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1

[Abnormal eating behaviours are not associated with micronutrient deficiencies among women of childbearing age from Mexico City].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight. PMID:21090277

Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María

2010-03-01

2

Unhealthy eating behaviour in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, eating disorders (Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa) have increased and are appearing at increasingly younger ages. They affect predominantly adolescent females 12 to 25 years of age. The objective of this study of adolescents is to detect and discuss unhealthy eating behaviour, defined by either of two factors: (1) following a slimming diet not advised or supervised by

Amelia Rodríguez Martín; José Manuel Martínez Nieto; Miguel Angel Ruiz Jiménez; José Pedro Novalbos Ruiz; M. Carmen Díaz Vázquez; Yamin Chocrón Fernández; Miguel Angel Rendón Gómez; Carmen Cano Fernández

1999-01-01

3

Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

2008-01-01

4

Role of Vaspin in Human Eating Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Objective The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. Materials and Methods We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Results Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P<0.05), although the correlations did not withstand further adjustments for age, gender and BMI (all P>0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P?0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Conclusion Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.

Breitfeld, Jana; Tonjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Bluher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Bottcher, Yvonne

2013-01-01

5

Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and eating behaviours in preadolescents: The mediating role of anxiety.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75?years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours. PMID:24816324

Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

2014-09-01

6

Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

2010-01-01

7

Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI. PMID:24045208

Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

2013-12-01

8

Eating Sweet Snacks: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet

SARAH C. GROGAN; RUSSELL BELL; MARK CONNER

1997-01-01

9

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

10

Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?  

PubMed

Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675

Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanr?verdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalç?n

2014-02-01

11

Selected eating behaviours and excess body weight: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the association between selected eating behaviours and excess weight in the general population throughout a systematic review of publications written in English, Spanish or Portuguese identified in a PubMed search up to 31 December 2010. We included 153 articles, 73 of which have been published since 2008. Only 30 studies had a prospective design; of these, 15 adjusted for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and energy or food intake. Moreover, definitions of eating behaviours varied substantially across studies. We found only small or inconsistent evidence of a relationship between excess weight and skipping breakfast, daily eating frequency, snacking, irregular meals, eating away from home, consumption of fast food, takeaway food intake, consumption of large food portions, eating until full and eating quickly. In conclusion, this review highlights the difficulty in measuring human behaviour, and suggests that a more systematic approach is needed for capturing the effects of eating behaviours on body weight. PMID:21955734

Mesas, A E; Muñoz-Pareja, M; López-García, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

2012-02-01

12

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes amongst Malaysian Female Undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Eating disorders are common In developed countries. Its rising prevalence Is attributed to Western values that idealise slimness. There has been few local studies. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence and mean scores of abnormal eating attitudes among female undergraduates and the association between abnormal eating attitudes and various psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among

Kee P W; Ho BKW

13

Development of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual dierences in several aspects of eating style have been implicated in the development of weight problems in children and adults, but there are presently no reliable and valid scales that assess a range of dimensions of eating style. This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a parent-rated instrument to assess eight dimensions of eating style in children;

Jane Wardle; Carol Ann Guthrie; Saskia Sanderson; Lorna Rapoport

2001-01-01

14

Eating and Weight Controlling Behaviours of Young Ballet Dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ballet dancers (n = 60) in full-time ballet training and school students (n = 216) completed questionnaires relating to body weight and eating behaviour. Dancers were at lower body weight and had less body fat. Dancers considered they were more preoccupied with thoughts of eating and body weight, felt they had greater difficulty controlling their body weight, used and abused

Suzanne Abraham

1996-01-01

15

The neurocognitive connection between physical activity and eating behaviour.  

PubMed

As obesity rates increase worldwide, healthcare providers require methods to instill the lifestyle behaviours necessary for sustainable weight loss. Designing effective weight-loss interventions requires an understanding of how these behaviours are elicited, how they relate to each other and whether they are supported by common neurocognitive mechanisms. This may provide valuable insights to optimize existing interventions and develop novel approaches to weight control. Researchers have begun to investigate the neurocognitive underpinnings of eating behaviour and the impact of physical activity on cognition and the brain. This review attempts to bring these somewhat disparate, yet interrelated lines of literature together in order to examine a hypothesis that eating behaviour and physical activity share a common neurocognitive link. The link pertains to executive functions, which rely on brain circuits located in the prefrontal cortex. These advanced cognitive processes are of limited capacity and undergo relentless strain in the current obesogenic environment. The increased demand on these neurocognitive resources as well as their overuse and/or impairment may facilitate impulses to over-eat, contributing to weight gain and obesity. This impulsive eating drive may be counteracted by physical activity due to its enhancement of neurocognitive resources for executive functions and goal-oriented behaviour. By enhancing the resources that facilitate 'top-down' inhibitory control, increased physical activity may help compensate and suppress the hedonic drive to over-eat. Understanding how physical activity and eating behaviours interact on a neurocognitive level may help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment. PMID:21676151

Joseph, R J; Alonso-Alonso, M; Bond, D S; Pascual-Leone, A; Blackburn, G L

2011-10-01

16

Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis.  

PubMed

Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977

Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J

2014-01-01

17

Individual differences in executive function predict distinct eating behaviours.  

PubMed

Executive function has been shown to influence the performance of health behaviours. Healthy eating involves both the inhibitory behaviour of consuming low amounts of saturated fat, and the initiatory behaviour of consuming fruit and vegetables. Based on this distinction, it was hypothesised that these behaviours would have different determinants. Measures of inhibitory control and updating were administered to 115 participants across 2 days. One week later saturated fat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured. Regression analyses revealed a double dissociation effect between the different executive function variables and the prediction of eating behaviours. Specifically, inhibitory control, but not updating, predict saturated fat intake, whilst updating, but not inhibitory control, was related to fruit and vegetable consumption. In both cases, better executive function capacity was associated with healthier eating behaviour. The results support the idea that behaviours that require stopping a response such as limiting saturated fat intake, have different determinants to those that require the initiation of a response such as fruit and vegetable consumption. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving these behaviours should address the relevant facet of executive function. PMID:24845785

Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara

2014-09-01

18

METABOLIC PHENOTYPING GUIDELINES: Studying eating behaviour in humans.  

PubMed

The study of human appetite and eating behaviour has become increasingly important in recent years due to the rise in body weight dysregulation through both obesity and eating disorders. Adequate control over appetite is paramount for the control of body weight and in order to understand appetite, it is necessary to measure eating behaviour accurately. So far, research in this field has revealed that no single experimental design can answer all research questions. Each research question posed will require a specific study design that will limit the findings of that study to those particular conditions. For example, choices will be made among the use of laboratory or free-living studies, time period for examination, specific measurement techniques and investigative methodologies employed. It is important that these represent informed decisions about what design and which methodology will provide the most meaningful outcomes. This review will examine some of the 'gold standard' study designs and methodologies currently employed in the study of human appetite and eating behaviour. PMID:25052364

Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Dalton, Michelle; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E

2014-08-01

19

Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern.  

PubMed

This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753

Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L

2012-06-01

20

Weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating in college women tennis players and their coaches.  

PubMed

In order to study weight concerns and eating disorders in women tennis players, 107 women tennis players and 26 women's tennis coaches from colleges across the U.S. responded to questionnaires relating to weight concern, body image, and abnormal eating. When evaluating drawings of female figures, players and coaches both considered the ideal body shape to be smaller than the healthiest one. Most players had normal weight, eating habits, and self-esteem; however, they also exhibited noticeable concern about their weight and appearance. Coaches revealed only moderate knowledge of weight related issues, believed such knowledge to be important, recognized that most of their players were of normal weight, and revealed somewhat negative feelings about overweight people. Players and coaches shared a healthy attitude toward tennis. The results of this study do not imply that college women tennis players are at greater risk of eating disorders than other young women, nor that college coaches are encouraging abnormal eating behaviors PMID:10722777

Harris, M B

2000-03-01

21

Changes in eating behaviour and meal pattern following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Little is known about eating behaviour and meal pattern subsequent to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), knowledge important for the nutritional care process. The objective of the study was to obtain basic information of how meal size, eating rate, meal frequency and eating behaviour change upon the RYGB surgery.Materials and methods:Voluntary chosen meal size and eating rate were measured in a

A Laurenius; I Larsson; M Bueter; K J Melanson; I Bosaeus; H Bertéus Forslund; H Lönroth; L Fändriks; T Olbers

2012-01-01

22

Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies.

Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

2013-01-01

23

Eating behaviours and obesity in the adult population of Spain.  

PubMed

To examine the association between several eating behaviours and obesity, data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted with 34,974 individuals aged 25-64 years, representative of the non-institutionalised Spanish population. Obesity was defined as BMI >or= 30 kg/m2. Study associations were summarised with OR obtained from logistic regression, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. The results showed that those skipping breakfast were more likely to be obese, both in men (OR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.29, 1.93) and women (OR 1.53; 95 % CI 1.15, 2.03). Moreover, obesity was more prevalent in those having only two meals per day than in those having three or four meals in men (OR 1.63; 95 % CI 1.37, 1.95) and women (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62). Also, snacking was associated with obesity in women (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.95). However, no association was observed between obesity and having one or more of the main meals away from home, in either sex. In conclusion, skipping breakfast and eating frequency were associated with obesity. The lack of association between eating away from home and obesity is in contrast to most previous research conducted in Anglo-Saxon countries. Differences in the type of establishment frequented when eating out or in the characteristics of restaurant customers in a Mediterranean population might explain these conflicting results. PMID:18377684

Marín-Guerrero, A C; Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L; Guallar-Castillón, P; Banegas, J R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

2008-11-01

24

Obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors in Type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors in Type 2 diabetic patients. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study involving 120 Type 2 diabetic patients. Body weight and height of the individuals were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Bulimic Investigatory Test-Edinburg (BITE) was used to measure binge eating attitudes. Night eating symptoms were defined as consuming >25% of daily energy after suppertime. To determine the glycaemic control, HbA1c levels were analyzed. Data analyzed by SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.3±9.29 years. The mean diabetes duration was 11.1±2.04 years. The 50% of the patients had a BMI higher than 25kg/m2. The obese diabetic patients were more likely to have diabetic complications than non-obese subjects (x2 = 8.588, p=0.040). The percentages of the diabetic patients who met the criteria for binge eating and night eating were 17.2% and 42% respectively. Half of the patients were skipping a main meal per day. The frequencies of obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors were not statistically different in obese patients versus non-obese participants (p>0.05). The mean HbA1c levels were higher in diabetic patients than biochemical references and there was a significant difference between obese and non-obese patients (p<0.05). Conclusions: Obesity-related abnormal eating behaviors were prevalent in Type 2 diabetic patients and related with diabetic complications and glycaemic control.

Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

2013-01-01

25

Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS) were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR) split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR) and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF) factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF) scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.

2012-01-01

26

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

27

The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire in the Evaluation of Eating Behaviour in Subjects Seeking Participation in a Dietotherapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To evaluate the eating behaviour in normal-weight, overweight, and obese women seeking participation in a diet-based programme of weight reduction or achievement of ideal body weight. Methods: Thirty-seven obese, 42 overweight, and 14 normal-weight subjects, seen at an Italian university outpatient clinic, were asked to complete the Stunkard and Messick three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ). The TFEQ is designed to

Velia Boschi; Daniela Iorio; Nunzia Margiotta; Pasqualina D’Orsi; Claudio Falconi

2001-01-01

28

Effect of weight loss intervention on the association between eating behaviour measured by TFEQ-18 and dietary intake in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between eating behaviour (cognitive restraint, emotional eating and uncontrolled eating) and dietary intake (energy, energy nutrients and fibre) were assessed in overweight or obese adults (body mass index >27kg\\/m2, n=49) before and after weight loss intervention in a randomized follow-up study lasting 18 months. Counselling was either intensive or short-term. Eating behaviour was assessed using the three-factor eating questionnaire-18

Anna-Maria Keränen; Katrin Strengell; Markku J. Savolainen; Jaana H. Laitinen

2011-01-01

29

The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

2010-01-01

30

The impact of manipulating personal standards on eating attitudes and behaviour  

PubMed Central

The relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established and is of theoretical interest. This study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that manipulating personal standards, a central feature of perfectionism, would influence eating attitudes and behaviour. Forty-one healthy women were randomly assigned either to a high personal standards condition (n=18) or to a low personal standards condition for 24 h (n=23). Measures of personal standards, perfectionism, and eating attitudes and behaviour were taken before and after the experimental manipulation. The manipulation was successful. After the manipulation, participants in the high personal standards condition ate fewer high calorie foods, made more attempts to restrict the overall amount of food eaten, and had significantly more regret after eating than those in the low personal standards condition. Other variables remained unchanged. It is concluded that experimental analyses can be of value in elucidating causal connections between perfectionism and eating attitudes and behaviour.

Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Payne, Elizabeth; Fairburn, Christopher G.

2006-01-01

31

The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: An open trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders in an open trial for adults with the full range of eating disorders found in the community. The only previously published trial of CBT-E for eating disorders was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted in the U.K. for patients with a

Susan M. Byrne; Anthea Fursland; Karina L. Allen; Hunna Watson

2011-01-01

32

Preschool children's eating behaviours are related to dietary adequacy and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eating behaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and body weight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample

L Dubois; A P Farmer; M Girard; K Peterson

2007-01-01

33

Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

2004-01-01

34

Changes in alcohol intake in response to transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to examine how alcohol intake changes during and after transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E). Additionally, the paper considers the relationship between alcohol consumption, eating disorder diagnosis and current major depressive episode at the time of first assessment.

Matislava Kara?i?; Jackie A. Wales; Jon Arcelus; Robert L. Palmer; Zafra Cooper; Christopher G. Fairburn

2011-01-01

35

Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along

Jennifer Luella Krempien; Susan Irene Barr

36

Sibutramine treatment in obesity: initial eating behaviour in relation to weight loss results and changes in mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to study the role of initial eating behaviour for subsequent weight loss in treatment with sibutramine (Reductil™, Meridia™) an anti-obesity drug enhancing satiety, and also to assess changes in mood during the treatment. The participants were 36 obese patients with a mean BMI of 39kgm?2. Eating behaviour was assessed with the three factor eating

Kristina Elfhag; Stephan Rössner; Britta Barkeling; Pål Rooth

2005-01-01

37

Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Modifiable behaviours during early childhood may provide opportunities to prevent disease processes before adverse outcomes occur. Our objective was to determine whether young children’s eating behaviours were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Methods: In this cross-sectional study involving children aged 3–5 years recruited from 7 primary care practices in Toronto, Ontario, we assessed the relation between eating behaviours as assessed by the NutriSTEP (Nutritional Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) questionnaire (completed by parents) and serum levels of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. We also assessed the relation between dietary intake and serum non-HDL cholesterol, and between eating behaviours and other laboratory indices of cardiovascular risk (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol and apoliprotein A1). Results: A total of 1856 children were recruited from primary care practices in Toronto. Of these children, we included 1076 in our study for whom complete data and blood samples were available for analysis. The eating behaviours subscore of the NutriSTEP tool was significantly associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.03); for each unit increase in the eating behaviours subscore suggesting greater nutritional risk, we saw an increase of 0.02 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002 to 0.05) in serum non-HDL cholesterol. The eating behaviours subscore was also associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but not with HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1. The dietary intake subscore was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Interpretation: Eating behaviours in preschool-aged children are important potentially modifiable determinants of cardiovascular risk and should be a focus for future studies of screening and behavioural interventions.

