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Sample records for abnormal eating behaviour

  1. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

  2. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  3. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  4. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

  5. [An Autopsy Case of Abnormal Behaviour Induced by Zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Kudo, Keiko; Sameshima, Naomi; Sato, Kazuo; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem. Because his postherpetic neuralgia did not improve, he was hospitalized and treated with an epidural block. During hospitalization, he took off his clothes, removed the epidural block catheter by himself, and slept on others' beds. He disappeared from the hospital one day; the next day, he was found dead in a narrow water storage tank 10 km away from the hospital. He was thought to have driven a car by himself to reach the place. Forensic autopsy revealed that the cause of death was drowning. Zolpidem and several other drugs were detected by toxicological analysis of his blood; the concentrations of these drugs were within therapeutic range. There are several reports about somnambulism induced by zolpidem such as sleepwalking, sleep driving, and eating. Considering the strange episodes following zolpidem administration, his behaviour on the day of his death was considered abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. PMID:26306385

  6. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  7. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  8. Eating Behaviours and Body Dissatisfaction: Relationships with Psychosocial Characteristics 

    E-print Network

    Horne, Jennifer R

    2008-06-27

    Objectives: This study was designed to examine the psychosocial correlates of eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction in a general sample of adult men and women, as well as to investigate whether coping may mediate the ...

  9. Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977

  10. Emotional Openness, problematic eating behaviours, and overweight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.36±0.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours. PMID:25682365

  11. Cognitive control of eating behaviour and the disinhibition effect.

    PubMed

    Westenhoefer, J; Broeckmann, P; Münch, A K; Pudel, V

    1994-08-01

    Restrained eaters have been reported to overeat following a high caloric preload, a phenomenon referred to as the disinhibition effect. However this effect has not been found when subjects were classified by the restraint subscales of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ; Stunkard & Messick, 1985) or the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (van Strien et al., 1986). The present study investigates the disinhibition effect in 133 normal-weight young women, using a two-factorial classification including the TFEQ-restraint and the TFEQ-disinhibition scale. The subjects were requested to consume ice-cream ad libitum during a taste test following a 200-ml milkshake preload or without preload. The results show that the behavioural disinhibition effect occurs only in subjects with simultaneous high scores on both subscales. In addition, subjects with high disinhibition scores consumed more ice-cream than low disinhibition subjects irrespective of their degree of restraint. While subjects with a more rigid control of eating behaviour did not show a difference in the amount of ice-cream consumed with or without preload, subjects with a more flexible control of eating behaviour reduced their intake following the preload condition. With regard to the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS Herman & Polivy, 1980) multiple regression results show that high RRS scores may be due to either higher TFEQ-restraint or higher TFEQ-disinhibition scores. The interpretation of the results favours the renaming of the TFEQ-disinhibition scale to "susceptibility to eating problems" because high scores on this scale indicate overeating in a variety of situations without requiring prior inhibition i.e. dietary restraint. It is supposed that high susceptibility to eating problems may be caused by rigid control of eating behaviour, whereas flexible control of eating behaviour may be a less problematic strategy of long-term weight control. PMID:7826055

  12. Temperament Dispositions, Problematic Eating Behaviours and Overweight in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13?±?0.61?years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26104832

  13. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  14. Terminal 6q25.3 deletion and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lukusa, T; Willekens, D; Lukusa, N; De Cock, F; Fryns, J P

    2001-01-01

    A 10-year-old mentally retarded boy with terminal 6q25 deletion, dysmorphism and striking abnormal behaviour is reported. The main abnormal physical features recorded at different ages consisted of hydrocephalus, axial hypotonia, absence of spontaneous prehension, long face, synophris, hypertelorism with epicanthic folds, internal alternating strabismus, retinal abnormalities with macular degeneration, beaked nose, long philtrum, high-arched palate, lumbar spina bifida, right paravertebral dimple at the upper sacral region, prominent coccyx, broad thumbs and great toes, fetal pads and cryptorchidism. The special behavioural difficulties were made of restlessness, hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive reactions with a self-injurious tendency and episodes of apparently voluntary vomiting crisis concomitant with stress periods. A review of the available literature strongly suggests that individuals with small chromosomal deletions are at high risk of developing behavioural problems. PMID:11693783

  15. Clinical abnormalities in working donkeys and their associations with behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Regan (nee Ashley), F. H.; Hockenhull, J.; Pritchard, J. C.; Waterman-Pearson, A. E.; Whay, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introductions Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. Aims and objectives The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty-three entire male adult working donkeys were observed for ten minutes before and after a one-hour rest period. Using an ethogram developed and refined in associated studies, posture and event behaviours were recorded by a single observer. The health of each donkey was then assessed by a veterinarian for specific clinical abnormalities. Results Working donkeys have a high prevalence of clinical abnormalities and a number of behaviours are associated with these. Significant associations were found between observed behaviours and systemic, ocular and limb-related clinical abnormalities. Cumulative clinical scores for limb-related problems were associated with a higher frequency of leg trembling, knuckling of the forelimb, leg-lifting and weight-shifting behaviours (all R?0.4; P<0.001) and with a lower frequency of weight-bearing evenly on all four feet (R=-0.458; P<0.001). Conclusions The specific behaviour changes associated with clinical abnormalities identified in this study, together with general changes in demeanour identified in related studies, may be useful in assessing the presence and severity of pain in working donkeys and their response to medical and palliative interventions. PMID:26392903

  16. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  17. Trends in eating behaviours among Chinese children (1991 -1997).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhai, F; Popkin, B M

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the trends in snacking behaviours and eating food-prepared-outside-the-home (FPOH) by Chinese children and adolescents using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The sample consisted of 3223 subjects aged 6-18 in 1991 and 2836 in 1997. Three days of 24hr recall dietary data and per capita income (deflated to 1989) was used. The percentage of Chinese children having snacking behaviours was significantly differentiated according to the income level while percentage of eating FPOH increased in middle and high income groups. Snacking contributed about 8% of the energy intake (EI) for snackers, compared with over 15% from FPOH for those who ate FPOH. Fruit was a major component of snacking: snacks based on fruit intake almost doubled over the study period as did snacks based on soft drink consumption. Animal source food consumption was a key component of FPOH and its intake also increased. PMID:16500881

  18. Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. PMID:25240638

  19. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385

  20. Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Babey, S H

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473

  1. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour

  2. Influence of biological, social and psychological factors on abnormal eating attitudes among female university students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Larrissa Cunha Feio; Vasconcelos, Francisco Assis Guedes; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florian6polis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6-12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7-25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

  3. Influence of Biological, Social and Psychological Factors on Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Female University Students in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

  4. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

  5. Eating behaviour in obese patients with melanocortin-4 receptor mutations: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Valette, M; Bellisle, F; Carette, C; Poitou, C; Dubern, B; Paradis, G; Hercberg, S; Muzard, L; Clément, K; Czernichow, S

    2013-08-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are the most common known cause of monogenic obesity and an important contributor to polygenic obesity. MC4R mutations with partial or total loss of function, as well as the variant rs17782313 mapped near MC4R, are positively associated with obesity. MC4R is involved in the leptin-melanocortin signalling system, located in hypothalamic nuclei, that controls food intake via both anorexigenic or orexigenic signals. Impairment in this receptor might affect eating behaviours. Thus, in the case of MC4R mutation carriers, obesity could be related, at least partly, to inadequate control over eating behaviours. Many published studies address eating behaviours in MC4R mutation carriers. Most studies focus on binge eating disorder, whereas others examine various aspects of intake and motivation. Up to now, no evaluation of this literature has been performed. In this review, we examine the available literature on eating behaviours in carriers of MC4R mutations and variant rs17782313 near MC4R gene. We address binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, mealtime hyperphagia, snacking, psychological factors, satiety responsiveness and intake of energy and macro/micronutrient. In a small number of studies, MC4R mutations seem to impair eating behaviours or motivation, but no clear causal effects can be found in the balance of the evidence presented. Improvements in methodologies will be necessary to clarify the behavioural effects of MC4R mutations. PMID:23147118

  6. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  7. Factors influencing the diving behaviour of fish-eating killer whales: sex differences and diel and

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    - haviour of a highly sexually dimorphic odontocete cetacean, the killer whale, Orcinus orca (L., 1758Factors influencing the diving behaviour of fish- eating killer whales: sex differences and diel. of dives/h greater than or equal to specific depths) of fish-eating killer whales varied between males

  8. Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Young People With or Without a Diabetic Sibling 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Rachel K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Body image concerns and problematic eating attitudes and behaviours are recognised as an important concern for young people and clinicians. Identification of groups that might be at risk of developing such ...

  9. How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications. PMID:21698219

  10. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes. PMID:26223764

  11. Eating behaviour in treatment-seeking obese subjects - Influence of sex and BMI classes.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 - <35 kg/m(2), 35 - <40 kg/m(2), 40 - <50 kg/m(2), and >50 kg/m(2)). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P < 0.042) but no significant relation to BMI (as a continuous variable) was observed. Women in comparison to men showed significantly higher cognitive restraint (9.7 ± 4.3 vs. 7.7 ± 4.4; P < 0.001) and disinhibition (9.0 ± 3.5 vs. 7.7 ± 3.5; P < 0.001) scores and also showed higher hunger scores (6.9 ± 3.7 vs. 6.3 ± 3.5; P = 0.042). Analyses on different BMI classes revealed that cognitive restraint decreased (P = 0.016) while disinhibition (P = 0.010) and hunger (P = 0.044) increased independently of sex with increasing BMI classes. However, above the obesity grade I class (i.e. BMI 30 - < 35 kg/m(2)) there were no differences in eating behaviour variables between the remaining BMI classes. Data indicate profound differences in eating behaviour between women and men that persist across a wide range of obesity. Furthermore, data suggest that while grade I obese patients show higher cognitive restraint and less disinhibition and hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes. PMID:26145273

  12. Perceived social norms and eating behaviour: An evaluation of studies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Social norms refer to what most people typically do or approve of. There has been some suggestion that perceived social norms may be an important influence on eating behaviour. We and others have shown that perceived social norms relating to very specific contexts can influence food intake (the amount of food consumed in a single sitting) in those contexts; these studies have predominantly sampled young female adults. Less research has examined whether perceived social norms predict dietary behaviour (the types of food people eat on a day to day basis); here, most evidence comes from cross-sectional studies, which have a number of limitations. A small number of intervention studies have started to explore whether perceived social norms can be used to encourage healthier eating with mixed results. The influence that perceived social norms have on objective measures of eating behaviour now needs to be examined using longitudinal methods in order to determine if social norms are an important influence on eating behaviour and/or can be used to promote meaningful behaviour change. PMID:26072177

  13. Systematic review of the relationship between childcare educators' practices and preschoolers' physical activity and eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Bélanger, M; Donovan, D; Carrier, N

    2015-12-01

    The role of childcare educators is important given that 81% of preschoolers living in developed countries receive childcare outside their home. Since children learn by observing and imitating others, childcare educators may play a role in promoting healthy eating behaviours and physical activity in young children. Six databases were searched for quantitative peer-reviewed, English or French primary studies reporting the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of childcare educators' practices on preschoolers' healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Fifteen articles were included in this review: 10 measured physical activity levels and five assessed eating behaviours. The quality score was rated as low for eight of these articles, and as moderate for the remaining seven. Two of four cross-sectional studies reported a positive relationship between educators and children's behaviours. Eleven intervention studies reported significant favourable effects of interventions. Educators may play a positive role in promoting healthy behaviours in children, but this is mainly based on a small number of intervention type studies of low or moderate quality. The influence of specific components of educators' practices on children's healthy eating and physical activity behaviours remains inconclusive. PMID:26345462

  14. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  15. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  16. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  17. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. Conclusions This is the first European study examining perceived determinants of eating behaviour in university students and collecting ideas and recommendations for healthy eating interventions in a university specific setting. University characteristics (residency, exams, etc.) influence the relationships between individual as well as social environmental determinants and university students’ eating behaviour, and should therefore be taken into account when designing effective and tailored multilevel intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. PMID:24438555

  18. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Vorá?ová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ? 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ? 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ? 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ? 0.01; in girls, p ? 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  19. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    PubMed

    Vorá?ová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ? 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ? 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ? 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ? 0.01; in girls, p ? 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  20. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ? 18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  1. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ?18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  2. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  3. The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n?=?12,667), academic performance (n?=?9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n?=?11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ?85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ?85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ?=?0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction?=?0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability?=?0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects?=?0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating?=?1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

  4. Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

    2013-12-01

    The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ? 30 kg m(-2) and binge eating scale scores ? 19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day(-1) GSK1521498, 5 mg day(-1) GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day(-1) caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day(-1) on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384

  5. The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklí?ek, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    2015-04-01

    Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (??=?0.10) and less external (??=?-0.11) and emotional (??=?-0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

  6. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271

  7. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors.

    PubMed

    Micali, N; De Stavola, B; Ploubidis, G; Simonoff, E; Treasure, J; Field, A E

    2015-10-01

    BackgroundEating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors.AimsTo investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children.MethodData were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions.ResultsChildhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys.ConclusionsRisk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  8. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  9. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904

  10. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients. PMID:25802175

  11. Effect of gender and school level on disordered eating behaviours and attitudes in Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Díaz, J M; López-Aguilar, X; Franco-Paredes, K; Alvarez-Rayón, G; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Trinidad Ocampo Téllez-Girón, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess eating behaviours and attitudes in a community sample of 615 adolescent Mexican students recruited at a middle school (192 boys and 226 girls; mean age +/- standard deviation 13.56+/-0.09) and high school (90 boys and 107 girls; mean age 16.04+/-0.12 years), who completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimia Test (BULIT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Multiple analysis of variance revealed the significant effect of gender on the negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness and perceived social pressure subscales, and school level on the body dissatisfaction and food preoccupation subscales. Among the high school girls, the gender x school level interaction had a significant effect on negative feelings, body dissatisfaction, drive of thinness, food preoccupation and perceived social pressure subscales. These data support previous findings concerning gender, and also suggest that perceived social pressure in the case of girls and food preoccupation in the case of boys could be important factors in the natural development of eating disorders. PMID:20179402

  12. Evaluation of eating and rumination behaviour in cows using a noseband pressure sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An automated technique for recording eating and rumination behaviour was evaluated in ten lactating Brown Swiss cows by comparing data obtained from a pressure sensor with data obtained via direct observation over a 24-hour period. The recording device involved a pressure sensor integrated in the noseband of a halter. The analysed variables included number and duration of individual rumination, eating and resting phases, total daily length of these phases and number of cuds chewed per day. Results Eating and rumination phases were readily differentiated based on characteristic pressure profiles. Chewing movements during rumination were regular and generated regular waveforms with uniform amplitudes, whereas eating generated irregular waveforms with variable amplitudes. There was complete or almost complete agreement and no significant differences between data obtained via direct observation and pressure sensor technique. Both methods yielded an average of 16 daily eating phases with a mean duration of 28.3 minutes. Total time spent eating was 445.0 minutes for direct observation and 445.4 minutes for the pressure sensor technique. Both techniques recorded an average of 13.3 rumination phases with a mean duration of 30.3 (direct observation) and of 30.2 (pressure sensor) minutes. Total time spent ruminating per day, number of cuds per day and chewing cycles per cud were 389.3 and 388.3 minutes, 410.1 and 410.0 and 60.0 and 60.3 for direct observation and pressure sensor technique, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two methods with respect to mean number of chewing cycles per day (24?669, direct observation vs. 24?751, pressure sensor, P?eating and rumination variables obtained via the pressure sensor technique are in excellent agreement with data obtained via direct observation. PMID:23941142

  13. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’, ‘unbalanced weight control’) that significantly explained the risk of overweight among boys and girls. Conclusions Stress-related eating is highly prevalent among 16-year-old girls and is associated with obesity as well as adverse dietary and other health behaviours among both genders, but intrauterine conditions are seemingly uninvolved. In terms of obesity prevention and future health, adolescents who use eating as a passive way of coping could benefit from learning healthier strategies for stress and weight management. PMID:24708823

  14. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  15. Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

  16. An Investigation in the Relationships between Personal Characteristics, Eating Behaviours and Body Dissatisfaction 

    E-print Network

    Ashurst, Rebecca

    2008-06-27

    -esteem, perceived social support, eating-related outcomes and especially body dissatisfaction. The most important findings concerned emotional eating. For males, there were positive correlations between emotional eating and avoidance coping (r= .440, p<0...

