Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…
Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…
Steel, J M; Young, R J; Lloyd, G G; Macintyre, C C
All insulin-dependent diabetics between the ages of 16 and 25 years attending the diabetic clinic at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, (152 women and 139 men) were asked to complete the EAT, the EDI, and the GHQ, and to provide a control subject (sibling or close friend) of similar age who would do likewise. Marked differences were found between diabetic women (but not men) and their controls in eating attitudes, in many of the psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders, and in GHQ scores. Although some of the women had classic anorexia nervosa or bulimia, others with abnormal eating attitudes did not fulfil the formal criteria. Overall, diabetics were significantly heavier than controls but the differences in eating attitudes were not eliminated by correcting for overweight. Abnormal scores were associated with high HbA1 levels and independently with retinopathy. The weight gain and psychological effects of diabetes are identified as probably of aetiological importance in the abnormal eating attitudes of young diabetic women. PMID:2611574
Elal, G; Sabol, E; Slade, P
The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse. The subject sample comprised 532 female Turkish undergraduate and nursing students in Istanbul. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Sexual Abuse Questionnaire, the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale, the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale and the Need for Control Scale (NCS) were the instruments of the study. The results showed that sexual abuse has a direct effect on EAT-Bulimia but not on EAT-Dieting. It also has some indirect effects on both of these through its effects on family functioning. Perfectionism, on the other hand, was independently linked with both EAT-Dieting and EAT-Bulimia but was not associated with sexual abuse. PMID:15656010
Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113
O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. PMID:26774444
Baş, Murat; Aşçi, F Hülya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül
This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the females) had abnormal eating attitude scores. Chi-square analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the prevalance of abnormal eating behaviors based on gender. Analysis of covariance indicated that participants who had disturbed eating attitudes had lower self-esteem, higher social physique anxiety, and higher trait anxiety than those who had normal eating attitudes. It was concluded that the prevalence of disturbed eating attitudes was high among these Turkish late adolescents, and that disturbed eating attitudes were related to several psychological characteristics. PMID:15673232
Latzer, Y.; Tzischinsky, O.
Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormal eating attitudes. In terms of…
Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.
The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…
Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam
Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482
Rosen, James C.; And Others
Collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in grades 9 through 12, on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), used to measure symptoms of eating disorders. Obtained significant sex, but not age, differences, and some racial and socioeconomic differences among the girls. (Author/KS)
Baş, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes, self-esteem, social trait anxiety and social physique anxiety of self-reported vegetarian and nonvegetarian Turkish adolescents. The sample for the Turkish University' students is designed to provide the estimates of vegetarian indicators and prevalence. The participants were 608 females and 597 males, in total 1205 adolescents aged between 17 and 21 years. Disturbed eating behaviors (EAT-26> or =20) was found in 45.2% (14 of vegetarian) of the total vegetarian sample; which included two of the male vegetarians and 12 of the female vegetarians. The mean BMI was 19.78+/-1.49 kg/m(2) for female vegetarians and 20.78+/-2.46 kg/m(2) for female nonvegetarians (p<0.05). Male vegetarians had significantly higher score than male nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (17.25+/-11.18 for male vegetarians and 9.38+/-6.60 for male nonvegetarians), dieting (6.50+/-7.65 for male vegetarians and 2.55+/-3.87 for male nonvegetarians) and oral control (6.13+/-4.67 for male vegetarians and 3.20+/-3.19 for male nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). Besides, female vegetarians had significantly higher score than female nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (22.04+/-13.62 for female vegetarians and 11.38+/-8.28 for female nonvegetarians), dieting (10.35+/-9.58 for female vegetarians and 4.41+/-5.30 for female nonvegetarians), oral control (7.78+/-5.13 for female vegetarians and 3.33+/-3.51 for female nonvegetarians) and STAI (51.39+/-7.28 for female vegetarians and 47.29+/-5.13 for female nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the present study indicated abnormal eating attitudes, low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety in Turkish vegetarian adolescents. The vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians. PMID:15927731
Celik, Sevim; Ugur, Bayram Ali; Aykurt, Fethi Ahmet; Bektas, Muammer
Background: Changing eating behaviors might trigger obesity, deficiency, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and reactive eating disorders. Objectives: This study aimed to determine eating attitudes of nursing students in the western Black-Sea region of Turkey as well as to examine the effects of demographic features, self-esteem, body image, income level, and family structure on their eating attitudes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 nursing students between January and February 2014. Data were collected using the personal information form, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Body-Cathexis Scale (BCS), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: About 30.0% of Turkish nursing students had negative eating attitudes. There was a significant positive correlation between the BDS and EAT scores (P < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between RSES scores and EAT scores of nursing students (P < 0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between the father’s occupation (P < 0.05) and mother’s working condition (P < 0.05), and the students’ eating attitudes. Conclusions: Psychological status, self-esteem, economic level, and place of residence of nursing students may be the potential factors for eating disorders. PMID:26339662
Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.
Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…
Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul
This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…
Rhyne-Winkler, Martha C.
Examined eating attitudes of fourth-, sixth-, and eighth-grade girls (n=379) and relationship between those attitudes and achievement scores, school ability, absenteeism, family income, grade level, family size, age, height/weight ratio, diet history, weight satisfaction, appearance satisfaction, and school anxiety. Found that eating-disordered…
Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.
Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…
Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando
The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708
Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly
Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…
Riva, G; Ragazzoni, P; Molinari, E
The aim of this study was to verify the link between psychopathological disorders and eating attitude in a clinical sample of 195 female obese subjects. A battery of psychological tests, including the Italian versions of the MMPI2, ASQ and EAT scales were administered to all the patients. We analyzed the link between psychopathological traits and eating attitudes by using both Multiple Regression analysis and non-parametric Segmentation Modeling. The results showed that psychopathological aspects, and depression in particular, are strongly linked to the eating attitude of clinically obese subjects. This is an important result also for therapeutic purposes, as it highlights the need for psychological support in diet therapy to intervene on the psychological perceptions and experiences of the patient. PMID:10728154
Williams, H J; Wagner, H L; Calam, R M
To investigate an hypothesized link between unwanted sexual experiences in childhood and later problems with eating, 21 survivors of sexual abuse completed three questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test, the Sexual Events Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. These women scored high on the EAT, and scores were higher for women who reported more sexual experiences. A similar relation was found between number of sexual experiences and depression, and anxiety and insomnia, but not with somatic symptoms. The implications of these findings for intervention in sexual abuse and eating disorder cases are discussed. PMID:1600404
De Santis, Joseph P; Layerla, Dennys Martin; Barroso, Susana; Gattamorta, Karina A; Sanchez, Michael; Prado, Guillermo J
Gay men are a vulnerable population at risk for a number of health disparities, but little is known about eating disorders among gay Hispanic men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of eating attitudes and behaviors with alcohol abuse, body image, depression, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors to determine predictors of eating attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of gay Hispanic men. Significant numbers of the participants were at risk for eating disorders (13%), alcohol abuse (18%), body image disturbance (29%), depression (25%), low self-esteem (12%), and high-risk sexual behaviors (34%). Alcohol abuse, body image, depression, self-esteem, and sexual behaviors were significant predictors of eating attitudes and behaviors and accounted for 38% of the variance in eating attitudes and behaviors. Nurses providing care to this population of gay men must be aware of this cluster of related mental health conditions that are experienced by these men. Addressing and treating these health conditions as a group of related mental health conditions are necessary. More research is needed to further explore this cluster of health issues among gay Hispanic men. PMID:22449559
Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Emdadi, Shohreh; Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ataee, Mari; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi
Background Fitness is a very important goal among young adults that may lead to eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing fitness intention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and its relationship to eating attitudes. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 female college students during the winter of 2012. Participants were randomly selected in proportion to their distribution among the different faculties at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21 using a T-test, ANOVA, bivariate correlations, and linear regression at a 95% significant level. Results Nearly 21.6% of the participants had abnormal eating attitudes. The TPB variables accounted for 40% of the variation in fitness intention. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive correlation between fitness intention and eating attitude (r = 0.417, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on our results, it seems that designing and implementing educational programs to reduce positive attitudes and encourage subjective norms toward fitness may be useful for preventing abnormal eating attitudes. PMID:27284282
Beato-Fernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview, psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and eating psychopathology with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), and the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE). Controlling the effect of initial substance use problems, psychological distress predicted later reported substance use problems in males. Girls with an initial score above the cut-off point on the GHQ were two times more likely to be at risk of having an eating disorder 2 years later. Therefore, psychological distress might take different developmental pathways in males and females, leading toward eating problems in the latter versus substance use in the former. PMID:17001526
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Al-Kandari, Fawzia I.; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Faraj, Alaa M.; Bouriki, Fajer A.; Shehab, Fatima S.; Al-Dabous, Lulwa A.; Al-Qalaf, Wassin B.
Background: This study aimed to highlight the proportion of disordered eating attitudes among university students in Kuwait by gender and obesity. Methods: A sample of 530 Kuwaiti university students was selected from four universities in Kuwait (203 men and 327 women). The eating attitudes test-26 was used to determine disordered eating attitudes. Results: The prevalence of disordered eating attitudes was 31.8% and 33.6% among men and women respectively. Obese students of both genders had doubled the risk of disordered eating attitudes compared to nonobese students (odds ratio 1.99 and 1.98, respectively). Conclusions: About one third of university students in Kuwait had disordered eating attitudes. There is an urgent need to prevent and treat disordered eating attitudes in university students in Kuwait. PMID:27141286
Waddell-Kral, L; Thomas, C D
Recent research suggests that social standards for ideal female beauty are related to negative body-image and dieting among young women. We hypothesized that women who work in settings that emphasize physical appearance (women's fashion clothing sales) would have more disturbed body attitudes and eating behaviors than college women. Sales personnel (n = 21) and students (n = 25) answered questions about their occupational status, weight, and demographic characteristics, and completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Disorder Inventory. Weight and scores on the two scales were similar in both groups except that sales personnel reported more dissatisfaction with their body parts on the Body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Among sales personnel, those who perceived their appearance to be of greater importance in their work also reported more concern about dieting and weight, as reflected on the Drive for thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Results are discussed with regard to situational influences on women's body attitudes and their implications for eating behaviors. PMID:2263693
McArdle, S; Meade, M M; Moore, P
To date, little is known about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of athlete support personnel (ASP) working in elite sport toward disordered eating (DE) and eating disorders (EDs). This study seeks to explore this area of mental health, employing an attribution model of stigma as a conceptual lens. Interviews were undertaken with 14 service providers (seven males and seven females) working in high-performance sport in Ireland. In contrast to previous research in the general population, findings revealed that sport-based personnel, in the main, did not hold the individual responsible for the development of their eating disorder. The predominant emotional response of those who had worked with an athlete with a known or suspected eating disorder was anxiety and worry. In line with the findings of previous studies with other health professionals, negative views on the prognosis of those with EDs were expressed by the ASP. Furthermore, confidentiality was found to be a significant barrier to bringing athletes' disclosure of problematic eating or exercise behavior to the fore. The findings of this study add to the limited research exploring attitudes toward EDs in sport and highlights the importance of greater education and openness toward this particular mental health problem. PMID:26134346
Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Kooshavar, Deniz; Seyed Sajadi, Neda; Safoura, Safoura; Hamed Behzad, Mahdiyeh; Shahrokhi, Hassan
Background: Disordered eating attitudes are contributing factors to the development of eating disorders. Adolescent girls are at high risk for eating diseases. In Iran, there is few data on the subject, especially in Azarian adolescent girls, so we did this study for assessing disordered eating attitudes and their correlates among Iranian Azarbaijani high school girls. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1887 high school girls were selected. Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) and socio economical questionnaires were used. The EAT-26 score of 20 or higher defined as disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences, by using from descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: Reliability and validity of the translated EAT-26 were 0.80, 0.76, respectively. In studied subjects, mean (SD) of EAT-26 was 11.71(8.48). Totally, 16.7% (C.I with 95%: 15.1- 18.3%) of students had disordered eating attitudes. About half of the participants were unhappy with their body weight and considered themselves as obese. Mean of EAT-26 was higher in this group. Groups, who intent to weight loss, were smoker, and who had age of menarche less than 11 years, also had higher EAT-26 scores. Parent’s literacy or job, birth order, family size or income and house ownership had not any significant effect on EAT-26 score. Conclusions: Persian version of EAT-26 has good reliability and validity for assessing disordered eating attitudes in Azarian girl adolescents. Prevalence of disordered eating attitudes among Azarian adolescent girls are in the range of some studies, but are less than Arabian countries, and some European ones. In adolescent girls, body weight dissatisfaction, smoking and early menarche has important role in eating attitudes. PMID:24688898
Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbach’s alphas for the EDI (total score = .91; subscales = .75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score = .81) and EAT-26 (total score = .86; subscales = .56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530
Blake, Holly; Patterson, Joanna
This study assessed paediatric nurses' attitudes towards promoting healthy eating and their opinions regarding nurses as role models for health. In all, 67 nurses from 14 wards at an acute hospital trust completed questionnaires on weight, diet, physical activity, self-efficacy and attitudes towards nurses as role models for health. Forty-eight percent felt that they could incorporate health promotion into their patient care better, and 84% believed that nurses should present themselves as role models for health. Nurses felt that their own health behaviours influenced the quality of their care: 77% reported that patients and families would heed advice better from those who appeared to follow it themselves, and 48% reported difficulties in promoting health behaviours they did not adhere to themselves. These views were inconsistent with their own lifestyle choices, since one third of respondents did not meet physical-activity guidelines, almost half were an unhealthy weight, and the majority did not consume five portions of fruits/vegetables per day. Paediatric nurses identified barriers and facilitators to promoting healthy eating. Education, training and access to evidence-based resources may help to increase paediatric nurses' confidence to promote healthy eating to children and their families. Hospital workplaces should make provision to support nurses who seek to improve their own health. PMID:25615996
Maloney, M J; Shepard-Spiro, P
Although the sisters of anorexia nervosa patients may have an increased risk for this disorder, there are no controlled studies of the eating patterns and attitudes of the normal sisters of anorexic patients. Twenty-one sister pairs (anorexics and their normal sisters) were interviewed and given the Eating Attitude Test (EAT) to compare their eating attitudes and behaviors. The mean scores on the EAT and its three subscales (measuring "Dieting," "Bulimia and Food Preoccupation," and "Oral Control") were significantly correlated with criterion group membership (p less than 0.0001). The normal sisters as a group did not demonstrate anorexic eating attitudes. However, two normal sisters did score in the anorexic range and are being followed prospectively. The EAT questionnaire could be used to screen vulnerable siblings of patients with anorexia nervosa for early signs of this disorder. PMID:6662359
Coughlin, Janelle W; Schreyer, Colleen C; Sarwer, David B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S
Body image disturbance is frequent among individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery and core to the pathology of eating disorders (ED); however, there is little research examining cosmetic surgery in ED. This study examined body image related measures, ED behaviors, and depression as predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in 129 women with ED. Patients who had undergone surgery (n=16, 12%) were compared to those who had not. Having a purging diagnosis, linking success to appearance, and making physical appearance comparisons were predictive of more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. All of those who had undergone surgery had purging diagnoses and, on average, were older, had higher BMIs, and were more likely to make physical appearance comparisons and know someone who had undergone surgery. In ED, acceptance and pursuit of cosmetic surgery appears to be related to social group influences more than weight and shape disturbance, media influences, or mood. PMID:22119760
Burckle, Michelle A.; Ryckman, Richard M.; Gold, Joel A.; Thornton, Bill; Audesse, Roberta J.