Persaud, Navindra; Maguire, Jonathon L.; Lebovic, Gerald; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine

2013-01-01

38

Interview data on severe behavioural eating difficulties in young children.  

PubMed Central

Interview data from parents of 201 children under age 7 years with severe feeding and eating difficulties were analysed to describe features in the child's and parents' experiences that may have contributed to the development of the eating problem. Prematurity and low birth weight, distress during feeding in the first six months of life, and regular or frequent vomiting were common findings in the histories of the children. Aversive experiences during feeding may be the basis for early childhood eating difficulties.

Douglas, J E; Bryon, M

1996-01-01

39

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

2010-01-01

40

Influence of Biological, Social and Psychological Factors on Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Female University Students in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions.

da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; Peres, Karen Glazer

2010-01-01

41

High resting energy expenditure in normal-weight bulimics and its normalization with control of eating behaviour.  

PubMed

Resting energy expenditure (REE) has been found to be lower in normal weight-bulimics (NWBs) than in controls and it was speculated that metabolic abnormalities might underlie bulimia. This study consisted of a longitudinal assessment of REE, body composition and energy intake before, during and after the control of eating behaviour, with comparisons between REEs in NWBs, those in controls, and estimated basal energy expenditure (EBEE). NWBs in acute phase of bulimia were assessed the 1st, 2nd, and last day of a one-week hospitalization that warranted compliance with normal diet. Assessments were then repeated after a six-week outpatient psychotherapy. Mean REE in NWBs was higher than that in controls and EBEE on admission. It decreased down to normal rate at discharge and at therapy termination. Fat-free mass (FFM) decreases slightly during hospitalization despite a weight-maintenance diet, but REE-FFM ratio also decreased significantly. Metabolic factors which might account for these results are discussed. Data suggest that: (1) caloric requirements in NWBs were higher than estimated weight-maintenance rations; (2) binge-eating increased REE; (3) control of eating behaviour decreased REE. PMID:9015559

Léonard, T; Foulon, C; Samuel-Lajeunesse, B; Melchior, J C; Rigaud, D; Apfelbaum, M

1996-12-01

42

Eating behaviour, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls in Malaysia.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study was undertaken with 489 secondary school girls, ages 15-17 years, to examine disordered eating behaviours of adolescent girls in Malaysia and to estimate associations with body weight, body-size discrepancy, and self-esteem. Dietary restraint, binge eating, body image, and self-esteem were assessed using the Restrained Eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Binge Scale Questionnaire, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Pearson correlations estimated associations between variables. There were 3.1% underweight, 9.8% at risk of being overweight, and 8.6% overweight girls. A total of 87.3% were dissatisfied with their own body size. Dietary restraint and binge eating were reported by 36.0% and 35.4%, respectively. Body Mass Index (r = .34, p < .01) and body-size dissatisfaction (r = .24, p < .01) were significantly associated with dietary restraint and binge eating, but self-esteem (r = -.20, p < .001) was significantly associated only with binge eating. PMID:18712205

Soo, Kah Leng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

2008-06-01

43

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

44

An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

2013-01-01

45

The cognitive behavioural model for eating disorders: A direct evaluation in children and adolescents with obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe cognitive behavioural model of bulimia nervosa [Fairburn, C.G., Cooper, Z., & Cooper, P.J. (1986). The clinical features and maintenance of bulimia nervosa. In K.D. Brownell, and J.P. Foreyt (Eds.), Handbook of eating disorders: physiology, psychology and treatment of obesity, anorexia and bulimia (pp. 389–404). New York: Basic Books.] provides the theoretical framework for cognitive behaviour therapy of Bulimia Nervosa.

Veerle Decaluwé; Caroline Braet

2005-01-01

46

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food), and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI). Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

2010-01-01

47

Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retro-nasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m2) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m2) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P = 0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting. PMID:21385504

Zijlstra, Nicolien; Bukman, Andrea Johanna; Mars, Monica; Stafleu, Annette; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; de Graaf, Cees

2011-07-01

48

Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects  

PubMed Central

The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ?30?kg?m?2 and binge eating scale scores ?19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2?mg?day?1 GSK1521498, 5?mg?day?1 GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2?mg and 5?mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5?mg?day?1 caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2?mg?day?1 on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation.

Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

2013-01-01

49

How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?  

PubMed Central

Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications.

Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

2011-01-01

50

The contribution of psychosocial and home environmental factors in explaining eating behaviours in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The present study aimed at investigating the influence of food availability, rules and television viewing habits on eating behaviours in adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting:Four randomly selected middle schools.Subjects:A sample of 534 seventh and eighth graders.Interventions:Validated questionnaires were used to measure the family environment and fat, soft drink and fruit consumption. Hierarchical regression analyses on fat, soft drink and fruit consumption, with demographic

L Haerens; M Craeynest; B Deforche; L Maes; G Cardon; I De Bourdeaudhuij

2008-01-01

51

Development and factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in the Gemini birth cohort.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a parent-report psychometric measure of infant appetite during the period of exclusive milk-feeding. Constructs and items for the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) were derived from an existing psychometric measure validated for older ages, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, supplemented by a review of the literature on milk-feeding behaviours. Cognitive interviewing with a sample of mothers (n=10) was used to refine the questions. The factor structure of the 18-item BEBQ was assessed in infants (one per family) from the Gemini twin birth cohort (n=2402 families). Principal Component Analysis identified four distinct appetitive constructs, all of which had good internal reliability: 'enjoyment of food' (Cronbach's ?=0.81), 'food responsiveness' (?=0.79), 'slowness in eating' (?=0.76), and 'satiety responsiveness' (?=0.73). A single item assessing 'general appetite' correlated with all of the constructs. The BEBQ is the first standardised measure of infant appetite designed to characterise appetitive traits that might confer susceptibility to excess weight gain. PMID:21672566

Llewellyn, Clare H; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Johnson, Laura; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

2011-10-01

52

The relation of post-work ruminative thinking with eating behaviour.  

PubMed

Inability to unwind about work during leisure time has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes. This study was concerned with a possible behavioural pathway between unwinding and disease and examined the relationship between work-related rumination and food choice. Work-related rumination is arguably a core to understanding the 'unwinding process', and food choice is a well-established indicator of nutritional health. Two hundred and sixty-eight full-time workers from a range of white-collar occupations completed a self-report measure of ruminative thinking about work and an eating behaviour questionnaire. Three types of ruminative thinking were identified by factor analysis and labelled affective rumination, problem-solving pondering and detachment. In terms of food choice, high-relative to low-affective ruminators reported eating more unhealthy foods, and low detachers reported eating less cooked meals and more processed foods compared to high detachers. Problem-solving pondering was not associated with food choice, and none of the factors were associated with healthy food choice. It was concluded that failure to unwind from work is not necessarily related to unhealthy food choices. What appears to be the crucial factor is the type of perseverative thinking that people engage in post-work. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:22259155

Cropley, Mark; Michalianou, Georgia; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Millward, Lynne J

2012-02-01

53

Pharmacological modulation of the endocannabinoid signalling alters binge-type eating behaviour in female rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by excessive food intake during short periods of time. Recent evidence suggests that alterations in the endocannabinoid signalling could be involved in the pathophysiology of BED. In this study, we investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of endocannabinoid transmission may be effective in modulating the aberrant eating behaviour present in a validated rat model of BED. Experimental Approach Binge-type eating was induced in female rats by providing limited access to an optional source of dietary fat (margarine). Rats were divided into three groups, all with ad libitum access to chow and water: control (C), with no access to margarine; low restriction (LR), with 2 h margarine access 7 days a week; high restriction (HR), with 2 h margarine access 3 days a week. Key Results Compared with the LR group, the HR group consumed more margarine and this was accompanied by an increase in body weight. The cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol significantly increased margarine intake selectively in LR rats, while the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 showed no effect. The CB1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently reduced margarine intake in HR rats. Notably, in HR rats, chronic treatment with a low dose of rimonabant induced a selective long-lasting reduction in margarine intake that did not develop tolerance, and a significant and persistent reduction in body weight. Conclusions and Implications Chronic pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors reduces binge eating behaviour in female rats and may prove effective in treating BED, with an associated significant reduction in body weight. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8

Scherma, M; Fattore, L; Satta, V; Businco, F; Pigliacampo, B; Goldberg, SR; Dessi, C; Fratta, W; Fadda, P

2013-01-01

54

Correcting the eating disorder in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess whether direct informational feedback using videotape recordings would improve abnormal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. Eight inpatients participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was noted in the occurrence of obsessional eating behaviour and in table manners. However, there was no change in the speed of eating, disposal of food or behaviours which reduce caloric intake. The implications of these findings for the treatment and prognosis of anorexia nervosa are discussed. PMID:4045758

Wilson, A J; Touyz, S W; O'Connor, M; Beumont, P J

1985-01-01

55

The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6–7  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass

Ester FC Sleddens; Stef PJ Kremers; Carel Thijs

2008-01-01

56

Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

57

Clinicians' concerns about delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.  

PubMed

Despite research supporting the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in the treatment of eating disorders, those interventions are under-utilised in routine clinical practice, possibly due to clinicians' concerns about delivering the relevant techniques. This study examined what elements of therapy clinicians worry about when delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders, and what clinician variables are associated with such concerns. The participants were 113 clinicians who used individual CBT with eating disorder patients. They completed a novel measure of concerns about delivering elements of CBT, as well as demographic characteristics and a standardised measure of intolerance of uncertainty. Clinicians worried most about body image work and ending treatment, but least about delivering psychoeducation. Their concerns fell into four distinct factors. Older, more experienced clinicians worried less about delivering the CBT techniques, but those with greater levels of prospective and inhibitory anxiety worried more about specific factors in the CBT techniques. Clinicians' capacity to tolerate uncertainty might impair their delivery of evidence-based CBT, and merits consideration as a target in training and supervision of CBT clinicians. PMID:24793719

Turner, Hannah; Tatham, Madeleine; Lant, Marie; Mountford, Victoria A; Waller, Glenn

2014-06-01

58

Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women.  

PubMed

Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9?kg/m(2)). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7?kg/m(2), P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1?kg/m(2), P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

Riou, Marie-Eve; Doucet, Eric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S John; Piché, Marie-Eve; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

2011-01-01

59

Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies.

Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dube, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

2014-01-01

60

Telemetered EEG in schizophrenia: spectral analysis during abnormal behaviour episodes.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to detect electroencephalographic (EEG) changes associated with characteristic clinical signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, power spectra were derived from scalp EEGs of schizophrenic patients recorded by telemetry during free behaviour on their psychiatric wards. Power spectra from EEG epochs coincident with psychomotor blocking, stereotyped automatism or hallucinations were compared with spectra derived during periods of relatively normal behaviour, during performance of specific tasks and spectra from control subjects. Ramp spectra, characterised by a smooth decline in power from lowest to highest frequencies, previously found in conjunction with subcortical spike activity of epilepsy were not found in any control subject, but appeared in spectra from schizophrenic patients during catatonic episodes, hallucinatory periods and visual checking. Schizophrenic patients also had more slow activity and less alpha activity in their EEGs than normal control subjects. Images

Stevens, J R; Livermore, A

1982-01-01

61

Clinical pharmacology of eating and not eating.  

PubMed

FDA approval of Belviq and Qsymia seems to suggest that novel pharmacological targets to modulate human abnormal eating behaviours are still to be identified. However, a renewed translational approach opens new avenues on eating disorders and female vulnerability, highlighting the role of our reward pathway in obesity and binge eating and leading to potential novel targets. Nevertheless, the 'food addiction' hypothesis is still causing much scientific debate. In this context the interest in the modulation of ghrelin pathway is still very high although, so far, only ghrelin agonism has confirmed its therapeutic potential in cachectic patients. Unfortunately, ghrelin modulation does not offer a therapeutic option for Anorexia Nervosa, where novel promising pharmacological treatments are still to be uncovered. PMID:24565004

Melotto, Sergio

2014-02-01

62

Sibutramine treatment in obesity: initial eating behaviour in relation to weight loss results and changes in mood.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to study the role of initial eating behaviour for subsequent weight loss in treatment with sibutramine (Reductil, Meridia) an anti-obesity drug enhancing satiety, and also to assess changes in mood during the treatment. The participants were 36 obese patients with a mean BMI of 39 kg m(-2). Eating behaviour was assessed with the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ), and depressive features with the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale (CPRS). Sibutramine (15 mg) was administered daily. The TFEQ restraint scale was negatively related to 6 months weight loss. In particular, strategic dieting behaviour and a more controlled attitude towards self-regulation were negatively related to weight loss. A positive non-placebo controlled change in mood was found already after 2 months treatment. The changes in mood were not related to the weight loss. Patients with more unrestrained eating seem to have reduced their amount of food intake more radically with enhanced satiety, manifested by greater weight loss. Physiologically enhanced satiety could have the greatest weight loss effect for patients whose eating is more governed by hunger drives and appetite rather that by conscious efforts and cognitive control. PMID:15629262

Elfhag, Kristina; Rössner, Stephan; Barkeling, Britta; Rooth, Pål

2005-02-01

63

Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…

Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

2011-01-01

64

Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

2009-01-01

65

Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

2012-01-01

66

Effect of weight loss intervention on the association between eating behaviour measured by TFEQ-18 and dietary intake in adults.  

PubMed

Associations between eating behaviour (cognitive restraint, emotional eating and uncontrolled eating) and dietary intake (energy, energy nutrients and fibre) were assessed in overweight or obese adults (body mass index >27 kg/m(2), n=49) before and after weight loss intervention in a randomized follow-up study lasting 18 months. Counselling was either intensive or short-term. Eating behaviour was assessed using the three-factor eating questionnaire-18 and dietary intake with 5-day food records at 0 and 18 months. The only difference in dietary intake between the groups was higher protein intake (% of energy, E%) in the short-term group at 18 months (18.7 ± 3.1 E% vs. 17.1 ± 1.7 E%). Cognitive restraint was associated with lower energy intake at 0 and 18 months (r=-0.34, r=-0.36, respectively) and higher intakes of carbohydrates (r=0.39), sucrose (r=0.33) and fibre (r=0.44) and a lower intake of fat (r=-0.43) at 18 months. Those with the highest cognitive restraint at 18 months had the lowest energy and fat intake, the highest carbohydrate and fibre intake and the greatest weight loss. The results suggest that enhancing cognitive restraint could be a target for improving weight loss counselling, although further evaluation of the causal relationship would be needed in order to find the best practices for enhancing cognitive restraint. PMID:20955744

Keränen, Anna-Maria; Strengell, Katrin; Savolainen, Markku J; Laitinen, Jaana H

2011-02-01

67

Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed.

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

68

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

69

Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on eating behaviour and self-perception in young women undergoing weight management.  

