco; Minati, Ludovico; Marizzoni, Moira; Bosch, Beatriz; Bartrés-Faz, David; Müller, Bernhard W; Wiltfang, Jens; Fiedler, Ute; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Sein, Julien; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Soricelli, Andrea; Parnetti, Lucilla; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Schönknecht, Peter; Hensch, Tilman; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kuijer, Joost P; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Barkhof, Frederik; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Jovicich, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how to reduce the influence of physiological noise in resting state fMRI data is important for the interpretation of functional brain connectivity. Limited data is currently available to assess the performance of physiological noise correction techniques, in particular when evaluating longitudinal changes in the default mode network (DMN) of healthy elderly participants. In this 3T harmonized multisite fMRI study, we investigated how different retrospective physiological noise correction (rPNC) methods influence the within-site test-retest reliability and the across-site reproducibility consistency of DMN-derived measurements across 13 MRI sites. Elderly participants were scanned twice at least a week apart (five participants per site). The rPNC methods were: none (NPC), Tissue-based regression, PESTICA and FSL-FIX. The DMN at the single subject level was robustly identified using ICA methods in all rPNC conditions. The methods significantly affected the mean z-scores and, albeit less markedly, the cluster-size in the DMN; in particular, FSL-FIX tended to increase the DMN z-scores compared to others. Within-site test-retest reliability was consistent across sites, with no differences across rPNC methods. The absolute percent errors were in the range of 5-11% for DMN z-scores and cluster-size reliability. DMN pattern overlap was in the range 60-65%. In particular, no rPNC method showed a significant reliability improvement relative to NPC. However, FSL-FIX and Tissue-based physiological correction methods showed both similar and significant improvements of reproducibility consistency across the consortium (ICC = 0.67) for the DMN z-scores relative to NPC. Overall these findings support the use of rPNC methods like tissue-based or FSL-FIX to characterize multisite longitudinal changes of intrinsic functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2114-2132, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990928

  17. Emotional detachment in psychopathy: Involvement of dorsal default-mode connections.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Arjun; Gregory, Sarah; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Periche Thomas, Eva; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G M; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel J; Craig, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Criminal psychopathy is defined by emotional detachment [Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) factor 1], and antisocial behaviour (PCL-R factor 2). Previous work has associated antisocial behaviour in psychopathy with abnormalities in a ventral temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network. However, little is known of the neural correlates of emotional detachment. Imaging studies have indicated that the 'default-mode network' (DMN), and in particular its dorsomedial (medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate) component, contributes to affective and social processing in healthy individuals. Furthermore, recent work suggests that this network may be implicated in psychopathy. However, no research has examined the relationship between psychopathy, emotional detachment, and the white matter underpinning the DMN. We therefore used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in 13 offenders with psychopathy and 13 non-offenders to investigate the relationship between emotional detachment and the microstructure of white matter connections within the DMN. These included the dorsal cingulum (containing the medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate connections of the DMN), and the ventral cingulum (containing the posterior cingulate - medial temporal connections of the DMN). We found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the left dorsal cingulum in the psychopathy group (p = .024). Moreover, within this group, emotional detachment was negatively correlated with FA in this tract portion bilaterally (left: r = -.61, p = .026; right: r = -.62, p = .023). These results suggest the importance of the dorsal DMN in the emotional detachment observed in individuals with psychopathy. We propose a 'dual-network' model of white matter abnormalities in the disorder, which incorporates these with previous findings. PMID:25218645

  18. A default mode of brain function in altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Guldenmund, P; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Boly, M; Laureys, S; Soddu, A

    2012-01-01

    Using modern brain imaging techniques, new discoveries are being made concerning the spontaneous activity of the brain when it is devoid of attention-demanding tasks. Spatially separated patches of neuronal assemblies have been found to show synchronized oscillatory activity behavior and are said to be functionally connected. One of the most robust of these is the default mode network, which is associated with intrinsic processes like mind wandering and self-projection. Furthermore, activity in this network is anticorrelated with activity in a network that is linked to attention to external stimuli. The integrity of both networks is disturbed in altered states of consciousness, like sleep, general anesthesia and hypnosis. In coma and related disorders of consciousness, encompassing the vegetative state (unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state, default mode network integrity correlates with the level of remaining consciousness, offering the possibility of using this information for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Functional brain imaging is currently being validated as a valuable addition to the standardized behavioral assessments that are already in use. PMID:23165872