  17. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: -0.01-0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders. PMID:25209691

  18. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (sd 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey - a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5 %) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7 % reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  19. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  20. Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before…

  1. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  2. Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: A population-based, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subclinical forms of eating disorders (ED) are highly prevalent, but relatively little is known about age trends, gender differences and distinctions among symptoms. This study investigates age trends and gender difference in binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours (CB) and the relationship of such behaviours to psychosocial problems. Methods Data from the national representative longitudinal study "Young in Norway" (ages 14-34 years) were analysed using ?2 tests, logistic random intercept models and analyses of covariance. Results For both genders, a decrease was found in the prevalence of CB from age 14-16 years to 23 years and over. For binging, however, a significant decrease was found only for females, whose binge eating also declined more markedly over time than did males'. A significant gender difference was detected for purging, with females at higher risk. Purging was related to particularly serious symptoms of psychosocial problems: Those who purged had significantly higher levels of appearance dissatisfaction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, self-concept instability and loneliness than those with symptoms of other forms of disordered eating. Conclusions Individuals affected by purging need to be targeted as a high-risk group. The distinction in severity among the subclinical ED may indicate the need for the reformulation of the eating disorder not otherwise specified category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V. PMID:22244266

  3. Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291

  4. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  5. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

  6. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757

  7. Eating Behaviour in the General Population: An Analysis of the Factor Structure of the German Version of the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Its Association with the Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S.; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2015-01-01

    The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)—based on the refined factor structure—to examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (40–79 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an ‘uncontrolled eating’, a ‘cognitive restraint’ and an ‘emotional eating’ domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the ‘uncontrolled eating domain’ showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both ‘uncontrolled eating’ and ‘emotional eating’ showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m²), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m²; F = 72.074, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that the TFEQ is suitable to identify subjects with specific patterns of eating behaviour that are associated with higher BMI values. Such information may help health care professionals to develop and implement more tailored interventions for overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26230264

  8. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Skov, L R; Lourenço, S; Hansen, G L; Mikkelsen, B E; Schofield, C

    2013-03-01

    The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. Twelve databases were searched systematically for experimental studies with predefined choice architecture interventions in the period of June 2011-March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. The evidence indicates that (i) health labelling at point of purchase is associated with healthier food choice, while (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. PMID:23164089

  9. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States.

    PubMed

    Domoff, Sarah E; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-12-01

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; Wardle, Guthrie, Sanderson, & Rapoport, 2001) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviors. Yet, only one study has examined the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income children. In the current study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the CEBQ among 1002 low-income preschool-age children recruited from Head Start locations in the United States. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated the CEBQ evidenced a reasonable fit to the data. Results also indicate that CEBQ subscales demonstrate good internal reliability (?'s ? .70) and validity, with 7 of the 8 subscales associated with children's BMI z-scores in the expected directions. Equivalent factor loadings and indicator means across White and Black non-Hispanic participants were found, supporting measurement invariance between these two groups. In sum, our study supports the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States. PMID:26247701

  10. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6?months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5?kg (range -12?+?23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  11. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  12. Eating As Treatment (EAT) study protocol: a stepped-wedge, randomised controlled trial of a health behaviour change intervention provided by dietitians to improve nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Ben; McCarter, Kristen; Baker, Amanda; Wolfenden, Luke; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Beck, Alison; McElduff, Patrick; Halpin, Sean; Carter, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintaining adequate nutrition for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients is challenging due to both the malignancy and the rigours of radiation treatment. As yet, health behaviour interventions designed to maintain or improve nutrition in patients with HNC have not been evaluated. The proposed trial builds on promising pilot data, and evaluates the effectiveness of a dietitian-delivered health behaviour intervention to reduce malnutrition in patients with HNC undergoing radiotherapy: Eating As Treatment (EAT). Methods and analysis A stepped-wedge cluster randomised design will be used. All recruitment hospitals begin in the control condition providing treatment as usual. In a randomly generated order, oncology staff at each hospital will receive 2?days of training in EAT before switching to the intervention condition. Training will be supplemented by ongoing supervision, coaching and a 2-month booster training provided by the research team. EAT is based on established behaviour change counselling methods, including motivational interviewing, cognitive–behavioural therapy, and incorporates clinical practice change theory. It is designed to improve motivation to eat despite a range of barriers (pain, mucositis, nausea, reduced or no saliva, taste changes and appetite loss), and to provide patients with practical behaviour change strategies. EAT will be delivered by dietitians during their usual consultations. 400 patients with HNC (nasopharynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity or larynx), aged 18+, undergoing radiotherapy (>60?Gy) with curative intent, will be recruited from radiotherapy departments at 5 Australian sites. Assessments will be conducted at 4 time points (first and final week of radiotherapy, 4 and 12?weeks postradiotherapy). The primary outcome will be a nutritional status assessment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from all relevant bodies has been granted. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12613000320752. PMID:26231757

  13. Preterm born 9-year-olds have elevated IGF-1 and low prolactin, but levels vary with behavioural and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, A; Deschmann, E; Legnevall, L; Vanpee, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study examined the relationship between hypothalamic-associated hormones and behavioural and eating disorders in children with low birthweight. Methods We included 100 children (mean age 9.7 years): 39 were born preterm at <32 gestational weeks, 28 were full-term, but small for gestational age, and 33 were full-term controls. Behavioural histories were analysed, together with fasting blood samples of leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), prolactin, glucagon and cortisol. Results Preterm children had lower prolactin (p = 0.01) and higher IGF-I than controls (p < 0.05, adjusted for confounders), despite being significantly shorter than the predicted target height (p < 0.001). More preterm children displayed behavioural disorders (38% versus 10%, p < 0.001) and eating disorders (26% versus 8%, p < 0.05) than full-term children. These disorders were associated with lower leptin (p < 0.01), insulin (p < 0.05) and IGF-I (p < 0.05), but correlations between these hormones and leptin were similar among the groups. Combined behavioural and eating disorders were only observed in preterm children, who were also the shortest in height. Conclusion Behavioural and eating disorders among preterm children were associated with low leptin, insulin and IGF-1. Low prolactin in all preterm children indicated an increased dopaminergic tonus, which might inhibit body weight incrementation. This raises speculation about IGF-I receptor insensitivity. PMID:25040495

  14. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  15. A lack of functional NK1 receptors explains most, but not all, abnormal behaviours of NK1R-/- mice1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A J; Pillidge, K; Tsai, Y C; Dudley, J A; Hunt, S P; Peirson, S N; Brown, L A; Stanford, S C

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display abnormal behaviours seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness). These abnormalities were evident when comparing the behaviour of separate (inbred: ‘Hom’) wildtype and NK1R-/- mouse strains. Here, we investigated whether the inbreeding protocol could influence their phenotype by comparing the behaviour of these mice with that of wildtype (NK1R+/+) and NK1R-/- progeny of heterozygous parents (‘Het’, derived from the same inbred strains). First, we recorded the spontaneous motor activity of the two colonies/genotypes, over 7 days. This continuous monitoring also enabled us to investigate whether the diurnal rhythm in motor activity differs in the two colonies/genotypes. NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were hyperactive compared with their wildtypes and their diurnal rhythm was also disrupted. Next, we evaluated the performance of the four groups of mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). During training, NK1R-/- mice from both colonies expressed more impulsive and perseverative behaviour than their wildtypes. During testing, only NK1R-/- mice from the Hom colony were more impulsive than their wildtypes, but NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were more perseverative. There were no colony differences in inattentiveness. Moreover, a genotype difference in this measure depended on time of day. We conclude that the hyperactivity, perseveration and, possibly, inattentiveness of NK1R-/- mice is a direct consequence of a lack of functional NK1R. However, the greater impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice depended on an interaction between a functional deficit of NK1R and other (possibly environmental and/or epigenetic) factors. PMID:25558794

  16. Testing the cognitive-behavioural maintenance models across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups: a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses. PMID:25416408

  17. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p?eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. PMID:25934087

  18. Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of obesity amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and emerging evidence suggests that psychological stress may be a key factor in this relationship. This paper reports the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of relationships between perceived stress, weight and weight-related behaviours in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods This study used baseline and follow-up self-report survey data from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, comprising a cohort of 1382 women aged 18 to 46 years from 80 of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Women reported their height (baseline only), weight, sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, leisure-time physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours at baseline and three-year follow-up. Linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between stress (predictor) and weight, and weight-related behaviours. Results Higher perceived stress in women was associated with a higher BMI, and to increased odds of being obese in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were found between stress and both less leisure-time physical activity, and more frequent fast food consumption. Longitudinal associations were also found between stress and increased television viewing time. Conclusion The present study contributes to the literature related to the effects of stress on weight and weight-related behaviours. The findings suggest that higher stress levels could contribute to obesity risk in women. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, interventions that incorporate stress management techniques might help to prevent rising obesity rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:24020677

  19. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  20. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. PMID:24140617

  1. To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

  2. Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. PMID:22524997

  3. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  4. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  5. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ?1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ?3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  6. Perception of body weight and self-reported eating and exercise behaviour among obese and non-obese women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, P

    1998-11-01

    A case control study was conducted to examine the theorized differences for eating and exercise behaviour among the obese and non-obese women from an urban health center in Saudi Arabia. Perceptions regarding actual and ideal body size were also determined. The obese were significantly more likely to eat under emotional conditions of stress and anger, in secrecy, and indulge in binge eating (P < 0.05). Frequent snacking and drinking of regular soda drinks was also more common in this group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A weak association was observed for nibbling at food without being aware and preference of sweet foods compared to savoury ones by the obese (P < 0.1). A large group of the study population (75%) were either not exercising at all or doing so infrequently--a feature expected in the middle and lower social class group of women in this region. A sizable proportion of women either overestimated (28.6%) or underestimated (28.9%) their actual body weight with increasing education significantly related to overestimation of weight and vice versa (P < 0.05). A change in the concept of an ideal body image from the overweight female to that of the slim figure was also observed with advancing education. To control and prevent obesity in this region, it is suggested that health education related to an awareness of a healthy body size and appropriate eating and exercise behaviour should be given through primary health centers, other health facilities and schools. PMID:9883039

  7. Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent’s eating behaviours: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent’s consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence on health behaviour needs to be explored in future studies. Initiatives to promote healthy eating should focus on education, habits and consciousness of a healthy diet, but also at reducing the high cost of fruit and vegetables. There is further a need for developing appropriate indicators for adolescent socio-economic status. PMID:23190697

  8. Persecutors or victims? The moral logic at the heart of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Simona

    2003-09-01

    Eating Disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia, are of immense contemporary importance and interest. News stories depicting the tragic effects of eating disorders command wide attention. Almost everybody in society has been touched by eating disorders in one way or another, and contemporary obsession with body image and diet fuels fascination with this problem. It is unclear why people develop eating disorders. Clinical and sociological studies have provided important information relating to the relational systems in which eating disorders are mainly found. This paper shows that their explanations are not conclusive and points out that the reasons why people develop eating disorders should not be found in the dysfunctional interactions occurring in both familial and social systems, but in the moral beliefs that underlie these interactions. Eating disorders are impossible to understand or explain, unless they are viewed in the light of these beliefs. A moral logic, that is a way of thinking of interpersonal relations in moral terms, gives shape to and justifies the clinical condition, and finds consistent expression in abnormal eating behaviour. The analysis offered here is not mainstream either in philosophy (eating disorders are in fact seldom the subject of philosophical investigation) or in clinical psychology (the methods of philosophical analysis are in fact seldom utilised in clinical psychology). However, this paper offers a important contribution to the understanding of such a dramatic and widespread condition, bringing to light the deepest reasons, which are moral in nature, that contribute to the explanation of this complex phenomenon. PMID:14708934

  9. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  10. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  11. Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests and comorbid psychiatric disorders among patients with anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified in the anorexia nervosa DSM-IV criteria

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kye Hock Robin; Lee, Ee Lian

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are on the rise in Singapore. Abnormal liver function tests have been reported for up to 12.2% of patients with AN. These patients are also known to present with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the severity of abnormal liver function tests, and between BMI and the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of 373 patients diagnosed with AN or EDNOS at a tertiary hospital was performed. The clinical course of transaminitis and comorbid psychiatric disorders was correlated with the patient’s BMI. RESULTS Patients with a BMI of ? 16.6 kg/m2 at their first consult had a significantly lower risk of having comorbid psychiatric disorders (?2 = 32.08, p < 0.001). These patients were five times less likely to have comorbid psychiatric disorders as compared to patients from the other BMI groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.21). On the other hand, patients with a BMI of < 14.6 kg/m2 had a significantly higher risk of having transaminitis (?2 = 72.5, p < 0.001). They were 11.1 times more likely to develop transaminitis as compared to patients with a BMI of ? 14.6 kg/m2 (OR 11.05). CONCLUSION Severity of BMI can be used by clinicians as an indicator to assess for secondary psychiatric comorbidities and/or transaminitis during the first consultation. This could help reduce the morbidity and mortality rates in patients with AN or EDNOS. PMID:26451050

  12. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay healthy. ... about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  13. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Eating Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe ...

  14. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePLUS

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  15. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

  16. Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    Normal Healthy Eating and Eating Disorders WHAT IS NORMAL HEALTHY EATING? Normal healthy eating an eating disorder. The main eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF AN EATING DISORDER Physical · excessive weight loss · loss of menstrual period in females · sensitivity

  17. Brain lesions and eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Uher, R; Treasure, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

  18. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  19. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  20. Eating Disorders About eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Eating Disorders About eating disorders There are many influences on an individual's self image, and in some cases, their lives. Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that affects 1% of young women-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes

  1. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  3. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  4. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... individual or group-based. Some antidepressants, such as fluoxetine (Prozac), which is the only medication approved by the ... help patients who also have depression or anxiety. Fluoxetine also appears to help reduce binge-eating and ...

  5. Emotional Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fine" and head to the freezer for the ice cream. But can that pint of Rocky Road really ... eat things like pizza, while sad people prefer ice cream and cookies. Bored people crave salty, crunchy things, ...

  6. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Konti?, Olga; Vasiljevi?, Nadja; Trisovi?, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Laki?, Aneta; Gasi?, Miroslava Jasovi?

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  7. An Introduction to Eating and Eating

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    An Introduction to Eating and Eating Disorders Alexandra W. Logue The Psychology of Eating behavioral science and the scientific method and with an interest in understanding eating disorders. It as a scientist and as a writer. Logue did not write The Psychology of Eating and Drinking for experts in inges

  8. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  9. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a condition caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is marked by mental retardation, learning difficulties, ... muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than ...

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  11. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  12. Abnormal Pup 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    samples, appropriate reference genes were needed that showed stable, non-fluctuating levels in both normal and abnormal kidney tissue and urine sediment in dogs. Tested genes included Glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 40S ribosomal... into the pathogenesis and treatment of CKD in dogs. 3 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Primary glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both humans and animals. These disorders are characterized by abnormal structure and function...

  13. Eating disorders in Spanish female athletes.

    PubMed

    Toro, J; Galilea, B; Martinez-Mallén, E; Salamero, M; Capdevila, L; Mari, J; Mayolas, J; Toro, E

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of eating disorders and risk factors for their development in female athletes. Two hundred and eighty-three elite sportswomen, competing in 20 different sports, were administered the EAT, the CETCA (the Eating Disorders Assessment Questionnaire, based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria), and two other inventories which evaluated 1) the possible influence on eating disorders of exposure of the body in public and 2) pressure from coaches regarding eating habits, weight, physical appearance and performance. More than 11% of subjects had scores above the cut-off point (>30) on the EAT questionnaire, a proportion similar to that found in a general female population in Spain. On the basis of the CETCA score, AN was putatively diagnosed in 2.5% of the sample, and BN in 20.1%. Though some of these cases may have been EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified), the proportion of athletes suffering from some kind of eating disorder was five times higher than in the general population (22.6% vs. 4.1%). No differences were found between the sportswomen and the general population in terms of specific risk behaviours and attitudes, but a substantial subgroup of athletes presented two or more of these risk behaviours. Exposure of the body in public seems to be a risk factor for eating disorders in general, and pressure from coaches seems to be a risk factor for bulimia. PMID:16158377

  14. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foods to Fight Iron Deficiency scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ... a Hurricane and/or Flooding scale in an apple - Eating Right Isn't Complicated Eating Right Isn' ...