PubMed

The control of eating behaviours such as hunger and disinhibition is problematic for women during weight management. Higher-protein (HP) diets have been shown to promote greater weight reduction than higher-carbohydrate (HC) diets, but their impact on eating behaviours is relatively unexplored. This study compared two iso-energetically restricted (5,600 kJ/day) diets differing in protein (HP: 32 %, HC: 20 %) and carbohydrate (HP: 41 %, HC: 58 %) on appetite ratings, restraint, disinhibition, perceived hunger and binge eating in 36 (HP: n = 21, HC: n = 15) young (18-25 years), healthy women with BMI ?27.5 kg/m(2) who completed a 12-month clinical weight management trial. Dietary compliance and self-worth were also assessed. Results showed that both diets induced improvements in restraint and disinhibition from baseline (p < 0.01), with HP participants losing a non-significantly greater amount of weight than HC participants (HP: 9.6 ± 2.6, HC: 4.1 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.07). Despite reasonable compliance, no significant appetite and eating behaviour differences were observed between the diets. Reduction in disinhibition (regardless of diet) significantly predicted weight loss (? = 0.574, p < 0.001) and self-worth improvement (? = -0.463, p = 0.002), while HP intake predicted greater self-worth change (? = -0.371, p = 0.011). This study demonstrates that young women can improve restraint and disinhibition on a weight management programme, with the reduction in disinhibition shown to be a key predictor of weight loss. HP intake may offer some advantage for increasing self-worth but not eating behaviours. As HP diets are popular, these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample. PMID:24609724

Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley; Claes, Bri-Ellen; Petocz, Peter; Steinbeck, Katharine; Rooney, Kieron; O'Connor, Helen

2014-06-01

70

Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393

Krempien, Jennifer Luella; Barr, Susan Irene

2012-01-01

71

Food selection and eating behaviour during weight maintenance intervention and 2-y follow-up in obese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess long-term changes in food consumption and eating behaviour during and 2 y after dietary counselling in weight-reduced obese men.DESIGN: Observational study from a randomised controlled trial.SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a research institute.SUBJECTS: A total of 36 subjects with complete data on food intake during the study. Subjects were obese (mean body mass index (BMI)

P Borg; M Fogelholm; K Kukkonen-Harjula

2004-01-01

72

[Clinical and preventive intervention in eating behaviour: a dialogue between psychology and nutritional sciences].  

PubMed

The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence. PMID:22863479

Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel

2011-12-01

73

The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students  

PubMed Central

Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers.

2013-01-01

74

Emotional eating: eating when emotional or emotional about eating?  

PubMed

This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to habit strength in snack consumption, employing 7-day snack diaries. Both studies demonstrated that snack consumption was not predicted by emotional eating but depended on the habit of unhealthy snacking and on restraint eating. As emotional eating was not a significant predictor of snack intake, Study 3 addressed the alternative hypothesis of emotional eating being an expression of concerns about eating behaviour. Results from this cross-sectional survey (N = 134) showed that emotional eating was significantly associated with several concerns. Together, these studies show that snack intake is better predicted by habit strength and restraint eating than by emotional eating. Additionally, the results suggest that in normal-weight women the concept of emotional eating may not capture the tendency to eat under emotional conditions, but rather reflects beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating. PMID:20204980

Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine

2011-01-01

75

Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent's eating behaviours: a population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent’s consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence on health behaviour needs to be explored in future studies. Initiatives to promote healthy eating should focus on education, habits and consciousness of a healthy diet, but also at reducing the high cost of fruit and vegetables. There is further a need for developing appropriate indicators for adolescent socio-economic status.

2012-01-01

76

Abnormal magnetic behaviour of powder metallurgy austenitic stainless steels sintered in nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic response of AISI 304L and AISI 316L obtained through powder metallurgy and sintered in nitrogen were studied. AISI 304L sintered in nitrogen showed a ferromagnetic behaviour in as-sintered state while AISI 316L was paramagnetic. After solution annealing both were paramagnetic. Magnetic behaviour was analysed by using a vibrating sample magnetometer, a magnetic ferritscope and magnetic etching. A microstructural characterization was performed by means of optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDS). Some samples when needed were submitted to aged heat treatments at 675 and 875 °C for 90 min, 4, 6, 8 or 48 h. The main microstructural feature found was the presence of a lamellar constituent formed by nitride precipitates and an interlamellar matrix of austenite and/or ferrite. The abnormal magnetic response was explained based on this.

García, C.; Martin, F.; Blanco, Y.

2009-10-01

77

Cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating: correlations between parent and adolescent.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine, in a general population, the resemblance in eating behaviour between adolescents and their parents. This study was based on the first examination of a community-based epidemiological study in Northern France. Subjects were offspring aged 14-22 years (135 boys and 125 girls) and their parents (174 fathers and 205 mothers). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18) identified three aspects of eating behaviour: cognitive restraint of eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating. Familial resemblance in eating behaviour was measured by partial Spearman's correlations, adjusted for age and body mass index. Sons' uncontrolled eating was positively related to fathers' cognitive restraint of eating (r = 0.36), but not to fathers' uncontrolled eating (r = 0.07), nor to mothers' eating behaviour. Sons' cognitive restraint of eating was related to no parental eating behaviour scores. In daughters, cognitive restraint of eating was positively related to mothers' uncontrolled eating (r = 0.26), but not to mothers' cognitive restraint of eating (r = 0.13). Daughters' uncontrolled eating and emotional eating were positively associated with the same scores in mothers. Finally, daughters' eating behaviour was not related to fathers' eating behaviour. In conclusion, correlations in eating behaviour were higher with the parent of the same gender, and eating behaviours in adolescents seem to reflect opposition to parents' behaviour more than familial resemblance. PMID:19292751

de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Romon, Monique; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Heude, Barbara; Basdevant, Arnaud; Charles, Marie Aline

2009-04-01

78

Abnormal resistance switching behaviours of NiO thin films: possible occurrence of both formation and rupturing of conducting channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a detailed study on the abnormal resistance switching behaviours observed in NiO thin films which show unipolar resistance switching phenomena. During the RESET process, in which the NiO film changed from a low resistance state to a high resistance state, we sometimes observed that the resistance became smaller than the initial value. We simulated the resistance switching by using a random circuit breaker network model. We found that local conducting channels could be formed as well as ruptured during the RESET process, which result in the occurrence of such abnormal switching behaviours.

Liu, Chunli; Chae, S. C.; Lee, J. S.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, S. B.; Kim, D.-W.; Jung, C. U.; Seo, S.; Ahn, S.-E.; Kahng, B.; Noh, T. W.

2009-01-01

79

Development of the eating behaviour in Prader–Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of

C J McAllister; J E Whittington; A J Holland

2011-01-01

80

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal swimming tests, such as the forced swim test, are extensively used in biomedical research to study rodent behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test. Since various hair and skin abnormalities are not uncommon in genetically modified or drug-treated laboratory animals, this test may be inappropriate for these

A V Kalueff; P Tuohimaa

2005-01-01

81

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

What are Eating Disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... participants with eating disorders . Share Science News About Eating Disorders 9 Eating Disorders Myths Busted Biology, Not Just ...

82

Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Bulimia nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been considerably refined during the last 2 decades, and such a treatment is now extensively used. The present paper describes the treatment rationale and structure, and reviews the available evidence on its efficacy. Compared to any other psychological or pharmacological treatment for which controlled studies have been published, CBT is reported

Valdo Ricca; Edoardo Mannucci; Teresa Zucchi; Carlo M. Rotella; Carlo Faravelli

2000-01-01

83

Obesity and eating behaviour in children and adolescents: contribution of common gene polymorphisms.  

PubMed

The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in many countries and confers risks for early type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the presence of potent 'obesogenic' environments not all children become obese, indicating the presence of susceptibility and resistance. Taking an energy balance approach, susceptibility could be mediated through a failure of appetite regulation leading to increased energy intake or via diminished energy expenditure. Evidence shows that heritability estimates for BMI and body fat are paralleled by similar coefficients for energy intake and preferences for dietary fat. Twin studies implicate weak satiety and enhanced food responsiveness as factors determining an increase in BMI. Single gene mutations, for example in the leptin receptor gene, that lead to extreme obesity appear to operate through appetite regulating mechanisms and the phenotypic response involves overconsumption and a failure to inhibit eating. Investigations of robustly characterized common gene variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) which contribute to variance in BMI also influence the variance in appetite factors such as measured energy intake, satiety responsiveness and the intake of palatable energy-dense food. A review of the evidence suggests that susceptibility to childhood obesity involving specific allelic variants of certain genes is mediated primarily through food consumption (appetite regulation) rather than through a decrease in activity-related energy expenditure. This conclusion has implications for early detection of susceptibility, and for prevention and management of childhood obesity. PMID:22724641

Cecil, Joanne; Dalton, Michelle; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Hetherington, Marion; Palmer, Colin

2012-06-01

84

Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.  

PubMed

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

2012-01-01

85

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

86

To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods.  

PubMed

Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

2012-10-17

87

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

The main forms of eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia nervosa and obesity. The clinical features, aetiology, treatment and prognosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa are described to highlight the similarities and differences between these two conditions. Both conditions affect predominantly the young female population with body image disturbance as one of the core symptoms. Whilst the body weight of anorexics are by definition low, most bulimics have normal or near normal body weight. Sufferers of anorexia nervosa tend to deny their illness while those with bulimia are often miserable and acutely aware of their eating difficulties. The aetiological factors in both conditions overlap to a large extent. The outcome of treatment for bulimia is reportedly better than that of anorexia nervosa. Obese people often become depressed and anxious as a result of low self-esteem causing them to seek psychiatric treatment. The severely obese who are placed on very low calorie diets may develop adverse emotional disturbances whilst weight gain may follow a major depressive illness or develop as a side effect of psychotropic medications. A subgroup of the obese population engage in frequent binge eating and preliminary criteria are being developed for this condition called "binge eating disorder". Behaviour therapy is the treatment of choice for obesity. Other forms of treatment include individual and group psychotherapy, use of appetite suppressants and in the severely obese, surgical methods. PMID:7761892

Low, B L

1994-12-01

88

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa , bulimia nervosa , and binge eating disorder . People with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa tend ... kidney problems • Severe dehydration from purging of fluids Binge Eating Disorder Presently, the criteria for binge eating disorder are ...

89

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...

90

Behaviour of a Shallow Buried Pipeline under Impact and Abnormal Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of rigid-body and articulated commercial vehicles were used to investigate the influence of axle load, axle spacing and vehicle speed on the strains developed in an experimental pipeline under impact and abnormal wheel load conditions. The 100mm ...

M. E. Taylor G. J. L. Lawrence D. R. Carder

1984-01-01

91

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan affects C-reactive protein, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests among type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Few studies exist regarding the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on novel cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated the effects of the DASH eating pattern on C-reactive protein (CRP) level, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests in type 2 diabetic patients. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, 31 type 2 diabetic patients consumed a control diet or the DASH diet for 8 wk. The DASH diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fat, total fat, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets, with a total of 2400 mg/d sodium. The control diet was a standard diet for diabetic patients. There was a 4-wk washout between the 2 trial phases. The main outcome measures were CRP level, coagulation indices, and hepatic function tests. The mean percent change for plasma CRP level was -26.9 ± 3.5% after the DASH diet period and -5.1 ± 3.8% after the control diet period (P = 0.02). Decreases in both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were greater after consuming the DASH diet compared with the control diet (-14.8 ± 3.0% vs -6.6 ± 3.4%; P = 0.001; -29.4 ± 3.7% vs -5.9 ± 1.4%; P = 0.001, respectively). The decrease in the plasma fibrinogen level during the DASH diet period (-11.4 ± 3.6%) was greater than that during the control diet (0.5 ± 3.4%) (P = 0.03). Among diabetic patients, the DASH diet can play an important role in reducing inflammation, plasma levels of fibrinogen, and liver aminotransferases. Future longer term studies are recommended. PMID:21525259

Azadbakht, Leila; Surkan, Pamela J; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Willett, Walter C

2011-06-01

92

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan Affects C-Reactive Protein, Coagulation Abnormalities, and Hepatic Function Tests among Type 2 Diabetic Patients1234  

PubMed Central

Few studies exist regarding the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on novel cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated the effects of the DASH eating pattern on C-reactive protein (CRP) level, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests in type 2 diabetic patients. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, 31 type 2 diabetic patients consumed a control diet or the DASH diet for 8 wk. The DASH diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fat, total fat, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets, with a total of 2400 mg/d sodium. The control diet was a standard diet for diabetic patients. There was a 4-wk washout between the 2 trial phases. The main outcome measures were CRP level, coagulation indices, and hepatic function tests. The mean percent change for plasma CRP level was ?26.9 ± 3.5% after the DASH diet period and ?5.1 ± 3.8% after the control diet period (P = 0.02). Decreases in both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were greater after consuming the DASH diet compared with the control diet (?14.8 ± 3.0% vs ?6.6 ± 3.4%; P = 0.001; ?29.4 ± 3.7% vs ?5.9 ± 1.4%; P = 0.001, respectively). The decrease in the plasma fibrinogen level during the DASH diet period (?11.4 ± 3.6%) was greater than that during the control diet (0.5 ± 3.4%) (P = 0.03). Among diabetic patients, the DASH diet can play an important role in reducing inflammation, plasma levels of fibrinogen, and liver aminotransferases. Future longer term studies are recommended.

Azadbakht, Leila; Surkan, Pamela J.; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Willett, Walter C.

2011-01-01

93

Persecutors or victims? The moral logic at the heart of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating Disorders, particularly anorexia and bulimia, are of immense contemporary importance and interest. News stories depicting the tragic effects of eating disorders command wide attention. Almost everybody in society has been touched by eating disorders in one way or another, and contemporary obsession with body image and diet fuels fascination with this problem. It is unclear why people develop eating disorders. Clinical and sociological studies have provided important information relating to the relational systems in which eating disorders are mainly found. This paper shows that their explanations are not conclusive and points out that the reasons why people develop eating disorders should not be found in the dysfunctional interactions occurring in both familial and social systems, but in the moral beliefs that underlie these interactions. Eating disorders are impossible to understand or explain, unless they are viewed in the light of these beliefs. A moral logic, that is a way of thinking of interpersonal relations in moral terms, gives shape to and justifies the clinical condition, and finds consistent expression in abnormal eating behaviour. The analysis offered here is not mainstream either in philosophy (eating disorders are in fact seldom the subject of philosophical investigation) or in clinical psychology (the methods of philosophical analysis are in fact seldom utilised in clinical psychology). However, this paper offers a important contribution to the understanding of such a dramatic and widespread condition, bringing to light the deepest reasons, which are moral in nature, that contribute to the explanation of this complex phenomenon. PMID:14708934

Giordano, Simona

2003-09-01

94

Binge eating  

MedlinePLUS

Binge eating is an eating disorder in which a person eats a much larger amount of food in a shorter period of time than he or ... may occur on its own or with another eating disorder, such as bulimia . People with bulimia typically eat ...

95

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Order a free hardcopy En Español What are eating disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes ... population. 5 What are the different types of eating disorders? Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme ...

96

Susceptibility to weight gain. Eating behaviour traits and physical activity as predictors of weight gain during the first year of university.  