Examined the differential contributions of two forms of competitive attitude to disordered eating in 198 female Caucasian college students. Results show that it is not competition per se that is a primary contributor to eating disorders but rather a hypercompetitiveness form of competitive attitude. (SLD)
Wilson, J F; Mercer, J C
Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) scores of forty female college students were compared to their electrodermal activity (EDA) responses when offered a plate of chocolate chip cookies. A significant positive correlation was detected between the EAT scores and the skin conductivity measures associated with the presentation of food. Women with the highest EAT scores also exhibited the greatest sympathetic nervous system responses to a plate of cookies. This finding supports the conclusion that the EAT is capable of identifying individuals who are preoccupied with food or anxious about eating. PMID:2284404
Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tucker, Megan; Gerstner, Nora
Research has demonstrated that individuals with eating disorders have an impaired sense of smell and taste, though the influence of eating attitudes, dietary restraint and gender in a non-clinical sample is unknown. In two studies (study 1: 32 females, 28 males; study 2: 29 females) participants completed questionnaires relating to Eating Attitudes (EAT) and dietary restraint (DEBQ) followed by an odour (study 1: isoamyl acetate, study 2: chocolate) threshold and taste test. In study 2 we also measured the number of fungiform papillae taste buds. Study one revealed that increases in pathological eating attitudes predicted poorer olfactory sensitivity (males/females) and lower bitterness ratings for the bitter tastant (females only), suggestive of poorer taste acuity. In study two we found that both eating attitudes and restraint predicted poorer sensitivity to an odour associated to a forbidden food (chocolate) and that increasing eating attitudes predicted higher sweetness ratings for the bitter tastant. Interestingly increases in restraint were associated with an increased number of fungiform papillae which was not related to bitter or sweet intensity. These findings demonstrate that in a young healthy sample that subtle differences in eating pathology and dietary restraint predict impaired olfactory function to food related odours. Further that perception of bitter tastants is poorer with changes in eating pathology but not dietary restraint. PMID:23811349
Groth-Marnat, Gary; Scumaker, Jack F.
Investigated relationship between locus of control and attitude to food intake in 101 female college students. Results indicated that locus of control was unable to predict attitudes toward eating and fear of becoming overweight. Thesis that locus of control would be related to attitude toward food intake was not supported. (Author/NB)
Papini, Dennis R.; Lloyd, Paul J.
Heightened concern about eating behavior has been expressed in recent surveys of high school and college students. There have been increased requests for treatment of eating disorders among college students and many colleges have developed programs that provide treatment for students afflicted with an eating disorder. The Eating Disorder Inventory…
Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...
Doninger, Gretchen L.; Enders, Craig K.; Burnett, Kent F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982) using a sample of 207 female college athletes. Previous studies using nonathlete populations have supported a number of factor structures, but a series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs)…
Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane
The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Nohlert, Eva; Johansson, Anders; Norring, Claes; Tegelberg, Ake
The aims of the present study were to explore the level of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in relation to patients with eating disorders (ED) and evaluate the extent to which patients with ED are identified and/or treated in the dental setting. A postal questionnaire was constructed and sent to all dentists (n = 367) in two Swedish counties during November 2005. The questionnaire comprised 29 questions or statements in the following categories: demographics, general knowledge of ED and its oral consequences, experience of and attitudes towards patients with ED and interaction within the health care system, for example, referrals and treatment options regarding this patient group. The response rate was 70% (n = 258). Perceived knowledge about ED was most commonly obtained from media sources, namely newspapers, television, etc. Few dentists knew that there existed specialized referral units for ED patients in their county. The majority of dentists stated that they had seen only a few such patients during their practice. Even though the perceived level of general knowledge about ED among female dentists appeared to be better than among male dentists, they also found it more difficult to inform the patient/relatives about their suspicion of the condition. Female dentists referred to specialists significantly more frequently than did males. Eighty-six percent of responders reported that they needed more training in dental management of patients with ED. Knowledge and clinical experience of dentists as regards patients with ED were found to be low. The level of education in this area needs to be improved, which would have the potential to encourage dentists to become more involved in secondary and tertiary prevention and management of ED. PMID:19522312
Lai Yeung, Wai-ling Theresa
Objective: This research aimed to investigate the eating attitudes and behaviors of junior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a specific focus on possible gender differences. Design: A survey was conducted in 2005 to solicit data about participants' food knowledge, eating attitudes and behavior, perceptions of cooking skills and body weight,…
Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. PMID:25982390
Dinsmore, Britta Davis; Mallinckrodt, Brent
Certain racial identity attitudes may involve diminished internal emotional awareness, features of a syndrome known as "alexithymia," which has been observed in survivors of extreme trauma. This study found that levels of alexithymia, but not eating disorders, were related to attitudes characteristic of early stages of racial identity development…
Hackler, Ashley H.; Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.
This study examined the relationship between self-stigma, anticipated risks and benefits associated with seeking counseling, and attitudes toward seeking counseling among college students with disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma and the anticipated risks and…
Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhao, Yong
In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075
Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong
In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075
Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Meiran, Nachshon; Herbert, James D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L
Disinhibited eating (i.e., the tendency to overeat, despite intentions not to do so, in the presence of palatable foods or other cues such as emotional stress) is strongly linked with obesity and appears to be associated with both implicit (automatic) and explicit (deliberative) food attitudes. Prior research suggests that a large discrepancy between implicit and explicit food attitudes may contribute to greater levels of disinhibited eating; however this theory has not been directly tested. The current study examined whether the discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes towards chocolate could predict both lab-based and self-reported disinhibited eating of chocolate. Results revealed that, whereas neither implicit nor explicit attitudes alone predicted disinhibited eating, absolute attitude discrepancy positively predicted chocolate consumption. Impulsivity moderated this effect, such that discrepancy was less predictive of disinhibited eating for those who exhibited lower levels of impulsivity. The results align with the meta-cognitive model to indicate that attitude discrepancy may be involved in overeating. PMID:24411770
Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; Falzon, Charlène; Lewton-Brain, Peter; Filaire, Edith; d’Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne
Dancers are at high risk of developing disordered eating attitudes, notably because of internalized thinness norms. Although the big five personality traits have been shown to be associated with eating attitudes in daily life, in dancers where eating issues and thinness norms internalization could be salient little is known about these associations and the role of the internalization of thinness norms in this relationship. The main objectives of this study were thus to examine the relationships between the personality traits defined in the big five model and the self-regulation of eating attitudes, and to assess the role of internalized thinness norms in this association. The study included 180 intensively training dancers with an average age of 15.6 years (SD = 2.8). Dancers completed questionnaires measuring the big five personality traits, internalization of thinness norms and self-regulation of eating attitudes in sport. Bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-regulation of eating attitudes, both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of internalized thinness norms. This study suggested that: (a) neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for self-regulation of eating attitudes in dancers, as already evidenced in the general population, and (b) the internalization of thinness norms is a pathway through which neuroticism affects self-regulation of eating attitudes. The big five model is therefore partially related to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Key points The big five model relates to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Neuroticism is negatively related to the self-regulation of eating attitudes. The internalization of thinness norms is correlated to the relationship between neuroticism and self-regulation of eating attitudes PMID:26336350
Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; Falzon, Charlène; Lewton-Brain, Peter; Filaire, Edith; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne
Dancers are at high risk of developing disordered eating attitudes, notably because of internalized thinness norms. Although the big five personality traits have been shown to be associated with eating attitudes in daily life, in dancers where eating issues and thinness norms internalization could be salient little is known about these associations and the role of the internalization of thinness norms in this relationship. The main objectives of this study were thus to examine the relationships between the personality traits defined in the big five model and the self-regulation of eating attitudes, and to assess the role of internalized thinness norms in this association. The study included 180 intensively training dancers with an average age of 15.6 years (SD = 2.8). Dancers completed questionnaires measuring the big five personality traits, internalization of thinness norms and self-regulation of eating attitudes in sport. Bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that neuroticism was negatively associated with self-regulation of eating attitudes, both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of internalized thinness norms. This study suggested that: (a) neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for self-regulation of eating attitudes in dancers, as already evidenced in the general population, and (b) the internalization of thinness norms is a pathway through which neuroticism affects self-regulation of eating attitudes. The big five model is therefore partially related to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers. Key pointsThe big five model relates to the internalization of thinness norms and eating attitudes in dancers.Neuroticism is negatively related to the self-regulation of eating attitudes.The internalization of thinness norms is correlated to the relationship between neuroticism and self-regulation of eating attitudes. PMID:26336350
Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.
Background Behavioral interventions targeting overweight children have been successful in facilitating weight loss; however, there is concern that these programs produce disordered eating attitudes among youth. Objective The purpose was to (1) to determine if overweight youth receiving one of two behavioral interventions were more likely to report an increase in disordered eating attitudes over time compared to a waitlist control; and (2) to determine psychosocial predictors of eating disordered attitudes at six-month follow-up. Design Participants were randomized to one of two behavioral lifestyle interventions or a waitlist control. Data was collected at baseline, post-treatment, and six-month follow-up. Participants/Setting Participants were 68 overweight youths, ages 8–13, and their parent(s) who lived in rural north central Florida. The project ran from January 2006 to January 2008. Intervention Each treatment condition consisted of 12 group sessions over 16 weeks. Main outcome measures Parents completed a demographic form and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Children completed the Children's Eating Attitudes Test, Schwartz Peer Victimization Scale, and Children's Body Image Scale. Statistical Analyses Performed Mixed 2×2 ANOVAs were used to examine the effect of treatment on eating attitudes. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess whether baseline levels of psychosocial variables predicted disordered eating attitudes at follow-up, controlling for baseline eating attitudes and treatment condition. Results Youth who participated in the behavioral interventions did not report significant increases in disordered eating attitudes over time compared to the waitlist control. Across all conditions, higher levels of body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, parent restrictive feeding practices and concern for child weight at baseline predicted higher levels of disordered eating attitudes at follow-up. Conclusion These findings do not provide evidence
Rouveix, M; Bouget, M; Pannafieux, C; Champely, S; Filaire, E
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms. PMID:17024652
Kamimura, Akiko; Tabler, Jennifer; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Stephens, Tamara; Aguilera, Guadalupe; Wright, Lindsey; Ashby, Jeanie
Obesity is associated with a number of chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. While common prevention and treatment strategies to control unhealthy weight gain tend to target behaviors and lifestyles, the psychological factors which affect eating behaviors among underserved populations also need to be further addressed and included in practice implementations. The purpose of this study is to examine positive and negative emotional valence about food among underserved populations in a primary care setting. Uninsured primary care patients (N = 621) participated in a self-administered survey from September to December in 2015. Higher levels of perceived benefits of healthy food choice were associated with lower levels of a negative emotional valence about food while higher levels of perceived barriers to healthy food choice are related to higher levels of a negative emotional valence about food. Greater acceptance of motivation to eat was associated with higher levels of positive and negative emotional valence about food. Spanish speakers reported greater acceptance of motivation to eat and are more likely to have a negative emotional valence about food than US born or non-US born English speakers. The results of this study have important implications to promote healthy eating among underserved populations at a primary care setting. Healthy food choice or healthy eating may not always be achieved by increasing knowledge. Psychological interventions should be included to advance healthy food choice. PMID:26831483
Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse
The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…
Moradi, Bonnie; Rottenstein, Adena
This study examined the generalizability of direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of Deaf women. The study also examined the role of marginal Deaf cultural identity attitudes within this…
Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.