  15. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  16. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that…

  17. Body image and health: eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Jasik, Carolyn Bradner

    2014-09-01

    Eating behavior in adolescents can be as high risk as other behaviors that arise during this period and can have serious health consequences. This article presents a framework for screening and treatment of abnormal adolescent eating behavior by the primary care provider. A review of the types of disordered eating is presented along with suggested ways to screen. Indications for subspecialty eating disorder referrals and key aspects of screening and intervention in adolescent obesity and eating disorders are also reviewed. Specific attention is paid to the aspects of care that can be provided in primary care and multidisciplinary care. PMID:25124204

  18. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative symptoms and symptoms of an Eating Disorder. PMID:26417791

  19. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...

  20. Functional assessment and behavioural intervention for eating difficulties in children with autism: a study conducted in the natural environment using parents and ABA tutors as therapists.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catherine M; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that appropriate and disruptive mealtime behaviour was maintained by different contingencies. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to validate the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention for all participants included presentation of food on a spoon for 30 s unless acceptance occurred. Acceptance resulted in putative reinforcement. The meal ended after 20 presentations. For all participants, acceptance and mouth cleans increased while disruptive behaviour decreased, and effects were maintained at follow-up. PMID:21181250

  1. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  2. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or swallowing. Talk with the person’s doctor about changes in eating habits. The Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center is a service of the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of ... disease and age-related cognitive changes. July 2012

  3. PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

  4. Eating Mindfully Cancer Connections

    E-print Network

    (physical activity) and psychological factors #12;Mindful Eating Exercise *You need two pieces of chocolate for this exercise. Please raise your hand if you need more chocolate! #12;Mindful Eating Exercise Eat one piece of chocolate like normal. #12;Mindful Eating Exercise Practice eating mindfully with the second piece

  5. Eating traits questionnaires as a continuum of a single concept. Uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n?=?740) and Canada (n?=?456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. PMID:25769975

  6. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    MedlinePLUS

    Healthy Eating Get your child on the path to healthy eating. Focus on the meal and each other. Your ... child’s throat—about the size of a nickel. Healthy Eating There are many ways to divide the Daily ...

  7. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  8. Is overweight at 12 months associated with differences in eating behaviour or dietary intake among children selected for inappropriate bottle use?

    PubMed

    Bonuck, Karen; Avraham, Sivan Ben; Hearst, Mary; Kahn, Richard; Hyden, Christel

    2014-04-01

    Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24?h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (?85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ?2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3?kcal day(-1) (standard deviation?=?346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. PMID:23556429

  9. The independent and combined effect of personality and coping style on eating related outcomes in young women. 

    E-print Network

    Russell-Pavier, Anna Louise

    2008-06-27

    Objective: The objectives of the present study were to examine whether personality factors and coping methods can predict attitudes towards eating and patterns of eating behaviour among young women. In addition, it was aimed to investigate a...

  10. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating problems. Anyone can have an eating disorder: boys and girls, kids, teens, and adults. Let's find out more ... to develop an eating disorder. All of these girls know their bodies are being watched ... boys develop eating disorders, it's usually because they're ...

  11. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  12. Investigation of schema modes in the eating disordered population 

    E-print Network

    Jenkins, Gwenllian

    2009-01-01

    Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and ...

  13. Publications for Evelyn Smith Smith, E. (2015). Caloric restriction reduces binge eating: a

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    : a systematic review (forthcoming). International Journal of Eating Disorders, In Press. Smith, E., Hay, P Remediation Therapy (CRT) for Eating and Weight Disorders, (pp. 176-191). Hove, East Sussex: Routledge of psychological constructs including disordered eating, mood, emotional regulation, habitual cluster behaviours

  14. Eating disorders, perceived control, assertiveness and hostility.

    PubMed

    Williams, G J; Chamove, A S; Millar, H R

    1990-09-01

    There are anecdotal claims that eating disorder patients perceive themselves as highly controlled by the family and by society, but that they do not show assertive behaviour towards controllers. Anorexic and bulimic females were compared with female psychiatric patients, dieters and non-dieting controls on measures of eating disorder symptomatology, locus of control, assertiveness, inwardly directed hostility, family control and family encouragement of independence. Eating disorder patients reported significantly more external control, more inwardly directed hostility, less self-assertion and less family encouragement of independence than dieters and non-dieting controls, but they did not differ from psychiatric controls. Most of the characteristics seen in eating disorder subjects were also reported by psychiatric controls. PMID:2252948

  15. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  16. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  17. Beliefs about eating and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosselli, Francine; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Debar, Lynn L; Kraemer, Helena C

    2009-08-01

    Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to agree that there are effective treatments. Two thirds of the sample reported that certain foods are addictive and also believed that strict dieting is an effective means of reducing binge eating. Therapeutic implications of these attitudes are discussed. PMID:19665098

  18. Abnormal behaviour of lithium in coeval stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente de Andrés, F.; Morales-Durán, C.; Chavero, C.; de la Reza, R.

    2015-05-01

    Due to its fragility, the light element lithium (Li) is an excellent and very used indicator of stellar processes. Our interest here is to explore and try to understand the Li dispersion observed in some stellar open clusters which are not explained by the standard theories. A typical and historical case, for example, is that found for stars cooler than the stellar effective temperature Teff ˜ 5500 K in the Pleiades cluster with an age of ˜ 130 My (see details in Figure 2 of this poster). What is the mechanism that provoques this dispersion?. Up to now, mainly three mechanisms are being proposed : (1) Episodic accretion during the protostellar phase (Barafee et al. 2010). (2) Rotational stellar internal mixing shears due to a star-disk interaction (Eggenberger at al. 2012) and (3) Li depletion by an increased stellar radius (Somers et al. 2014). We will explore this problem using the rotational option (2) (Chavero et al. 2014) and also identifying stellar interlopers in some groups.

  19. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  20. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 ?g g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ?g ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set. PMID:25954046

  1. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies. PMID:26471029

  2. Re-embodying Eating

    PubMed Central

    Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

  3. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  4. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  5. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ? 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

  6. Causes of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2002-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control. PMID:11752484

  7. Eating Disturbances and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…

  8. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

  9. Eating Disorders among Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbanks, George

    1987-01-01

    Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

  10. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  11. Beat (Beat Eating Disorders).

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568

  12. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  13. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  14. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

  15. Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 537545 Larval marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, eat their kin

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Anim. Behav., 1995, 50, 537­545 Larval marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, eat their kin SUSAN C was examined in the marbled salamander. In separate behavioural trials, cannibalistic larvae were presented

  16. Investigation of the role of parenting, emotion regulation, emotional eating and lifestyle factors in adolescents’ weight 

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arlene Anne

    2012-11-28

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationships between an adolescent’s weight and parenting style, emotional eating, and emotional regulation and lifestyle behaviours to further develop the understanding of ...

  17. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  18. The Biology of Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Mo, Xiaofei; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating. PMID:19501749

  19. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  20. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  1. Specific eating and sleeping problems in Prader-Willi and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1996-05-01

    Eating and sleeping problems have a high prevalence in mental retardation in general, but are also discussed as characteristic in some genetically determined disorders. A comparative analysis of eating and sleeping behaviours in 28 Prader-Willi- and 32 Williams-Beuren syndrome children by psychometric instruments confirms excessive food-seeking behaviours in PWS and selective food refusal in WBS as specific problems. In both syndromes, however, there is considerable individual variability in these symptoms. PMID:8735669

  2. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Eat for Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... milk products, whole grain products, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. The DASH eating plan also contains ... cooked meats, poultry, or fish 1 egg‡ Nuts, seeds, and legumes 4-5 per week ? cup ...

  4. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give ... black beans Salsa or picante Soft corn tortillas Healthy Weight Tip Ask your server how the menu ...

  5. Adolescent Health/ Eating Disorders

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Adolescent Health/ Eating Disorders Consultation Request to Doernbecher Specialty Pediatric: ___________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ For Radiology, Lab see www.doernbecher.com/referral Audiology Autism Behavioral Pediatrics Cardiac Surgery Cardiology Child Development Cleft Lip/Palate ­ Craniofacial Cochlear Implant Dermatology Diabetes Down

  6. Eating Well with Scleroderma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... try their best to eat a healthy diet. Malnutrition in scleroderma is caused either by inadequate intake ... chew- ing, swallowing, and/or preparing Symptoms of Malnutrition The following symptoms can also describe the underlying ...

  7. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

  8. Eating during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Protein cell growth and blood production lean meat, fish, poultry, egg whites, beans, peanut butter, tofu Carbohydrates ... red blood cells, maintaining nervous system health meat, fish, poultry, milk (Note: vegetarians who don't eat ...

  9. Eating during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... talk to your doctor. Back Continue More About Fish Fish and shellfish can be an extremely healthy part ... in saturated fat. But limit the types of fish you eat while pregnant because some contain high ...

  10. Dieting Frequency in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder: Behavioral and Metabolic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the clinical significance of self-reported frequency of time spent dieting in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). A total of 207 treatment-seeking obese BED patients (57 men and 150 women) were dichotomized by dieting frequency and gender and compared on a number of historical, psychological, and metabolic variables. Frequent dieters reported significantly earlier age of onset for binge eating, dieting, and obesity, more episodes of weight cycling, greater weight suppression, and greater eating disorder pathology than infrequent dieters; no differences, however, emerged on current binge eating frequency or psychological distress. Among women but not among men, frequent dieters had consistently lower chances of abnormalities in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio while infrequent dieters had greater chances of abnormalities on these variables. Dietary restraint was inversely correlated with abnormalities in triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio but was unrelated to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In summary, frequent dieters of both genders had greater lifetime and current eating and weight concerns, and in women, decreased chance of metabolic abnormalities than infrequent dieters. Our findings suggest that frequent dieting attempts, particularly in women, are associated with greater eating disorder pathology but may have a beneficial effect on metabolic functioning and cardiovascular disease risk independent of actual weight status. These findings may have implications for clinical advice provided to obese BED patients. PMID:19165172

  11. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

  12. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Asko M.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications on the effects of eating habits are lacking. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive women underwent aesthetic liposuction. Three outcome measures were applied at baseline and at follow-up: the eating disorder inventory, Raitasalo's modification of the Beck depression inventory, and the 15-dimensional general quality of life questionnaire. Results: The mean age at baseline was 44 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.0. Thirty-six (59%) women completed all outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 7 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's body satisfaction, and their overall risk for developing an eating disorder decreased significantly. Conclusion: Aesthetic liposuction results in a significantly reduced overall risk for an eating disorder in combination with improved body satisfaction. PMID:26301150

  13. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other than your normal monthly period. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered abnormal uterine bleeding. Very heavy bleeding during a period and/or bleeding that ...

  17. Eating disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A Shyam

    2015-07-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  18. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  19. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  20. Couples Eating Disorder Prevention Program 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez-Cash, Ana L.

    2010-07-14

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are more prevalent in today's society than ever. As a result, several prevention programs targeting the common eating disorder risk factors have been developed. The purpose of the current study...

  1. Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating

    E-print Network

    Prohaska, Jennifer A.

    2012-05-31

    Previous studies have investigated the link between aggression and disordered eating behavior. This study investigated the behavioral and psychological links between disordered eating and relational aggression in a female college-age population. I...

  2. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  3. What Does "Healthy Eating" Mean?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? According to the Dietary Guidelines ... vegetables help, too! Download the Tip Sheet What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? (PDF, 513.2 KB) You ...

  4. Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    =EmailImport #12;10 11/3 Midterm #2 11/5 Eating disorders, sleep disorders Chap. 10 11/7 Gender identity disorder, and treatment 10/17 Integrative theory 8 10/20-22 Anxiety disorders Chap. 6 10/24 Mood disorders Chap. 8 9 10/27 Mood disorders 10/29-31 Substance abuse disorders, impulse control Chap. 9, 13 disorders (pg. 465

  5. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  6. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) offers a framework for these measurements. Objective This paper reviews existing instruments assessing motivation to change in eating disorders. Method We screened N?=?119 studies from the databases Medline and Psycinfo found by combinations of the search keywords ‘eating disorder’, ‘anorexia nervosa’, ‘bulimia nervosa’, ‘motivation’, ‘readiness to change’, ‘assessment’, ‘measurement’, and ‘questionnaire’. Results Ultimately, n?=?15 studies investigating psychometric properties of different assessment tools of motivation to change in eating disorders were identified. Reviewed instruments can be divided into those assessing the stages of change according to the TTM (6 instruments) and those capturing decisional balance (3 instruments). Overall, the psychometric properties of these instruments are satisfactory to good. Discussion Advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of the reviewed assessment tools are discussed. So far, the TTM provides the only framework to assess motivation to change in eating disorders. PMID:24999416

  7. Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…

  8. Eat Your Weedies!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, James

    2001-01-01

    Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)

  9. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  10. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  11. EATING PROBLEMS NAUSEA & VOMITING

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    , grapefruit, tomato) to avoid burning. · Drink small amounts of high-calorie supplements frequently. Try frequent meals and keep snacks handy for nibbling. · Make the foods you eat count by using high-calorie, high-protein items. Try high calorie milkshakes and supplements or eggnog instead of non

  12. Models of Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

  13. Childhood emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in a general adolescent population. Does emotion regulation play a mediating role? 

    E-print Network

    Mills, Pamela Ann

    2011-11-25

    Objectives: To determine if emotion regulation mediates the link between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behaviour in a community sample of adolescents. Design and method: Participants were 222 secondary ...

  14. Animal models of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

  15. Emotional Processing, Recognition, Empathy and Evoked Facial Expression in Eating Disorders: An Experimental Study to Map Deficits in Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficulties in social cognition have been identified in eating disorders (EDs), but the exact profile of these abnormalities is unclear. The aim of this study is to examine distinct processes of social-cognition in this patient group, including attentional processing and recognition, empathic reaction and evoked facial expression in response to discrete vignettes of others displaying positive (i.e. happiness) or negative (i.e. sadness and anger) emotions. Method One hundred and thirty-eight female participants were included in the study: 73 healthy controls (HCs) and 65 individuals with an ED (49 with Anorexia Nervosa and 16 with Bulimia Nervosa). Self-report and behavioural measures were used. Results Participants with EDs did not display specific abnormalities in emotional processing, recognition and empathic response to others’ basic discrete emotions. However, they had poorer facial expressivity and a tendency to turn away from emotional displays. Conclusion Treatments focusing on the development of non-verbal emotional communication skills might be of benefit for patients with EDs. PMID:26252220

  16. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Wernimont, Susan M; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M

    2015-12-01

    Picky eating (also known as fussy, faddy or choosy eating) is usually classified as part of a spectrum of feeding difficulties. It is characterised by an unwillingness to eat familiar foods or to try new foods, as well as strong food preferences. The consequences may include poor dietary variety during early childhood. This, in turn, can lead to concern about the nutrient composition of the diet and thus possible adverse health-related outcomes. There is no single widely accepted definition of picky eating, and therefore there is little consensus on an appropriate assessment measure and a wide range of estimates of prevalence. In this review we first examine common definitions of picky eating used in research studies, and identify the methods that have been used to assess picky eating. These methods include the use of subscales in validated questionnaires, such as the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire as well as study-specific question(s). Second, we review data on the prevalence of picky eating in published studies. For comparison we present prevalence data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in children at four time points (24, 38, 54 and 65 months of age) using a study-specific question. Finally, published data on the effects of picky eating on dietary intakes (both variety and nutrient composition) are reviewed, and the need for more health-related data and longitudinal data is discussed. PMID:26232139

  17. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N?=?770; T2: N?=?510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. PMID:25770914

  18. PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING DISORDERS F.E.A.S.T. FAMILY GUIDE SERIES FALL 2012 OUR LOVED ONE HAS AN EATING DISORDER.WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only

  19. Eating Disorders National Institute of Mental Health

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Eating Disorders National Institute of Mental Health U.S. Department of HealtH anD HUman Service;____________________________________________ ________________________ _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ _________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Contents What are eating disorders? 1 What are the different types of eating disorders? 2 Anorexia nervosa 2 Bulimia nervosa 3 Binge-eating disorder 4 How are eating disorders treated? 4 Treating anorexia

  20. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  1. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599

  4. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  5. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  6. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  7. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  8. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  9. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  10. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

  12. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of Feeding and Swallowing – Normal and Abnormal

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Eating and swallowing are complex behaviors involving volitional and reflexive activities of more than 30 nerves and muscles. They have two crucial biological features: food passage from the oral cavity to stomach and airway protection. The swallowing process is commonly divided into oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages according to the location of the bolus. The movement of the food in the oral cavity and to the oropharynx differs between eating solid food and drinking liquid. Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus. The goal of dysphagia rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of feeding and swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient alimentation and hydration. PMID:18940636