PubMed

The transition to University has been identified as a possible period for weight gain but few studies have addressed the extent of this experience in UK Universities. The present study was conducted in four Universities in England and Scotland to directly measure changes in body weight, waist circumference and body composition in students during their first year. Two hundred and fifty first-year students completed psychometric eating behaviour questionnaires and a validated physical activity survey before attending one of the laboratories for standardised assessments of height, body weight, waist circumference and body composition at 0, 3, and 12-months. Significant but small and transitory increases in all weight outcomes (e.g. body weight=0.83±2.1 kg) were observed except for fat-free mass. Weight-related measures at baseline predicted changes in weight over 12-months but not 3-months. Disinhibition, power of food and binge eating were associated with change in fat mass while physical activity, cognitive restraint and sensitivity to reward were associated with change in fat-free mass. Weight gain occurs in the first year of University in the UK, but appears to be small and transitory. Changes in fat mass were related to opportunistic eating and the tendency to overconsume, while change in fat-free mass related to physical activity and low dietary restraint in conjunction with drive to experience reward. Psychological markers underlying changes in body composition can inform strategies to promote self-regulation in young adults during a critical life period for weight gain. PMID:22407132

Finlayson, Graham; Cecil, Joanne; Higgs, Suzanne; Hill, Andrew; Hetherington, Marion

2012-06-01

97

Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring  

PubMed Central

Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal LPD offspring also exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in males at 9 and 15 weeks and in both sexes at 21 weeks (P < 0.05). Male LPD offspring hypertension was accompanied by attenuated arterial responsiveness in vitro to vasodilators acetylcholine and isoprenaline (P < 0.05). LPD female offspring adult kidneys were also smaller, but had increased nephron numbers (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relationship between SBP and kidney or heart size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome.

Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

2008-01-01

98

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

99

Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of

Martin R. Yeomans; Margaret Leitch; Sirous Mobini

2008-01-01

100

Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed to compare perceived weight status, desired weight, eating and exercise behaviours and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 8550 school children aged 6 to 18 years selected from every state and territory of Australia. The children were weighed, measured and classified as thin, normal, overweight or obese using international standards. The main outcome measures were perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents. Results The distribution of weight status was - thin 4.4%; normal weight 70.7%; overweight 18.3%; and obese 6.6%. Thin children were significantly shorter than normal weight, overweight or obese children and they were also more likely to report regularly consuming meals and snacks. 57.4% of thin children, 83.1% of normal weight children, 63.7% of overweight and 38.3% of obese children perceived their weight as "about right". Of the thin children, 53.9% wanted to be heavier, 36.2% wanted to stay the same weight, and 9.8% wanted to weigh less. Thin children were significantly less likely than obese children to respond positively to statements such as "I am trying to get fitter" or "I need to get more exercise." Parents were significantly less likely to recommend exercise for thin children compared with other weight groups. Conclusions Thin children, as well as those who are overweight or obese, are less likely than normal weight children to consider their weight "about right'. Thin children differ from children of other weights in that thin children are less likely to desire to get fitter or be encouraged to exercise. Both extremes of the spectrum of weight, from underweight to obese, may have serious health consequences for the individuals, as well as for public health policy. Health and wellness programs that promote positive social experiences and encourage exercise should include children of all sizes.

2011-01-01

101

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

102

[Eating disorders and drug addiction].  

PubMed

The link between drug addiction and eating disorders is often noted in clinical practice and in the literature. This may be due to their phenomenological, structural and systemic manifestations. In this paper, we shall underline these numerous links as well as their impact on the treatment of eating disorders. Addictive behaviour has long been well defined by clinicians and offers a model of understanding the underlying mechanisms of eating disorders without, however, identifying them with addiction. Eating disorders as well as addictions are multifactorial disorders implying different vulnerability traits, involving biological, psychological, familial and sociological factors. Their management therefore requires a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:23888585

Fuchs, S; Geronooz, I; Cleinge, L; Mezzena, K

2013-01-01

103

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

104

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... meals . Serve a variety of healthy foods and snacks. Be a role model by eating healthy yourself. ... eat fruits, vegetables, and grains less likely to snack on unhealthy foods less likely to smoke, use ...

105

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

106

Emotional Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown

Michael Macht; Gwenda Simons

107

Modelling the Role of Dietary Habits and Eating Behaviours on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome or Stroke: Aims, Design, and Validation Properties of a Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

In this paper the methodology and procedures of a case-control study that will be developed for assessing the role of dietary habits and eating behaviours on the development of acute coronary syndrome and stroke is presented. Based on statistical power calculations, 1000 participants will be enrolled; of them, 250 will be consecutive patients with a first acute coronary event, 250 consecutive patients with a first ischaemic stroke, and 500 population-based healthy subjects (controls), age and sex matched to the cases. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological, and other lifestyle characteristics will be measured. Dietary habits and eating behaviours will be evaluated with a special questionnaire that has been developed for the study.

Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Milionis, Haralampos J.; Goudevenos, John A.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.

2011-01-01

108

Eating Well While Eating Out  

MedlinePLUS

... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

109

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

110

[Sleep related eating disorder].  

PubMed

Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

2010-01-01

111

Specific abnormalities in serotonin release in the prefrontal cortex of isolation-reared rats measured during behavioural performance of a task assessing visuospatial attention and impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Rats reared in social isolation exhibit hyperactivity and specific attentional disturbances in later adult life. These behavioural\\u000a abnormalities may be relevant to impulsivity and other neuropsychiatric syndromes such as attention-deficit hyperactivity\\u000a disorder and schizophrenia where disturbances in circuitry involving the prefrontal cortex have been identified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective. To establish whether isolation-reared rats show a differential susceptibility to cognitive processes

J. W. Dalley; D. E. Theobald; E. A. C. Pereira; P. Li; T. Robbins

2002-01-01

112

The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.  

PubMed

Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

2013-12-01

113

Research Report Perceived parental control of food intake is related to external, restrained and emotional eating in 7-12-year-old boys and girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eating behaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n ¼ 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eating behaviour for boys

Tatjana van Strien; Francien G. Bazelier

114

Risk factors for eating disorders in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify psychopathological, social and family variables that, measured at the age of 13, might predict the development of eating disorders 2 years later, using a standardized interview and controlling the effect of initially abnormal eating behavior. Method: At age 13 and 15, 1076 adolescents completed questionnaires for the screening of psychiatric morbidity,

Luis Beato-Fernández; Teresa Rodríguez-Cano; Antonia Belmonte-Llario; Cristóbal Martínez-Delgado

2004-01-01

115

An animal model of compulsive food-taking behaviour.  

PubMed

The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has promoted research aimed at understanding the aetiology of abnormal eating behaviours. Apart from metabolic factors, obesity is caused by overeating. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviours when consuming palatable foods, and compulsive eating plays a similar dominant role in obesity as compulsive drug taking does in drug addiction. The progress made in the development of treatment strategies for obesity is limited, in part, because the physiological and neurological causes and consequences of compulsive eating behaviour are not clearly understood and cannot readily be studied in human subjects. We have developed experimental approaches that reflect the functioning of the components of eating control, including compulsive food taking in rats. Rats that are given free choice between standard chow and a palatable, chocolate-containing 'Cafeteria Diet' (CD) develop distinct signs of compulsive food taking that appear at an early stage. These include the inability to adapt intake behaviour in periods of limited or bitter-tasting CD access, continued food intake during resting phases and changes in fine structure of feeding (duration, distribution and recurrence of feeding bouts). The model will help examine the neurobiological underpinnings of compulsive food seeking and food taking and provides a possibility to study the effects of novel anti-obesity compounds on compulsive eating and other components of food-taking behaviour in detail. For future use of genetic models, the possibility of a transfer to a mouse was discussed. PMID:19740365

Heyne, Andrea; Kiesselbach, Christoph; Sahún, Ignasi; McDonald, Jerome; Gaiffi, Monica; Dierssen, Mara; Wolffgramm, Jochen

2009-09-01

116

Three factor eating questionnaire-R18 as a measure of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of young Finnish females  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18), a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. METHODS: Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in

Susanna Anglé; Janne Engblom; Tiina Eriksson; Susanna Kautiainen; Marja-Terttu Saha; Pirjo Lindfors; Matti Lehtinen; Arja Rimpelä

2009-01-01

117

Emotional Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Hunger vs. Emotional Hunger We're all emotional eaters to some extent (who hasn't suddenly found room for dessert after a filling dinner?). But for some people, emotional eating can be a real problem, causing serious ...

118

Four Simple Questions Can Help Screen for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Current screening instruments for eating disorders are cumbersome to administer and have not been validated in primary care populations. We compared the performance characteristics of 2 screening tools, the SCOFF clinical prediction guide, and a new set of questions, the Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP), using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis as the independent standard, in 104 consecutive patients from a primary care practice and 129 university students. Twelve percent of the combined population had an eating disorder. One or no abnormal responses to the ESP ruled out an eating disorder (likelihood ratio [LR] 0.0), whereas 3 or more abnormal responses ruled one in (LR 11). The SCOFF questions were less sensitive than predicted (1 or no abnormal responses, LR 0.25), but were as effective at ruling in an eating disorder (3 or more abnormal responses, LR 11).

Cotton, Mary-Anne; Ball, Christopher; Robinson, Paul

2003-01-01

119

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

Smith, Mrs.

2011-12-12

120

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

Konti?, Olga; Vasiljevi?, Nadja; Trisovi?, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Laki?, Aneta; Gasi?, Miroslava Jasovi?

2012-01-01

121

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

122

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Aina Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Goncalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

123

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... to overeat. Continue How It Differs From Other Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are all considered eating disorders because they involve unhealthy patterns of eating. Both ...

124

Three factor eating questionnaire-R18 as a measure of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of young Finnish females  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18), a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. Methods Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in a phase III human papillomavirus vaccination trial in Finland in 2004 – 2009. Self-administered questionnaires and weight and height measurements were used. The factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was verified by factor analysis. Connections between measured eating behaviour and Body Mass Index (BMI) were tested using analysis of variance. Results The original factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was replicated: six of the eighteen items measured cognitive restraint, nine measured uncontrolled eating, and three measured emotional eating. On average, higher BMI was associated with higher levels of cognitive restraint (p < 0.001) and emotional eating (p < 0.001), but not with uncontrolled eating. Conclusion Structural validity of the TFEQ-R18 was good in this sample of young Finnish females with a varying range of body weights. Use of the instrument as a measure of eating behaviour was thus corroborated. Connections of restrained and emotional eating with BMI were in accordance with previous findings from young females.

Angle, Susanna; Engblom, Janne; Eriksson, Tiina; Kautiainen, Susanna; Saha, Marja-Terttu; Lindfors, Pirjo; Lehtinen, Matti; Rimpela, Arja

2009-01-01

125

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

Brobison

2010-12-03

126

Abnormalities in whisking behaviour are associated with lesions in brain stem nuclei in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

The transgenic SOD1(G93A) mouse is a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and recapitulates many of the pathological hallmarks observed in humans, including motor neuron degeneration in the brain and the spinal cord. In mice, neurodegeneration particularly impacts on the facial nuclei in the brainstem. Motor neurons innervating the whisker pad muscles originate in the facial nucleus of the brain stem, with contractions of these muscles giving rise to "whisking" one of the fastest movements performed by mammals. A longitudinal study was conducted on SOD1(G93A) mice and wild-type litter mate controls, comparing: (i) whisker movements using high-speed video recordings and automated whisker tracking, and (ii) facial nucleus degeneration using MRI. Results indicate that while whisking still occurs in SOD1(G93A) mice and is relatively resistant to neurodegeneration, there are significant disruptions to certain whisking behaviours, which correlate with facial nuclei lesions, and may be as a result of specific facial muscle degeneration. We propose that measures of mouse whisker movement could potentially be used in tandem with measures of limb dysfunction as biomarkers of disease onset and progression in ALS mice and offers a novel method for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic compounds. PMID:24239688

Grant, Robyn A; Sharp, Paul S; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Berwick, Jason; Grierson, Andrew; Ramesh, Tennore; Prescott, Tony J

2014-02-01

127

Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that…

Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

2011-01-01

128

[Eating disorders in the workplace].  

PubMed

The prevalence of eating disorders (ED) has increased and these are intractable disorders that require prolonged treatment. The workplace is an important life scene for the patients, but there are few reports available about the current status and correspondence to ED in workplace. Based on a survey of 1248 enterprises, we discuss the cognition of each form of ED. In addition, the background, eating behaviors, and job stress of 2004 workers were also surveyed. Based on these responses, workers who were supposed to demonstrate anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or night eating syndrome (NES) were identified. The same survey was conducted among outpatients with ED, and the findings were compared with those of a healthy control group. The terms ED, AN, and BN were highly acknowledged in the workplace, but recognition of NES was low. In addition, the prevalence of workers suspected of AN, BN, or NES were 0.27%, 0.21%, and 12.9%, respectively. Based on comparisons of job stress in working ED patients with job stress in workers without ED, and comparisons of job stress in NES workers with job stress in workers without eating problems, specific job stressors were supposed to be associated with ED. These findings indicate the importance of learning appropriate techniques for coping with job stress and the necessity of recognizing abnormal eating behaviors in the workplace. PMID:20976967

Inoue, Koki; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamauchi, Tsuneo; Kiriike, Nobuo

2010-01-01

129

Relational competence and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating Disorders are very widespread within the adolescent population. A possible interpretation and the comprehension of such forms of psychopathology may revolve around the failure to develop a well-defined personal identity, an incapacity to achieve a sense of differentiation with respect to others, an incapacity to measure oneself against others, dependence on others, the fear of rejection and a sense of inadequacy. This study explores the relational styles and behaviour of individuals suffering from eating disorders and their influence on the development of the personality, with reference being made in particular to self-valuation, dependence on others and levels of differentiation. A sample population of 90 women with eating disorders was studied. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups (30 with restricting anorexia nervosa, 30 with binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and 30 with bulimia nervosa), overlapping in terms of age, duration of disorders and interrelation style, using the Relational Competence Test. The most significant results of this study concern the question of the definition of an autonomous personal identity. This process seems to be in progress in young women suffering from bulimia nervosa who appear to be driven towards a "definition of the self in opposition" with the consequent tendency towards relational experiences outside their own family. In women with binge-eating/purging AN moreover an awareness of the difference between the self and others and of their state of dependence would appear to be present, however behaviour aimed at the determination of an autonomous self is not evident. In women with restricting anorexia nervosa a definition of the identity is totally absent; these women develop an omnipotent self in their 'oneness' with others. These relational aspects lead to the identification of a continuum between restricting anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in an evolutionary perspective regarding the self-with-others. PMID:17615495

Cozzi, F; Ostuzzi, R

2007-06-01

130

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Binge Eating Disorder How common is binge eating disorder? How do ... how to get help. How common is binge eating disorder? What is obesity? Obesity is usually defined as ...

131

Kids and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...

132

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Publications > Our publications > Our publications Publications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

133

How emotions affect eating: a five-way model.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of affective processes in eating behaviour, it remains difficult to predict how emotions affect eating. Emphasizing individual differences, previous research did not pay full attention to the twofold variability of emotion-induced changes of eating (variability across both individuals and emotions). By contrast, the present paper takes into account both individual characteristics and emotion features, and specifies five classes of emotion-induced changes of eating: (1) emotional control of food choice, (2) emotional suppression of food intake, (3) impairment of cognitive eating controls, (4) eating to regulate emotions, and (5) emotion-congruent modulation of eating. These classes are distinguished by antecedent conditions, eating responses and mediating mechanisms. They point to basic functional principles underlying the relations between emotions and biologically based motives: interference, concomitance and regulation. Thus, emotion-induced changes of eating can be a result of interference of eating by emotions, a by-product of emotions, and a consequence of regulatory processes (i.e., emotions may regulate eating, and eating may regulate emotions). PMID:17707947

Macht, Michael

2008-01-01

134

Eating Attitudes in a Diverse Sample of Israeli Adolescent Females: A Comparison Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormal eating attitudes. In terms of…

Latzer, Y.; Tzischinsky, O.