  19. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    PubMed

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance. PMID:26663662

  20. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in default mode subnetwork functional connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaning; Zeng, Ling-Li; Chen, Yunchun; Yin, Hong; Tan, Qingrong; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is suggested to play a pivotal role in schizophrenia; however, the dissociation pattern of functional connectivity of DMN subsystems remains uncharacterized in this disease. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 55 schizophrenic patients and 53 matched healthy controls. DMN connectivity was estimated from time courses of independent components. The lateral DMN exhibited decreased connectivity with the unimodal sensorimotor cortex but increased connectivity with the heteromodal association areas in schizophrenics. The increased connectivity between the lateral DMN and right control network was significantly correlated with negative and anergia factor scores in the schizophrenic patients. The anterior and posterior DMNs exhibited increased and decreased connectivity with the right control and lateral visual networks, respectively, in schizophrenics. The altered DMN connectivity may underlie the hallucinations, delusions, thought disturbances, and negative symptoms involved in schizophrenia. Furthermore, DMN connectivity patterns could be used to differentiate patients from controls with 76.9% accuracy. These findings may shed new light on the distinct role of DMN subsystems in schizophrenia, thereby furthering our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Elucidating key disease-related DMN subsystems is critical for identifying treatment targets and aiding in the clinical diagnosis and development of treatment strategies. PMID:26419213

  1. Evidence of a dissociation pattern in default mode subnetwork functional connectivity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaning; Zeng, Ling-Li; Chen, Yunchun; Yin, Hong; Tan, Qingrong; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is suggested to play a pivotal role in schizophrenia; however, the dissociation pattern of functional connectivity of DMN subsystems remains uncharacterized in this disease. In this study, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 55 schizophrenic patients and 53 matched healthy controls. DMN connectivity was estimated from time courses of independent components. The lateral DMN exhibited decreased connectivity with the unimodal sensorimotor cortex but increased connectivity with the heteromodal association areas in schizophrenics. The increased connectivity between the lateral DMN and right control network was significantly correlated with negative and anergia factor scores in the schizophrenic patients. The anterior and posterior DMNs exhibited increased and decreased connectivity with the right control and lateral visual networks, respectively, in schizophrenics. The altered DMN connectivity may underlie the hallucinations, delusions, thought disturbances, and negative symptoms involved in schizophrenia. Furthermore, DMN connectivity patterns could be used to differentiate patients from controls with 76.9% accuracy. These findings may shed new light on the distinct role of DMN subsystems in schizophrenia, thereby furthering our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Elucidating key disease-related DMN subsystems is critical for identifying treatment targets and aiding in the clinical diagnosis and development of treatment strategies. PMID:26419213

  2. Top-down regulation of default mode activity in spatial visual attention.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaotong; Liu, Yijun; Yao, Li; Ding, Mingzhou

    2013-04-10

    Dorsal anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula form a task control network (TCN) whose primary function includes initiating and maintaining task-level cognitive set and exerting top-down regulation of sensorimotor processing. The default mode network (DMN), comprising an anatomically distinct set of cortical areas, mediates introspection and self-referential processes. Resting-state data show that TCN and DMN interact. The functional ramifications of their interaction remain elusive. Recording fMRI data from human subjects performing a visual spatial attention task and correlating Granger causal influences with behavioral performance and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity we report three main findings. First, causal influences from TCN to DMN, i.e., TCN → DMN, are positively correlated with behavioral performance. Second, causal influences from DMN to TCN, i.e., DMN → TCN, are negatively correlated with behavioral performance. Third, stronger DMN → TCN are associated with less elevated BOLD activity in TCN, whereas the relationship between TCN → DMN and DMN BOLD activity is unsystematic. These results suggest that, during visual spatial attention, top-down signals from TCN to DMN regulate the activity in DMN to enhance behavioral performance, whereas signals from DMN to TCN, acting possibly as internal noise, interfere with task control, leading to degraded behavioral performance. PMID:23575842

  3. Top-down regulation of default mode activity in spatial visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaotong; Liu, Yijun; Yao, Li; Ding, Mingzhou

    2013-01-01

    Dorsal anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula form a task control network (TCN) whose primary function includes initiating and maintaining task-level cognitive set and exerting top-down regulation of sensorimotor processing. The default mode network (DMN), comprising an anatomically distinct set of cortical areas, mediates introspection and self-referential processes. Resting-state data show that TCN and DMN interact. The functional ramifications of their interaction remain elusive. Recording fMRI data from human subjects performing a visual spatial attention task and correlating Granger causal influences with behavioral performance and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity we report three main findings. First, causal influences from TCN to DMN, i.e., TCN→DMN, are positively correlated with behavioral performance. Second, causal influences from DMN to TCN, i.e., DMN→TCN, are negatively correlated with behavioral performance. Third, stronger DMN→TCN are associated with less elevated BOLD activity in TCN, whereas the relationship between TCN→DMN and DMN BOLD activity is unsystematic. These results suggest that during visual spatial attention, top-down signals from TCN to DMN regulate the activity in DMN to enhance behavioral performance, whereas signals from DMN to TCN, acting possibly as internal noise, interfere with task control, leading to degraded behavioral performance. PMID:23575842