  14. Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous

    2008-01-01

    Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081

  15. Self-reported history of overweight and its relationship to disordered eating in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, J. T.; Lowe, M. R.; Volkening, L. K.; Laffel, L. M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Increased body weight and disordered eating attitudes/behaviours are common in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Disordered eating increases risks for diabetes-related complications. This study aimed to identify a rapid screening approach for disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescent girls with T1D and to examine the relationship between disordered eating and body weight in this population. Methods Ninety adolescent girls, aged 12–19 years, provided a self-assessment of weight status. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess attitudes/behaviours toward food and eating, appetitive responsiveness to the food environment, disinhibition in eating and weight history. Results Forty-three per cent of participants reported a history of overweight. Compared with participants who reported never being overweight, those who reported ever being overweight were significantly older, scored significantly higher on all measures of disordered eating attitudes/behaviours (P ? 0.009) and were 4.8 times more likely to be currently overweight or obese (P < 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was similar between those who did and did not report ever being overweight. Conclusions Because of the ill-health effects of disordered eating and the higher rate of overweight in adolescent girls with T1D, effective screening tools are warranted. The single question ‘Have you ever been overweight?’ may be sufficient as a first question to screen for those at high risk for disordered eating attitudes/behaviours and to provide early intervention and prevention. PMID:19929996

  16. Eating for competing.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, G

    1987-09-01

    Many adolescent athletes take nutritional supplements in the hope that such supplements will make them better athletes. Protein supplements will not build muscles unless the athlete is not ingesting adequate amounts of protein in food. Vitamins and mineral supplements will not improve performance unless the athlete suffers from a deficiency. No nutritional supplement contains any ingredient that cannot be obtained from food. However, following the scientific principles outlined in this article, on what and when to eat foods and drink fluids, can improve athletic performance. PMID:3685660

  17. Eating disorders in young adults with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: a controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, C G; Peveler, R C; Davies, B; Mann, J I; Mayou, R A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of clinical eating disorders and lesser degrees of disturbed eating in young adults with insulin dependent diabetes and a matched sample of non-diabetic female controls. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey of eating habits and attitudes in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. SETTING--Outpatient clinic catering for young adults with diabetes; community sample of non-diabetic women drawn from the lists of two general practices. SUBJECTS--100 patients with insulin dependent diabetes (54 women and 46 men) aged 17-25 and 67 non-diabetic women of the same age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Eating habits and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed by standardised research interview adapted for the assessment of patients with diabetes (eating disorder examination). Glycaemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin assay. RESULTS--In both non-diabetic and diabetic women disturbed eating was common, and in diabetic women the degree of disturbance was related to control of glycaemia. Twenty of the diabetic women (37%) had omitted or underused insulin to influence their weight. This behaviour was not restricted to those with a clinical eating disorder. None of the men showed any features of eating disorders, and none had misused insulin to influence their weight. CONCLUSIONS--There was no evidence that clinical eating disorders are more prevalent in young women with diabetes than in non-diabetic women. Nevertheless, disturbed eating is common and is associated with poor control of glycaemia, and the misuse of insulin to influence body weight is also common in young women with diabetes. PMID:1781827

  18. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    PubMed

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

  19. Healthy Eating in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…

  20. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods. ? R inse canned vegetables, beans, meats, and fish with water before eating. Look for Food Labels that Say l Sodium ... or round l Poultry without the skin l Fish l Beans l Vegetables l Fruits l Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese 2 Eating Right for Kidney Health THE NEXT STEPS TO ...

  1. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

  2. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  3. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  4. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  5. Anxiety, Restraint, and Eating Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

    1975-01-01

    It was hypothesized that individual differences in eating behavior based on the distinction between obese and normal subjects could be demonstrated within a population of normal subjects classified as to the extent of restraint chronically exercised with respect to eating. (Editor)

  6. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  7. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  8. Association of biological, psychological and lifestyle risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15?years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2)???41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800

  9. Personality, perfectionism and eating disturbances in a sample of ballet dancers, general dancers and non-dancers: a cross-sectional study. 

    E-print Network

    Lockwood, Jennifer A

    2009-07-03

    of the ballet dancers’ personality and levels of perfectionism. A new measure was designed, termed the Eating Attitudes and Behaviours Questionnaire (EABQ). The EABQ aimed to assess eating disorder symptoms, based on the criteria the DSM-IV-TR lays down...

  10. The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

  11. Eating Disorder Continuum Not an Issue

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Eating Disorder Continuum Not an Issue · I am not concerned about what others think regarding what Disordered · I am afraid to eat in front of others · I am terrified of eating fat. · I regularly stuff myself isolate myself from others. While most of us can identify with many of the symptoms of an eating disorder

  12. Abnormal Sexual Behavior During Sleep in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  13. Athletic identity and disordered eating in obligatory and non-obligatory runners.

    PubMed

    Gapin, Jennifer I; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong "running" role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery of questionnaires including the Eating Disorder Inventory, Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). OEQ scores ?50 were indicative of obligatory exercise. The non-obligatory runners (n = 82) and obligatory runners (n = 91) were compared on the various measures. Obligatory runners scored significantly higher (P < 0.002) on all of the eating attitudes/disorder measures, and the AIMS (P ? 0.006). Scores on the AIMS were correlated with all disordered eating measures (P < 0.05). Exercising to maintain identification with the running role may be associated with pathological eating and training practices. PMID:21644168

  14. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

  15. Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments

    Cancer.gov

    These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

  16. Eating attitudes and family relationships 

    E-print Network

    Gunnard, Katarina

    2007-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire, investigated how eating and drinking differ cross-culturally between Scotland and Spain, and in particular whether Scottish and Spanish family relationships, self-esteem, early patterns ...

  17. College Eating and Fitness 101

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or reduced price memberships. They may also offer classes such as yoga, spinning, kickboxing, and dancing. Eating ... at Boston Children’s Hospital. The Center is an educational entity that exists to provide teen girls and ...

  18. Eating at America's Table Study

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), a new and improved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs. In addition, within the overall EATS study, investigators evaluated the validity of two new short dietary assessment instruments developed by NCI staff.

  19. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  20. Insula tuning towards external eating versus interoceptive input in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine if adolescent obesity is associated with alterations of insula function as indexed by differential correlations between insula activation and perception of interoceptive feedback versus external food cues. We hypothesized that, in healthy weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with interoceptive sensitivity, whereas in excess weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with sensitivity towards external cues. Fifty-four adolescents (age range 12-18), classified in two groups as a function of BMI, excess weight (n?=?22) and healthy weight (n?=?32), performed the Risky-Gains task (sensitive to insula function) inside an fMRI scanner, and completed the heartbeat perception task (measuring interoceptive sensitivity) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (measuring external eating as well as emotional eating and restraint) outside the scanner. We found that insula activation during the Risky-Gains task positively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity and negatively correlated with external eating in healthy weight adolescents. Conversely, in excess weight adolescents, insula activation positively correlated with external eating and negatively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity, arguably reflecting obesity related neurocognitive adaptations. In excess weight adolescents, external eating was also positively associated with caudate nucleus activation, and restrained eating was negatively associated with insula activation. Our findings suggest that adolescent obesity is associated with disrupted tuning of the insula system towards interoceptive input. PMID:25819606

  1. abnormalities in infants and toddlers

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    , Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

  2. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  3. Enhancing quality of life in people with disordered eating using an online self-help programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that have a significant effect on afflicted individuals’ quality of life. Evidence has shown that they can be improved with treatment. Internet-based interventions are useful in engaging individuals with eating disorders in self-management and treatment. This study aimed primarily to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating after participating in an open trial of an Internet-based self-help programme, and compared their quality of life at assessment with that of healthy controls. Factors affecting their quality of life were examined. Secondary outcomes related to symptom improvement were also reported. Methods This study included 194 individuals with disordered eating and 50 healthy controls. The former group was recruited from eating disorder outpatient clinics and treatment units, as well as via information disseminated through various Internet websites, while the healthy controls were recruited from university student newspapers and university campuses. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey (SF-36v2) was used to assess participants’ quality of life. Other measures were used to assess their symptoms and motivational stages of change to recover from an eating disorder. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test and one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating from baseline to 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The Mann–Whitney U test was employed to compare the difference in quality of life between participants with disordered eating and the healthy controls. Spearman rank order correlations were performed to examine the factors associated with quality of life. Results The participants with disordered eating had significantly poorer quality of life than the healthy controls in both physical and psychological domains. The factors associated with their poor quality of life included dieting behaviour, use of laxatives, severe eating disorder psychopathology, depression and anxiety. Over a six-month follow-up period, a significant number of participants engaged in self-help behaviours using the Internet-based programme. They experienced improvements in their quality of life, eating disorder psychopathology, depression severity, anxiety level and motivational stages of change. Conclusions Internet-based self-help programmes have the potential to enhance quality of life in individuals with disordered eating and could be useful adjuncts to professional treatment. PMID:24999391

  4. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O’Melia, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research. PMID:22654518

  5. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Paul T; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  6. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. Methods A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. Results 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating disorders to seek appropriate help. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001181998 PMID:22856517

  7. Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…

  8. ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology. PMID:23758944

  9. Stress and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  10. Stress and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  11. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

  12. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  14. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  15. Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4–38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were “learners” (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled “plate-clearers”. 16% were considered “non-eaters” eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as “others” (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

  16. Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

  17. Eating fish for two

    PubMed Central

    Strain, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation’s Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (9–12 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child development and to encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:25132804

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contents Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Exercises Related Articles Exercise for People with Multiple Sclerosis - Series II Focus on Secondary Condition Prevention: Walking Program to Reduce Secondary Conditions in Adolescents with Autism Volkssport: The Foundations for a Lifetime ...

  19. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  20. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  1. Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating

    E-print Network

    Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating The most common time of life for an eating disorder to develop is between the ages of 17 - 20. This coincides with the college years. Research has shown that as many as a third of college-age women have disordered eating patterns

  2. Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnant? What to Expect Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes KidsHealth > Parents > Diabetes Center > Diet & Nutrition > Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  3. Health Tip: Eating Well At Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154740.html Health Tip: Eating Well at Work Be prepared with healthy foods To use the ... challenging to eat healthier foods during a busy work day. But with some preparation, you can stay ...

  4. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  5. Break the Bonds of Emotional Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Because emotional eating has nothing to do with hunger, it is typical to eat a lot more ... al. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6-month worksite weight loss ...

  6. Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

  7. Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). Findings The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. Conclusions This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts. PMID:23173954

  8. [Current Care Guideline: Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Suokas, Jaana; Alenius, Heidi; Ebeling, Hanna; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Järvi, Leea; Koskinen, Minna; Laukkanen, Eila; Meskanen, Katarina; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Ryöppönen, Anita; Salonen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Päivi; Vuorela, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis with intervention is linked to better outcome. In primary care patients in risk for eating disorder should be screened and actively asked about eating disorder symptoms. Treatment is mainly out-patient care and should first be focused on gaining a normal nutritional status. It is important to involve the patient's family in the treatment. A confidential relationship between health care professionals and the patient is important. The patient's own motivation and readiness for recuperation are essential. Different therapeutic and psychosocial approaches are central in the treatment, as the disorders are psychiatric. Medical treatment may bring additional help in treating binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, but it is seldom of help in treating anorexia nervosa. PMID:26245050

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

  11. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  12. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  13. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

  14. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  15. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4?weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored by the Centre of Clinical Studies, University Hospital Tübingen. Trial registration number German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00007689, 14/01/2015, version from 11/06/2015, pre-results. PMID:26685032

  16. What is the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS)?

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire, a new and improved food frequency questionnaire developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs.

  17. Does anger mediate between personality and eating symptoms in bulimia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Siccardi, Sara; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Fassino, Secondo

    2012-12-30

    The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. PMID:22944222

  18. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  19. Distinct behavioural profiles in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, J; Bathgate, D; Varma, A; Blackshaw, A; Gibbons, Z; Neary, D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test predictions that frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia give rise to distinct patterns of behavioural change.?METHODS—An informant based semistructured behavioural interview, covering the domains of basic and social emotions, social and personal behaviour, sensory behaviour, eating and oral behaviour, repetitive behaviours, rituals, and compulsions, was administered to carers of 41 patients with semantic dementia and with apathetic (FTD-A) and disinhibited (FTD-D) forms of frontotemporal dementia.?RESULTS—Consistent with prediction, emotional changes differentiated FTD from semantic dementia. Whereas lack of emotional response was pervasive in FTD, it was more selective in semantic dementia, affecting particularly the capacity to show fear. Social avoidance occurred more often in FTD and social seeking in semantic dementia. Patients with FTD showed reduced response to pain, whereas patients with semantic dementia more often showed exaggerated reactions to sensory stimuli. Gluttony and indiscriminate eating were characteristic of FTD, whereas patients with semantic dementia were more likely to exhibit food fads. Hyperorality, involving inedible objects, was unrelated to gluttony, indicating different underlying mechanisms. Repetitive behaviours were common in both FTD and semantic dementia, but had a more compulsive quality in semantic dementia. Behavioural differences were greater between semantic dementia and FTD-A than FTD-D. A logistic regression analysis indicated that emotional and repetitive, compulsive behaviours discriminated FTD from semantic dementia with 97% accuracy.?CONCLUSION—The findings confirm predictions regarding behavioural differences in frontotemporal and semantic dementia and point to differential roles of the frontal and temporal lobes in affect, social functioning, eating, and compulsive behaviour.?? PMID:11181853

  20. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  1. Eat for a Healthy Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found in some types of fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Check product labels for foods high in potassium (unless you’ve been advised to restrict the amount of potassium you eat). ... beans, vegetables, and whole grains. TIP: The National Heart, Lung, ...

  2. Eating disorders in older women.

    PubMed

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. PMID:26261037

  3. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be able to suggest a different drug. If food just isn’t appealing, vary the shape, color, and texture. Look for a new vegetable, fruit, or seafood you haven’t tried before. Are you tired of cooking or eating alone? Try cooking with a friend to make a meal you can enjoy ... the Tip Sheet ...

  4. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  5. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  6. Associations of individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: a multicentre European study of associated eating disorder factors.

    PubMed

    Krug, Isabel; Treasure, Janet; Anderluh, Marija; Bellodi, Laura; Cellini, Elena; Collier, David; Bernardo, Milena di; Granero, Roser; Karwautz, Andreas; Nacmias, Benedetta; Penelo, Eva; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Tchanturia, Kate; Wagner, Gudrun; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence and the likelihood of developing a subsequent eating disorder (ED). A total of 1664 participants took part in the study. The ED cases (n 879) were referred for assessment and treatment to specialized ED units in five different European countries and were compared to a control group of healthy individuals (n 785). Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire, a retrospective measure, which has been developed as part of a European multicentre trial in order to detect dimensions associated with ED in different countries. In the control group, also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the semi-structured clinical interview (SCID-I) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used. Five individually Categorical Principal Components Analysis (CatPCA) procedures were adjusted, one for each theoretically expected factor. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the domains with the strongest effects from the CatPCA scores in the total sample were: food used as individualization, and control and rules about food. On the other hand, healthy eating was negatively related to a subsequent ED. When differences between countries were assessed, results indicated that the pattern of associated ED factors did vary between countries. There was very little difference in early eating behaviour on the subtypes of ED. These findings suggest that the fragmentation of meals within the family and an excessive importance given to food by the individual and the family are linked to the later development of an ED. PMID:18752723

  7. Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based survey.

    PubMed

    de Morais Sato, Priscila; da Rocha Pereira, Patrícia; de Carvalho Stelmo, Isis; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Ulian, Mariana Dimitrov; Sabatini, Fernanda; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2014-11-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered 'nutritionally proper' to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus. PMID:25014744

  8. Retinal abnormalities in ?-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (?)-thalassemia (?-TM: ?-thalassemia major, ?-TI: ?-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with ?-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with ?-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  9. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  10. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future. PMID:25936153

  11. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  12. The neurogenetics and evolution of food-related behaviour

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    of food, competitors, risk of predation, season and time of day. In humans, the decision to eatThe neurogenetics and evolution of food-related behaviour Scott J. Douglas, Ken Dawson All organisms must acquire nutrients from the ambient environment to survive. In animals, the need

  13. Behavioural Phenotype in Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; van Dijk, F.; Stolker, J. J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLs) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterised by unusual facial features, abnormal fat distribution and intellectual disability. As many genetically determined disorders are characterised not only by physical features but also by specific behaviour, we studied whether a specific behavioural

  14. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.