2005-01-01

135

Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Objective?This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children.?Method?Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade).?Results?A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls.?Conclusion?A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade.

Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

136

Cardiac parasympathetic regulation in obese women with binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Obese individuals with a binge eating disorder (BED) differ from obese non-binge eaters (NBED) with respect to (a) eating behaviour, (b) psychiatric comorbidity and (c) level of psychosocial distress. The aim of the study was to explore whether these three factors have an influence on cardiac parasympathetic function, that is independent of obesity: as alterations in cardiac parasympathetic function may

H-C Friederich; S Schild; D Schellberg; A Quenter; C Bode; W Herzog; S Zipfel

2006-01-01

137

Eating Disorders: Could They be Autoimmune Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent research on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has shown an increasing understanding of the biological and physiological abnormalities that underlie the development of an eating disorder. Cultural pressures, individual and family experiences, along with physiological and genetic systems all appear to contribute to the onset of these disorders. There is significant evidence for genetic factors in

Melissa Stevenson

2006-01-01

138

Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.

2013-01-01

139

Parent and Child Report of Family Functioning in a Clinical Child and Adolescent Eating Disorders Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate parent and self-report of family dysfunction in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Further, to investigate family functioning differences across the eating disorders diagnostic groups; anorexia nervosa, eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and bulimia nervosa, and between the restricting and binge-purge eating disorders behavioural subtypes.Methods: The Family Adjustment Device General Functioning Scale (FAD-GFS) was administered to

Brett M Mcdermott; Mary Batik; Lynne Roberts; Peter Gibbon

2002-01-01

140

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

141

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Different types of walking problems occur without a ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

142

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

143

Psychosocial preventive interventions for obesity and eating disorders in youths.  

PubMed

Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents. PMID:22724648

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

2012-06-01

144

Binge eating, binge eating disorder and loss of control eating: effects on weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that patients who have problems with binge eating (BE) or BE disorder (BED) are quite common among the severely obese, including bariatric surgery candidates. The literature suggests that in many cases such eating behaviours improve after bariatric surgery, although this is not uniformly true. The current paper reviews the data on the development of BE, BED and loss of control (LOC) eating after bariatric surgery and the impact of these problems on long-term weight outcome. A search was made of various databases regarding evidence of BE, BED and LOC eating post-operatively in bariatric surgery patients. The data extracted from the literature suggests that 15 research studies have now examined this question. Fourteen of the available 15 studies suggest that the development of problems with BE, BED or LOC eating post-bariatric surgery is associated with less weight loss and/or more weight regain post-bariatric surgery. These data suggests that it is important to identify individuals at high risk for these problems, to follow them post-operatively, and, if appropriate interventions can be developed if such behaviours occur in order to maximize weight loss outcomes. PMID:24347539

Meany, Gavin; Conceição, Eva; Mitchell, James E

2014-03-01

145

Eating disorders in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND The overall prevalence of eating disorders among children and adolescents is rising - the younger age group are more likely to present with anorexia nervosa (AN), while the older adolescent can present with either AN or bulimia nervosa (BN). However, eating disorders exist as part of a spectrum and general practitioners will encounter many adolescents that have an eating

Aranzazu Gonzalez; Michael R Kohn

146

Social influences on eating: implications for nutritional interventions.  

PubMed

We review recent research on the effect of social context on food intake and food choice and assess the implications for nutritional interventions. We focus on studies of modelling of eating behaviour and the impact of perceived eating norms on the amounts and types of food that individuals eat. We suggest that social context influences eating via multiple mechanisms, including identity signalling and self-presentation concerns. However, building on existing theoretical models, we propose that social factors may be particularly influential on nutrition because following the behaviour of others is adaptive and social norms inform individuals about behaviours that are likely to be optimal ('if everyone else is doing it, I probably should be'). Guided by understanding of the potential underlying mechanisms, we discuss how social norms might be used to promote healthier nutrition. PMID:24103526

Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

2013-12-01

147

Neonatal eating epilepsy: pathophysiological and pharmacologic aspects.  

PubMed

We report a case of neonatal Eating Epilepsy. The baby was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Chieti after delivery, with respiratory distress syndrome. In the first day of life the baby had an episode of arterial desaturation and cyanosis with EEG alterations. After laboratory and instrumental investigations we found a correlation between EEG abnormalities and GER. So we administered a combination of anticonvulsive and antacid therapy and, considering the total improvement of EEG, we diagnosed a neonatal form of "eating epilepsy". PMID:17026854

Domizio, R; Conte, E; Puglielli, C; Domizio, S; Maragni, S; Pollice, R; Casacchia, M; Sabatino, G

2006-01-01

148

Safe Eats - Eating Out and Bringing In  

MedlinePLUS

... Moms-To-Be Main Page Meat, Poultry & Seafood | Dairy & Eggs | Fruits, Veggies & Juices | Ready-to-Eat Foods | ... 5100 Paint Branch Parkway College Park, MD 20740 Industry and Consumer Assistance Page Last Updated: 06/11/ ...

149

Overcoming picky eating. Eating enjoyment as a central aspect of children's eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Picky eating is a relatively common problem during childhood, and parents lack clear strategies with which to decrease picky eating. This study examined whether increasing eating enjoyment and cooking enjoyment might give opportunities to decrease picky eating. Parents (n=305), mainly mothers with children between 6 and 12 years of age (53.8% boys; 46.2% girls), completed a questionnaire on pressure and restriction, eating enjoyment, and picky eating, and cooking enjoyment. Path analyses were performed to examine the mediating role of eating enjoyment. The final model provided a good fit to the data and explained 33% variance in picky eating. A strong inverse association between eating enjoyment and picky eating was found (?=-.44). Significant direct effects were found between cooking enjoyment and picky eating (?=-.16) and restriction and picky eating (?=.18). Eating enjoyment partly mediated the association between cooking enjoyment and picky eating. Results showed pressure had only an indirect effect on picky eating through eating enjoyment. Eating enjoyment serves as an important and central factor in children's picky-eating behavior. High controlling practices might create a negative environment around food and healthy eating and so decrease eating enjoyment and increase picky eating. PMID:22245133

van der Horst, Klazine

2012-04-01

150

Atypical eating disorders.  

PubMed

Some patients with eating disorders have neither anorexia nervosa (A.N.) nor bulimia. Cases which do not rigorously meet the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa or for bulimia are usually defined as "eating disorders N.O.S." Among them are patients with pathological characteristics very closely related to the above-mentioned categories. Others, however, although affected by an eating disorder, present a quite different clinical picture from either A.N. or bulimia. In a study of 80 eating disorder cases, only 45 met the strict definition of A.N. or bulimia. The other 35 were diagnosed as atypical eating disorders and are the focus of this presentation. 29 were classified as Eating Disorders N.O.S. and 6 as obesity. Co-morbidity, gender and age data, and clinical vignettes are presented. PMID:1390797

Mitrany, E

1992-07-01

151

Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

2005-01-01

152

Development of Eating Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As can be seen throughout this book, childhood and adolescent obesity is of great concern. Obesity during childhood and adolescence\\u000a has been associated with physical, behavioral, and academic difficulties (Anderson & Butcher, 2006; Datar & Sturm, 2006).\\u000a This chapter will discuss developmental patterns related to normative eating habits as well as eating patterns associated\\u000a with problematic eating. Given that the

Vicky Phares; Jessica Curley; Ariz Rojas

153

The night-eating syndrome and obesity.  

PubMed

The rising prevalence of obesity is a global concern. Eating behaviour and circadian rhythm are proving to be important factors in the aetiology of obesity. The night-eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by increased late-night eating, insomnia, a depressed mood and distress. It is evident that prevalence is higher among weight-related populations than the general community. The exact relationship between this syndrome and obesity remains unclear. The reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature likely include varying diagnostic criteria and a wide range of study population characteristics. NES does not always lead to weight gain in thus certain individuals may be susceptible to night-eating-related weight gain. Weight loss through surgical and behavioural treatments has shown success in diminishing symptoms. The increasing literature associating obesity with circadian imbalances strengthens the link between the NES and obesity. Circadian genes may play a role in this syndrome. This review will examine different aspects of obesity in the context of the NES. PMID:22222118

Gallant, A R; Lundgren, J; Drapeau, V

2012-06-01

154

External eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues.  

PubMed

Cognitive and behavioural responses to food reward, such as attentional biases and overeating, have been associated with individual differences in reward-responsiveness and impulsivity. This study investigated relationships between external eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues, assessed using the pictorial visual-probe task. As previously reported, attentional bias correlated positively with external eating. Additional novel findings were: (i) attentional bias for food cues was positively related to trait impulsivity, (ii) attentional bias remained related to attention impulsivity after controlling for external eating. Our findings highlight the relationship between the ability to control impulsive responding and selective attention to food cues. PMID:21256908

Hou, Ruihua; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Moss-Morris, Rona; Peveler, Robert; Roefs, Anne

2011-04-01

155

Wilderness Eating Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

Rhea, Jessica

2006-01-01

156

Boys with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-01-01

157

Stress and eating behavior  

PubMed Central

How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism.

Langemann, Dirk

2010-01-01

158

Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

2001-01-01

159

Femininity and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine conformity to traditional feminine norms as a predictor of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. Eight subscales of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) were examined as predictors of ED symptomatology as assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Findings indicate the Thinness subscale of the CFNI predicted significant portions of the variance

Melinda A. Green; Christopher M. Davids; Anna K. Skaggs; Cori M. Riopel; Jada J. Hallengren

2008-01-01

160

Psychobiology of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. The goal of this review is to highlight advances in research on the psychobiology of eating disorders during the period 2005- 2006. Summary of recent findings. Studies on the function of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in eating disorders have demonstrated the presence of state- and trait-related alterations and their associations with behavioral and comorbid characteristics.

Angela Favaro; Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Mario Maj

161

Eating Disturbances and Incest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…

Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others

1996-01-01

162

Prevalence of eating disorders in adults with celiac disease.  

PubMed

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V; Siniscalchi, M; Zingone, F; Bucci, C; Tortora, R; Iovino, P; Ciacci, C

2013-01-01

163

Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.  

PubMed

The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. PMID:22446723

Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

2012-08-01

164

Personality characteristics predict outcome of eating disorders in adolescents: A 4-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies on predictive factors in eating disorders have not been very clear until now. Attention has focused primarily\\u000a on the predictive value of eating behaviour, duration of illness, comorbidity, and population characteristics for groups with\\u000a mixed eating disorders, but lately several studies have concentrated on the influence of psychological and personality characteristics.\\u000a In this 4-year prospective follow-up study

T. van der Ham; D. C. van Strien; H. van Engeland

1998-01-01

165

The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating.  

PubMed

Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717

Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J

2007-07-01

166

The Biology of Binge Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating.

Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Mo, Xiaofei; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2009-01-01

167

Who Eats What?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 10 (continued on the right side of page 11) of the pdf, part of the Forest Animals Discovery Box. In this game, learners act out the food web. They are introduced to the idea of the food chain in the "Who Eats What" book and then divide into two groups. Learners pretend to be either a bear, deer, or grass and play a game like "Rock, Paper, Scissor" to simulate how the bear eats the deer and the deer eats the grass. Learners compete to "win."

Omsi

2004-01-01

168

The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.  

PubMed

The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. PMID:21986185

Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

2012-02-01

169

Appetite Sensations, Appetite Signaling Proteins, and Glucose in Obese Adolescents with Subclinical Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours.

Adamo, Kristi B.; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S.

2014-01-01

170

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

171

Eating habits and behaviors  

MedlinePLUS

... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high calorie ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of the ...

172

Eating during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Protein cell growth and blood production lean meat, fish, poultry, egg whites, beans, peanut butter, tofu Carbohydrates ... red blood cells, maintaining nervous system health meat, fish, poultry, milk (Note: vegetarians who don't eat ...

173

Eating and Bowel Control  

MedlinePLUS

... if they give you diarrhea. Keeping a Food Diary A food diary can help you identify foods that cause diarrhea ... to your bowel control problem. Discuss your food diary with your doctor. For more information about eating ...

174

Eating right during pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... come from matters. If you eat sweets or junk food, the extra calories don't provide the nutrients ... own body. Your health could suffer. Instead of junk food, choose foods that are: High in protein Low ...

175

Food, Eating and Alzheimer's  

MedlinePLUS

... sell or share your name. Food, Eating and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Regular, nutritious ... Encourage independence Map out a plan to approach Alzheimer's There are many questions you'll need to ...

176

[Heterogeneity of eating disorders].  

PubMed

This paper revises the literature which has attempted to define subgroups within the umbrella category of eating disorders, taking into account the heterogeneity of the clinical picture regarding personality structure, its linkage to eating behavior disorders, and differences in emotional expression. Research conducted over the last few years, in light of the new definition of these disorders proposed by DSM IIR, reinforces the differences between patients following a restrictive pattern and patients with bulimic episodes. PMID:8213286

Ayuso Mateos, J L

1993-01-01

177

Determinants of healthy eating in community-dwelling elderly people.  

PubMed

Among seniors, food choice and related activities are affected by health status, biological changes wrought by aging and functional abilities, which are mediated in the larger arena by familial, social and economic factors. Determinants of healthy eating stem from individual and collective factors. Individual components include age, sex, education, physiological and health issues, psychological attributes, lifestyle practices, and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours, in addition to other universal dietary determinants such as income, social status and culture. Collective determinants of healthy eating, such as accessible food labels, an appropriate food shopping environment, the marketing of the "healthy eating" message, adequate social support and provision of effective, community-based meal delivery services have the potential to mediate dietary habits and thus foster healthy eating. However, there is a startling paucity of research in this area, and this is particularly so in Canada. Using search and inclusion criteria and key search strings to guide the research, this article outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among Canadian seniors. In conclusion, dietary self-management persists in well, independent seniors without financial constraints, whatever their living arrangements, whereas nutritional risk is high among those in poor health and lacking in resources. Further study is necessary to clarify contributors to healthy eating in order to permit the development and evaluation of programs and services designed to encourage and facilitate healthy eating in older Canadians. PMID:16042161

Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna

2005-01-01

178

A review on eating disorders and adolescence.  

PubMed

Eating disorders in adolescence are a public health concern with both personal costs and a financial burden for the community health services. This paper is a review of incidence and gender differences of eating disorders; comorbid psychopathology, including substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders; developmental and intellectual factors; family, socio-cultural functioning and birth order; self-injury and suicidal behaviour with health outcome and therapy success rate. We have also asked several questions from our clinical experience and tried to answer them with our clinical knowledge and based on literature review. Overall, there is an indication that therapy success is significantly correlated with (low) manifestation, specifically for social problems and aggressivity. Due to the complexity of factors involved in the manifestation of eating disorders, the inclusion of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as family-oriented therapeutic concepts coupled with medical treatment would appear to offer an intervention inventory, which would be most effective in offering adolescents optimal treatment programmes. The implications of our review is discussed in terms of psychotherapeutic treatment plans for adolescents in clinical care. PMID:17519869

Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Kandel, I; Merrick, J

2007-06-01

179

Mice overexpressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter show no alterations in feeding behaviour and increased non-feeding responses to fenfluramine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is implicated in the regulation of appetite. Expression of the 5-HTT varies in the human population,\\u000a and this variation may determine both individual differences in feeding and abnormal feeding behaviours such as eating disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The effects of 5-HTT expression on feeding and satiety were examined in a transgenic mouse model of 5-HTT overexpression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We

A. Pringle; K. A. Jennings; S. Line; D. M. Bannerman; S. Higgs; T. Sharp

2008-01-01

180

Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

181

Restaurant eating in nonpurge binge-eating women.  