  4. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  5. Studying the default mode and its mindfulness-induced changes using EEG functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been largely studied by imaging, but not yet by neurodynamics, using electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity (FC). mindfulness meditation (MM), a receptive, non-elaborative training is theorized to lower DMN activity. We explored: (i) the usefulness of EEG-FC for investigating the DMN and (ii) the MM-induced EEG-FC effects. To this end, three MM groups were compared with controls, employing EEG-FC (–MPC, mean phase coherence). Our results show that: (i) DMN activity was identified as reduced overall inter-hemispheric gamma MPC during the transition from resting state to a time production task and (ii) MM-induced a state increase in alpha MPC as well as a trait decrease in EEG-FC. The MM-induced EEG-FC decrease was irrespective of expertise or band. Specifically, there was a relative reduction in right theta MPC, and left alpha and gamma MPC. The left gamma MPC was negatively correlated with MM expertise, possibly related to lower internal verbalization. The trait lower gamma MPC supports the notion of MM-induced reduction in DMN activity, related with self-reference and mind-wandering. This report emphasizes the possibility of studying the DMN using EEG-FC as well as the importance of studying meditation in relation to it. PMID:24194576

  6. Longitudinal changes of amygdala and default mode activation in adolescents prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Luo, Yuejia; Hu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with long-term and negative effect on arousal regulation. Recent neuroimaging studies have examined brain mechanisms related to arousal dysregulation with cross-sectional experimental designs; but longitudinal changes in the brain, reflecting group differences in neurodevelopment, have never been directly examined. To directly assess the interaction of PCE and neurodevelopment, the present study used a longitudinal design to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from 33 adolescents (21 with PCE and 12 non-exposed controls) while they performed the same working memory task with emotional distracters at two points in time. The mean age of participants was 14.3 years at time_1 and 16.7 years at time_2. With confounding factors statistically controlled, the fMRI data revealed significant exposure-by-time interaction in the activations of the amygdala and default mode network (DMN). For the control adolescents, brain activations associated with emotional arousal (amygdala) and cognitive effort (DMN) were both reduced at time_2 as compared to that at time_1. However, these activation reductions were not observed in the PCE group, indicating persistently high levels of emotional arousal and cognitive effort. In addition, correlations between longitudinal changes in the brain and in behavior have shown that adolescents with persistently high emotional arousal were more likely in need of high cognitive effort; and their cognitive performance was more likely to be affected by distractive challenges. The present results complement and extend previous findings from cross-sectional studies with further evidence supporting the view of PCE associated long-term teratogenic effects on arousal regulation. PMID:26577285

  7. Non-negative Matrix Factorization of Multimodal MRI, fMRI and Phenotypic Data reveals Differential Changes in Default Mode Subnetworks in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ariana; Douglas, Pamela K.; Kerr, Wesley T.; Haynes, Virginia S.; Yuille, Alan L.; Xie, Jianwen; Wu, Ying Nian; Brown, Jesse A.; Cohen, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    In the multimodal neuroimaging framework, data on a single subject are collected from inherently different sources such as functional MRI, structural MRI, behavioral and/or phenotypic information. The information each source provides is not independent; a subset of features from each modality maps to one or more common latent dimensions, which can be interpreted using generative models. These latent dimensions, or “topics,” provide a sparse summary of the generative process behind the features for each individual. Topic modeling, an unsupervised generative model, has been used to map seemingly disparate features to a common domain. We use Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) to infer the latent structure of multimodal ADHD data containing fMRI, MRI, phenotypic and behavioral measurements. We compare four different NMF algorithms and find the sparsest decomposition is also the most differentiating between ADHD and healthy patients. We identify dimensions that map to interpretable, recognizable dimensions such as motion, default mode network activity, and other such features of the input data. For example, structural and functional graph theory features related to default mode subnetworks clustered with the ADHD inattentive diagnosis. Structural measurements of the default mode network (DMN) regions such as the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and parahippocampal regions were all related to the ADHD-Inattentive diagnosis. Ventral DMN subnetworks may have more functional connections in ADHD-I, while dorsal DMN may have less. We also find that ADHD topics may be dependent upon diagnostic site, raising the possibility of the diagnostic differences across geographic locations. We assess our findings in light of the ADHD-200 classification competition, and contrast our unsupervised, nominated topics with previously published supervised learning methods. Finally, we demonstrate the validity of these latent variables as biomarkers by using them for classification of