  15. Identification of Psychological Dysfunctions and Eating Disorders in Obese Women Seeking Weight Loss: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Panchaud Cornut, Maude; Szymanski, Jennifer; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Giusti, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools. PMID:24737999

  16. Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT2C/2A receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive ?2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24866852

  17. Eating disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Gravestock, S

    2000-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the nutrition of people with intellectual disability (ID), but less interest in the range of eating disorders (EDs) that they may exhibit and the bio-psycho-social impact of these conditions. Despite diagnostic and methodological difficulties, psychopathology and ED research studies suggest that 3-42% of institutionalized adults with ID and 1-19% of adults with ID in the community have diagnosable EDs. Weight surveys indicate that 2-35% of adults with ID are obese and 5-43% are significantly underweight, but the contribution of diagnosable EDs is unknown. Such data and case reports suggest that EDs are associated with considerable physical, behavioural, psychiatric and social comorbidity. Review papers have focused on the aetiology and treatment of pica, rumination, regurgitation, psychogenic vomiting and food faddiness/refusal. Emerging clinical issues are the development of appropriate diagnostic criteria, multimodal assessment and clinically effective treatment approaches. Key service issues include staff training to improve awareness, addressing comorbidity and access issues, and maintaining support for adults with ID and EDs, and their carers. Research should confirm the multifaceted aetiology and comorbidity of EDs. Then multicomponent assessment and treatment models for EDs can be developed and evaluated. PMID:11115017

  18. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH. PMID:26365482

  19. Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Emergency Evacuation a. In the event of an emergency situation it may be necessary to evacuate the building. Causes for evacuation may be fire, hazardous chemical evacuation alarm systems that include wall-mounted pull stations. Smoke and heat activated alarms are present

  20. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  1. Restrained eating, obesity, and cumulative food intake curves during four-course meals.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Wouters, L; ten Hoor, F

    1991-04-01

    A four-course meal was presented to six obese and 18 normal weight women in which the second course was eaten ad libitum and the other three courses were fixed in amount. Eating behaviour was observed directly and intake was monitored via an electronic scale built into the table under the plate. Intake deceleration was observed in the normal weight women who scored low on the Herman-Polivy (1980) restraint questionnaire and on the cognitive restraint factor (F1) of Stunkard and Messick's (1985) questionnaire, whereas the normal weight and obese restrained women displayed linear cumulative food intake. In all groups, if deceleration occurred in the second course it was usually identical in the third and fourth courses, and constant eating rate persisted from the second course to the later courses. Food-specific eating rates were positively correlated to relative palatability, and removed deviation from linearity in cumulative intake over the four courses. PMID:2064393

  2. Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. PMID:23682343

  3. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  4. [Cannabis poisoning after eating salad].

    PubMed

    Meier, H; Vonesch, H J

    1997-02-01

    We describe 4 patients who suffered gastrointestinal disorders and psychological effects after eating salad prepared with hemp seed oil. The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in this oil far exceeded the recommended tolerance dose. Our observations prompted the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health to publish warnings in the press concerning consumption of this oil. We describe the symptoms of orally ingested THC and point out unresolved problems connected with food containing hemp. PMID:9157527

  5. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  6. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347

  7. Theories: Behaviour Change | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Theories | 20121

    E-print Network

    Theories: Behaviour Change | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Theories | 20121 Theories and models of behaviour and behaviour change 1 Contents Theories and models of behaviour .............................................................................................4 3. Theories of Individual Behaviour and Behaviour Change................................5 3

  8. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  9. Quality of life in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess differences in Quality of Life (QoL) across eating disorder (ED) diagnoses, and to examine the relationship of QoL to specific clinical features. Results 199 patients with a diagnosed ED completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) [Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders, 315–318, 2008] and the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) [Int J Eat Disord 6:1–8]. Differences between diagnostic groups were examined, as were differences between restrictive and binge-purge subtypes. CIA scores and EDE scores were positively correlated and higher in groups with binge-purge behaviours. CIA scores were not correlated with BMI, illness duration or frequency of bingeing/purging behaviours, except in the binge-purge AN group, where CIA scores negatively correlated with BMI. Conclusions Patients with EDs have poor QoL and impairment increases with illness severity. Patients with binge/purge diagnoses are particularly impaired. It remains unclear which clinical features best predict the degree of impairment experienced by patients with EDs. PMID:24999421

  10. PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist disordered individuals, CBT for anxiety & affective disorders, chronic pain and behavioral medicine

  11. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…

  12. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  13. Exercise, Eating Patterns, and Obesity: Evidence from the ATUS and Its Eating & Health Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifschneider, Marianne J.; Hamrick, Karen S.; Lacey, Jill N.

    2011-01-01

    Time spent eating and exercising can impact quality of life measures such as general health and risk for obesity. This article links data from the American Time Use Study and the Eating and Health Module to explore exercise and eating patterns for varying age groups, over different times of day, and by self-reported health status. Younger…

  14. Eat Seafood Twice a Week: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Seafood

    MedlinePLUS

    10 tips Education Series eat seafood twice a week 10 tips to help you eat more seafood Twice a week, make seafood—fish and shellfish—the main protein ... Guidelines for Americans , eating about 8 ounces per week (less for young children) of a variety of ...

  15. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

  16. The social facilitation of eating. A review.

    PubMed

    Herman, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    The social facilitation of eating (i.e., people eating more in groups than when alone) has been studied for about three decades now. In this paper, we review the empirical research (diary studies, observational studies, and experimental studies) of social facilitation, attending to factors that increase or decrease socially facilitated eating. We also review the various explanations (e.g., "time extension") that have been offered for the effect and offer our own speculations as to the underlying mechanisms. Further, we discuss promising directions for future research on the social facilitation of eating. PMID:25265153

  17. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured “duo-interviews” were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. Results The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of “convenient and less healthy foods”. Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. Conclusions The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast provision should be considered as an extension of the meal programme. Walking to school, cultural dance, and extramural activities can be encouraged and thus are useful facilitators for increasing physical activity among rural adolescent girls, where the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing. PMID:25164604

  18. Normal or abnormal? 'Normative uncertainty' in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley

    2015-06-01

    The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges--how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies. The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082

  19. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study 

    E-print Network

    Pearson, Crystal Anne

    2009-05-15

    I used reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and the Bulimia Test (BULIT). Reliability generalization is a type of meta-analysis used...

  20. Orangutan fish eating, primate aquatic fauna eating, and their implications for the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating.

    PubMed

    Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033

  1. Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Andrist, Linda C

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

  2. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    PubMed

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  3. Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions. PMID:24199597

  4. Alcohol use in adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Conason, Alexis H; Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, in particular bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are associated with co-morbid alcohol and drug abuse. School-based studies have shown significant associations between bulimic behaviors and various measures of alcohol, cigarette and other drug use and abuse. Amongst bulimic adolescents, substance use is related to an increased likeliness of high risk behaviors such as attempted suicide, stealing and sexual intercourse. In contrast with bulimics and binge eaters, restricting anorexics have low rates of co-morbid substance abuse. It appears that restricting anorexics, binge eaters and bulimics represent distinct subgroups within the eating disordered population and binge eaters and bulimics are more prone to alcohol use. It is possible that individuals with eating disorders turn to alcohol use/abuse as a way of coping with the problems caused by their eating disorder. Researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait, which predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Eating disorders are often conceptualized as an addictive disorder. Opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone, may be useful in treating both eating and alcohol use disorders. There is also evidence that serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are traditionally used to treat major depression, may be an effective treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been effective in treating alcohol use and eating disorders individually and may be an effective combined treatment for co-morbid eating disorders and alcohol use. Teaching healthy ways to cope with the stressful situations may also help decrease alcohol use and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:16639856

  5. Eating to live or living to eat? Exploring the causal attributions of self-perceived food addiction.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Helen K; Dickson, Joanne M; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies indicate that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. However, little is known about how the concept of 'food addiction' is defined amongst members of the lay public. The current study examined beliefs about the cognitive and behavioural manifestations of food addiction. Participants (N = 210) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire in which they indicated whether or not they perceived themselves to be a food addict and provided a brief explanation for their response. Over a quarter of participants (28%) perceived themselves to be food addicts and self-diagnosis was predicted by increased BMI and younger age, but not by gender. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore the causal attributions provided by self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. Six characteristics were identified: 1) Reward-driven eating (i.e. eating for psychological rather than physiological reasons), 2) A functional or psychological preoccupation with food, 3) A perceived lack of self-control around food, 4) Frequent food cravings, 5) Increased weight or an unhealthy diet, and 6) A problem with a specific type of food. The emergent themes, and their frequency, did not differ between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. However, self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts reported divergent cognitions, behaviours and attitudes within each common theme. This study is the first to provide qualitative insight into beliefs about food addiction in both self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts. The findings appear to reflect a view of food addiction that is identifiable through several core behaviours. PMID:26206173

  6. Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating in Type 1 Diabetes: Prevalence, Screening, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hanlan, Margo E.; Griffith, Julie; Patel, Niral

    2013-01-01

    This review is focused on the prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent research indicates higher prevalence rates of eating disorders among people with type 1 diabetes, as compared to their peers without diabetes. Eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors – especially insulin omission – are associated with poorer glycemic control and serious risk for increased morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin in pre-adolescence and continue through early adulthood, as many disordered eating behaviors begin during the transition to adolescence and may persist for years. Available screening tools and treatment options are reviewed. Given the complexity of diabetes management in combination with eating disorder treatment, it is imperative to screen early and often, in order to identify those most vulnerable and begin appropriate treatment in a timely manner. PMID:24022608

  7. Mindfulness meditation as an intervention for binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Katterman, Shawn N; Kleinman, Brighid M; Hood, Megan M; Nackers, Lisa M; Corsica, Joyce A

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches are growing in popularity as interventions for disordered eating and weight loss. Initial research suggests that mindfulness meditation may be an effective intervention for binge eating; however, no systematic review has examined interventions where mindfulness meditation was the primary intervention and no review has examined its effect on subclinical disordered eating or weight. Using the PRISMA method for systematic reviews, we reviewed 14 studies that investigated mindfulness meditation as the primary intervention and assessed binge eating, emotional eating, and/or weight change. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation effectively decreases binge eating and emotional eating in populations engaging in this behavior; evidence for its effect on weight is mixed. Additional research is warranted to determine comparative effectiveness and long-term effects of mindfulness training. PMID:24854804

  8. Adolescent risk behaviours and mealtime routines: does family meal frequency alter the association between family structure and risk behaviour?

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-02-01

    Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were modelled using Multilevel Binomial modelling for six risk behaviour outcomes. Significantly more children from 'both parent' families ate a family meal every day and fewer 'hardly ever or never' did. Family structure was associated with boys' and girls' smoking, drinking, cannabis use and having sex and with girls' fighting. Frequency of eating a family meal was associated with a reduced likelihood of all risk behaviours among girls and all but fighting and having sex among boys. Eating a family meal regularly nullified the association between family structure and drinking alcohol for boys and girls and cannabis use for boys and reduced the effect size of alternative family structures on boys having sex and smoking. The family meal, associated with a reduced likelihood of many adolescent risk behaviours, reduces or eliminates the association with family structure and may therefore help to overcome inequalities in adolescent risk behaviours. PMID:21900407

  9. [Eating addiction - a behavioral addiction?].

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in DSM-5 for the first time behavioral addictions have entered the medical classification system. Food Addiction can be diagnosed with a 25-item questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. Food Addiction centers between substance-based addiction and non-substance-based behavioral addiction. To date, there is no evidence for a food component displaying addictive properties similar to psychotropic substances, such as cocaine or heroin. There is a lack of valid and reliable psychiatric-diagnostic criteria that aim to characterize Eating-Addiction as a behavioral addiction. PMID:25594277

  10. Bulimia: the binge eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Humphries, L L; Wrobel, S

    1983-02-01

    Bulimia occurs in roughly half of obese and anorexic patients. A recent study found 19% of female and 5% of male college students to be bulimic. Binge eating usually comes to the physician's attention from problems associated with purging measures--diuretics, laxatives, or self-induced postprandial vomiting--used by one out of ten bulimic patients. Continuous vomiting causes parotid enlargement, sore throat, spontaneous regurgitation, and severe electrolyte imbalance. We report a case illustrating the bulimic's distorted body image, review alternative treatment methods, and suggest needed areas of research, particularly those elucidating the relationship between bulimia and affective disorders. PMID:6337404

  11. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  12. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  13. Women’s motivations for eating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES) evaluates the primary motivation for eating initiation. The objective of this study was to examine energy intake by MFES categories and subscale scores across four seasons. Fifty-four women ages 40-60 y completed the MFES four times in one year, once each sea...

  14. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  15. Do Americans eat more on weekends?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nationally representative one-day dietary data from What We Eat In America, NHANES 2001-2004 were analyzed for differences in estimated nutrient intakes and eating patterns on weekends and weekdays. The USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method was used to collect the 24-hour recall from adults, aged 20 y...

  16. Determining the eating habits of UAPB students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The UAPB Delta Obesity Research Project is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excessive weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of healthy weight during college years. Adjusting to college life can lead to poor eating and no physical activity for c...

  17. Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Victoria; And Others

    Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

  18. American Indian Adolescents and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Juleen K.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors play an important role in identifying and intervening with students struggling with disordered eating (e.g., Bardick et al., 2004). Research has shown that American Indian adolescents report higher rates of certain disordered eating behaviors than other racial groups. The literature on the prevalence and etiology of disordered…

  19. School Counselors' Knowledge of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joy A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating

  20. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  1. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  2. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  3. Eating Disorder Diagnoses: Empirical Approaches to Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Normal Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores similarities between normal dieters and individuals with eating disorders. Compares regulation of intake among normal dieter and patient populations, using the boundary model of consumption. Concludes that in neither group is eating technically disordered, though it departs from appropriate physiological norms, and that many normal eaters…

  5. Self-reported eating traits: Underlying components of food responsivity and dietary restriction are positively related to BMI.