The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…
Marmorstein, Naomi R.; von Ranson, Kristin M.; Iacono, William G.; Succop, Paul A.
This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing…
Koff, E; Rierdan, J
Sixth grade girls (n = 206) responded to questions about their weight, body image, dieting practices, and attitudes toward weight and eating. Results suggested that feeling too fat and wishing to lose weight were becoming normative for young adolescent girls in that the majority of girls wished to weigh less and said that they dieted at least occasionally. For most girls, weight concerns had emerged between the ages of 9 to 11. A sizeable proportion of girls seemed to have adopted a "dieting mentality," claiming to be avoiding fat, counting calories, thinking excessively about food, feeling guilty after eating and overeating, and exercising to lose weight. Such practices were common even among girls who did not describe themselves as overweight or who were satisfied with their appearance. The emergence of these attitudes and behaviors at increasingly younger ages is of grave concern, as several of them are risk factors for the development of serious eating disorders. PMID:1755870
Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan
Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709
The article describes a report stemming from the development and application of a Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ)--a 100 item attitudinal and factual instrument designed to cover a wide range of suicidal concerns. Subjects of the study were 17 college students drawn at random from 89 students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Results…
Santos, Amanda M; Benute, Gláucia R G; Nomura, Roseli M Y; Santos, Niraldo O; De Lucia, Mara C S; Francisco, Rossana P V
Objective To describe and determine the association between the occurrence of pica and eating attitudes in women with high-risk pregnancies and to determine the prevalence of pica during pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional and prospective 24-month study was conducted with 913 women with high-risk pregnancies. Structured interviews were carried out and the Eating Attitudes Test was applied. Results Pica was diagnosed in 5.7 % of the pregnant women, and its most commonly practiced type was geophagia (57.7 %). The association between pica and signs related to the eating attitudes: "to be considered too thin by others" (p < 0.02), and "to spend too much time thinking about food" (p = 0.05); and the association between pica and the risk of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (p < 0.01) were statistically significant. Conclusions The absence of validated instruments in the literature for assessing pica reinforces the difficulty of investigating this practice and the need for further studies. Moreover, additional efforts need to focus in the improvement of screening for other eating disorders with obstetric consequences associated with pica and be incorporated into the routine of healthcare professionals. PMID:26558792
McCann, J B; Stein, A; Fairburn, C G; Dunger, D B
The eating habits and attitudes concerning body shape and weight among 26 mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive (the index group) were studied using the eating disorder examination. They were compared with equivalent data on 26 individually matched women who participated in a large community survey. The index mothers' views of their child's weight and shape were also studied. The principal findings were, firstly, that when compared with the comparison group, mothers of children with non-organic failure to thrive had higher levels of dietary restraint. Secondly, despite their child's low weight, 50% of the index mothers were restricting their child's intake of 'sweet' foods, and a further 30% were restricting foods they considered 'fattening' or 'unhealthy'. These results raise the question of whether maternal eating habits and attitudes have a causal role in the genesis of non-organic failure to thrive. They suggest that careful inquiry about the mothers' eating habits and attitudes is needed when assessing children with non-organic failure to thrive. PMID:8135570
Puhl, R M; Masheb, R M; White, M A; Grilo, C M
No research has compared expressions of weight bias across different subgroups of obese individuals. This study compared attitudes toward and beliefs about obesity in women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and examined whether these attitudes are related to psychological factors. Fifty obese women with BED were compared with an age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 50 obese women without BED on a battery of established measures of anti-fat attitudes and beliefs about weight controllability and psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder features). The ageand BMI-matched groups did not differ with respect to beliefs about obesity or attitudes toward obese persons, or in self-esteem or depression. Correlational analyses conducted separately within each group revealed that women with BED who reported more favorable attitudes towards obese persons had higher self-esteem and lower levels of depression, whereas there were no significant associations between these variables among women without BED. In addition, weight controllability beliefs and eating disorder features were unrelated to self-esteem and depression in both groups. These findings suggest that stigmatizing attitudes endorsed by obese persons are neither tempered nor worsened by psychological distress or eating pathology. Given that stigmatizing attitudes did not differ between obese women with and without BED, it may be that obesity itself, rather than psychological features or disordered eating, increases vulnerability to negative weight-based attitudes. Potential implications for stigma reduction efforts and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20124783
Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Intolubbe-Chmil, Loren; Trowbridge, Matthew; Sorensen, Dina; Huang, Terry T.-K.
Background: Schools have increasing responsibility to address healthy eating, but physical barriers influence their ability to adopt and sustain recommended strategies. We took advantage of a natural experiment to investigate the role of the physical environment in shaping healthy eating attitudes and practices among school staff members. Methods:…
Filaire, Edith; Rouveix, Matthieu; Pannafieux, Christelle; Ferrand, Claude
This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr), fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr) and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr) were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p < 0.01), Dieting (p < 0.01), and Bulimia scores (p < 0.05). Sixty percent of the athletes used weight loss methods. Self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives and diet pills were reported by 4%, 10%, and 8.5% of them, respectively. Increasing exercise was the primary method used by controls to lose body weight. Athletes reported greater negative feelings about their physical appearance and their Body Weight Satisfaction than controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Our results also showed that depression mood accounted for 73% of the variance in Bulimia scores and for 64% of the variance in Global EAT scores in athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors. Key pointsPrevalence of eating disorders has become a growing concern among athletic populations, but very little information is available concerning male athletes.This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive
Mancilla-Díaz, J M; López-Aguilar, X; Franco-Paredes, K; Alvarez-Rayón, G; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Trinidad Ocampo Téllez-Girón, M
The aim of this study was to assess eating behaviours and attitudes in a community sample of 615 adolescent Mexican students recruited at a middle school (192 boys and 226 girls; mean age +/- standard deviation 13.56+/-0.09) and high school (90 boys and 107 girls; mean age 16.04+/-0.12 years), who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Multiple analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of gender on the negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness and perceived social pressure subscales, and school level on the body dissatisfaction and food preoccupation subscales. Among the high school girls, the gender x school level interaction had a significant effect on negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness, food preoccupation and perceived social pressure subscales. These data support previous findings concerning gender, and also suggest that perceived social pressure in the case of girls and food preoccupation in the case of boys could be important factors in the natural development of eating disorders. PMID:20179402
Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia
The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control. PMID:18257948
Background Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport’s physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to assess the potential nutritional risks among them. Methods Thirty-six elite competitive adolescent female figure skaters (mean age 16 ± 2.5 SD years) completed self-administered three-day records of dietary intake and simultaneous physical activity records during training season. Two months later, they attended a national training camp during which they completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), provided fasting blood samples, and had heights and weights measured. Results Participants’ mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.8 ± 2.1 SD. Their BMIs were within the normal range, and the majority (70%) did not report a history of recent weight loss. The mean EAT-40 score was normal (19.5 ± 13.5 SD) and below the cut-off score of 30 that indicates clinically significant eating pathology. However, one-quarter of the skaters had EAT-40 scores above 30. The skaters reported a mean energy intake of 1491 ± 471 SD kcal/day (31 ± 10 SD kcal/kg), with 61.6% of calories from carbohydrate, 14.6% from protein, and 23.7% from fat. Their reported dietary intakes were high in carbohydrates but low in total energy, fat, and bone-building nutrients. Conclusions Although these highly active young women compete in a sport that prizes leanness, they had appropriate weights. The athletes reported dietary intakes that were far below estimated energy needs and were at moderate risk of disordered eating. Anticipatory guidance is warranted to improve their dietary intakes, particularly of bone-building nutrients. PMID:23237333
Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre
Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271
Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Soylu, Nusret; Avci, Kadriye; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Kocak, Uğur; Taş, Hanife Uzel
We aimed to examine association between disordered eating attitudes (DEAs), alexithymia and suicide probability among adolescent females and to explore potential link between alexithymia and suicide probability in subjects with DEAs. 381 female students completed Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS). It was found that 13.2% (n=52) of the subjects have DEAs. Results indicated that total TAS-20 score and scores of Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty in Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales were significantly higher in DEAs group than in those non DEAs group (p<0.05). Additionally, total SPS score (p<0.001), Hopelessness (p=0.001), Suicide Ideation (p<0.001) and Hostility (p=0.003) subscales scores of SPS were significantly higher in the alexithymic DEAs than the non-alexithymic DEAs group. In order to control potential effect of depression, SPS subscales were used as covariate factors in ANCOVA. Negative Self-Evaluation subscale yielded a statistically significant difference between groups, other subscales did not. Results point out these; DEAs are relatively frequent phenomenon among female students in Turkey and presence of alexithymia was associated with an increased suicide probability in adolescents with DEAs. The results should be evaluated taking into account that depressive symptomatology was not assessed using a depression scale. PMID:25619436
Kaminski, Patricia L; Chapman, Benjamin P; Haynes, Sandra D; Own, Lawrence
Gay men tend to be more dissatisfied with their bodies and may be at greater risk for symptoms of eating disorders compared to heterosexual men. However, the majority of research conducted with gay and heterosexual men has implemented instruments designed to assess eating disorder symptomatology in women. The present study assessed differences between gay and heterosexual men using the Male Eating Behavior and Body Image Evaluation (MEBBIE), an instrument designed to assess attitudes and behaviors related to eating, exercise and body image specifically in men. Analyses of MEBBIE scale means with body mass index (BMI) as the covariate indicated that, relative to their heterosexual counterparts, gay men diet more, are more fearful of becoming fat, and are more dissatisfied with their bodies in general as well as with their degree of muscularity. Gay men were also more likely than heterosexual men to hold distorted cognitions about the importance of having an ideal physique. Contrary to hypotheses, however, gay and straight men did not differ in the degree to which they exercised or felt guilty about missing a workout. Results are discussed in light of previous findings, and implications for clinical practice and future research are considered. PMID:15854864
Pedro, Titilola M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420
Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J
Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers. PMID:26952561
Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.
Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171
Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar
This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. PMID:20832438
Diehl, J M
Based on the data of 966 students grade five to eight, a new questionnaire--the "Eating Behaviour and Weight Problems Inventory for Children (EWI-C)"--was developed. Its 60 items are assigned to 10 subscales measuring: (1) hunger level and susceptibility to food cues, (2) importance and impact of eating on sense of well-being, (3) eating as a means of coping with emotional stress, (4) concerns about eating and weight, (5) dietary restraint, (6) attitude toward healthful nutrition, (7) attitude toward the obese, (8) pressures to eat from parents, (9) fear of weight gain, (10) figure dissatisfaction. Neither children's age nor father's educational level were related to their subscale scores to a significant degree. However, on all scales (except scale 3) important gender differences could be observed. From the youngest age groups on, mean values of girls clearly exceeded those of boys on scales 4, 5, 9 and 10, while on scales 1, 2, 7 and 8 mean scores of girls were significantly lower. To analyse relationships between EWI scores and children's relative weight, 620 students' data were combined with those of 445 adolescents attending weight-reduction programs in two obesity clinics. Boys' and girls' individual deviations from mean weight per height were used to form six groups ranging from underweight to severe obesity. In both sexes mean scores on scales 3-5, 9 and 10 significantly increased with increasing (over) weight, while a (partial) decrease could be observed on scales 2 and 8. Scores of subscales 1 and 7 proved to be independent of children's relative weight. Based on the data of the combined sample (n = 1065), norm tables with percentile ranks are provided which allow for children's sex and weight. By means of these tables the position of a boy's or girl's subscale score can be evaluated in relation to his/her weight category (underweight, normal weight, obesity, severe obesity). A child's responses on the EWI-C can be analysed by a DOS-program which is
Skugarevsky, Oleg; Wade, Kaitlin H; Richmond, Rebecca C; Martin, Richard M; Tilling, Kate; Patel, Rita; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Davey Smith, George; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S
Background: Observational studies suggest that breastfeeding benefits later maternal child-feeding practices, which in turn may contribute to positive eating attitudes. We investigated the effect of a randomized intervention to increase duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Methods: Long-term follow-up of the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), a cluster-randomized trial in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Sites were randomly assigned an experimental intervention to promote longer duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding in mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n = 16 sites), or a control intervention of continuing usual care (n = 15 sites); 17 046 healthy infants were enrolled in 1996–7, of whom 13 751 (80.7%) completed the Children’s Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years of age. A ChEAT score ≥22.5 (85th percentile) was used as an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat, accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results: Compared with the control arm, the experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding exclusivity (43.3% vs 6.4% exclusively breastfed at 3 months of age) and duration of any breastfeeding throughout infancy. The proportion of children with ChEAT scores ≥22.5 was lower in the experimental than control arm (boys 11.4% vs 17.2%; girls 18.5% vs 23.4%) [cluster-adjusted odds ratio (OR), boys: 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21,0.93; girls: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.27,0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential confounders and using a ChEAT score ≥25.5 (91st percentile) as the outcome (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28,1.03). Conclusions: An intervention to improve the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding among term infants in Belarus was associated with a reduction in problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years of age. PMID:24706729
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne
Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…
Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Qianqiu; Wang, Ya; Qiang, Yao
Self-regulatory resources and trait self-control have been found to moderate the impulse-behavior relationship. The current study investigated whether the interaction of self-regulatory resources and trait self-control moderates the association between implicit attitudes and food consumption. One hundred twenty female participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which their self-regulatory resources were reduced or a no-depletion condition. Participants' implicit attitudes for chocolate were measured with the Single Category Implicit Association Test and self-report measures of trait self-control were collected. The dependent variable was chocolate consumption in an ostensible taste and rate task. Implicit attitudes predicted chocolate consumption in depleted participants but not in non-depleted participants. However, this predictive power of implicit attitudes on eating in depleted condition disappeared in participants with high trait self-control. Thus, trait self-control and self-regulatory resources interact to moderate the prediction of implicit attitude on eating behavior. Results suggest that high trait self-control buffers the effect of self-regulatory depletion on impulsive eating. PMID:26402043
Javier, Sarah J; Moore, Melanie P; Belgrave, Faye Z
Although once thought primarily to affect White women, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating exist among all racial groups. In the current study, the authors determined whether the relationship between participants' perceived maternal/peer attitudes toward appearance and the outcomes of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology varied by race. Self-reported data, including measures of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of maternal/peer attitudes, were collected from December 2012 to May 2013 at a large Mid-Atlantic university. BMI (β = 0.20, p = .01), perceptions of peers' attitudes toward appearance (β = 0.23, p = .02), and White race (β = 0.33, p < .001) were independently associated with body dissatisfaction. Additionally, race interacted with perceptions of peers' attitudes toward appearance such that at high perceptions, African American women reported high levels of body dissatisfaction (β = -0.20, p = .04), but this was not true for White women. Higher perceived peer concern about weight and shape (β = 0.32, p < .001), increased BMI (β = 0.30, p < .001), and White race (β = 0.21, p = .002), also were associated with disordered eating. The results of this study have implications for prevention programs that address disordered eating for racially diverse groups of women. PMID:26583765
Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343
Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343
Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…
Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M
Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p < .001). Older overweight and obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions. PMID:25872866
Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A
Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670
Objective The study examined individual differences between general practitioners (GPs) to determine their impact on variations in intention to refer a hypothetical patient with disordered eating to specialist eating disorder services. The study also examined the impact of patient weight on intention to refer. Method GPs within three primary care trusts (PCTs) were posted a vignette depicting a patient with disordered eating, described as either normal weight or underweight. A questionnaire was developed from the theory of planned behaviour to assess the GPs' attitudes, perception of subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention to refer the patient. Demographic details were also collected. Results Responses were received from 88 GPs (33%). Intention to refer the patient was significantly related to subjective norms and cognitive attitudes. Together these predictors explained 86% of the variance in the intention to refer. GP or practice characteristics did not have a significant effect on the GPs' intention to refer, and nor did the patient's weight. Conclusion Despite National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence current guidance, patient weight did not influence GPs' decisions to refer. Much of the variance in actual referral behaviour may be explained by cognitive attitudes and subjective norms. Interventions to reduce this variation should be focused on informing GPs about actual norms, and best practice guidelines. PMID:22477872
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363
Juarascio, Adrienne S; Felton, Julia W; Borges, Allison M; Manasse, Stephanie M; Murray, Helen B; Lejuez, Carl W
The current study examined internalizing symptoms, affect reactivity, and distress intolerance as prospective predictors of increases in eating disorder (ED)-attitudes during adolescence. Adolescents (n = 206) took part in a six-year longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine associations between predictors and later ED-attitudes. Distress intolerance and internalizing symptoms were associated with ED-attitudes at baseline, but did not predict increases over time. Affect reactivity, however, was significantly associated with increases in ED-attitudes over time. Baseline affect reactivity did not interact with baseline distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes; however higher baseline internalizing symptoms interacted with distress intolerance to predict increases in ED-attitudes across adolescence. These results are among the first to document that affect reactivity alone and the combined effect of high internalizing symptoms and high distress intolerance early in adolescence are risk factors for the later development of ED-attitudes. PMID:27018749
Morgan, C D; Wiederman, M W; Pryor, T L
The sexual experiences and attitudes of eating disorder patients are receiving increased professional attention. However, empirical work in this area has generally focused on these patients at the point of initial evaluation. In the current study we report the results of a follow-up questionnaire completed by women who had been treated in our clinic (N = 42) for either anorexia nervosa (restricting type) or bulimia nervosa (purging type). We found that former anorectic patients were less likely to return the questionnaire and, of those who did, there was a trend toward anorectic women's being less likely to be in a romantic/erotic relationship. Almost all of the women had engaged in sexual intercourse, and former anorectic patients did not differ from bulimics with regard to age at first coitus. Anorectics were less likely than bulimics to have engaged in masturbation and also scored lower on a measure of sexual esteem. Although there were no differences between the two groups with regard to current level of sexual functioning, erotophobia/erotophilia, or sexual satisfaction, the women in our sample exhibited less sexual interest and more negative affect during sex than did a normative sample. Also, nearly 40% of our sample indicated clinically significant levels of sexual discord with their current partner. Results are discussed with regard to prior research, interventions, and further study. PMID:7643424
Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.
Background: Disordered eating patterns continue to surface on college campuses. Studies are needed to examine the potential influence of emotional intelligence on disordered eating behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between perceived emotional intelligence factors and eating disorder symptoms among male and…
Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight. PMID:21090277
Schvey, Natasha A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanoff, Lisa B.; Checchi, Jenna M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila; Savastano, David M.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Purpose To examine the relationships between cognitive eating restraint and both bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Methods 137 overweight (BMI 39.1±6.8 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian adolescent (age=14.4 ± 1.4y) girls (66.4%) and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and Eating Inventory (EI) questionnaire and underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure total lumbar spine BMD. Markers of bone formation (serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), bone resorption (24-hour urine N-telopeptides), and stress (urine free cortisol) were measured. Results After accounting for the contribution of demographics, height, weight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and depressive symptoms, adolescents’ weight concern, as assessed by interview, was a significant contributor to a model of urine free cortisol (β =.30, p <.05). Shape concern, as also assessed by interview, was significantly associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (β =.−.15, p < 05). Dietary restraint was not a significant predictor in any of these models. Conclusions These findings suggest that among severely overweight adolescents, dissatisfaction with shape and weight may be salient stressors. Future research is required to illuminate the relationship between bone health and disordered-eating attitudes in overweight adolescents. PMID:19541247
Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D
The aim of the current article was to compare stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with stigma toward another weight-related condition (obesity) and a non-weight-related mental disorder (major depressive disorder [MDD]). Participants (N = 447) read five vignettes describing a woman with AN, BN, BED, obesity, or MDD and responded to questionnaires examining stigmatizing attitudes. The targets with EDs were blamed more for their condition than the targets with MDD, whereas persons with obesity were held more responsible for their condition than any other target. On the other hand, the target with MDD was perceived as more impaired than any other target. Lack of self-discipline was attributed more to the development of BED and obesity than to any other condition. Stigmatizing attitudes vary across mental health disorders, and future research should aim to specifically target stigmatizing beliefs to reduce and prevent discrimination toward mental health disorders and obesity. PMID:23538972
Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M
Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our
Newman, Ian M.
This report describes selected eating and exercise patterns among a sample of 2,237 Nebraska youth in grades 9-12 selected from a random sample of 24 junior and senior high schools. The eating patterns reported cover food selection, body image, weight management, and weight loss methods. The exercise patterns relate to the frequency of "hard"…
Monthuy-Blanc, Johana; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Stephan, Yannick
This study aims to investigate the direct and indirect associations between physical self-subdomains, physical self-worth, global self-worth, and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors among French non-elite athlete and non-athlete adolescent girls. A sample of adolescent girls including 50 ballet dancers, 41 basketball players, and 47 non-athletes was used in this study. Data obtained from the ballet dancer and basketball player subsamples revealed significant, sample-specific as well as common, direct relations between global and physical self-perceptions and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors, as well as significant indirect relations (via global self-worth and physical self-worth) between specific physical self-perceptions and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. In contrast, no association was found between global and physical self-perceptions in the sample of non-athlete adolescent girls. PMID:22622324
Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P
Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. PMID:23336350
Witherspoon, Dawn; Latta, Laura; Wang, Yan
Objective To examine how psychosocial factors vary by body weight and gender among African-American adolescents. Methods A community sample of 235 low-income, predominantly African-American adolescents completed measures of depression, self-esteem, body-esteem, and eating attitudes. Measured weight and height were converted to body mass index (kg/m2) age and gender-adjusted z-scores. Data were analyzed using 2-factor multivariate analysis of variance. Results Obese youths had significantly worse scores on all psychosocial domains than normal weight youths, with no differences between overweight and normal weight youths. Obese youths had significantly worse scores than overweight youths on body-esteem and self-esteem. Female adolescents had significantly worse scores than males on depressed mood, body-esteem, and eating attitudes. Conclusions Among a community sample of predominantly African-American adolescents, obesity, not overweight, was associated with poor psychosocial health. Findings suggest that overweight may be perceived as normative, and that weight-related programs consider adolescents’ psychosocial functioning. PMID:23912163
Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Yasin, Zaidah Mohamed
A total of 107 Malay primary school girls (8-9 yr. old) completed a set of measurements on eating behavior (ChEAT, food neophobia scales, and dieting experience), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, body shape satisfaction, dietary intake, weight, and height. About 38% of the girls scored 20 and more on the ChEAT, and 46% of them reported dieting by reducing sugar and sweets (73%), skipping meals (67%), reducing fat foods (60%) and snacks (53%) as the most frequent methods practiced. In general, those girls with higher ChEAT scores tended to have lower self-esteem (r=.39), indicating they were more unwilling to try new foods (food neophobic) (r=.29), chose a smaller figure for desired body size (r=-.25), and were more dissatisfied with their body size (r=.31). PMID:15974357
Frederick, Christina M.; Grow, Virginia M.
Findings from a study of the relationships among autonomy deficits, low self-esteem, and eating disorders of 71 college women supported a mediational model in which lack of autonomy was related to decreased global self-esteem, which in turn was associated with bulimia and body dissatisfaction. (SLD)
Levine, Michael P.; And Others
Investigated young girls' eating behavior, body satisfaction, weight management, and the cues taken from family, peers, and magazines. Found that a majority received a message from fashion magazines and peers or family that being slender is important and attainable through dieting, indicating that some young girls live under intense weight and…
There are several protocols in existence that guide clinicians in the implementation of effective, evidence-based psychological interventions for eating disorders. These have been made accessible in the form of treatment manuals. However, relatively few clinicians use those protocols, preferring to offer more eclectic or integrative approaches. Following a summary of the research that shows that these evidence-based approaches can be used successfully in routine clinical settings, this review considers why there is such poor uptake of these therapies in such settings. This review focuses on the role of service culture and on clinicians' own attitudes, beliefs and emotions. Possible means of enhancing uptake are considered, but these cannot be considered to be ideal solutions at present. PMID:26893234
Verbeke, Wim; Marcu, Afrodita; Rutsaert, Pieter; Gaspar, Rui; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, Dave; Barnett, Julie
Cultured meat has evolved from an idea and concept into a reality with the August 2013 cultured hamburger tasting in London. Still, how consumers conceive cultured meat is largely an open question. This study addresses consumers' reactions and attitude formation towards cultured meat through analyzing focus group discussions and online deliberations with 179 meat consumers from Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Initial reactions when learning about cultured meat were underpinned by feelings of disgust and considerations of unnaturalness. Consumers saw few direct personal benefits but they were more open to perceiving global societal benefits relating to the environment and global food security. Both personal and societal risks were framed in terms of uncertainties about safety and health, and possible adverse societal consequences dealing with loss of farming and eating traditions and rural livelihoods. Further reflection pertained to skepticism about 'the inevitable' scientific progress, concern about risk governance and control, and need for regulation and proper labeling. PMID:25541372
Anton, S D; Newton, R L; Sothern, M; Martin, C K; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A
We examined the relation of different behavioral dimensions of depression with weight-related variables (BMI percentile, sedentary behavior, eating attitudes, and weight control behaviors) in children aged 11 to 13 years. Depression was assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Sedentary behavior was measured in 45 sixth grade students (23 boys and 22 girls) using a validated 24-hour recall instrument, the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist. BMI was calculated directly from measured height and weight (kg/m2). The Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to measure eating attitudes and weight control behaviors. There were not significant gender differences in reported minutes (142 vs. 91 minutes for boys vs. girls; p=0.25) of sedentary behavior (i.e., television watching and video game playing). The major finding of this study was that certain aspects of depression (i.e., interpersonal problems and feelings of ineffectiveness) were correlated with higher levels of sedentary behavior in children aged 11 to 13. A factor analysis of the study variables indicated that most dimensions of depression, sedentary behavior, and body size represent distinct but correlated behavioral dimensions. This study provides support for a link between specific aspects of depression (i.e., interpersonal problems and feelings of ineffectiveness) and sedentary behavior in children. PMID:17075232
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne
Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…
Heinberg, Leslie J; Coughlin, Janelle Wilder; Pinto, Angela Marinilli; Haug, Nancy; Brode, Cassie; Guarda, Angela S
A widely used measure of societal influences on body image and eating disturbances--the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was validated in women with eating disorders. The original SATAQ and measures of convergence and divergence were administered to 165 eating disordered inpatients. Factor analyses were conducted to determine the underlying structure of the SATAQ. Convergent validity, diagnostic category norms and the predictive utility of the revised SATAQ were examined. Factor analyses indicated three factors: Internalization, Awareness, and Success. Internalization significantly predicted treatment success after controlling for admission BMI and drive for thinness. The revised SATAQ-ED measures multiple aspects of societal influence, predicts short-term outcome, and can be a useful tool for evaluating potential outcome and treatment efficacy. PMID:18640081
Oftedal, Katherine Nolen; Tepper, Beverly J.