PubMed

This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption. PMID:17056775

Timmerman, Gayle M

2006-11-01

182

Dyadic view of expressed emotion, stress, and eating disorder psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevailing models of the association between expressed emotion (EE) and relapse conceptualize EE as a form of stress for patients. In eating disorders (ED), there is no research addressed to evaluate the degree to which patients feel stress due to their relatives’ EE. It has been neither investigated how the EE and the subsequent stress relate to disordered behaviours and

Cristina Medina-Pradas; J. Blas Navarro; Steven. R. López; Antoni Grau; Jordi E. Obiols

2011-01-01

183

[Nighttime eating disorders--clinical symptoms and treatment].  

PubMed

Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics. PMID:21387771

Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumi??o, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina

2010-01-01

184

The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders.

Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

2012-01-01

185

Eat healthily, stay healthy.  

PubMed

HIV and poor nutrition destroys the immune system. A well-nourished HIV infected person is less likely to develop an opportunistic infection than those with poor nutrition. Emotional stress and opportunistic infections can decrease one's appetite. Eating can become difficult and painful in persons with oropharyngeal infections. HIV-related wasting reduces protein and fat reserves. Vitamin A maintains a healthy immune system. Adding nuts, oil, mashed fish, dark green or orange fruits and vegetables, or fruit juice and replacing some water with fresh milk or coconut milk makes porridge more energy-rich. Fermenting or malting porridge makes it thinner, easier to swallow, and more nutritious. Fermentation allows for increased absorption of some nutrients (e.g., iron and zinc). The diet for persons with HIV-related infections should increase their appetite, and they should ingest enough nutrients to help the gastrointestinal tract manage and recover from diarrhea and to regain weight and strength lost during illness. All HIV-infected persons should eat as much as possible, particularly easy-to-eat and easily-absorbed foods. Those with mouth sores should avoid spicy and peppery foods. Those with a poor appetite should eat small amounts more often than usual. Those with diarrhea should eat easily digestible foods (e.g., soups) and, in some cases, avoid fatty or oily foods and milk. They should drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration. HIV-infected pregnant women should eat foods rich in vitamin A (dark green leaves or orange fruits and vegetables, liver, or egg yolk) and iron. Maternal vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of vertical HIV transmission 3-4 fold. Breast milk is the best food for all infants, particularly during diarrhea. In some communities, nongovernmental organizations provide those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS with food, food production maintenance, and nutrition counseling through their home care services. PMID:12290562

1995-01-01

186

Ghrelin and Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders.

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2012-01-01

187

Ghrelin and eating disorders.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2013-01-10

188

Stopping eating and drinking.  

PubMed

Voluntarily stopping eating and drinking, in which death occurs within one to three weeks of beginning the fast, is increasingly explored in the literature and mainstream media as an option to be discussed with "decisionally capable," suffering patients who want to hasten their dying. The author uses an example from her experience to describe stopping eating and drinking, as well as other clinical practices associated with hastening dying; explores whether this practice can or should be distinguished from suicide; and discusses the ethical and legal implications for nurses. PMID:19704237

Schwarz, Judith K

2009-09-01

189

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

Ray, Shannon L.

2004-01-01

190

Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating ... company while you eat. Quick Tip For more ideas on healthy eating, read What’s on Your Plate? ...

191

Subclassifications in Eating Disorders Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine differences between eating disorder subgroups, including obese patients, in a large Italian sample seen at a specialist clinic. All patients (n = 263) who consecutively contacted the University Eating Disorder Outpatient Clinic of Padua were divided into subgroups according to the literature. Different subgroups were compared according to clinical features, SCL-90, EAT

Angela Favaro; Chiara Olivotto; Maurizio Zambenedetti; Tiziana Pavan; Paolo Santonastaso

1996-01-01

192

Interaction between disinhibition and restraint: Implications for body weight and eating disturbance.  

PubMed

An increase in obesity is usually accompanied by an increase in eating disturbances. Susceptibility to these states may arise from different combinations of underlying traits: Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) Restraint and Disinhibition. Two studies were conducted to examine the interaction between these traits; one on-line study (n=351) and one laboratory-based study (n=120). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and provided self-report measures of body weight and physical activity. A combination of high Disinhibition and high Restraint was associated with a problematic eating behaviour profile (EAT-26), and a higher rate of smoking and alcohol consumption. A combination of high Disinhibition and low Restraint was associated with a higher susceptibility to weight gain and a higher sedentary behaviour. These data show that different combinations of Disinhibition and Restraint are associated with distinct weight and behaviour outcomes. PMID:20571320

Bryant, E J; Kiezebrink, K; King, N A; Blundell, J E

2010-01-01

193

Tracheostomy tube - eating  

MedlinePLUS

Most people with a tracheostomy tube will be able to eat normally. However, swallowing food or liquid may feel differently. ... When you get your tracheostomy tube, or trach, you will not be able ... Instead, you will get nutrients through an IV (a intravenous ...

194

Electroencephalography in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images).

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

195

Dieting Frequency in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder: Behavioral and Metabolic Correlates  

PubMed Central

This study examined the clinical significance of self-reported frequency of time spent dieting in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). A total of 207 treatment-seeking obese BED patients (57 men and 150 women) were dichotomized by dieting frequency and gender and compared on a number of historical, psychological, and metabolic variables. Frequent dieters reported significantly earlier age of onset for binge eating, dieting, and obesity, more episodes of weight cycling, greater weight suppression, and greater eating disorder pathology than infrequent dieters; no differences, however, emerged on current binge eating frequency or psychological distress. Among women but not among men, frequent dieters had consistently lower chances of abnormalities in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio while infrequent dieters had greater chances of abnormalities on these variables. Dietary restraint was inversely correlated with abnormalities in triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio but was unrelated to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In summary, frequent dieters of both genders had greater lifetime and current eating and weight concerns, and in women, decreased chance of metabolic abnormalities than infrequent dieters. Our findings suggest that frequent dieting attempts, particularly in women, are associated with greater eating disorder pathology but may have a beneficial effect on metabolic functioning and cardiovascular disease risk independent of actual weight status. These findings may have implications for clinical advice provided to obese BED patients.

Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2013-01-01

196

Maladaptive eating patterns in children.  

PubMed

Given the increasing frequency of obesity and related maladaptive eating patterns in pediatric populations, health care professionals in a variety of settings must find ways to treat persons who are obese and have maladaptive eating patterns. The authors summarized literature related to binge eating disorder, boredom eating, emotional eating, and night eating syndrome and developed educational handouts designed for children/adolescents and their families who present with these eating problems. These educational handouts may be used by primary care physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and other specialists in medical settings. They are free for use in educational purposes, with permission from the authors, but are not intended to replace appropriate health care and follow-up. PMID:23414976

Wildermuth, Sarah A; Mesman, Glenn R; Ward, Wendy L

2013-01-01

197

Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…

Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

2007-01-01

198

Night eating patterns of individuals with eating disorders: implications for conceptualizing the night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8 years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating behavior and quality of life. NES was diagnosed in 25% of patients; significantly more patients diagnosed with BN meet criteria for NES compared to those diagnosed with AN. In general, patients with NES did not differ from patients without NES on eating behaviors, attitudes, or quality of life; symptoms of NES frequently co-occurred. This study supports previous research finding that night eating behavior is common in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:20826005

Lundgren, Jennifer D; McCune, Ashley; Spresser, Carrie; Harkins, Paula; Zolton, Lauren; Mandal, Konoy

2011-03-30

199

Sleep-related eating disorder: a case report of a progressed night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387

Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin

2012-01-01

200

Associations of eating a late-evening meal before bedtime with low serum amylase and unhealthy conditions  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the associations of eating a late-evening meal (ELM), a putative unhealthy eating behavior, with low serum amylase, other eating behaviors, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether ELM before bedtime was associated with low serum amylase or other clinical factors in 2,426 asymptomatic adults aged 20–80 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ELM was significantly associated with low serum amylase (<60 IU/l), overweight, smoking, daily alcohol consumption, skipping breakfast, and rapid eating, but not with abnormal glucose metabolism. In conclusion, ELM may be independently associated with low serum amylase and common unhealthy behaviors.

2013-01-01

201

Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

1993-01-01

202

Eating Epilepsy in Oman  

PubMed Central

Eating epilepsy (EE), where seizures are triggered by eating, is rare and has not been reported in the Gulf region. In EE, the ictal semiology includes partial or generalised seizures. Focal brain changes on imaging, if present, are often confined to the temporal lobe or perisylvian region. Therapeutic options, especially in those patients who are refractory to pharmacotherapy, have not been well-established. We report a series of five patients with EE from Oman, a country located in the eastern part of the Arabian Gulf region, and highlight the usefulness of temporal lobectomy in one patient who had medically-intractable EE. Surgical intervention could be considered as a potential therapeutic option in carefully selected patients with medically-intractable seizures.

Gujjar, Arunodaya R.; Jacob, P. C.; Ramanchandiran, Nandhagopal; Al-Asmi, Abdullah

2013-01-01

203

Psychological Correlates to Dysfunctional Eating Patterns among Morbidly Obese Patients Accepted for Bariatric Surgery.  

PubMed

Objective : To examine the relationships between dysfunctional eating patterns, personality, anxiety and depression in morbidly obese patients accepted for bariatric surgery. Design : The study used cross-sectional data collected by running a randomized controlled trial (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01403558). Subjects : A total of 102 patients (69 women, 33 men) with a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (9.8) years and a mean BMI of 43.5 (4.4) kg/m(2) participated. Measurements : Measurements included the NEO-PI-R (personality: neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness), the TFEQ-R-21 (dysfunctional eating: emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint of eating (CR)) and the HADS (anxiety and depression). Results : The personality traits neuroticism and conscientiousness were more strongly correlated with dysfunctional eating than anxiety and depression. These differences were most pronounced for emotional and cognitive restraint of eating. Emotional eating occurred more often in female than in male patients, a finding that was partially mediated by neuroticism but not by anxiety and depression. Conclusion : Personality traits may be important to address in the clinical management of morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery as neuroticism is particularly salient in female patients displaying an emotional eating behaviour. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. PMID:24685661

Gade, Hege; Rosenvinge, Jan Harald; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Friborg, Oddgeir

2014-01-01

204

[Psychopathology in eating disorders: new trends].  

PubMed

Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness. PMID:18361275

Dupont, Marie-Estelle; Corcos, Maurice

2008-01-31

205

Eating Plants for Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To design and implement an educational nutrition program to help patients make the transition to a more plant-based dietIncreasing evidence is emerging that documents the health benefits of eating a more plant-based diet with a concurrent reduction in consumption of animal products, particularly those high in fat. A plant-based diet is linked not only to lower rates of

J. A. See; M. M. Gall

1997-01-01

206

Males and Eating Disorders: Gender-Based Therapy for Eating Disorder Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals may wonder how males with eating disorders differ from females with eating disorders and how best to treat males with eating disorders. The eating disorder literature largely focuses on females. Limited research has examined assessment and treatment of eating disorders in males. This article offers a unique view of eating disorder treatment for males by integrating it

Stefanie Teri Greenberg; Eva G. Schoen

2008-01-01

207

Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,

Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson

2008-01-01

208

[Cognitive function in eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

Okamoto, Yuri

2014-04-01

209

Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder.

Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J

2012-01-01

210

Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating.

Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

2010-01-01

211

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

2008-01-01

212

Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

2011-01-01

213

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.  

PubMed

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

2013-05-01

214

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Overview What is abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ...

215

What is eating you? Stress and the Drive to Eat  

PubMed Central

Non-human animal studies demonstrate relationships between stress and selective intake of palatable food. In humans, exposure to laboratory stressors and self-reported stress are associated with greater food intake. Large studies have yet to examine chronic stress exposure and eating behavior. The current study assessed the relationship between stress (perceived and chronic), drive to eat, and reported food frequency intake (nutritious food vs. palatable non-nutritious food) in women ranging from normal weight to obese (N = 457). Greater reported stress, both exposure and perception, was associated with indices of greater drive to eat— including feelings of disinhibited eating, binge eating, hunger, and more ineffective attempts to control eating (rigid restraint; r’s from .11 to .36, p ’s < .05). These data suggest that stress exposure may lead to a stronger drive to eat and may be one factor promoting excessive weight gain. Relationships between stress and eating behavior are of importance to public health given the concurrent increase in reported stress and obesity rates.

Groesz, Lisa; McCoy, Shannon; Carl, Jenna; Saslow, Laura; Stewart, Judith; Adler, Nancy; Laraia, Barbara; Epel, Elissa

2013-01-01

216

Guided self-help for disordered eating: A randomised control trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment guidelines recommend evidence-based guided self-help (GSH) as the first stage of treatment for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. The current randomised control trial evaluated a cognitive behavioural therapy-based GSH pack, ‘Working to Overcome Eating Difficulties,’ delivered by trained mental health professionals in 6 sessions over 3 months. It was congruent with the transdiagnostic approach and so was intended

Gemma D. Traviss; Suzanne Heywood-Everett; Andrew J. Hill

2011-01-01

217

Serum Leptin and Loss of Control Eating in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Both insufficiency and resistance to the actions of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin promote hunger, increased food intake, and greater body weight. Some studies suggest adults reporting binge eating have increased serum leptin compared to those without binge eating, even after adjusting for the greater adiposity that characterizes binge eaters. Pediatric binge or loss of control (LOC) eating are prospective risk factors for excessive weight gain and may predict development of metabolic abnormalities, but whether LOC eating is associated with higher leptin among children is unknown. We therefore examined leptin and LOC eating in a pediatric cohort. Methods A convenience sample of 506 lean and obese youth (7–18y) was recruited from Washington, DC and its suburbs. Serum leptin was collected after an overnight fast. Adiposity was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or air displacement plethysmography. LOC eating was assessed by interview methodology. Results Leptin was strongly associated with fat mass (r=.79, p<.001). However, even after adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates, youth with LOC eating had higher serum leptin compared to those without LOC episodes (15.42±1.05 vs. 12.36±1.04 ng/mL, p<.001). Neither reported amount of food consumed during a recent LOC episode nor number of LOC episodes in the previous month accounted for differences in leptin (ps>.05). The relationship between LOC eating and leptin appeared to be significant for females only (p=0.002). Conclusions Reports of LOC eating were associated with higher fasting leptin in youth, beyond the contributions of body weight. Prospective studies are required to elucidate if LOC eating promotes greater leptin or if greater leptin resistance may promote LOC eating.

Miller, Rachel; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Hannallah, Louise; Reina, Samantha A.; Mooreville, Mira; Sedaka, Nicole; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

2014-01-01

218

Impulsivity is associated with the disinhibition but not restraint factor from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Recent data implicate impulsivity as a personality trait associated with obesity, binge eating and restrained eating. However, impulsivity is recognised as having multiple dimensions, and it remains unclear which aspects of impulsive behaviour best predict disordered eating. To try and elucidate further the relationship between impulsivity and eating behaviour, 147 women completed a behavioural measure and two self-report measures of impulsivity along with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Overall scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-II), along with scores on the Non-planning and Motor Subscales of the BIS-II, were higher in women scoring high on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale. Likewise, women scoring high on the TFEQ-D showed more impulsive choice when discounting hypothetical monetary awards. However, responses to measures of functional relative to dysfunctional impulsivity did not differ depending on TFEQ-D score. No measure of impulsivity was related to scores on the TFEQ restraint scale. These data suggest that a tendency to act impulsively is associated with a tendency to overeat, and may be a factor which predicts the likelihood of the development of binge eating and the breakdown of dieting. PMID:18069081

Yeomans, Martin R; Leitch, Margaret; Mobini, Sirous

2008-01-01

219

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

220

Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... that it is easier to see. Meals and Social Outings Eating out is common in the United States. It can also be good for your recovery. Eating out on occasion relieves you of the duties of cooking meals and washing ... and social outings because they have problems getting around or ...