    PubMed

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    Self-report measures of dietary restraint, disinhibited eating, hedonic response to food and loss of control over eating have been related to over eating, overweight and obesity. Impulsivity has emerged as a potential moderator in this relationship. However, the exact relationship between these measures and obesity is poorly defined. Self-report data was collected from a student and community based sample (N = 496) of males (N = 104) and females, with a wide age (18-73yrs; M = 27.41) and BMI (15.3-43.6; M = 24.2) range. Principle component analysis was used to explore the underlying structure of the sub-scales from a variety of eating behaviour questionnaires. Two emergent components relating to 'dietary restriction' and 'food reward responsivity' were supported in the analysis. Food reward responsivity component scores positively predicted BMI, but this relationship was moderated by impulsiveness. Dietary restriction component scores positively predicted BMI but were not moderated by impulsiveness. These findings suggest that frequently used eating behaviour measures can be reduced to two underlying components. Food reward responsivity positively predicts BMI, but only when impulsiveness is also high, supporting a dual-system approach where both bottom-up food reward drives and top-down impulse control are associated with overweight and obesity. Dietary restriction is an independent, positive predictor of BMI and is likely to be reflecting repeated unsuccessful attempts at weight control. PMID:26162952

  6. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  7. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-03-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the new born (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support, (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required, (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the new born (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory distress and cyanosis (sometimes differential). Clinical examination also reveals evidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid and, at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:11129917

  8. Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ranjit, M S

    2000-07-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in birth asphyxia were first recognised in the 1970s. These include (i) transient tricuspid regurgitation which is the commonest cause of a systolic murmur in a newborn and tends to disappear without any treatment unless it is associated with transient myocardial ischemia or primary pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (ii) transient mitral regurgitation which is much less common and is often a part of transient myocardial ischemia, at times with reduced left ventricular function and, therefore, requires treatment in the form of inotropic and ventilatory support (iii) transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) of the newborn. This should be suspected in any baby with asphyxia, respiratory distress and poor pulses, especially if a murmur is audible. It is of five types (A to E) according to Rowe's classification. Type B is the most severe with respiratory distress, congestive heart failure and shock. Echocardiography helps to rule out critical left ventricular obstructive lesions like hypoplastic left heart syndrome or critical aortic stenosis. ECG is very important for diagnosis of TMI, and may show changes ranging from T wave inversion in one lead to a classical segmental infarction pattern with abnormal q waves. CPK-MB may rise and echocardiogram shows impaired left ventricular function, mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation, and at times, wall motion abnormalities of left ventricle. Ejection fraction is often depressed and is a useful marker of severity and prognosis. Treatment includes fluid restriction, inotropic support, diuretics and ventilatory resistance if required (v) persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Persistent hypoxia sometimes results in persistence of constricted fetal pulmonary vascular bed causing pulmonary arterial hypertension with consequent right to left shunt across patent ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. This causes respiratory tension and right ventricular failure with systolic murmur of tricuspid, and at times, mitral regurgitation. Treatment consists of oxygen and general care for mild cases, ventilatory support, ECMO and nitric oxide for severe cases. Cardiac abnormalities in asphyxiated neonates are often underdiagnosed and require a high index of suspicion. ECG and Echo help in early recognition and hence better management of these cases. PMID:10957839

  9. The Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Diet in Carers of People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Catherine M.; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background: The utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentions of care staff to encourage healthy eating behaviour in those they supported was examined. Method: A quantitative, within-participant, questionnaire based design was used with 112 carers to assess the performance of two TPB models. The first contained the…

  10. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

  11. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and ?(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

  12. Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-01-01

    Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

  13. Overlapping neurobehavioral circuits in ADHD, obesity, and binge eating: evidence from neuroimaging research.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Benson, Leora; Carnell, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conditions involving excessive eating (eg, obesity, binge/loss of control eating) are increasingly prevalent within pediatric populations, and correlational and some longitudinal studies have suggested inter-relationships between these disorders. In addition, a number of common neural correlates are emerging across conditions, eg, functional abnormalities within circuits subserving reward processing and executive functioning. To explore this potential cross-condition overlap in neurobehavioral underpinnings, we selectively review relevant functional neuroimaging literature, specifically focusing on studies probing (i) reward processing, (ii) response inhibition, and (iii) emotional processing and regulation, and we outline 3 specific shared neurobehavioral circuits. Based on our review, we also identify gaps within the literature that would benefit from further research. PMID:26098969

  14. To eat or not to eat; is that really the question? An evaluation of problematic eating behaviors and mental health among bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Armstrong, Rachel; McCulloch, Katherine; Hyde-Nolan, Maren; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Problematic eating behaviors, such as emotional eating, and food addiction, may affect weight; however, little is known about these eating behaviors, especially among those seeking bariatric surgery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of problematic eating behaviors and to investigate their relationship with other eating behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and psychiatric symptoms. There were 142 patients who completed a required psychiatric evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Of these, 16.9 % met criteria for a food addiction and 25.4-40.7 % endorsed emotional eating, depending on type of emotional eating. The number of food addiction symptoms endorsed was related to emotional eating. Both food addiction and emotional eating were related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, surprisingly, BMI was not related to a food addiction diagnosis, emotional eating scores, or psychiatric symptoms. Results from this study suggest that problematic eating behaviors are occurring among bariatric surgery candidates. Furthermore, this study may help to address the conflicting research regarding the effects of psychiatric symptoms on weight-loss outcomes. Perhaps it is the problematic eating behaviors (e.g., food addiction and emotional eating) that are associated with psychiatric symptoms that could be influencing outcomes. Future research should evaluate treatments for problematic eating behaviors and whether treatments improve weight-loss success. PMID:24878835

  15. Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

  16. Gender Related Attitudes towards Eating and Health among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; Lloyd, Paul J.

    Heightened concern about eating behavior has been expressed in recent surveys of high school and college students. There have been increased requests for treatment of eating disorders among college students and many colleges have developed programs that provide treatment for students afflicted with an eating disorder. The Eating Disorder Inventory…

  17. Eating Competence of College Students in an Introductory Nutrition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lora Beth; Larsen, Katrina J.; Nyland, Nora K.; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. Methods: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages…

  18. Eating Disorders Among College Women: Prevention, Education, and Treatment Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Bergholz, Kim; Dore, Terri; Salimi, Lamieh

    1998-01-01

    Discusses eating disorders in college females, recommending use of the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified framework to identify and target various eating concerns for intervention. The paper also suggests using a multiple-level, developmental-intervention model to conceptualize preventive, educational, and remedial responses to eating

  19. Children's understanding of family financial resources and their impact on eating healthily.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Hannah; Curtis, Penny; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood are linked to childhood and adult health inequalities. They are particularly closely associated with inequalities in nutritional and consequently health status. Recent research links this to the high cost of nutrient-rich and low cost of nutrient-poor foods and explores how parents negotiate food purchase on a limited budget. However, we know little of children's perspectives on the material and social realities of their lives and their involvement in health-relevant behaviour. This contrasts with a growing body of research which emphasises children's active role in making sense of and participating in health practices while growing up and their potential to act in continuity with and as agents of change in family health cultures. This paper explores children's understanding of family finances and how they perceive this to relate to eating healthily. It draws upon data from a qualitative study of 53 children aged 9-10 from two socioeconomically contrasting schools in the North of England during 2010 and 2011. Data were generated in friendship group interviews and debates at school and individual interviews in the home, and analysed thematically. Children incorporated a variety of media information into their understandings and sought explanations from their personal experience. They had sophisticated ideas about the interrelationships between diet, cost and health and were acutely aware of how family finances influenced food purchase. Children proposed different strategies to facilitate eating healthily on a budget, but prioritised state and corporate responsibility in ensuring that eating healthily is affordable. This contrasts with current health-related policy, which does not address cost as a potential barrier to eating healthily in the home. Children also consistently conflated healthy eating with eating fruit and vegetables, highlighting a need to reinforce other important nutritional messages. PMID:22607461

  20. Triggers of Eating in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci; Comer, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the triggers of eating in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote healthy eating and to prevent overeating. Here, the proximal predictors of eating are explored in a natural setting. Research from laboratory settings suggests that restrained eaters overeat after experiencing anxiety, distraction, and the presence of positive or negative moods, but not hunger; whereas the only factor that triggers eating in unrestrained eaters is hunger. In this study, 137 female participants reported hourly for two days on these potential predictors and their eating using electronic diaries, allowing us to establish the relationships between these factors while participants went about their normal daily activities. The main outcome variables were the number of servings eaten and whether or not food was eaten. Contrary to findings from laboratory settings, in everyday life restrained eaters (1) did not overeat in response to anxiety; (2) ate less in the presence of positive or negative moods; and (3) ate more in response to hunger. The relationships between these factors and eating among unrestrained eaters were closer to those found in laboratory settings. In conclusion, predictors of eating must be studied in everyday life to develop successful interventions. PMID:18773931

  1. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  2. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  3. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    PubMed Central

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  4. Eating like there's no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Douglas, Flora; Campbell, Jonina

    2016-01-01

    Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debates on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from these debates are the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations. PMID:26476397

  5. 12/28/11 8:42 PMWhy cows like to chew over things together | Education | The Guardian Page 1 of 4http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/dec/12/improbable-research-cows-synchronisation-behaviour

    E-print Network

    Bollt, Erik

    by Grazing Sheep, and published it in the journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science. They reached fourhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/dec/12/improbable-research-cows-synchronisation-behaviour Why cows like to chew over things together Research on cattle behaviour shows that they like to eat, stand

  6. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines. PMID:24564212

  7. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  8. Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools’ ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research. PMID:23449281

  9. Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudkovitz, Elaine

    1983-01-01

    Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

  10. Eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Nitzburg, George

    2008-10-01

    Eating disorders are generally viewed as afflicting females during adolescence and early adulthood. However, in recent years there has been a growing recognition that these disorders may occur during midlife as well. When eating disorders have been observed in middle age, they have often been believed to be associated with depression. In an Internet survey, responses by middle-aged women (N = 290; aged 45-60 years) indicated that the factors significantly associated with eating pathology-body image dissatisfaction, sociocultural pressures to be thin, and perfectionism-closely parallel those reported for younger people. Furthermore, in the presence of these factors, depression and concerns about the effects of aging on appearance are not significantly related to eating pathology. PMID:18959229

  11. Interspecies genetics of eating disorder traits

    PubMed Central

    Kas, Martien J. H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    Family and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play a role in the development of eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, but novel views and tools may enhance the identification of neurobiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we propose an integrative genetic approach to reveal novel biological substrates of eating disorder traits analogous in mouse and human. For example, comparable to behavioral hyperactivity that is observed in 40-80% of anorexia nervosa patients, inbred strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds are differentially susceptible to develop behavioral hyperactivity when food restricted. In addition, a list of characteristics that are relevant to eating disorders and approaches to their measurement in humans together with potential analogous rodent models has been generated. Interspecies genetics of neurobehavioral characteristics of eating disorders has the potential to open new roads to identify and functionally test genetic pathways that influence neurocircuits relevant for these heterogeneous psychiatric disorders. PMID:18646037

  12. Development of the Eating Habits Questionnaire 

    E-print Network

    Graham, Erin Collins

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of the studies presented was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ). The author designed the 21-item self-report inventory to assess cognitions, behaviors, and feelings related...

  13. When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Alexander R.

    1984-01-01

    Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

  14. Genetic influences on adolescent eating habits.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B; Gibson, Chris L

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed significant genetic influences on variance in an unhealthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .42), a healthy eating habits scale (h(2) = .51), the number of meals eaten at a fast-food restaurant (h(2) = .33), and the total number of meals eaten per week (h(2) = .26). Most of the remaining variance was due to nonshared environmental factors. Additional analyses conducted separately for males and females revealed a similar pattern of findings. The authors note the limitations of the study and offer suggestions for future research. PMID:21750320

  15. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

  16. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed. PMID:18089258

  17. Communicative competence and behavioural phenotype in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    2004-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by a range of minor physical and facial abnormalities and is caused by a de novo deletion on chromosome 17. Most children function in the moderate to severe ranges of mental retardation. Results of a survey on adaptive skills, communicative competence and behavioural abnormalities in 20 children are reported. The findings suggest a strong desire to get in social contact and maintain conversations in spite of their limited cognitive processing. As a group, children with SMS are presenting with severe behavioural abnormalities, e.g. self-injury, extreme irritability, ritualistic behaviour. Behaviour problems are more severe than in other genetic syndrome groups as a comparison with Prader-Willi- and Fragile-X-syndrome children reveals. However, functional analysis suggests that it is not independent from situational variables. There is a strong need for behavioural intervention planning as part of family services. PMID:15517828

  18. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization

    PubMed Central

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined. PMID:25379228

  19. Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

  20. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  1. Behavioural phenotyping assays for mouse models of autism

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jill L.; Yang, Mu; Lord, Catherine; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100–150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate genes for autism. As the diagnostic criteria for autism are behavioural, phenotyping these mouse models requires behavioural assays with high relevance to each category of the diagnostic symptoms. Behavioural neuroscientists are generating a comprehensive set of assays for social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviours to test hypotheses about the causes of austism. Robust phenotypes in mouse models hold great promise as translational tools for discovering effective treatments for components of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20559336

  2. The use of a wearable camera to capture and categorise the environmental and social context of self-identified eating episodes.

    PubMed

    Gemming, Luke; Doherty, Aiden; Utter, Jennifer; Shields, Emma; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-09-01

    Research investigating the influence of the environmental and social factors on eating behaviours in free-living settings is limited. This study investigates the utility of using wearable camera images to assess the context of eating episodes. Adult participants (N = 40) wore a SenseCam wearable camera for 4 days (including 1 familiarisation day) over a 15-day period in free-living conditions, and had their diet assessed using three image-assisted multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recalls. The images of participants' eating episodes were analysed and annotated according to their environmental and social contexts; including eating location, external environment (indoor/outdoor), physical position, social interaction, and viewing media screens. Data for 107 days were used, with a total of 742 eating episodes considered for annotation. Twenty nine per cent (214/742) of the episodes could not be categorised due to absent images (12%, n = 85), dark/blurry images (8%, n = 58), camera not worn (7%, n = 54) and for mixed reasons (2%, n = 17). Most eating episodes were at home (59%) and indoors (91%). Meals at food retailers were 24.8 minutes longer (95% CI: 13.4 to 36.2) and were higher in energy (mean difference = 1196 kJ 95% CI: 242, 2149) than at home. Most episodes were seated at tables (27%) or sofas (26%), but eating standing (19%) or at desks (18%) were common. Social interaction was evident for 45% of episodes and media screens were viewed during 55% of episodes. Meals at home watching television were 3.1 minutes longer (95% CI: -0.6 to 6.7) and higher in energy intake than when no screen was viewed (543 kJ 95% CI: -32 to 1120). The environmental and social context that surrounds eating and dietary behaviours can be assessed using wearable camera images. PMID:26002278

  3. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  4. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  5. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  6. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    PubMed

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients. PMID:26214903

  7. What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

  8. Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Weight-control behaviour is commonly observed in a wide range of elite sports, especially leanness sports, where control over body weight is crucial for high peak performance. Nonetheless, there is only a fine line between purely functional behaviour and clinically relevant eating disorders. Especially the rapid form of weight manipulation seems to foster later eating disorders. So far, most studies have focussed on adult athletes and concentrated on manifest eating disorders. In contrast, our review concentrates on young athletes and weight-control behaviour as a risk factor for eating disorders. An electronic search according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement was performed using Pubmed, PsychInfo and Spolit. The following search terms were used: weight-control, weight-control behaviour, weight gain, weight loss, pathogenic weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns, each of them combined with elite athlete, young elite athlete, adolescent elite athlete and elite sports. Overall, data are inconsistent. In general, athletes do not seem to be at a higher risk for pathogenic weight concerns and weight-control behaviour. It does seem to be more prevalent in leanness sports, though. There is evidence for pathogenic weight-control behaviour in both genders; male athletes mostly trying to gain weight whereas females emphasise weight reduction. There is not enough data to make predictions about connections with age of onset. Young elite athletes do show weight-control behaviour with varying degrees of frequency and severity. In particular, leanness sports seem to be a risk factor for weight manipulation. Further research is needed for more details and possible connections. PMID:24999399

  9. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children’s eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationsh...