The PROP bitter-taste phenotype is a marker for food preferences and eating behavior, and may associate with differences in body weight in children. Previous work has shown that PROP status in combination with eating attitudes are better predictors of weight status in preadolescents, than either factor alone. However, no studies have examined the role of PROP phenotypes in body weight change in children over time. The primary objective of this study was to investigate current weight status and change in weight status in children from preschool (baseline) to preadolescence as a function of eating attitudes and PROP phenotype. Other measures included self-reported food intakes and physical activity by activity monitor. Seventy-three lean (BMI %-ile = 57.7 ± 3.2%) children with mean age=10.3 ± 0.5 yrs, participated in the follow up. There were no group differences in energy intake, current BMI-percentile or change in BMI percentile from baseline by PROP phenotype in either boys or girls. However, there was a trend for non-taster girls to show a downward shift in BMI-percentile at follow up. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that baseline BMI percentile and physical activity energy expenditure were the strongest predictors of current weight (28.5% variance), followed by child restraint, the taster x gender interaction, and the maternal BMI x maternal emotional eating interaction, accounting for 7.1%, 6.0% and 4.8% of variance in the model, respectively. These findings suggest that PROP status and eating attitudes are modest predictors of weight status in preadolescent children. PMID:23680431
Cook, Kaye V.; And Others
Examined eating concerns on two college campuses with a Christian world view and two nonsectarian campuses. Found that eating concerns were significantly more frequent among women than men and that relative incidence of overweight in four sections of the country appeared more related to level of concern on each campus than presence or absence of…
Kosec, Vesna; Zec, Ivana; Tislarić-Medenjak, Dubravka; Kuna, Krunoslav; Simundić, Ana Maria; Lajtman-Krizaić, Marta; Lovrić, Boris; Mimica, Marko; Estatiev, Zrinka Komadina; Borgudan, Vesna
We aimed to assess opinion and preferences of Croatian pregnant women regarding the prenatal screening tests for trisomies. The study was conducted in Zagreb, Split, Cakovec, Nova Gradiska, Gospić and Zlatar. It was organized in the public primary healthcare centers, among the pregnant volunteers during their first visit to an antenatal clinic (7-12 weeks pregnant). The respondents filled anonymous questionnaire reflecting their knowledge and attitudes to the screening options. In total, 437 completed questionnaires were selected. The average maternal age and the level of education differed significantly between the respondents in the respective cities (P < 0.001). Of the respondents with positive attitude towards screening, the majority would prefer the first-trimester combined test (160/219; 73.1%), while 37/219 (16.9%) opted for the second-trimester biochemical screening. The remaining 22/219 (10.0%) would accept only the ultrasound screening. Among the 224 respondents, who would accept the combined first-trimester test, 95 (42.4%) held a college and university degree, whereas among 59 women, who would choose the second-trimester biochemical screening, 14 were highly educated (23.7%). The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). The univariate regression analysis showed that age, level of education and previous information were significant variables predictive for the choice of the test; the level of education and previous knowledge remained significant in the multivariate model. The survey has revealed some of the points that should be improved in the future concept of screening program in Croatia. Health professionals should persist to mend women's knowledge about prenatal screening, taking into consideration women's preferences as well. PMID:23940994
The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…
Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa
Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…
Misra, Madhusmita; Katzman, Debra K.; Estella, Nara Mendes; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Weigel, Thomas; Goldstein, Mark A.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne
Objectives Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by low weight, aberrant eating attitudes, body image distortion and hypogonadism. Anxiety is a common co-morbid condition. Estrogen replacement reduces anxiety in animal models, and reported variations in food intake across the menstrual cycle may be related to gonadal steroid levels. The impact of estrogen replacement on anxiety, eating attitudes, and body image has not been reported in AN. We hypothesized that physiologic estrogen replacement would ameliorate anxiety and improve eating attitudes, without affecting body image in AN. Methods Girls with AN (DSM-IV) 13–18 yo were randomized to transdermal estradiol (100-mcg twice weekly) with cyclic progesterone (AN-E+) or placebo patches and pills (AN-E−) for 18-months, between 2002 and 2010. The Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Eating Disorders Inventory II (EDI II), and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) were administered. 72 girls completed these at baseline (38 AN-E+ and 34 AN-E−), and 37 at 18-months (20 AN-E+ and 17 AN-E−). The primary outcome measure was the change in these scores over 18-months. Results Estrogen replacement caused a decrease in STAIC-trait scores (−3.05±1.22 vs. 2.07±1.73, p=0.02), without impacting STAI-state scores (−1.11±2.17 vs. 0.20±1.42, p=0.64). There was no effect of estrogen replacement on EDI II or BSQ-34 scores. BMI changes did not differ between groups, and effects of estrogen replacement on STAIC-trait scores persisted after controlling for BMI changes (p=0.03). There was an inverse association between serum estradiol changes and changes in STAIC-trait scores (r=−0.66, p=0.001). Conclusions Estrogen replacement improved trait anxiety (the tendency to experience anxiety), but did not impact eating attitudes or body shape perception. PMID:24021517
Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C
Consumer implementation of recommended food safety practices, specifically relating to time and temperature control of ready-to-eat (RTE) food products associated with listeriosis are crucial. This is particularly the case for at-risk consumers such as older adults, given the increased listeriosis incidence reported internationally among adults aged ≥60 years. However, data detailing older adults' cognitive risk factors associated with listeriosis are lacking. Combining data about knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes can achieve a cumulative multilayered in-depth understanding of consumer food safety behavior and cognition. This study aims to ascertain older adults' cognition and behavior in relation to domestic food handling and storage practices that may increase the risks associated with L. monocytogenes. Older adults (≥60 years) (n = 100) participated in an interview and questionnaire to determine knowledge, self-reported practices, and attitudes toward recommended practices. Although the majority (79%) had positive attitudes toward refrigeration, 84% were unaware of recommended temperatures (5°C) and 65% self-reported "never" checking their refrigerator temperature. Although most (72%) knew that "use-by" dates indicate food safety and 62% reported "always" taking note, neutral attitudes were held, with 67% believing it was safe to eat food beyond use-by dates and 57% reporting doing so. Attitudes toward consuming foods within the recommended 2 days of opening were neutral, with 55% aware of recommendations and , 84% reporting that they consume RTE foods beyond recommendations. Although knowledgeable of some key practices, older adults self-reported potentially unsafe practices when storing RTE foods at home, which may increase risks associated with L. monocytogenes. This study has determined that older adults' food safety cognition may affect their behaviors; understanding consumer food safety cognition is essential for developing targeted
Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil
Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…
Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Eguiguren, Maria L.; Wargo, Katherine; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Baskaran, Charumathi; Singhal, Vibha; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Lee, Hang; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Misra, Madhusmita
Objectives Disordered eating may negatively impact bone in athletes. However, it is not known whether this effect is independent of the associated amenorrhea and relative hypercortisolemia. We aimed to compare attitudes, feelings, and cognitions associated with disordered eating using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) in normal-weight oligomenorrheic athletes (OA), eumenorrheic athletes (EA), and nonathletes, and determine the associations with bone independent of confounders. Method 109 OA, 39 EA, and 36 nonathletes (14–25 years) completed the TFEQ and EDI-2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess spine bone mineral density (BMD), and high-resolution pQCT to assess radius microarchitecture. We measured integrated cortisol (q 20’, 11 PM–7 AM), bone formation (procollagen Type 1 N-terminal propeptide, P1NP), and resorption (C-telopeptide, CTX) markers in a subset. Results OA had lower spine BMD Z-scores than EA. Cognitive eating restraint (CER), drive for thinness (DT), ineffectiveness, and interoceptive awareness (IA) were higher in OA than EA (p < 0.05); CER was higher in OA versus nonathletes (p = 0.03). Pulsatile cortisol was positively associated with DT, ineffectiveness, and IA (p < 0.03). CER was inversely associated with BMD Z-scores and P1NP, and ineffectiveness with radius cross-sectional area even after controlling for age, BMI, amenorrhea duration, and cortisol (p < 0.03). Discussion Higher CER in athletes independently predicts lower BMD. PMID:25823597
Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C
Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098
Pearson, Adria N.; Follette, Victoria M.; Hayes, Steven C.
Body image dissatisfaction is a source of significant distress among non-eating-disordered women, but because it is subclinical it is generally not treated. It remains stable throughout adulthood, and has proven resistant to many prevention interventions. This study presents a pilot test of a practical alternative: a 1-day Acceptance and…
Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.
Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…
Tuuri, Georgianna; Cater, Melissa; Craft, Brittany; Bailey, Ariana; Miketinas, Derek
Whole grains are recommended by dietary guidelines because of their health-promoting properties, yet attitudes toward consuming these foods have not been examined. This study developed and validated a questionnaire to estimate willingness to consume whole grain foods. Focus group interviews with high school students and input from nutrition educators produced a list of 10 whole grain items that were included in the "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire". Young adult university students 18-29 years of age indicated their willingness to consume each of the whole grain foods using a 4-point, Likert-type scale with responses ranging from "always unwilling" to "always willing" and a fifth option of "never eaten". Participants' age, race/ethnicity, and gender were collected. Data were examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and test-retest reliability. The EFA test (n = 266; 65% female; 69% white) using principal axis factoring returned a single factor that included all survey items and explained 58.3% of the variance. The CFA (n = 252; 62% female, 74% white) supported a single-factor solution: χ(2) = 80.57 (35); RMSEA = 0.07; Comparative Fit Index = 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.90; and SRMR = 0.05. The questionnaire, administered on two occasions separated by two weeks to 36 university students, demonstrated good testretest reliability (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001). The "Willingness to Eat Whole Grains Questionnaire" had good face validity when used with a young adult population and will be a useful tool to help nutrition educators examine attitudes toward consuming nutrient-rich whole grain foods. PMID:27328099
Fuglestad, Paul T; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589
Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Rubio, Teresa; Plumed, Javier; Barberá, María; Serrano, Marisa; Gimeno, Natalia; Conesa, Llanos; Ruiz, Elías; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Beato, Luis; Livianos, Lorenzo
The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between peer teasing and body dissatisfaction (BD), emotional symptoms, drive for thinness (DT), and abnormal eating behaviors, as well as to analyze the mediating role of gender and body mass index (BMI) in such disorders. We screened 57,997 school children between 13 and 16 years of age. Scores in weight-related teasing and competency-related teasing were higher among girls, as well as overweight or obese individuals. Weight-teasing correlated more strongly with abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors, whereas competency-teasing correlated with emotional symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that weight-teasing is significantly and independently associated with BD, especially in boys. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between weight-teasing and abnormal eating in girls, although its predictive value was very low (Exp(B) = 1.009). Mediation analysis and Path analysis showed the mediating role of DT in this association. Interventions on teasing do not seem to be a priority in eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:23241090
Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela
Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852
Yanovski, S Z
Eating disorders are associated with numerous biological perturbations; however, sorting out cause from effect is difficult. Neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities are seen in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but they have not been described in binge eating disorder, in which neither starvation nor compensatory behaviors are present. Although these findings may reflect biologic differences among subgroups of binge eaters, an alternative explanation is that many of the biological correlates of binge eating are the result of metabolic derangement secondary to starvation and/or purging. The identification of binge eating disorder provides an opportunity to study the causes and concomitants of binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors. PMID:8820523
... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...
Brown, Lora Beth; Larsen, Katrina J.; Nyland, Nora K.; Eggett, Dennis L.