  8. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in motor and association networks in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Ann K.; Baker, Justin T.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness characterized by disturbances in multiple domains. The cerebellum is involved in both motor and non-motor functions, and the “cognitive dysmetria” and “dysmetria of thought” models propose that abnormalities of the cerebellum may contribute to schizophrenia signs and symptoms. The cerebellum and cerebral cortex are reciprocally connected via a modular, closed-loop network architecture, but few schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have taken into account the topographical and functional heterogeneity of the cerebellum. In this study, using a previously defined 17-network cerebral cortical parcellation system as the basis for our functional connectivity seeds, we systematically investigated connectivity abnormalities within the cerebellum of 44 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy control participants. We found selective alterations in cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity. Specifically, schizophrenia patients showed decreased cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in higher level association networks (ventral attention, salience, control, and default mode networks) relative to healthy control participants. Schizophrenia patients also showed increased cerebro-cerebellar connectivity in somatomotor and default mode networks, with the latter showing no overlap with the regions found to be hypoconnected within the same default mode network. Finally, we found evidence to suggest that somatomotor and default mode networks may be inappropriately linked in schizophrenia. The relationship of these dysconnectivities to schizophrenia symptoms, such as neurological soft signs and altered sense of agency, is discussed. We conclude that the cerebellum ought to be considered for analysis in all future studies of network abnormalities in SZ, and further suggest the cerebellum as a potential target for further elucidation, and possibly treatment, of the underlying mechanisms and network abnormalities producing symptoms of

  9. Resting state fMRI reveals a default mode dissociation between retrosplenial and medial prefrontal subnetworks in ASD despite motion scrubbing

    PubMed Central

    Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Rahko, Jukka; Remes, Jukka; Hurtig, Tuula; Haapsamo, Helena; Jussila, Katja; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Pauls, David L.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2013-01-01

    In resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) decreased frontal-posterior functional connectivity is a persistent finding. However, the picture of the default mode network (DMN) hypoconnectivity remains incomplete. In addition, the functional connectivity analyses have been shown to be susceptible even to subtle motion. DMN hypoconnectivity in ASD has been specifically called for re-evaluation with stringent motion correction, which we aimed to conduct by so-called scrubbing. A rich set of default mode subnetworks can be obtained with high dimensional group independent component analysis (ICA) which can potentially provide more detailed view of the connectivity alterations. We compared the DMN connectivity in high-functioning adolescents with ASDs to typically developing controls using ICA dual-regression with decompositions from typical to high dimensionality. Dual-regression analysis within DMN subnetworks did not reveal alterations but connectivity between anterior and posterior DMN subnetworks was decreased in ASD. The results were very similar with and without motion scrubbing thus indicating the efficacy of the conventional motion correction methods combined with ICA dual-regression. Specific dissociation between DMN subnetworks was revealed on high ICA dimensionality, where networks centered at the medial prefrontal cortex and retrosplenial cortex showed weakened coupling in adolescents with ASDs compared to typically developing control participants. Generally the results speak for disruption in the anterior-posterior DMN interplay on the network level whereas local functional connectivity in DMN seems relatively unaltered. PMID:24319422

  10. Effects of brain amyloid deposition and reduced glucose metabolism on the default mode of brain function in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Yokokura, Masamichi; Yagi, Shunsuke; Mori, Norio; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Sugihara, Genichi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ueki, Takatoshi; Minabe, Yoshio; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2011-08-01

    Brain β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition during normal aging is highlighted as an initial pathogenetic event in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Many recent brain imaging studies have focused on areas deactivated during cognitive tasks [the default mode network (DMN), i.e., medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex], where the strength of functional coordination was more or less affected by cerebral Aβ deposits. In the present positron emission tomography study, to investigate whether regional glucose metabolic alterations and Aβ deposits seen in nondemented elderly human subjects (n = 22) are of pathophysiological importance in changes of brain hemodynamic coordination in DMN during normal aging, we measured cerebral glucose metabolism with [(18)F]FDG, Aβ deposits with [(11)C]PIB, and regional cerebral blood flow during control and working memory tasks by H(2)(15)O on the same day. Data were analyzed using both region of interest and statistical parametric mapping. Our results indicated that the amount of Aβ deposits was negatively correlated with hemodynamic similarity between medial frontal and medial posterior regions, and the lower similarity was associated with poorer working memory performance. In contrast, brain glucose metabolism was not related to this medial hemodynamic similarity. These findings suggest that traceable Aβ deposition, but not glucose hypometabolism, in the brain plays an important role in occurrence of neuronal discoordination in DMN along with poor working memory in healthy elderly people. PMID:21813680