  10. Eating Competence: Definition and Evidence for the Satter Eating Competence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    2007-01-01

    The evidence- and practice-based Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) outlines an inclusive definition of the interrelated spectrum of eating attitudes and behaviors. The model is predicated on the utility and effectiveness of biopsychosocial processes: hunger and the drive to survive, appetite and the need for subjective reward and the…

  11. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

  12. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

  13. engineering.usask.ca EAT Report to Donors 2014 1 Engineering Advancement Trust (EAT)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    to the new Advanced Optics Laboratory program in Physics and Engineering Physics. The equipment was purchased. Electro-optic Modulator System (Thorlabs Inc.) #12;Departments and Divisions ­ College of Engineeringengineering.usask.ca EAT Report to Donors 2014 1 Engineering Advancement Trust (EAT) Report

  14. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…

  15. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  16. Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

    2009-01-01

    Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

  17. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Eating Patterns: A New Insight into the Antecedents of Eating Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zysberg, Leehu; Rubanov, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional eating. The authors hypothesized that EI will negatively associate with emotional eating. Methods: A correlational study, conducted in a convenience sample. The researchers personally approached working adults in their workplaces. Ninety Israelis, selected to…

  19. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan. PMID:26298471

  20. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  1. The Spanish Validation of the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders Among Carers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Quiles Sebastián, María José; Pamies Aubalat, Lidia; Sepúlveda García, Ana Rosa; Treasure, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests that families may accommodate patients' symptoms in attempts to alleviate family conflict and stress. These accommodating and enabling behaviours may have a negative impact on carers and those they care for. There are no self-report questionnaires validated in Spanish to measure accommodation among relatives of patients with an eating disorder. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED-S) among relatives of eating disorder patients. A cross-sectional study of 90 relatives was carried out to explore the factor structure, reliability and validity of the AESED-S. The internal consistency of the Spanish version of the AESED subscales was good, ranging from .89 to .81. The correlation of the five subscales with conceptually related measures (negative caregiving experience and distress) supports the convergent validity of this instrument in this sample. Results indicated that the Spanish version of the AESED provides a reliable and valid tool for assessing family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26118356

  2. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  3. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (±7.16) to 3.15 (±5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (±7.16) to 1.50 (±2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRT’s longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial. PMID:24605043

  4. High tendency to the substantial concern on body shape and eating disorders risk of the students majoring Nutrition or Sport Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Bilgiç, Pelin; Yabanc?, Nurcan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Studies have indicated that university students majoring in nutrition and dietetics or sport sciences may have more obsessions associated with eating attitudes and body shape perception compared to other disciplines i.e. social sciences. Therefore, this study aimed to assess and compare the risk of eating disorders and body shape perception. MATERIALS/METHODS Data was collected from 773 undergraduate students at the Departments of Nutrition and Dietetics (NDD) (n = 254), Physical Education and Sports (PESD) (n = 263), and Social Sciences (SOC) (n = 256).A socio-demographic and personal information questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34), Perceived Figure Rating Scale (FRS) were applied; and body weights and heights were measured. RESULTS Mean EAT-40 scores showed that, both male and female students of PESD had the highest scores (17.4 ± 11.6) compared with NDD (14.3 ± 8.3) and SOC (13.0 ± 6.2) (P < 0.05). According to EAT-40 classification, high risk in abnormal eating behavior was more in PESD (10.7%) compared to NDD (2.9%) and SOC (0.4%) students (P < 0.05). Students of PESD, who skipped meal, had higher tendency to the risk of eating disorders (P < 0.05). In parallel, body shape perception was found to be marked with higher scores in NDD (72.0 ± 28.7) and PESD (71.5 ± 32.8) compared with SOC (64.2 ± 27.5) students (P < 0.05). Considering BSQ-34 classification, high concern (moderate and marked) for body shape were more in PESD (7.4 %) compared to NDD (5.2%) and SOC (1.9%) students (P < 0.05). The body size judgement via obtained by the FRS scale were generally correlated with BMI. The Body Mass Index levels were in normal range (Mean BMI: 21.9 ± 2.8 kg/m2) and generally consistent with FRS data. CONCLUSIONS Tendency to the abnormal eating behavior and substantial body shape perception were higher in PESD students who have more concern on body shape and were not well-educated about nutrition. In conclusion, substantial concern on physical appearance might affect eating behavior disorders in PESD students. PMID:25489412

  5. Platelet serotonin transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding in adolescents with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sigurdh, Jeanette; Allard, Per; Spigset, Olav; Hägglöf, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    The pathogenetic involvement of the serotonergic system in eating disorders is an established finding. Conclusions from platelet studies are based on results from investigations of subjects with a mean age of 20 years or more. The aim was to investigate whether previous findings in adults are valid also for adolescents who are examined within a relatively short interval after the onset of the eating disorder. [(3)H]paroxetine binding to the platelet serotonin transporter and [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) binding to the 5-HT2A receptor was studied in 15 female adolescents with eating disorders (11 with anorexia nervosa and 4 with clearly anorectic eating behaviour not fulfilling the criteria for anorexia nervosa) and 32 controls. The patients revealed a higher density of serotonin transporters and a lower density of 5-HT2A receptors compared with healthy controls of the same age (775 ± 165 vs. 614 ± 111 fmol/mg protein (p = 0.003) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding and 215 ± 59 vs. 314 ± 151 fmol/mg protein (p = 0.005) for [(3)H]LSD binding). The findings of increased density of platelet serotonin transporters and reduced density of 5-HT2A receptors differ from previous results in older patients. The lower patient age and the short duration of disease in the present study, possibly in conjunction with variations in stress-related psychological and biological factors, may have caused these differences. Although the present findings contradict prevailing evidence, they add further information concerning the nature of serotonergic involvement in eating disorders and indicate that demographic and course-related factors might influence the regulation of the serotonin system in these disorders. PMID:23360120

  6. Substance-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviour among College Students: Opportunities for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Dykstra, Jennifer L.; Collins, Bradley N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine substance-related attitudes and behaviours among college students across an academic semester. Design: Pre-post quasi-experimental survey design. Setting: A large University in the Midwestern United States. Method: Surveys were completed by 299 undergraduates enrolled in three courses: drugs and behaviour, abnormal

  7. Development and Behaviour in Marshall-Smith Syndrome: An Exploratory Study of Cognition, Phenotype and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Balkom, I. D. C.; Shaw, A.; Vuijk, P. J.; Franssens, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) is an infrequently described entity characterised by failure to thrive, developmental delay, abnormal bone maturation and a characteristic face. In studying the physical features of a group of patients, we noticed unusual behavioural traits. This urged us to study cognition, behavioural phenotype and…

  8. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning. PMID:26451703

  9. Beyond Behaviour: Is Social Anxiety Low in Williams Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Helen F.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals…

  10. Cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ananworanich, J; Prasitsuebsai, W; Kerr, S J; Hansudewechakul, R; Teeratakulpisarn, N; Saisawat, K; Ramautarsing, R; Achalapong, J; Pussadee, K; Keadpudsa, S; Mackay, T; Pankam, T; Rodbamrung, P; Petdachai, W; Chokephaibulkit, K; Sohn, A H; Phanuphak, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviourally HIV-infected adolescent females are at higher risk for abnormal cervical cytology and HPV infection compared to those who are uninfected, but data on perinatally HIV-infected adolescent females are lacking. Methods Cervical cytology, HPV infection and E6/E7 mRNA were assessed in sexually active 12–24-year-old adolescent females: perinatally HIV-infected (group 1, n = 40), behaviourally HIV-infected (group 2, n = 10), and HIV-uninfected (group 3, n = 10). Results Median age was lower in group 1 (18 years) than in groups 2 (24 years) and 3 (20.5 years) (P < 0.001), and median time since sexual debut was shorter: 2 vs 5 vs 4 years (P < 0.001). More trial participants in group 1 than group 2 were on antiretrovirals (90% vs 70%; P <0.001). Abnormal cervical cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and higher) was observed in 30% (group 1), 40% (group 2) and 30% (group 3) (P = 0.92), whereas high-risk HPV infection was observed in 45%, 45% and 40%, respectively (P = 1.00). Positive E6/E7 mRNA was found in 28% of group 1, but not in other groups. High-risk HPV infection predicted abnormal cytology in all groups [OR 6.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.99–23.0; P = 0.001). Additionally, plasma HIV RNA ?50 copies/mL (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.16–153.06; P = 0.04) predicted abnormal cytology in HIV-infected adolescent females. Conclusions Despite the younger age and shorter time since sexual debut, cervical cytological abnormalities and HPV infection were as common in perinatally HIV-infected as in behaviourally infected and uninfected adolescents. HPV vaccination, pre-cancer screening and antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected female adolescents should be implemented to minimise the risk of cervical cancer. PMID:26005716

  11. Emotional Processing of Infants Displays in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to examine emotional processing of infant displays in people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Background Social and emotional factors are implicated as causal and maintaining factors in EDs. Difficulties in emotional regulation have been mainly studied in relation to adult interactions, with less interest given to interactions with infants. Method A sample of 138 women were recruited, of which 49 suffered from Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 16 from Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and 73 were healthy controls (HCs). Attentional responses to happy and sad infant faces were tested with the visual probe detection task. Emotional identification of, and reactivity to, infant displays were measured using self-report measures. Facial expressions to video clips depicting sad, happy and frustrated infants were also recorded. Results No significant differences between groups were observed in the attentional response to infant photographs. However, there was a trend for patients to disengage from happy faces. People with EDs also reported lower positive ratings of happy infant displays and greater subjective negative reactions to sad infants. Finally, patients showed a significantly lower production of facial expressions, especially in response to the happy infant video clip. Insecure attachment was negatively correlated with positive facial expressions displayed in response to the happy infant and positively correlated with the intensity of negative emotions experienced in response to the sad infant video clip. Conclusion People with EDs do not have marked abnormalities in their attentional processing of infant emotional faces. However, they do have a reduction in facial affect particularly in response to happy infants. Also, they report greater negative reactions to sadness, and rate positive emotions less intensively than HCs. This pattern of emotional responsivity suggests abnormalities in social reward sensitivity and might indicate new treatment targets. PMID:25463051

  12. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  14. Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.

    PubMed Central

    Frith, C D; Blakemore, S J; Wolpert, D M

    2000-01-01

    Much of the functioning of the motor system occurs without awareness. Nevertheless, we are aware of some aspects of the current state of the system and we can prepare and make movements in the imagination. These mental representations of the actual and possible states of the system are based on two sources: sensory signals from skin and muscles, and the stream of motor commands that have been issued to the system. Damage to the neural substrates of the motor system can lead to abnormalities in the awareness of action as well as defects in the control of action. We provide a framework for understanding how these various abnormalities of awareness can arise. Patients with phantom limbs or with anosognosia experience the illusion that they can move their limbs. We suggest that these representations of movement are based on streams of motor commands rather than sensory signals. Patients with utilization behaviour or with delusions of control can no longer properly link their intentions to their actions. In these cases the impairment lies in the representation of intended movements. The location of the neural damage associated with these disorders suggests that representations of the current and predicted state of the motor system are in parietal cortex, while representations of intended actions are found in prefrontal and premotor cortex. PMID:11205340

  15. A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

  16. Through Thick and Thin Supporting a Loved One with an Eating Disorder

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Through Thick and Thin Supporting a Loved One with an Eating Disorder Eating disorders believe eating disorders are the product of a society that idealizes thinness, the cause is unclear. We do an eating disorder. Understanding Eating Disorders Eating disorders are usually connected with strong

  17. [Changes to the classification of Eating Disorders in DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Knoll, Susanne; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) resulted in substantial changes with regard to the classification of Eating Disorders. In DSM-5, Feeding and Eating Disorders are for the first time subsumed in a single category. The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was established as the third classical eating disorder in addition to Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). The criteria for AN changed remarkably, whereas there were only minor changes to the BN criteria. The criteria for BED differ only marginally from the DSM-IV research criteria. There are now subtypes of AN, BN, and BED in the new category "Other Specific Feeding and Eating Disorders." The rest category "Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified" has been renamed to "Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorders." The practicability of the DSM-5 criteria for Eating Disorders, and for AN in particular, for both clinical practice and research remains to be seen. PMID:25163998

  18. Regimented and Lifestyle Restraint in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Method Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as “Regimented” and “Lifestyle” restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Discussion Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment. PMID:19107829

  19. Disordered eating among young Jewish American women: exploring religion's role 

    E-print Network

    Tartakovsky, Margarita

    2009-05-15

    There has been little scientific work exploring eating pathology among Jewish women in the United States, even though research has suggested that body image and eating behavior may be especially problematic within this group. Research has also...

  20. Guided and unguided self-help for binge eating.

    PubMed

    Loeb, K L; Wilson, G T; Gilbert, J S; Labouvie, E

    2000-03-01

    This study compared the relative short- and longer-term efficacy of therapist-guided and unguided use of a cognitive behavioral self-help manual for binge eating [Fairburn, C. G. (1995). Overcome binge eating. New York: The Guilford Press.] Forty women (82.5% with binge eating disorder) were randomized to one of the two treatment levels. Results indicate that both conditions represent viable means of treating binge eating. Overall, patients improved their eating behavior, eliminated any inappropriate compensatory behaviors, reduced their shape concern, weight concern, and other symptoms of eating-related psychopathology, and improved their general psychological functioning. The guided self-help condition was notably superior in reducing the occurrence of binge eating and its associated symptomatology, as well as lowering interpersonal sensitivity. A high degree of general psychopathology was a negative prognostic indicator. The implications for a stepped-care approach to treating binge eating are discussed. PMID:10665159

  1. Forget Three Square Meals -- Americans Eat All Day Long

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Forget Three Square Meals -- Americans Eat All Day Long Tracking real-world eating patterns, researchers find ... Americans have tossed the conventional three-meals-a-day routine out the window, and replaced it with ...

  2. Eating Healthier and Feeling Better Using the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Eating Healthier and Feeling Better Using the Nutrition Facts Label Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... the calories you expend each day. USE THE NUTRITION FACTS LABEL TO EAT HEALTHIER Check the serving ...

  3. WellBee : mobile therapy for stress-related eating

    E-print Network

    Tam, Sharon W

    2011-01-01

    Stress has been shown to affect eating behavior which may lead to eating disorders. Stress may also affect health by causing the modification of behaviors such as physical exercise, smoking, or food choices. Thus, ...

  4. Night Eating in Obese Treatment-Seeking Hispanic Patients With and Without Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Morgan, Peter T.; White, Marney A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the frequency of night eating (NE) and its relation to binge eating disorder (BED), eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and metabolic variables in obese treatment-seeking obese Hispanic men and women. Method A consecutive series of 79 obese monolingual Spanish-speaking-only Hispanic patients with BED (N=40) and without BED (N=39) were reliably assessed by bilingual research-clinicians using Spanish-language versions of semi-structured interviews and measures. Results Overall, 38% (N=30) of the 79 patients reported regular NE (?4 days/month). NE and BED were significantly associated; 70% (21/30) of NE versus 18% (9/49) of non-NE had BED. Patients with NE reported greater frequency of binge-eating and higher levels of eating-disorder psychopathology and depression than non-NE patients; group differences in eating disorder psychopathology and depression levels persisted after controlling for BED status. The NE and non-NE groups did not differ significantly in BMI or metabolic variables. Discussion In obese treatment-seeking Hispanic patients, NE and BED were significantly associated and NE was associated with heightened eating-disorder psychopathology and depression even after controlling for BED status. PMID:22407481

  5. The observation and hearing of eating actions activates motor programs related to eating in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P F; Maiolini, C; Addessi, E; Fogassi, L; Visalberghi, E

    2005-06-01

    The observation of actions can lead, in some cases, to the repetition of those same actions. In other words, motor programs similar to those observed can be recruited. Since this phenomenon is expressed when in the presence of another individual, it has been named social facilitation. In the present study we investigated whether the observation and/or hearing of eating actions facilitate eating behaviors in observing/listening pig-tailed macaques. In experiment 1, the observation of an eating room mate significantly enhanced eating behavior in the observer. Similar results were obtained (experiment 2) in response to the sound of eating actions but not to control sounds (experiment 3). We propose that eating facilitation triggered by observation or listening of eating actions can rely on the mirror neuron system of ventral premotor cortex that provides a matching between the observed/listened action and the executed action. This matching system can subsequently trigger the motor programs necessary for repeating the observed/heard actions. PMID:15904715

  6. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  7. Abnormal Glycoprotein Antibodies Possible Detection Biomarkers

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have found that cancer patients produce antibodies that target abnormal glycoproteins (proteins with sugar molecules attached) made by their tumors. The result of this work suggests that antitumor antibodies in the blood may provide a fruitful

  8. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  9. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  10. Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood

    PubMed Central

    Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232

  11. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

  12. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  13. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  14. Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer Dafna Tsafrir, 1 chromosomal abnormalities in colon cancer. However, the relationships between DNA copy number and gene. This implies that whereas specific chromosomal abnormalities may arise stochastically, the associated changes

  15. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  16. Use of a gyroscope/accelerometer data logger to identify alternative feeding behaviours in fish.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yuuki; Noda, Takuji; Nakashima, Yuuki; Nanami, Atsushi; Sato, Taku; Takebe, Takayuki; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Arai, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether we could identify the feeding behaviours of the trophic generalist fish Epinephelus ongus on different prey types (crabs and fish) using a data logger that incorporated a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours, including escape responses, intraspecific interactions and routine movements, were recorded from six E. ongus individuals using data loggers sampling at 200 Hz, and were validated by simultaneously recorded video images. For each data-logger record, we extracted 5 s of data when any of the three-axis accelerations exceeded absolute 2.0 g, to capture all feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours. Each feeding behaviour was then identified using a combination of parameters that were derived from the extracted data. Using decision trees with the parameters, high true identification rates (87.5% for both feeding behaviours) with low false identification rates (5% for crab-eating and 6.3% for fish-eating) were achieved for both feeding behaviours. PMID:25013109

  17. Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2003-01-01

    Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…

  18. Preventing a Continuum of Disordered Eating: Going beyond the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2007-01-01

    Efforts aimed at the prevention of eating disorders need to consider the context within which these disorders develop and aim to promote not only healthy eating and physical activity but also address mental health factors, such as body image. Exploring the relationship between body image and eating disorders will provide a foundation and further…

  19. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  20. Intuitive Eating Scale: An Examination among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockendorff, Sally A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Martin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) initially was developed in a sample of college women to measure adaptive forms of eating, such as eating based on physiological rather than emotional cues. This study extends the work of Tylka (2006) and reports the psychometric evaluation of the IES in a sample of 515 middle-school boys and girls.…

  1. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  2. Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijonen, Jori H.; Pratt, Helen D.; Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    Selectively reviews the literature on the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder) as described in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) and "International Classification of Diseases" (10th ed.). Discusses the prevalence and course of eating disorders,…