Objective: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. Methods: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages…
Boysen, Guy A
The theory of essentialism suggests that biological explanations of stigmatized behavior may not be effective at decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. The effects of biological explanations on stigmatizing attitudes were the topic of two experiments. In the first experiment, participants (N = 243) perceived a biological explanation as a less effective in relation to dangerousness and social distancing attitudes about mental illness than about homosexuality. The second experiment (N = 113) compared the effect of biological and free choice explanations on stigmatizing attitudes about abnormal sexual and eating behaviors. The results indicated that a biological explanation increased belief in essentialism and was most effective for attitudes related to anger and blame. These results suggest that the effectiveness of biological explanations as an antistigma tool varies according to the attitude and stigmatized group. PMID:21675182
Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor
This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…
Bisaga, Katarzyna; Whitaker, Agnes; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Feldman, Judith; Walsh, B Timothy
This study examined ethnic group differences in the rates of eating disorder symptoms (EDS) and depressive disorder symptoms (DDS) with respect to ethnic identity, relative body weight, and abnormal eating behaviors among adolescent girls. A district-wide sample of high school girls (N = 1445) from different ethnic backgrounds was surveyed. EDS were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26, abnormal eating behaviors with the Eating Behaviors Survey, and DDS with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Two dimensions of ethnic identity, ethnic identity achievement and other group orientation, were assessed with Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure. Hispanic and non-Hispanic white girls had the highest and African-American (AA) and Caribbean girls the lowest rates of EDS. Asian girls reported the highest and AA girls the lowest rates of DDS. Early dieting was associated with EDS and DDS in Caribbean, non-Hispanic white, and mixed background girls. Relative body weight was related to EDS in all ethnic groups except in non-Hispanic white and mixed background girls. The authors did not find an effect of ethnic identity achievement on psychopathology, but there was an effect of other group orientation on both EDS and DDS. Clinicians should inquire about EDS and DDS in girls of all ethnic groups. Prevention efforts to delay unsupervised dieting may protect adolescent girls from the development of EDS and DDS. PMID:16100498
Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests and comorbid psychiatric disorders among patients with anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified in the anorexia nervosa DSM-IV criteria
Goh, Kye Hock Robin; Lee, Ee Lian
INTRODUCTION Anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are on the rise in Singapore. Abnormal liver function tests have been reported for up to 12.2% of patients with AN. These patients are also known to present with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the severity of abnormal liver function tests, and between BMI and the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of 373 patients diagnosed with AN or EDNOS at a tertiary hospital was performed. The clinical course of transaminitis and comorbid psychiatric disorders was correlated with the patient’s BMI. RESULTS Patients with a BMI of ≥ 16.6 kg/m2 at their first consult had a significantly lower risk of having comorbid psychiatric disorders (χ2 = 32.08, p < 0.001). These patients were five times less likely to have comorbid psychiatric disorders as compared to patients from the other BMI groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.21). On the other hand, patients with a BMI of < 14.6 kg/m2 had a significantly higher risk of having transaminitis (χ2 = 72.5, p < 0.001). They were 11.1 times more likely to develop transaminitis as compared to patients with a BMI of ≥ 14.6 kg/m2 (OR 11.05). CONCLUSION Severity of BMI can be used by clinicians as an indicator to assess for secondary psychiatric comorbidities and/or transaminitis during the first consultation. This could help reduce the morbidity and mortality rates in patients with AN or EDNOS. PMID:26451050
Sepulveda, Ana; Carrobles, José Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana M
This study has examined bio-socio-demographic and psychopathological factors probably associated with unhealthy eating patterns among university students and to estimate a multifactorial model following the associated factors by gender. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to describe associations on basis of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) stratified by gender in a representative sample of Spanish university students (n = 2551). The high EDI scorers for both sexes presented higher prevalence of dieting, body dissatisfaction, levels of psychopathology and lower self-esteem than the low EDI scorers. The results suggest that older students and higher self-esteem scores present lower scores in the EDI. In the female population, depression, paranoid dimension, dieting and body dissatisfaction were associated with population with unhealthy eating patterns. In the male sample, dieting, body dissatisfaction and interpersonal sensibility were also associated with unhealthy eating patterns. The results corroborate that abnormal eating patterns tend to affect specific vulnerable groups. We do not know the precise mechanisms through which these risk behaviors and attitudes, such as dieting or body dissatisfaction, may facilitate the later development of an eating disorder. PMID:20480703
Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...
Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...
Muuss, R E
Bulimia, an eating disorder, recently has emerged as a major mental health problem, especially among adolescent females. The bulimic experiences periods of compulsive binge eating followed by purges to rid the body of unwanted calories. Binges are triggered by intense emotional experiences, such as loneliness, anger, rejection, or stress. Associated features of bulimia are secretiveness, depression, drug abuse, preoccupation with body image and sexual attractiveness, and an awareness that the behavior is abnormal. The physical side effects include dental problems, inflamed esophagus, EEG abnormalities, abdominal or urinary disturbances, and changes in blood sugar level. Cognitive disturbances related to binging and purging are perfectionistic, egocentric, and distorted thinking, misconceptions about nutritional requirements, unreasonable goals and expectations, and disturbed affect. Bulimics resist treatment; however, such methods as cognitive, group, family, behavior, and drug therapy, and hospitalization appear promising. PMID:3461693
Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.
Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…
Winkler, Martha C. Rhyne; Vacc, Nicholas A.
Examined variables associated with eating-disordered adults to determine whether they correlate with scores on Adapted Eating Attitudes Test (AEAT). Results from fourth, sixth, and eighth grade girls (N=144) revealed no significant difference in AEAT scores across grades. Only two of seven independent variables, Test of Cognitive Skills scores and…
Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.
A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)
Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer
Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…
Van Lone, Jeffrey S.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Coughlin, Janelle W.
Short stories can be an effective group-level intervention for addressing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. This technique may be used in eating-disorder themed groups or in any group in which members present with eating problems. The authors provide specific guidelines for the use of short stories in group work. An example is provided to…
Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko
Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298
Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina
Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441
Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura
Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605
Rome, Ellen S
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725
Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.
School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…
Hicks, R A; Rozette, E
To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group. PMID:3457356
Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie
Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…
The evidence- and practice-based Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) outlines an inclusive definition of the interrelated spectrum of eating attitudes and behaviors. The model is predicated on the utility and effectiveness of biopsychosocial processes: hunger and the drive to survive, appetite and the need for subjective reward and the…
Eisenberg, Marla; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
In this paper, we review existing literature regarding peer harassment and its association with a range of weight-related attitudes and behaviors. We conceptualize peer harassment to include traditionally defined bullying behavior, other social and relational forms of bullying, as well as teasing and other verbal harassment. Weight-based teasing is particularly relevant to weight-related issues and has been associated with clinical eating disorders, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and weight-related attitudes, such as body dissatisfaction. Studies using both clinical samples of eating disorder patients and general samples of college students or adolescents have demonstrated these relations. Emerging issues in this field, including teasing by family members, research with males, teasing and weight-related issues in developing countries, and the measurement of teasing experience are also discussed. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors. PMID:18714553
Klopp, Sheree A; Heiss, Cynthia J; Smith, Heather S
The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes and behaviors of vegetarian and nonvegetarian college women. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and a questionnaire were used to gather information on eating attitudes and behaviors of 143 female college students. Thirty participants were self-reported vegetarians, and 113 participants were nonvegetarians. There was no significant difference between the vegetarians and nonvegetarians in height, weight, age, or body mass index. The median EAT score of the vegetarians (16.5) was significantly higher (P<.0001) than that of the nonvegetarians (9.0). A significantly higher (P<.0001) proportion of the vegetarians (37%) compared with nonvegetarians (8%) had EAT scores greater than 30 (indicating eating disorder risk). There was no difference in supplement use or meal skipping between the two groups. In conclusion, self-reported vegetarian college women may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians. PMID:12778048
Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343
Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu
Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817
... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...
Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun
Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537
Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović
Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290
Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Bilgiç, Pelin; Yabancı, Nurcan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Studies have indicated that university students majoring in nutrition and dietetics or sport sciences may have more obsessions associated with eating attitudes and body shape perception compared to other disciplines i.e. social sciences. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and compare the risk of eating disorders and body shape perception. MATERIALS/METHODS Data was collected from 773 undergraduate students at the Departments of Nutrition and Dietetics (NDD) (n = 254), Physical Education and Sports (PESD) (n = 263), and Social Sciences (SOC) (n = 256).A socio-demographic and personal information questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), Perceived Figure Rating Scale (FRS) were applied; and body weights and heights were measured. RESULTS Mean EAT-40 scores showed that, both male and female students of PESD had the highest scores (17.4 ± 11.6) compared with NDD (14.3 ± 8.3) and SOC (13.0 ± 6.2) (P < 0.05). According to EAT-40 classification, high risk in abnormal eating behavior was more in PESD (10.7%) compared to NDD (2.9%) and SOC (0.4%) students (P < 0.05). Students of PESD, who skipped meal, had higher tendency to the risk of eating disorders (P < 0.05). In parallel, body shape perception was found to be marked with higher scores in NDD (72.0 ± 28.7) and PESD (71.5 ± 32.8) compared with SOC (64.2 ± 27.5) students (P < 0.05). Considering BSQ-34 classification, high concern (moderate and marked) for body shape were more in PESD (7.4 %) compared to NDD (5.2%) and SOC (1.9%) students (P < 0.05). The body size judgement via obtained by the FRS scale were generally correlated with BMI. The Body Mass Index levels were in normal range (Mean BMI: 21.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2) and generally consistent with FRS data. CONCLUSIONS Tendency to the abnormal eating behavior and substantial body shape perception were higher in PESD students who have more concern on body shape and were not well-educated about nutrition
... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...
... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...
... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...
... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...
Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...
Juli, Maria Rosaria
The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative
Peterson, Carol B; Miller, Kathryn B; Johnson-Lind, Joy; Crow, Scott J; Thuras, Paul
The purpose of this study was to assess how accurately patients with eating disorders recall their symptoms after 6 to 12 months, to evaluate whether more recent symptoms are remembered more accurately, and to determine the extent to which the accuracy of recall impacts diagnostic classification. Seventy women who were enrolled in a longitudinal study of eating disorder symptoms were asked to recall their eating patterns, behaviors, and attitudes from 6 or 12 months earlier using semistructured interviews (Eating Disorders Examination and McKnight Longitudinal Follow-up Interview for Eating Disorders). Results indicated that correlations between the original and recalled data for frequency of objective binge eating episodes and vomiting ranged from r = .534 to .898 (average, r = .772), with lower correlations for subjective binge eating episodes (average, r = .335). Attitudes toward shape and weight were recalled more accurately at 6 months (average, r = .907) than 12 months (average, r = .620). kappa Coefficients were higher for eating disorder diagnoses using broad than narrow definitions, with no differences between 6- and 12-month recall. Overall, agreement for depression recall was low but better at 6 months (kappa = .423) than 12 months (kappa = .296). These findings suggest that patients with eating disorders are at least moderately accurate when recalling most symptoms from 6 to 12 months earlier. Although broadly defined eating disorder diagnoses remained consistent, depression and narrower eating disorder diagnostic classifications showed more variability. PMID:17145282
van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus
Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. PMID:27426620
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The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...
Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E
Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5%) or bulimia (15.4 %) was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 %) among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis. PMID:15345084
Pearson, Rebecca; Young, Michael
Background: The literature available on attitudes toward eating patterns and people choosing various foods suggests the possible importance of "moral" judgments and desirable personality characteristics associated with the described eating patterns. Purpose: This study was designed to replicate and extend a 1993 study of college students'…
Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard
A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted. PMID:25405634
Bachner-Melman, Rachel; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Levin, Raz; Lichtenberg, Pesach
There has been no research examining why people with disordered eating tend to be highly hypnotizable. The authors examine the hypothesis that concern for appropriateness mediates the association between hypnotizability and disordered eating. Fifty participants aged 15 to 30 completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Concern for Appropriateness Scale (CAS) and were administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSS:C). EAT-26 scores predicted CAS scores (β = 0.24, p < .001), CAS scores predicted SHSS:C scores (β = 0.38, p < .001), and the mediation model was significant (Sobel Test; R(2) = .24, z = 2.54, p < .01). Individuals with problematic eating attitudes may tend to be more hypnotizable than those with normal eating attitudes at least in part because they are highly influenced by interpersonal messages. PMID:26894425
Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa
Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS); the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire; and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) sub-scale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(1), 30-37.]. PMID:25490775
Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalçın
Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675
Möller, Riitta; Safa, Stephanie; Östberg, Per
Conclusion The Swedish Eating Assessment Tool (S-EAT-10) is a reliable and valid self-administered tool in assessment of dysphagia in adult Swedish patients with high internal consistency, reliability, and discriminative validity. The normative data show that a score of 3 or more is abnormal. S-EAT-10 is recommended to be used in preliminary diagnostics of dysphagia. Objective To translate and adapt the EAT-10 for use in the Swedish patient population, and to present norms and measures of discriminative validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (S-EAT-10). Methods Prospective consecutive clinical study. In total, 134 community-dwelling adult respondents/controls without dysphagia completed the S-EAT-10, as did 119 patients referred for fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Patient vs control status was used as the criterion for discriminative validity assessment by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean S-EAT-10 score was 0.2 (range = 0-3) for controls and 18 (range = 0-38) for patients. Based on a cut-off score of ≥ 3 which was considered to be reflective of abnormalities, sensitivity was 98.5% and specificity 94.1%. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), as was test-re-test reliability (ICC = 0.90). PMID:26924383
The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention program based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, with the addition of attitude strength and role identity. The aim was to alter adolescents' healthy eating attitudes and behaviour. In the sample were 335 high school students, who were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and included posters and lectures promoting healthy eating. The measures included a questionnaire assessing the hypothesis and a food frequency questionnaire which measured eating habits. Analysis showed the intervention was effective in proving attitudes toward healthy eating and attitude strength, intention, perceived behavioral control, and healthy eating behaviour, but not effective in predicting subjective norms and role identity. Results provide evidence that intervention changed attitudes toward a behavior in a school setting. PMID:16383096
Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda
An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…
... though they are not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...