221

Anxiety, Restraint, and Eating Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was hypothesized that individual differences in eating behavior based on the distinction between obese and normal subjects could be demonstrated within a population of normal subjects classified as to the extent of restraint chronically exercised with respect to eating. (Editor)

Herman, C. Peter; Polivy, Janet

1975-01-01

222

Sociocultural influences on eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate

Pamela K Keel; Julie A Gravener

223

The Relationship between Disordered Eating, Perceived Parenting, and Perfectionistic Schemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no clear understanding of the ways in which predisposing and maintaining variables exert their influence\\u000a on eating attitudes and behaviours. This study investigated two potentially meaningful variables: parental bonding and perfectionistic\\u000a schemas. Both variables have been implicated in the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (e.g. Bruch 1978; Davis et al. 2000). A cross-sectional design was employed,

Suzanne Deas; Kevin Power; Paula Collin; Alex Yellowlees; David Grierson

224

Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating and overeating), and body weight in preschool years, in a population-based cohort of preschoolers from Québec (Canada). Methods Analyses were performed on 1498 children from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, a representative sample of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. Eating behaviours (picky eating and overeating) were derived from questionnaires at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years of age. BMI was calculated from children's measured height and weight at 4.5 years. Children's sex and birth weight, mothers' age, immigrant status, smoking status during pregnancy, and education level, family type, annual household income and income sufficiency, the number of overweight/obese parents, children's day-care attendance, and food insufficiency were part of the analysis. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine odds ratios for different body weight profiles (underweight, normal weight, at risk of overweight, overweight), and one-way analysis-of-variances (ANOVA) allowed for group comparisons of means. Results The proportion of children reported for each eating behaviour category remained quite stable across the years studied. Picky eating and overeating related to body weight among 4.5-year-old children, even when social and parental factors were accounted for in multivariate analysis. Picky eaters were twice as likely to be underweight at 4.5 years as children who were never picky eaters. Adjusted odds ratios revealed overeaters were 6 times more likely to be overweight at 4.5 years than were children who were never overeaters. Conclusion Given the association between eating behaviours and bodyweight among 4.5-year-old children, particularly among those from less educated, lower income families and younger mothers, health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity and underweight with focussed messages and strategies for the management of emerging problematic eating behaviours.

Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

2007-01-01

225

Zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire to assess college women's eating habits.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency has been reported in individuals with eating disorders, the risks of which increase during the adolescent and early adult years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific for zinc-rich foods was tested for its usefulness in identifying problematic eating behaviour tendencies in college-age women. Ninety-two female students enrolled in a university introductory psychology course volunteered to complete demographic information, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a zinc-specific FFQ (ZnFFQ). Relationships among estimated zinc intakes, food/lifestyle habits, and eating attitude variables were examined. Twenty-five women had estimated intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc. Individuals in the highest zinc intake group (over twice the RDA) had a tendency to score higher on the EAT-26 and the bulimia subscale. Vegetarians also scored high on the EAT-26. Although our data are limited, the ZnFFQ should be studied further to determine whether it could play a useful role in identifying individuals at risk for bulimia. The ZnFFQ is a simple, non-confrontational assessment tool and may be a helpful starting point for identifying women with unhealthy eating habits. PMID:19958578

Lacey, Janet M; Zotter, Deanne U

2009-01-01

226

Impact of antipsychotic treatments on the motivation to eat: preliminary results in 153 schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Many aspects of the motivation to eat are involved in the impairment of adequate food intake and body weight control. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by adopting widely used eating questionnaires, the Three Factors Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the associations of different antipsychotic medications with the food attitudes of 153 schizophrenic patients: we compared 93 individuals treated with atypical antipsychotics, 27 treated with conventional neuroleptics and 33 untreated patients. We did not find any difference according to sex, but the mean body mass index varied significantly among the three groups of patients. The DEBQ external eating factor was higher in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics than in patients who received conventional neuroleptics (P=0.035). The TFEQ disinhibition and DEBQ emotional eating scores tended to change among the three types of treatment. Patients with metabolic syndrome (19%) had lower DEBQ external eating scores (P=0.044) and a tendency of higher TFEQ disinhibition scores. The TFEQ disinhibition and hunger scores increased according to the body mass index (P=0.003; P=0.017). The main outcome of this study is that the patients treated with atypical antipsychotics were more reactive to external eating cues, which could partly explain the higher weight gain often reported in these patients. PMID:19606055

Sentissi, Othman; Viala, Annie; Bourdel, Marie C; Kaminski, Flaminia; Bellisle, France; Olié, Jean P; Poirier, Marie F

2009-09-01

227

Examining the relationship between binge eating and coping strategies and the definition of binge eating in a sample of Spanish adolescents.  

PubMed

The present study had two major goals: to explore the relationship between binge eating and coping strategies in a sample of Spanish adolescents and to examine the adolescents' concept of binge eating. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a secondary school completed the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS; Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) and the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE; Henderson & Freeman, 1987), as well as additional questions regarding the binge-eating episodes. The results show that the adolescents who reported binge eating used more avoidance coping strategies than those who did not engage in this behavior. Adolescents took into account mainly the amount of food eaten when defining a binge with few of them mentioning loss of control in their descriptions, The results of the study have implications for the prevention of this behavior. The development of constructive ways for solving daily problems and coping with stressors may be a possible prevention strategy for this behaviour in adolescence. PMID:18630658

Sierra Baigrie, Susana; Lemos Giráldez, Serafín

2008-05-01

228

The impact of a rural or urban context in eating awareness and self-regulation strategies in children and adolescents from eight European countries.  

PubMed

Complex relationships exist between eating behaviour and personal and environmental factors. Rural and urban geographic contexts seem to play a role in eating behaviour, and therefore deserve a deeper study. A healthy eating behaviour and the conditions that promote it are a major issue in the promotion of adolescent health. The study aims to investigate the associations between the area of residence (urban vs. rural), self-regulation strategies (TESQ-E) and eating behaviours among children and adolescents. A total of 11,820 adolescents (50.6% girls) participated in the study, with a mean age of 13.30?years (SD= 2.13). Nine countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, Romania, Germany, Finland and Belgium) completed a questionnaire in the school context, asking about the use of self-regulation strategies, eating behaviour awareness/care and sociodemographic questions such as age, gender and residential area. Both areas of residence (urban vs. rural) are associated with eating awareness/care in Romania and Portugal, controlling for age, gender and self-regulation strategies. In some European countries at least, and most probably around the world, health promotion should focus on an ecological approach that includes the understanding of the effect of both environmental factors and personal skills on eating behaviour/awareness. PMID:24821504

Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Baban, Adriana; Wit, John

2014-06-01

229

Trastornos de la Alimentacion (Eating Disorders).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

230

Binge eating in bariatric surgery patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Eating behavior, attitudes toward eating and body weight and shape, and depression were assessed in a sample of 64 morbidly obese gastric bypass surgery candidates. Method: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Three-Factor Eating Ques- tionnaire (TFEQ), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) were administered at the first preoperative visit. Results: Twenty-five subjects (39%) reported at least one binge

Melissa A. Kalarchian; G. Terence Wilson; Robert E. Brolin; Lisa Bradley

1998-01-01

231

Perception of picky eating among children in Singapore and its impact on caregivers: a questionnaire survey  

PubMed Central

Background Picky eating is relatively common among infants and children, often causing anxiety for parents and caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine the key aspects of picky eating and feeding difficulties among children aged 1 to 10?years in Singapore and the impact on their parents or caregivers. Methods In this survey, 407 parents or grandparents who are the primary caregivers of children aged 1 to 10?years in Singapore were interviewed via telephone using a structured questionnaire of 36 questions. Respondents were randomly selected from the Singapore Residential Telephone Directory to meet a pre-set interlocked quota of race, sex, and age to represent the population. Quantitative data collected included demographics, body weight and height, respondents’ perceptions of the duration of picky eating, the child’s eating habits and perceived health status, respondents’ attitudes towards picky eating, coping strategies and the impact on family relationships. Bonferroni z-test and t-test were used to indicate significance across groups or demographics, while Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of association between variables. Results One-half of the respondents reported that the child was ‘all the time’ (25.1%) or sometimes (24.1%) a picky eater. When aided with a list of typical behaviours, the respondent-reported prevalence of picky eating or feeding difficulties occurring ‘all the time’ increased to 49.6%. The highest number of respondents first noticed the child’s picky eating behaviours or feeding difficulties as early as 1?year (20.0%). Children 3 to 10?years [p?=?0.022], children of professional respondents (p?=?0.019), and children with a family history of picky eating (p?=?0.03) were significantly more likely to be picky eaters. Overall, all ‘picky eating’ and all ‘feeding difficulty’ behaviours occurring ‘all the time’ were significantly associated with caregiver stress when feeding (p?=?0.000026 and p?=?0.000055, respectively) and with a negative impact on family relationships (p?=?0.011 and p?=?0.00000012, respectively). Conclusions The perceived prevalence and duration of picky eating behaviours and feeding difficulties are high. The impact on the respondent and family relationships appears to be significant in Singapore. Parental concerns about picky eating should be adequately assessed and managed in routine clinic consultations.

2012-01-01

232

Dopamine and binge eating behaviors  

PubMed Central

Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary.

Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

2010-01-01

233

Sudden death in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.

Jauregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

234

Punishment and reward sensitivity: are naturally occurring clusters in these traits related to eating and weight problems in adolescents?  

PubMed

Little is known about the role of sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) in eating problems during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the naturally occurring clusters of high and low SP and SR among nonclinical adolescents and the between-cluster differences in various eating problems and weight. A total of 579 adolescents (14-19 years, 39.8% boys) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System scales (BIS/BAS scales), the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and were weighed and measured. On the basis of the SPSRQ, four clusters were established, interpreted as lowSP × lowSR, lowSP × highSR, highSP × highSR and highSP × lowSR. These were associated with eating problems but not with adjusted body mass index. It seemed that specifically the highSP × highSR cluster outscored the other clusters on eating problems. These results were partly replicated with the BIS/BAS scales, although less significant relations between the clusters and eating problems were found. The implications of the findings in terms of possible risk and protective clusters are discussed. PMID:23426856

Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Vervaet, Myriam

2013-05-01

235

Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments  

Cancer.gov

These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

236

Acute Rhabdomyolysis from Eating Quail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acute rhabdomyolysis results from susceptible persons eating quail during the migrating season. The etiology is unknown. Muscular exercise is an important precipitating factor. In this paper the literature on this and related rhabdomyolytic and hemolytic ...

J. B. Bateman

1977-01-01

237

Guide to Eating for Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... 000 total calories per day to meet their energy needs. So what happens if teen athletes don' ... minerals that do everything from help you access energy to keep you from getting sick. Eating a ...

238

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications. PMID:23537489

Trace, Sara E; Baker, Jessica H; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-01-01

239

The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire and BMI in adolescents: results from the Québec family study.  

PubMed

Eating behaviour traits are associated with body weight variations in adults. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger, as well as their corresponding subscales, e.g. rigid and flexible control. The TFEQ has not been widely used in adolescents to investigate eating behaviour traits associated with body weight. The aim of the present study was to assess whether eating behaviour traits were associated with BMI in male and female adolescents. Sixty adolescents (thirty females and thirty males; mean age 15.0 (sd 2.4) years) from the Québec Family Study completed the TFEQ and 3 d dietary records. There were no sex differences in the TFEQ scores. Rigid control, disinhibition and emotional susceptibility (to overeat) were positively related to BMI z-scores for the entire sample (r 0.3, P < 0.05). There was a positive relationship between BMI z-scores and rigid control (r 0.39, P < 0.05) in females, while BMI z-scores were positively related to emotional susceptibility (r 0.42, P < 0.02) and disinhibition (r 0.41, P < 0.03) in males. Adolescents characterised by both high disinhibition and high rigid control had significantly higher BMI z-scores than those by both low disinhibition and low rigid control. There were no significant differences in BMI z-scores between the flexible control categories. Dietary macronutrient content was not consistently related to eating behaviour traits. These results show that the eating behaviour traits of disinhibition and rigid control are independently related to BMI z-scores in this group of adolescents. PMID:20447324

Gallant, A R; Tremblay, A; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C; Després, J-P; Drapeau, V

2010-10-01

240

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities refer to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... Skeletal limb abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are ...

241

Eating at America's Table Study  

Cancer.gov

EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), a new and improved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs. In addition, within the overall EATS study, investigators evaluated the validity of two new short dietary assessment instruments developed by NCI staff.

242

The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes.

Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

2014-01-01

243

Eating behavior in anorexia nervosa—an excess of both orexigenic and anorexigenic signalling?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by abnormal eating behavior, weight regulation, and disturbances in attitudes and perceptions toward body weight and shape. Although progress has been made in the treatment of AN, a substantial portion of patients have a limited response to treatment. Multiple endocrine and metabolic changes occur after prolonged starvation, conserving energy and protein. A number

A Inui

2001-01-01

244

Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.  

PubMed

Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

2014-03-01

245

The effect of induced stress on the relationship between perfectionism and unhealthy eating attitudes.  

PubMed

It has previously been shown that stress situations reveal an association between perfectionism and unhealthy eating attitudes in nonclinical females. The present study aimed to extend these findings by also measuring psychological and physiological reactions to induced stress. Forty-two female university students completed measures of state anxiety, perfectionism and unhealthy eating attitudes on two occasions: an average day and after a task designed to induce stress. Physiological responses to stress were measured before, and immediately after the task. Whilst Body Dissatisfaction was associated with aspects of perfectionism both at baseline and immediately after the stress task, Drive for Thinness was only associated with Concern over Mistakes and Personal Standards after the task. These findings confirm previous work showing that stress encourages a relationship between disturbed eating behaviours and perfectionism and therefore, have implications for prevention and early intervention programmes for eating disorders. PMID:17615487

Jones, C J; Harris, G; Leung, N; Blissett, J; Meyer, C

2007-06-01

246

The 'picky eater': The toddler or preschooler who does not eat.  