  3. Evaluation of Extinction as a Functional Treatment for Binge Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Amanda; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a serious behavior problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating is thought to be maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotional responding. Current treatments produce only moderate abstinence, perhaps because they do not attempt…

  4. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  5. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  6. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  7. Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating KELLY L. KLUMP1, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA ABSTRACT Objective. Eating disorders are more common of studies examined these effects by investigating relationships between eating disorder symptoms, prenatal

  8. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  9. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  10. Emotional Eating and Spiritual Well-Being: A Possible Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven R.; Goudy, Marylynn B.; Gast, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship between emotional eating and spiritual well-being. It was found that among college women lower levels of spiritual well-being correlated with higher levels of emotional eating (r = -0.22, p = 0.0015). In other studies emotional eating has been found to contribute to higher…

  11. Eating Concerns in College Women across Sexual Orientation Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…

  12. Descriptive peer norms, self-control and dietary behaviour in young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Otten, Roy; Hermans, Roel C J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that perceived peer eating norms can influence dietary behaviour. This cross-sectional study examined whether certain personality traits increase the likelihood that personal eating habits are similar to perceived peer eating habits. We assessed frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened soda (SSS) and sweet pastries (SP), as well as perceived peer descriptive eating norms for SSS and SP in a group of 1056 young adults. We examined whether individual differences in the need for social acceptance and self-control moderated whether participants were likely to display similar dietary habits to their peers. Perceived peer eating norms for SSS and SP predicted frequency of consumption; believing that one's peers frequently consumed SSS and SP was associated with increased personal consumption for both. Individuals with low self-control, as opposed to high self-control, were more likely to adhere to peer norms for SP, but not for SSS. Trait social acceptance needs did not significantly moderate similarity between peer norms and personal consumption for either SSS or SP. The extent to which young adults adhere to descriptive peer dietary norms may depend upon self-control, whereby individuals with low self-control are less able to inhibit social influence of descriptive peer norms on dietary behaviour. PMID:26135393

  13. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Negative Affect, and Personality Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Lisa M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Printz, Katherine S.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Method Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Results Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. Discussion SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. PMID:23109272

  14. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598

  15. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  16. My Child Only Eats Certain Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Merrill; Kerwin, Mary Louise; Feldstein, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Many young children display some sort of picky eating. Although most children's diets will eventually consist of an adequate number of foods, some children's diets may not change without intervention. Children with limited diets typically have difficulty consuming new foods because they have some stomach discomfort, have limited oral-motor skills,…

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Patricia; And Others

    This paper was designed to provide professional counselors with a comprehensive but concise method of accurately evaluting, interviewing, and planning for treatment of eating disorder clients. The paper is organized in five sections. The first section, Diagnosis, compares, contrasts, and offers clear explanations of the diagnostic criteria for…

  18. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Iacovino, Juliette M; Gredysa, Dana M; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  19. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  20. Haff Disease: Rhabdomyolysis After Eating Buffalo Fish

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Linda L.; Bies, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  1. How UAPB students eat: Preliminary results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University of Arkansas – Pine Bluff Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project (DOPRP) is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excess weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of a healthy weight during the college years. Adjusting to college life ...

  2. Eat, Think, and Be Active! Through media

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    of the connections between media and their health. What is the Media-Smart Youth program? Media-Smart Youth: Eat world around them and how it can influence their health--especially in regard to nutrition and physical activity. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD

  3. Applying the Brakes: When to Stop Eating.

    PubMed

    Betley, J Nicholas; Sternson, Scott M

    2015-11-01

    The nucleus accumbens regulates consummatory behaviors, such as eating. In this issue of Neuron, O'Connor et al. (2015) identify dopamine receptor 1-expressing neurons that project to the lateral hypothalamus as mediating rapid control over feeding behavior. PMID:26539885

  4. Pasteurization of Ready-to-Eat Meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microwave heating system was developed for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats. Frankfurters, inoculated and vacuum-sealed in plastic packages, were subjected to heating, with the package surface temperature increased to and maintained at three temperature set points for dif...

  5. Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

  6. Nurturing Healthy Eating Habits from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…

  7. Dimensions of everyday eating and drinking episodes.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Carole A; Falk, Laura Winter; Madore, Elizabeth; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Sobal, Jeffery; Devine, Carol M

    2007-03-01

    This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of the situational nature of eating and drinking by analyzing 7 consecutive, qualitative 24-h recalls of foods and beverages consumed from 42 US adults who worked in non-managerial, non-professional positions. Participants were purposively recruited to vary in age, gender, occupation, and household composition. For each recall, participants described foods and beverages consumed, location, people present, thoughts and feelings, and activities occurring at that time. Analysis of verbatim transcripts of interviews identified 1448 eating and drinking episodes. Constant comparative analysis of participants' descriptions for episodes resulted in a conceptual framework that characterizes eating and drinking episodes as holistic and as having eight interconnected dimensions (food and drink, time, location, activities, social setting, mental processes, physical condition, recurrence). Each dimension has multiple features that can be used to describe the episodes. In recalling episodes, participants used conventional labels (e.g. "dinner") as well as modified-conventional labels (e.g. "birthday dinner") and uniquely constructed labels (e.g. "unwind time"). Labels provided insights into the dimensions of the episodes. Results suggest approaches for researchers and practitioners who seek to understand how people manage everyday eating at a time when traditional meal patterns are changing. PMID:17088011

  8. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  9. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  10. Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-12-22

    Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

  11. Haff disease: rhabdomyolysis after eating buffalo fish.

    PubMed

    Herman, Linda L; Bies, Christine

    2014-09-01

    Haff disease, rhabdomyolysis after ingesting certain types of fish, was first reported in 1924 in Europe. There have been a limited number of cases reported in the United States. We present the case of a patient who presents with symptoms of rhabdomyolysis after eating cooked buffalo fish purchased at a suburban grocery market. PMID:25247039

  12. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

  13. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  14. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    PubMed

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  15. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  16. What's eating the internet? Content and perceived harm of pro-eating disorder websites.

    PubMed

    Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders. PMID:26363674

  17. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    PubMed Central

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

  18. Eating Attitudes and Related Factors in Turkish Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Ugur, Bayram Ali; Aykurt, Fethi Ahmet; Bektas, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing eating behaviors might trigger obesity, deficiency, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and reactive eating disorders. Objectives: This study aimed to determine eating attitudes of nursing students in the western Black-Sea region of Turkey as well as to examine the effects of demographic features, self-esteem, body image, income level, and family structure on their eating attitudes. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 310 nursing students between January and February 2014. Data were collected using the personal information form, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Body-Cathexis Scale (BCS), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: About 30.0% of Turkish nursing students had negative eating attitudes. There was a significant positive correlation between the BDS and EAT scores (P < 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between RSES scores and EAT scores of nursing students (P < 0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between the father’s occupation (P < 0.05) and mother’s working condition (P < 0.05), and the students’ eating attitudes. Conclusions: Psychological status, self-esteem, economic level, and place of residence of nursing students may be the potential factors for eating disorders. PMID:26339662

  19. Associations between eating occasions and places of consumption among adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether places of consumption are associated with types of eating occasions. Data on dietary behaviors of 226 adults in five U.S. cities were collected in food diaries for one week. Types of eating occasions and places of consumption were recorded. Eating occasions were defined as occurrences of meal, snack, beverage, and non-fruit dessert consumption. Nearly one-third of eating occasions occurred at non-designated eating places. Repeated measure generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between types of eating occasions and places where food was consumed. Snacking on low-nutrient foods were more likely to occur in non-designated eating places. Snacking was more likely at work than at home, and sugar sweetened beverage consumption was more likely at food service outlets than at home. The finding that places of consumption were associated with different types of eating occasions suggests that contextual characteristics of a place are important in individual eating behaviors. Policies and programs aiming to promote healthy eating should leverage contextual characteristics of eating environments. PMID:25558025

  20. “STOP EATING…CLEAN YOUR PLATE!”: THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL CONTROL OF FOOD CONSUMPTION DURING CHILDHOOD ON COLLEGE FEMALES' EATING BEHAVIOR 

    E-print Network

    Pfeffer, Amanda J.

    2010-07-14

    The immediate effect of maternal control of their daughter's eating is well documented. However, the longterm effect of both maternal and paternal control of eating during childhood on adults' current eating attitudes and behaviors has been a...

  1. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  2. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  3. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-12-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario. PMID:26676323

  4. I Working with dissociative dynamics and the longing for excess in binge eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sue

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author describes her work with a woman who, in her mid 20s, sought analysis for her non-vomiting binge eating disorder. The paper explores how two aspects of Jung's view of the psyche as healthily dissociable were used to think about the potential for change contained within the explosive, aggressive energies in this patient's bingeing. The resultant approach takes the patient's splitting defences, dissociations and self-destructive behaviour as a point of access to her unconscious. Seen in this way, these behaviours contain the seeds of recovery and are the starting point for analysis rather than defences against it. The paper also brings a number of Jungian and post-Jungian ideas into conversation with aspects of contemporary thinking about subjectivity, identity and the longing for excess developed by Leo Bersani and Judith Butler. PMID:23750938

  5. Undergraduate Animal Behaviour

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    Undergraduate Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences #12 animals tick and how human activity affects them, then our degree in Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science with companion animals. At Bristol, you'll be taught by some of the world's leading animal behaviour and welfare

  6. animal welfare and behavioural

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    going on to look at: ethology, genetics and the development of behaviour; understanding learning theoryCompanion animal welfare and behavioural rehabilitation Undergraduate #12;bristol.ac.uk/ug-study The Certificate of Higher Education in Companion Animal Welfare and Behavioural Rehabilitation is based

  7. Chromosome abnormalities in South African mental retardates.

    PubMed

    Ally, F E; Grace, H J

    1979-04-28

    Standard and differential staining techniques were employed in this cytogenetic study of mentally retarded Whites at the Umgeni Waterfall Institution. All of the 512 patients were karyotyped and 57 were found to have chromosome abnormalities. Of these, 42 had trisomy-21; there were 3 subjects with 5p deletion (cri-du-chat) syndrome, 3 had supernumerary small marker chromosomes, and 2 had complex structural rearrangements. Gonosomal aneuploidies were less common than the autosomal defects and only 2 poly-X males and 1 poly-X female were identified. Long Y chromosomes were found in 11 males and 4 others had deleted Y chromosomes. One abnormal chromosome, a deletion of the terminal region of 11q, was missed in unbanded karyotypes. Banding is essential to the identification of structurally abnormal chromosomes. PMID:156963

  8. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  9. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  10. Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior in college women: further evidence of poor eating disorders "mental health literacy"?

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Mond, Jonathan; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Self-recognition of eating-disordered behavior was examined among female college students (n?=?94) with a high level of bulimic-type eating disorder symptoms. A vignette was presented describing a fictional young woman with bulimia nervosa. Participants were asked whether they might currently have a problem such as the one described, while also completing self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms, general psychological distress, and functional impairment. Less than half (47.9%) of participants believed that they currently had a problem with their eating. In both bivariate and multivariable analysis, the variables most strongly associated with self-recognition were overall levels of eating disorder psychopathology, prior treatment for an eating problem, and the use of self-induced vomiting as a means of controlling weight or shape. No other eating disorder behaviors were independently associated with self-recognition. The findings support the hypothesis that young women with eating disorder symptoms may be unlikely, or at least less likely, to recognize a problem with their eating behavior when that behavior does not entail self-induced vomiting. Health promotion and early intervention programs for eating disorders may need to address the perception that, among young women of normal or above-average body weight, only problems with eating that involve self-induced vomiting are pathological. PMID:23767672

  11. [Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Reyes, G

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

  12. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  13. Environmental trichlorfon and cluster of congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A E; Elek, C; Gundy, S; Métneki, J; Nemes, E; Reis, A; Sperling, K; Tímár, L; Tusnády, G; Virágh, Z

    1993-02-27

    Of 15 live births in one Hungarian village in 1989-90, 11 (73%) were affected by congenital abnormalities and 6 were twins. Of the 11, 4 had Down syndrome. Likely causes of such clusters (known teratogenic factors, familial inheritance, consanguinity) were excluded. A case-control study and environmental investigations pointed the finger of suspicion at the excessive use of trichlorfon at local fish farms. The content of this chemical was very high in fish (100 mg/kg) and several pregnant women, including all mothers of babies with Down syndrome, had consumed contaminated fish in the critical period for the congenital abnormalities observed. PMID:8094783

  14. Internet-based interventions for eating disorders in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of internet-based interventions for the treatment of different eating disorders in adults. Method A search for peer reviewed journal articles detailing Randomised Control Trials (RCT) and Controlled Trials (CT) addressing participants with eating disorders aged at least 16 was completed in the electronic databases Web of Science, PsycInfo and PubMed. The quality of the included articles was assessed, results were reviewed and effect sizes and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. Results Eight studies, including a total of N = 609 participants, fulfilled the selection criteria and were included. The majority of treatments applied in these studies were based on CBT principles. Six studies described guided self-help interventions that showed significant symptom reduction in terms of primary and secondary outcomes regarding eating behaviour and abstinence rates. These studies produced significant medium to high effect sizes both within and between the groups after utilisation of guided self-help programs or a self-help book backed up with supportive e-mails. The two remaining studies utilised a specific writing task or e-mail therapy that did not follow a structured treatment program. Here, no significant effects could be found. Treatment dropout rates ranged from 9% to 47.2%. Furthermore, reductions in other symptoms, for example depression and anxiety, and an increase in quality of life were found by four studies. Conclusions Overall, the results support the value of internet-based interventions that use guided self-help to tackle eating disorders, but further research is needed due to the heterogeneity of the studies. PMID:23919625

  15. Reward Abnormalities Among Women with Full and Subthreshold Bulimia Nervosa: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Method Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Results Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (versus tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). Discussion Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypo-functioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. PMID:21997421

  16. Imitation as behaviour parsing.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, R W

    2003-01-01

    Non-human great apes appear to be able to acquire elaborate skills partly by imitation, raising the possibility of the transfer of skill by imitation in animals that have only rudimentary mentalizing capacities: in contrast to the frequent assumption that imitation depends on prior understanding of others' intentions. Attempts to understand the apes' behaviour have led to the development of a purely mechanistic model of imitation, the 'behaviour parsing' model, in which the statistical regularities that are inevitable in planned behaviour are used to decipher the organization of another agent's behaviour, and thence to imitate parts of it. Behaviour can thereby be understood statistically in terms of its correlations (circumstances of use, effects on the environment) without understanding of intentions or the everyday physics of cause-and-effect. Thus, imitation of complex, novel behaviour may not require mentalizing, but conversely behaviour parsing may be a necessary preliminary to attributing intention and cause. PMID:12689378

  17. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of Chinese Preschoolers’ Eating Behavior Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhai; Wang, Baoxi; Sun, Lijun; Shang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. Methods To assess children’s eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children’s eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers’ Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ) was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. Results The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach’s ? coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05). Differences in caregiver’s education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05). Conclusions The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers’ eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care practice and research. PMID:24520359

  19. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices.

    PubMed

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M; Kerr, Deborah A; Binns, Colin W; Phillips, Michael

    2015-08-01

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for "at risk" groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations. PMID:26247963

  20. Using Short Dietary Questions to Develop Indicators of Dietary Behaviour for Use in Surveys Exploring Attitudinal and/or Behavioural Aspects of Dietary Choices

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Alison; Pollard, Christina M.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Binns, Colin W.; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For countries where nutrition surveys are infrequent, there is a need to have some measure of healthful eating to plan and evaluate interventions. This study shows how it is possible to develop healthful eating indicators based on dietary guidelines from a cross sectional population survey. Adults 18 to 64 years answered questions about the type and amount of foods eaten the previous day, including fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy, fish or meat and fluids. Scores were based on serves and types of food according to an established method. Factor analysis indicated two factors, confirmed by structural equation modeling: a recommended food healthful eating indicator (RF_HEI) and a discretionary food healthful eating indicator (DF_HEI). Both yield mean scores similar to an established dietary index validated against nutrient intake. Significant associations for the RF_HEI were education, income, ability to save, and attitude toward diet; and for the DF_HEI, gender, not living alone, living in a socially disadvantaged area, and attitude toward diet. The results confirm that short dietary questions can be used to develop healthful eating indicators against dietary recommendations. This will enable the exploration of dietary behaviours for “at risk” groups, such as those with excess weight, leading to more relevant interventions for populations. PMID:26247963