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Aiello, Marilena; Silani, Vincenzo; Rumiati, Raffaella I
Patients with different types of dementia may exhibit pathological eating habits, including food fads, hyperphagia, or even ingestion of inanimate objects. Several findings reveal that such eating alterations are more common in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) than other types of dementia. Moreover, eating alterations may differ between the two variants of the disease, namely the behavioral variant and semantic dementia (SD). In this review, we summarized evidences regarding four areas: eating and body weight alterations in FTD, the most common assessment methods, anatomical correlates of eating disorders, and finally, proposed underlying mechanisms. An increasing understanding of the factors that contribute to eating abnormalities may allow first, a better comprehension of the clinical features of the disease and second, shed light on the mechanism underlying eating behaviors in the normal population. PMID:27327171
Kransdorf, Lisa N; Millstine, Denise; Smith, Maxwell L; Aqel, Bashar A
Anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders characterized by calorie restriction have been associated with a variety of hepatic abnormalities. Fatty steatosis has been described in eating disorder patients. We report the rare finding of glycogen accumulation in the liver in a patient with anorexia nervosa, which to our knowledge is only the second such case reported in the literature. This case highlights the importance of monitoring for liver abnormalities in patients with restrictive eating disorders. PMID:26066296
Cooley, Eric; Toray, Tamina; Wang, Mei Chuan; Valdez, Noreen N
Effects of maternal eating behaviors and attitudes, maternal feedback to daughter about weight issues, mother-daughter relationship closeness, media influences, and mothers' perceptions of daughters shape on daughters' body image and eating pathology were examined using 91 pairs of mothers and college-aged daughters. Hierarchical multiple regressions using daughters' BMI as the first step were separately performed for daughters' body image and eating pathology. Variables predictive of daughters' body image included negative feedback from mother, mother's disapproval of daughter's figure, and mothers' eating behaviors and attitudes as perceived by daughters. A similar pattern was found for daughters' eating pathology scores with the addition of mothers' tendency to internalize media messages regarding thinness and beauty significantly adding to the prediction. Maternal influence through modeling may be best assessed by using the daughters' perceptions of their mothers because this corresponds to what the daughter was aware of in their mothers' eating attitudes and behaviors. Negative feedback from mothers about daughters' figures and eating patterns significantly increased daughters' difficulties in these areas. Mothers who showed a greater internalization of media messages about thinness were most likely to have daughters with eating pathologies. PMID:18167323
Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria
Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research. PMID:19501782
Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina
Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791
Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr
Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard
Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)
... down what you eat, how much, and what times of the day you are eating. Include notes about what else you were doing ... meals: Know what you will eat ahead of time so you can avoid ... buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at ...
Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Franko, Debra L.; Matos-Lamourt, Anguelique; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Von Holle, Ann; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis R.; Rodríguez-Angleró, Dianisa; Cervantes-López, Sarah; Suárez-Torres, Alba
Objective This study investigated the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in first-year students at the University of Puerto Rico. Method Responses to the Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were analyzed in a sample of 2,163 freshman students. Results The percentage of students at or above the clinical cut-off points was 3.24% for the BULIT-R, 9.59% for the EAT-26 and 1.88% met the cut-off point for both instruments. The 36.44% of the students who screen positive on eating disorders measures scored 18 or more on the BDI and 5.93% on this group presented high suicidal risk based on their responses to BDI items assessing suicidal thoughts. Discussion Eating disorder symptoms occur frequently in Puerto Rican college students, and prevention, detection, and treatment efforts are needed. PMID:20455253
Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Franko, Debra L; Matos-Lamourt, Anguelique; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Cámara-Fuentes, Luis R; Rodríguez-Angleró, Dianisa; Cervantes-López, Sarah; Suárez-Torres, Alba
This study investigated the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in first-year students at the University of Puerto Rico. Responses to the Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were analyzed in a sample of 2,163 freshman students. The percentage of students at or above the clinical cut-off points was 3.24% for the BULIT-R and 9.59% for the EAT-26, and 1.88% met the cut-off point for both instruments. The 36.44% of the students who screen positive on eating disorders measures scored 18 or more on the BDI and 5.93% on this group presented high suicidal risk based on their responses to BDI items assessing suicidal thoughts. Eating disorder symptoms occur frequently in Puerto Rican college students, and prevention, detection, and treatment efforts are needed. PMID:20455253
Picard, Christy L.
Examined eating attitudes among 39 female college athletes from National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools, 40 from NCAA Division II schools, and 31 nonathletes. Athletes at higher levels of competition showed more signs of pathological eating and were at increased risk of eating disorders. (SLD)
PTA Today, 1993
Children's eating habits and food attitudes develop early and last a lifetime. Nutrition is important in child development and ability to learn. In the prenatal years, nutrition is one of many factors affecting pregnancy outcome. In the preschool and school years, undernutrition causes stunting, lethargy, and other symptoms. (SM)
Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M
Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980
Fisher, Robert J; Dubé, Laurette
What do American adults believe about what, where, when, how much, and how often it is appropriate to eat? Such normative beliefs originate from family and friends through socialization processes, but they are also influenced by governments, educational institutions, and businesses. Norms therefore provide an important link between the social environment and individual attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on five studies that identify, develop, and validate measures of normative beliefs about eating. In study 1 we use an inductive method to identify what American adults believe are appropriate or desirable eating behaviors. Studies 2 and 3 are used to purify and assess the discriminant and nomological validity of the proposed set of 18 unidimensional eating norms. Study 4 assesses predictive validity and finds that acting in a norm-consistent fashion is associated with lower Body Mass Index (BMI), and greater body satisfaction and subjective health. Study 5 assesses the underlying social desirability and perceived healthiness of the norms. PMID:21621572
Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479
Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen
OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151
... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000584.htm Eating right during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... is hard work for a woman's body. Eating right is one of the best things you can ...
... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...
... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Binge Eating Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Binge Eating Disorder Print A A A Text Size What's in ... takes a combination of things to develop an eating disorder — including a person's genes, emotions, and behaviors (such ...
Alvarado-Sánchez, Nayelli; Silva-Gutiérrez, Cecilia; Salvador-Cruz, Judith
In order to explore if neuropsychological deficits on visual constructional ability could be related to risk eating behaviors, a total of 102 women were evaluated, 51 of the participants had been formally diagnosed with eating disorders and 51 did not. All participants were given the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40), The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and The Tower of London Task. Results revealed the existence of a deficit on visual integration similar to those observed in other studies with diagnosed patients. The group at risk showed a comparatively reduced ability on the tasks and the control participants' execution was on the average. Findings revealed the need for designing studies to evaluate neuropsychological processes as possible risk factors which predict eating disorders. PMID:19899668
Cassidy, E; Allsopp, M; Williams, T
An association between obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders has often been reported in the literature. It has been suggested that the association may be accounted for by depression, starvation or family factors but the literature remains inconclusive. In this study self-report scales were used to measure eating attitudes, obsessional symptoms, depressive symptoms and family functioning in an eating disordered group, a psychiatric control group and in the parents of both groups. The eating disordered group scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory and the Leyton Obsessional Inventory but not on the Childhood Depression Inventory. The differences were not correlated with Quetelet's Body Mass Index. Both groups of parents scored within the normal range for all scales. The high obsessional scores in the anorexic group seem to be due to high scoring on items relating to perfectionism. The role of perfectionism as a risk factor for the development of eating disorders and OCD is discussed. PMID:10550701
... from diuretic abuse severe dehydration from purging Binge Eating Disorder frequently eating large amounts of food (binge-eating) ... can lead to more binge-eating Read More "Eating Disorders" Articles Understanding Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulemia, and Binge- ...
The literature has found that eating disorders (ED) patients usually have a depression and anxiety diagnosis. However, not many investigations have studied the relationship between ED and well-being. One of the main problems of patients with ED is their body image. These individuals usually see themselves too big but there are not many investigations that focus on how these patients see people with real weight problems. For this reason in this study it is analyzed how women in risk to develop ED see obese people. 456 female students were selected. It was found that women with high scores in the different subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26; dieting, bulimia and oral control) had lower well-being (both subjective and psychological) and worse attitudes toward obese people (measured with Antifat Attitudes Test, AFA, Beliefs About Obese People Scale, BAOP, and Attitudes Toward Obese People Scale, ATOP) compared with women with low scores in the EAT-26. PMID:23156933
Carbonneau, Noémie; Carbonneau, Elise; Cantin, Mélynda; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre
Intuitive eating is a positive approach to weight and eating management characterized by a strong reliance on internal physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than emotional and external cues (e.g., Tylka, 2006). Using a Self-Determination Theory framework (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the main purpose of this research was to examine the role played by both the mother and the romantic partner in predicting women's intuitive eating. Participants were 272 women (mean age: 29.9 years) currently involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship. Mothers and romantic partners were both found to have a role to play in predicting women's intuitive eating via their influence on women's motivation for regulating eating behaviors. Specifically, both the mother's and partner's controlling styles were found to predict women's controlled eating regulation, which was negatively related to their intuitive eating. In addition, autonomy support from the partner (but not from the mother) was found to positively predict intuitive eating, and this relationship was mediated by women's more autonomous regulation toward eating. These results were uncovered while controlling for women's body mass index, which is likely to affect women's eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these results attest to the importance of considering women's social environment (i.e., mother and romantic partner) for a better understanding of their eating regulation and ability to eat intuitively. PMID:26009203
Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J
Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328
Perpiñá, Conxa; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina; Lurbe, Empar; Torró, Maria-Isabel
The aims of this study were to validate the Emotional Eating Scale version for children (EES-C) in a Spanish population and study the differences in emotional eating among children with binge eating (BE), overeating (OE), and no episodes of disordered eating (NED). The questionnaire was completed by 199 children aged 9 to 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed five scales: eating in response to anger, anxiety, restlessness, helplessness, and depression. The EES-C showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and it showed moderate relationships with measures of disordered-eating [Children's Eating Attitudes Test-26 (ChEAT-26), Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Adolescent Version (QEWP-A)] and psychopathology (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist). There were significant differences between the BE/NED groups (with the OE group in the middle position) in desire to eat when Anger (the girls in BE group, and the oldest children in OE group obtaining higher scores) or Helplessness were present. Eating due to Depression was higher in the older groups. Multiple regression analysis conducted showed that anxiety-trait was the best predictor of emotional eating. Results support the potential utility of the EES-C in the study of emotional eating in children and its validity in the Spanish population. PMID:21534053
Steiger, H; Stotland, S; Ghadirian, A M; Whitehead, V
To examine the extent to which first-degree relatives of eating-disordered (ED) probands endorse maladaptive eating attitudes and personality/affective traits, we compared self-reported eating concerns (Restraint, Emotional Eating, Body Dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes) and psychopathological traits (Affective Instability, Anxiousness, Compulsivity, and Narcissism) across groups of restricter (n = 19), binger (n = 56), psychiatric control (PC, n = 38), normal dieter (ND, n = 29), and nondieter control (NC, n = 28) probands, and then across participating nuclear family members. Results among probands were as anticipated: ED probands showed expected elevations in both areas, and predicted restricter/binger differences were obtained. However, corresponding differences were not obtained on measures of mothers', fathers', or siblings' eating concerns and traits. Our findings corroborate the notion that EDs represent a convergence of eating, affective, and personality disturbances, but not that such a clustering of features exists as a familial trait. We discuss normal trait and attitudinal variations observed in ED probands' relatives in light of findings showing EDs and other psychiatric syndromes to aggregate within families. PMID:7581412
Despite of being perceived as 'woman's diseases', eating disorders were described among boys and adult men. This article presents epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in men. The clinical presentation of eating disorders in men was described and compared with similar data from the female population. Moreover, a significance of selected risk factors, specifically those referring to men, was discussed. These are: the disturbance of body perception, personality traits and potential association of eating disorders with sexual orientation. Efficacy of different psychotherapy approaches aimed at eating disorders was summarized. Rules governing psychotherapy of men suffering from eating disorders were described. Specific features of eating disorders' aetiology were taken into account together with characteristic difficulties influencing treatment. PMID:19697523
Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.
Objective This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children. Method Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade). Results A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls. Conclusion A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade. PMID:22961314
Roofe, Nina; Brinegar, Jennifer; Seymour, Gayle
Interdisciplinary service-learning projects are mutually beneficial for communities and students. This service-learning project focused on eating disorder prevention and involved students majoring in nutrition, art, and psychology at a public Southern university. The nutrition majors completed the Eating Attitudes Test before and after the…
van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.
Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…
Nardelli, Vanessa M.; Wein, Eleanor E.
The purpose of this handbook is to develop positive attitudes and skills toward healthy eating and healthy lifestyles among Yukon First Nations people. The introduction describes traditional food sources of the Yukon and how Native peoples met their nutritional needs by eating a variety of wild animal, fish, and plant foods. However, current…
DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey
Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…
Palla, B; Litt, I F
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are occurring with increased frequency among adolescents and preadolescents. To determine the range and severity of medical complications encountered in younger anorectic and bulimic patients, we reviewed the medical records of 65 adolescents and preadolescents, aged 10 to 20 years, who were observed in the Eating Disorders Clinic of the Children's Hospital at Stanford. Significant medical instability was present in the majority of our patients. A total of 55% of anorectic patients and 22% of bulimic patients required hospitalization for medical reasons during the study period. Cardiovascular abnormalities were frequent, including bradycardia, prolonged corrected QT intervals, dysrhythmias, and marked orthostatic pulse and BP instability. Hypothermia, with temperatures less than 35.5 degrees C, was common. Renal abnormalities included pyuria, hematuria, and proteinuria. Electrolyte derangements occurred in patients who vomited or purged. Hypokalemia was most common, but hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia were also noted. The majority of our pediatric patients with eating disorders had evidence of physiologic derangement requiring medical intervention. The need for adolescents and preadolescents with eating disorders to receive ongoing medical monitoring in concert with psychiatric treatment and the need for therapists and medical practitioners to become familiar with the potential medical sequelae of eating disorders are underscored by our data. PMID:3162764
Klump, K L; Kaye, W H; Strober, M
Data described earlier are clear in establishing a role for genes in the development of eating abnormalities. Estimates from the most rigorous studies suggest that more than 50% of the variance in eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors can be accounted for by genetic effects. These high estimates indicate a need for studies identifying the specific genes contributing to this large proportion of variance. Twin and family studies suggest that several heritable characteristics that are commonly comorbid with AN and BN may share genetic transmission with these disorders, including anxiety disorders or traits, body weight, and possibly major depression. Moreover, some developmental research suggests that the genes involved in ovarian hormones or the genes that these steroids affect also may be genetically linked to eating abnormalities. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infant stages. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, and estrogen receptor beta gene), and several large-scale linkage and association studies are underway. These studies likely will provide invaluable information regarding the appropriate phenotypes to be included in genetic studies and the genes with the most influence on the development of these disorders. PMID:11416922
Fairburn, C G; Cooper, P J
Following a television documentary on bulimia nervosa, people who thought that they had this type of eating problem were asked to complete a confidential questionnaire. 579 women who fulfilled self-report diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa were thereby identified. These women closely resembled patients with bulimia nervosa, although the age range was wider. They had grossly disturbed eating habits and almost half vomited at least daily. Laxative abuse was also common. Although almost two-thirds had been overweight in the past, the majority had a weight within the normal range. A minority had previously fulfilled diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. On standardized measures, these women had abnormal attitudes to their weight and shape, as well as significant levels of psychiatric symptomatology. Nearly three-quarters thought that they definitely needed professional help, yet only a third had ever been referred for psychiatric treatment. Using data from this sample and an independent sample of 499 probable bulimia nervosa cases, the significance of three issues relating to the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa were examined: laxative abuse, the frequency of self-induced vomiting, and a history of anorexia nervosa. PMID:6588399
Sundgot-Borgen, J; Torstveit, M K
Dieting is an important risk factor for disordered eating and eating disorders. Disordered eating occurs on a continuum from dieting and restrictive eating, abnormal eating behavior, and finally clinical eating disorders. The prevalence of eating disorders is increased in elite athletes and for this group the cause of starting to diet is related to (a) perception of the paradigm of appearance in the specific sport, (b) perceived performance improvements, and (c) sociocultural pressures for thinness or an "ideal" body. Athletes most at risk for disordered eating are those involved in sports emphasizing a thin body size/shape, a high power-to-weight ratio, and/or sports utilizing weight categories, such as in some high-intensity sports. In addition to dieting, personality factors, pressure to lose weight, frequent weight cycling, early start of sport-specific training, overtraining, injuries, and unfortunate coaching behavior, are important risk factors. To prevent disordered eating and eating disorders, the athletes have to practice healthy eating, and the medical staff of teams and parents must be able to recognize symptoms indicating risk for eating disorders. Coaches and leaders must accept that disordered eating can be a problem in the athletic community and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:20840569
Bowden, David J; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Scoffings, Daniel J
Eating disorders are a major challenge for health professionals, with many patients receiving ineffective care due to underdiagnosis or poor compliance with treatment. The incidence of eating disorders is increasing worldwide, producing an increasing burden on healthcare systems, and they most often affect young patients, with significant long-term complications. The effects of long-term malnutrition manifest in almost every organ system, and many can be detected radiologically, even without overt clinical findings. Musculoskeletal complications including osteoporosis result in a high incidence of insufficiency fractures, with long-term implications for bone health and growth, while respiratory complications are often recognized late due to disordered physiologic responses to infection. Gastrointestinal complications are numerous and in extreme cases may result in fatal outcomes after acute gastric dilatation and rupture subsequent to binge eating. In patients with severely disordered eating, in particular anorexia nervosa, marked derangement of electrolyte levels may result in refeeding syndrome, which requires emergent management. Recognition of such complications is critical to effective patient care and requires radiologists to be aware of the spectrum of imaging abnormalities that may be seen. Since many patients are reluctant to disclose their underlying condition, radiologists also play a critical role in identifying previously undiagnosed eating disorders. PMID:23842978
Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio
The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum. PMID:22049653
Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.
Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen
Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335
Hormes, Julia M; Orloff, Natalia C; Timko, C Alix
Chocolate craving in women has previously been linked to disordered eating behaviors. A relatively higher prevalence of eating disorder pathology may account for the fact that chocolate craving is significantly more common in women in North America, compared to many other countries. While support for a causal role of disordered eating in the etiology of craving in women is growing, little is known about the extent to which food cravings are associated with disordered eating behaviors in men. This study was designed to systematically assess the impact of gender and chocolate craving on measures of attitudes to chocolate, responsiveness to food cues in the environment, body shape dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and eating disorder and general pathology. Undergraduate men and women (n = 645, 37.2% male) were invited to complete self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, height and weight, food cravings, dietary attitudes and behaviors, along with eating disorder and general pathology. Data suggest that the relationship between chocolate craving and disordered eating behaviors in men is the opposite of what has previously been observed in women: compared to non-cravers, male chocolate cravers reported significantly more guilt related to craving, but were significantly less likely to diet and reported lower levels of dietary restraint, less frequent weight fluctuations, and fewer symptoms of eating disorders. Findings indicate that a positive relationship between disordered eating behaviors and chocolate craving may be unique to women (and potentially women in North America). Findings have important implications for our understanding of cultural and psychosocial factors involved in the etiology of food cravings. PMID:25173065
Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra
Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184
Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jae Chul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Jong Yeol
Eating behaviours may be implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders. The Sasang typology, a unique form of traditional Korean medicine, classifies individuals into four constitutional types that differ in a distinctive complex of external manifestations and innate natures, including eating behaviours. Our aim is to portray a picture of the distinguishing characteristics of eating behaviours across Sasang types and to provide suggestions for future studies. Six Korean and one English database were searched to acquire relevant articles. Ten peer-reviewed relevant research articles were found. The extracted data were categorised into the domains of i) food preferences; ii) eating rate; iii) eating initiation and termination; iv) meal size; v) regularity of eating; vi) regular appetite; vii) eating disorders; and viii) psychological factors. Eating rate and meal size were the issues of most concern that more frequently were different among Sasang types. The TaeEum type seemed to have obesity-linked eating behaviours, including a rapid eating rate, large meal sizes, and a strong appetite, whereas those attitudes seemed to be in contrast with those of the SoEum type. The SoYang type shared similarities with both the TaeEum and SoEum types. Future studies should be conducted with more reliable, objective, and quantitative assessment tools such as the Three Eating Factor Questionnaire or the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. PMID:22705421
Shriver, Lenka H; Wollenberg, Gena; Gates, Gale E
The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted. PMID:26568582
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina
This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…
Harrison, Kristen; Cantor, Joanne
Shows that, for women, the use of thinness-depicting and thinness-promoting (TDP) media predicted disordered-eating symptomatology, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and ineffectiveness. Shows that TDP media use predicted men's endorsement of personal thinness and dieting and select attitudes in favor of thinness and dieting for women.…
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Almajwal, Ali M.
Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire also contained items pertaining to socio-demographic data, body mass index, shift work, and hours worked per week. Results: For all eating styles, stress, and shift duty influenced the amount of food nurses consumed, but was more significant under a restrained eating style. Under this eating style, a significantly higher percentage of nurses reported eating more fast food, snacks, and binging, while fruits and vegetables were the least likely to be eaten under stress. High stressed nurses were more likely to present with abnormal restrained eating (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, p=0.004), emotional (OR=1.24; p=0.001), and external (OR=1.21; p=0.001) DEBQ scores. Working nighttime shift duty was positively associated with restrained eating (OR=1.53; p=0.029) and emotional eating (OR=1.24; p=0.001), but negatively associated with external eating (OR=0.45; p=0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that stress and shift duty were associated with eating habits. PMID:26837403
Airhihenbuwa, C O; Kumanyika, S; Agurs, T D; Lowe, A; Saunders, D; Morssink, C B
The high mortality from diet-related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low- and middle-income African Americans recruited from an urban community in Pennsylvania. In total, 21 males and 32 females, aged 13-65+ years were recruited using a networking technique. Participants identified eating practices commonly attributed to African Americans and felt that these were largely independent of socioeconomic status. They were uncertain about links between African American eating patterns and African origins but clear about influences of slavery and economic disadvantage. The perception that African American food patterns were characteristically adaptive to external conditions, suggest that, for effective dietary change in African American communities, changes in the food availability will need to precede or take place in parallel with changes recommended to individuals. Cultural attitudes about where and with whom food is eaten emerged as being equivalent in importance to attitudes about specific foods. These findings emphasize the importance of continued efforts to identify ways to increase the relevance of cultural context and meanings in dietary counseling so that health and nutrition interventions are anchored in values as perceived, in this case, by African Americans. PMID:9395569
Katterman, Shawn N; Klump, Kelly L
Starved is a situational comedy ("sitcom") that depicted individuals with eating disorders that was feared to increase stigma. Our study directly examined this possibility by randomly assigning participants to watch Starved or The Comeback (a sitcom unrelated to eating disorders) and measuring eating disorder stigma/stereotypes before and after viewing. Participants who viewed Starved did not show increased levels of stigma, suggesting that short-term exposure to an extreme portrayal of eating disorder stereotypes may not increase stigma. Future research should examine prolonged exposure and other potential sources of these negative attitudes. PMID:20390619
Sepúlveda, A R; Carrobles, J A; Gandarillas, A; Poveda, J; Pastor, V
A pilot study was carried out in university students to evaluate the effect of a health promotion program for eating disturbances and body dissatisfaction. A subgroup of 135 medical students of both sexes in their second year was selected. There were divided in three groups, high-risk students (EDI >40) and low-risk students (EDI <40) who participated in the program and nonparticipants as comparison group. Program had a total of 16 workshops of 90 min. A year later the different assessment measurements were compared, body image, attitudes and eating behaviours, psychopathological levels and self-esteem. Differences by gender were found on the impact of the intervention. The program presented a statistical significant improvement in body-image satisfaction, eating attitudes only in high-risk female students in the intervention group. This pilot program for eating disorder prevention in university populations can be considered effective, mainly in female populations at risk for developing an eating disorder. PMID:18089278
A multitude of empirical studies clearly demonstrates that the origin and course of eating disorders is closely linked to family factors. The influence is exerted in a direct way by conveying attitudes towards food, eating, weight, shape and appearance within the family and in a more indirect way by the family relationships. Families of bulimics differ from those of anorexics by a higher degree of conflict, impulsivity, expressiveness and by lower affective resonance and cohesion. Family therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of eating disorders. A sketch of a family therapy describes the conflict oriented approach which includes behavioral elements in oder to stabilize the eating behavior and the weight. PMID:15918543
Wirtz, Amanda L; Madanat, Hala N
The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. PMID:23896036
Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood
Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…
Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)
Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others
Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…
Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…
This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Fornari, Victor; Dancyger, Ida F
The relationship among eating disorders (EDs), psychosexual and identity development, and physical maturation (puberty) is reviewed. The developmental tasks of adolescence are summarized, and research from both community studies and clinical samples on the association between the development of an ED and putative risk factors that include pubertal development and psychosexual behaviors and attitudes for children and adolescents is reviewed. Specific issues explored include the role of child and adolescent abuse and EDs in males. Overall evidence suggests the following: there are inconsistent findings regarding early pubertal development as a risk factor; there is some support for differences between the ED subtypes in sexual attitudes, behaviors, and experiences; sexual abuse is not a specific risk factor; and gender identity issues may play more of a role for adolescent males than females. However, psychosexual issues are neither sufficient nor necessary for the development of an ED in a young person. It should be considered as only one factor in the multidimensional, multifactorial framework needed to clarify this complex and still poorly understood set of disorders. PMID:12529191
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Bebetsos, Evagelos; Chroni, Stiliani; Theodorakis, Yannis
This study investigated intentions and self-efficacy of physically active university students towards healthy eating. The application of Planned Behavior theory has shown that attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms play an important role in shaping people's behavior. 96 students, who participated in physical activities, voluntarily completed the Questionnaire for the Planned Behavior Model and the Health Behavior Questionnaire. The former examines attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and the lately added attitude strength, and role identity towards the behavior factors. The latter assesses one's efficacy expectations towards healthy eating. The regression showed strong associations between the examined variables, signifying that attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and role identity could account for one's intention towards healthy eating behaviors. On the other hand, one's self-efficacy for healthy eating could be explained from the attitudes, intention, perceived behavioral control, and attitude strength held. Overall, systematic participation in physical activities appeared to be accompanied with a relatively healthier diet, while self-efficacy had a significant association with maintaining the healthy eating behaviors. Possible interpretations, limitations, and implications for health professionals are discussed. PMID:12416842