PubMed

The majority of children between one and five years of age who are brought in by their parents for refusing to eat are healthy and have an appetite that is appropriate for their age and growth rate. Unrealistic parental expectations may result in unnecessary concern, and inappropriate threats or punishments may aggravate a child's refusal to eat. A detailed history and general physical examination are necessary to rule out acute and chronic illnesses. A food diary and assessment of parental expectations about eating behaviour should be completed. Where the child's 'refusal' to eat is found to be related to unrealistic expectations, parents should be reassured and counselled about the normal growth and development of children at this age. PMID:24082809

Leung, Alexander Kc; Marchand, Valérie; Sauve, Reginald S

2012-10-01

247

Enhancing quality of life in people with disordered eating using an online self-help programme  

PubMed Central

Background Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that have a significant effect on afflicted individuals’ quality of life. Evidence has shown that they can be improved with treatment. Internet-based interventions are useful in engaging individuals with eating disorders in self-management and treatment. This study aimed primarily to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating after participating in an open trial of an Internet-based self-help programme, and compared their quality of life at assessment with that of healthy controls. Factors affecting their quality of life were examined. Secondary outcomes related to symptom improvement were also reported. Methods This study included 194 individuals with disordered eating and 50 healthy controls. The former group was recruited from eating disorder outpatient clinics and treatment units, as well as via information disseminated through various Internet websites, while the healthy controls were recruited from university student newspapers and university campuses. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey (SF-36v2) was used to assess participants’ quality of life. Other measures were used to assess their symptoms and motivational stages of change to recover from an eating disorder. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test and one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to identify the change in quality of life of individuals with disordered eating from baseline to 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. The Mann–Whitney U test was employed to compare the difference in quality of life between participants with disordered eating and the healthy controls. Spearman rank order correlations were performed to examine the factors associated with quality of life. Results The participants with disordered eating had significantly poorer quality of life than the healthy controls in both physical and psychological domains. The factors associated with their poor quality of life included dieting behaviour, use of laxatives, severe eating disorder psychopathology, depression and anxiety. Over a six-month follow-up period, a significant number of participants engaged in self-help behaviours using the Internet-based programme. They experienced improvements in their quality of life, eating disorder psychopathology, depression severity, anxiety level and motivational stages of change. Conclusions Internet-based self-help programmes have the potential to enhance quality of life in individuals with disordered eating and could be useful adjuncts to professional treatment.

2013-01-01

248

Stress and eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

2013-09-01

249

Treatment of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

Wilson, G Terence

2011-12-01

250

[Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].  

PubMed

Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

2000-02-01

251

Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

2010-02-01

252

Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits\\u000a for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality\\u000a and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these\\u000a behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in

Vivien Swanson; Kevin G Power; Iain K Crombie; Linda Irvine; Kirsty Kiezebrink; Wendy Wrieden; Peter W Slane

2011-01-01

253

Ecophysiology of Aufwuchs-eating cichlids in Lake Tanganyika: niche separation by trophic specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The Aufwuchs-eating cichlids of Lake Tanganyika show clear trophic differences that are correlated to their morphology, physiology and foraging behaviour. The species are grouped into three categories of relative intestinal length according to their feeding habits. A correlation between the intestinal length and the diet could be demonstrated, ranging from around 2.5 for species ingesting more animal food, to

Christian Sturmbauer; Wolfgang Mark; Reinhard Dallinger

1992-01-01

254

Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…

Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

2012-01-01

255

The Children's DEBQ for Assessment of Restrained, Emotional, and External Eating in 7- to 12YearOld Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Construct an age adapted version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for measurement of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7- to 12-year-old children: the DEBQ-C. Method: The DEBQ-C was constructed and tested for its reliability, factorial va- lidity, factorial invariance for sex, over- weight (BMI-status), and age, and correla- tions with measures for unhealthy life style in

Tatjana van Strien; Paul Oosterveld

2007-01-01

256

Characterization of obese individuals who claim to detect no relationship between their eating pattern and sensations of hunger or fullness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To study the phenomenon that obese subjects show considerable individual variability in their reported relationships between eating and sensations of hunger and fullness.Design:A laboratory study of the relationship between eating behaviour traits and the episodic oscillations in sensations of hunger and fullness in response to obligatory, fixed energy breakfast (481 kcal) and lunch (675 kcal) meals.Subjects:Obese subjects were divided into

B Barkeling; N A King; E Näslund; J E Blundell

2007-01-01

257

Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.  

PubMed

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M

2014-01-01

258

Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits  

PubMed Central

Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4–38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were “learners” (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled “plate-clearers”. 16% were considered “non-eaters” eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as “others” (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; M?ller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.

2014-01-01

259

Frequency of impulse control behaviours associated with dopaminergic therapy in restless legs syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Low doses of dopamine agonists (DA) and levodopa are effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). A range of impulse control and compulsive behaviours (ICBs) have been reported following the use of DAs and levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease. With this study we sought to assess the cross-sectional prevalence of impulse control behaviours (ICBs) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and to determine factors associated with ICBs in a population cohort in Germany. Methods Several questionnaires based on validated and previously used instruments for assessment of ICBs were mailed out to patients being treated for RLS. Final diagnoses of ICBs were based on stringent diagnostic criteria after psychiatric interviews were performed. Results 10/140 RLS patients of a clinical cohort (7.1%) were finally diagnosed with ICBs, 8 of 10 on dopamine agonist (DA) therapy, 2 of 10 on levodopa. 8 of the 10 affected patients showed more than one type of abnormal behaviour. Among those who responded to the questionnaires 6/140 [4.3%] revealed binge eating, 5/140 [3.6%] compulsive shopping, 3/140 [2.1%] pathological gambling, 3/140 [2.1%] punding, and 2/140 [1.4%] hypersexuality in psychiatric assessments. Among those who did not respond to questionnaires, 32 were randomly selected and interviewed: only 1 patient showed positive criteria of ICBs with compulsive shopping and binge eating. ICBs were associated with higher DA dose (p = 0.001), younger RLS onset (p = 0.04), history of experimental drug use (p = 0.002), female gender (p = 0.04) and a family history of gambling disorders (p = 0.02), which accounted for 52% of the risk variance. Conclusion RLS patients treated with dopaminergic agents and dopamine agonists in particular, should be forewarned of potential side effects. A careful history of risk factors should be taken.

2011-01-01

260

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

261

Reports of Stress: A Comparison Between Eating Disordered and Non-Eating Disordered Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilizes a unique method to examine reports of stressful life events provided by eating disordered and non-eating disordered adolescents. Subjects (all females) participated in a standardized procedure to obtain reports of stressful life events. The Life Events and Coping Inventory (LECI) was used to categorize reported stressors. Eating disorder subjects discussed more stressors than non-eating disorder subjects only

Tamara M. Sharpe; Erika Ryst; Stephen P. Hinshaw; Hans Steiner

1997-01-01

262

Let's Eat for the Health of It  

MedlinePLUS

... dishes. • Eat fruit, vegetables, or unsalted nuts as snacks—they are nature’s original fast foods. Switch to ... life by providing and eating healthy meals and snacks. For example, don’t just tell your children ...

263

Minimal eating observation form: Reliability and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Eating difficulties are common for patients in hospitals (82% have one or more). Eating difficulties predict undernourishment,\\u000a need for assistance when eating, length of hospital stay and level of care after hospital stay. Eating difficulties have through\\u000a factor analysis (FA) been found to belong to three dimensions (ingestion, deglutition and energy). The present study investigates\\u000a inter-observer reliability. Other questions at

A. Westergren; C. Lindholm; A. Mattsson; K. Ulander

2009-01-01

264

Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

2004-01-01

265

Eating Disorders among Adolescents: Patterns and Prevalence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined disordered eating habits and feelings of psychosocial constraint using a questionnaire completed by 2,004 high school students. Disordered eating was found in two percent of all subjects. Dieting and compulsive eating were both related to feelings of failure. (JAC)

Kagan, Dona M.; Squires, Rose L.

1984-01-01

266

Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

2007-01-01

267

Female Distance Runners and Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review aims to discern patterns among empirical research regarding the association between distance running and disordered eating among females. The findings show that female distance runners share certain characteristics with eating disordered non-athletes, such as low BMI, perfectionist tendencies, and menstrual dysfunction. These characteristics, indicative of disordered eating among non-athletic females, do not indicate a similar risk among

Brittany Morse

2008-01-01

268

Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

2011-01-01

269

Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

1993-01-01

270

Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

2000-01-01

271

ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology.

2013-01-01

272

Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research.

McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O'Melia, Anne M

2012-01-01

273

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

274

Effect of a prescriptive dietary intervention on psychological dimensions of eating behavior in obese adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight adolescents are more likely to have dysfunctional eating behaviours compared to normal weight adolescents. Little is known about the effects of obesity treatment on the psychological dimensions of eating behavior in this population. Objective To examine the effects of a prescriptive dietary intervention on external eating (eating in response to food cues, regardless of hunger and satiety), emotional eating and dietary restraint and their relation to weight loss. Parental acceptability was also examined. Method This is a secondary study of a 12-month randomized trial, the RESIST study, which examined the effects of two diets on insulin sensitivity. Participants were 109 obese 10- to 17-year-olds with clinical features of insulin resistance. The program commenced with a 3-month dietary intervention using a structured meal plan, with the addition of an exercise intervention in the next 3 months and followed by a 6 month maintenance period.This paper presents changes in eating behaviors measured by the Eating Pattern Inventory for Children and parent rated diet acceptability during the first 6 months of the trial. As there was no difference between the diets on outcome of interest, both diet groups were combined for analyses. Results After 6 months, the proportion of participants who reported consuming more in response to external eating cues decreased from 17% to 5% (P?=?0.003), whereas non- emotional eating increased from 48% to 65% (p?=?0.014). Dietary restraint and parental pressure to eat remained unchanged. A reduction in external eating (rho?=?0.36, P?eating, led to modest weight loss and did not cause any adverse effect on dietary restraint. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number (ACTRN) 12608000416392 https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=83071

2013-01-01

275

[Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method "awareness through movement" in patients with eating disorders].  

PubMed

Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Körpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitätsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program. PMID:9265198

Laumer, U; Bauer, M; Fichter, M; Milz, H

1997-05-01

276

What helps children eat well? A qualitative exploration of resilience among disadvantaged families.  

PubMed

It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the family and environmental factors underlying resilience to poor nutrition among children and their mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 mother-child pairs (N = 76) from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Children were selected if they were a healthy weight, consumed adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables and were physically active. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: active strategies from parents to promote healthy eating and external barriers and supports to healthy eating. Mothers believed that exercising control over access to unhealthy food, providing education and encouragement for consumption of healthy food and enabling healthy food options aided their child to eat well. Children did not perceive food advertisements to be major influences on their eating preferences or behaviour. The results of the current study offer insight into potential avenues for nutrition promotion among disadvantaged children. PMID:21350037

Williams, Lauren K; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

2011-04-01

277

Does anger mediate between personality and eating symptoms in bulimia nervosa?  

PubMed

The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. PMID:22944222

Amianto, Federico; Siccardi, Sara; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Fassino, Secondo

2012-12-30

278

Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

2005-01-01

279

Nutritious Defenses to Stress Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that the majority of men and women report stress eating. Foods rich in antioxidants and phytochemicals boost immune function, provide protection against the harmful effects of stress, and reduce risk of chronic health conditions such as heart disease and cancer. Our health risk appraisal identified 61 personnel from a federal agency with an educational need in managing stress

D. Robinson; A. Ogawa

1999-01-01

280

Eating Right for Kidney Health  

MedlinePLUS

... to your dietitian about how to choose the right combination for you. Animal-protein Foods l Chickenl Fishl Meatl EggslDairy Plant-protein Foods l BeanslNutslGrains Eating Right for Kidney Health 2 STEP 3 Choose foods ...

281

Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

Muuss, Rolf E.

1985-01-01

282

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

283

[Interactional treatment of eating behavior disorders].  

PubMed

The Eating Disorders Center (EDC), is a clinical-research project of the Mental Research Institute (MRI) centered in the study and treatment of Anorexia Nervosa (Self Starvation), Bulimia (binge-eating and purging) and weight/diet obsessions/compulsions. This paper presents: a) A brief description of the Center, both in its research and clinical aspects. The clinical program is centered in the application of the MRI's brief interactional approach to the treatment of eating disorders. The research project is being developed. b) A definition of terms, taken from the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III) and how these eating disorders have shown an increase in recent years. c) A brief discussion of theories of etiology and maintenance in the field of eating disorders. This point includes the perspective on eating disorders of several theoretical models, and how we believe that it is the societal model the one that can account for the recent increase of eating disorders. PMID:6596869

Moley, V A; Schlanger, C

1984-09-01

284

[Definition and classification of eating disorders].  

PubMed

This paper describes definition and classification of Eating Disorders which centered on the atypical cases. Eating disorders in DSM-IV were further classified into 3 groups. Three groups were Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. Binge Eating Disorders frequently transfer to obese patient. This disease entity become independent of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Body weight changing trend evaluated not only cross section but also longitudinal observation. There are some experience cases which Anorexia Nervosa cause by diet therapy of obesity patient. A lot of Eating Disorder patients revealed atypical courses during clinical treatment. The symptom of disturbances in the way in which their body weight and sharp could not easy to confirm routine history taking. One type of eating disorders eat throughout the day with no planned mealtimes. PMID:11268603

Nakano, K; Nakajima, H

2001-03-01

285

Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  

PubMed

Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

2013-12-01

286

Associations of individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: a multicentre European study of associated eating disorder factors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence and the likelihood of developing a subsequent eating disorder (ED). A total of 1664 participants took part in the study. The ED cases (n 879) were referred for assessment and treatment to specialized ED units in five different European countries and were compared to a control group of healthy individuals (n 785). Participants completed the Early Eating Environmental Subscale of the Cross-Cultural (Environmental) Questionnaire, a retrospective measure, which has been developed as part of a European multicentre trial in order to detect dimensions associated with ED in different countries. In the control group, also the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the semi-structured clinical interview (SCID-I) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used. Five individually Categorical Principal Components Analysis (CatPCA) procedures were adjusted, one for each theoretically expected factor. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the domains with the strongest effects from the CatPCA scores in the total sample were: food used as individualization, and control and rules about food. On the other hand, healthy eating was negatively related to a subsequent ED. When differences between countries were assessed, results indicated that the pattern of associated ED factors did vary between countries. There was very little difference in early eating behaviour on the subtypes of ED. These findings suggest that the fragmentation of meals within the family and an excessive importance given to food by the individual and the family are linked to the later development of an ED. PMID:18752723

Krug, Isabel; Treasure, Janet; Anderluh, Marija; Bellodi, Laura; Cellini, Elena; Collier, David; Bernardo, Milena di; Granero, Roser; Karwautz, Andreas; Nacmias, Benedetta; Penelo, Eva; Ricca, Valdo; Sorbi, Sandro; Tchanturia, Kate; Wagner, Gudrun; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

2009-03-01

287

Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.

288

Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. PMID:24768646

Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

2014-05-28

289

Plasma ghrelin concentrations are lower in binge-eating disorder.  

PubMed

Binge-eating disorder (BED), characterized by binge meals without purging afterward, is found in about 30% of obese individuals seeking treatment. The study objective was to ascertain abnormalities in hormones influencing appetite in BED, especially ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating peptide, which was expected to be elevated. Measurements were made of plasma insulin, leptin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, as well as glucose following an overnight 12-h fast, prior to and after ingestion (from 0 to 5 min) of a nutritionally complete liquid meal (1254 kJ) at 0830 h, at -15, 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Appetite ratings including hunger and fullness were also obtained. An acetaminophen tracer was used to assess gastric emptying rate. Three groups of comparably obese women (BMI = 35.9 +/- 5.5; % body fat = 44.9 +/- 4.7) participated: 12 nonbinge eating normals (NB), 14 subthreshold BED, and 11 BED. The BED subjects, compared to NB subjects, had lower baseline ghrelin concentrations prior to the meal, a lower area under the curve (AUC), with lower levels at 5, 15, 30, 90, and 120 min, and a smaller decline in ghrelin postmeal (all P < 0.03). The other blood values did not differ among groups, and neither did gastric emptying rate nor ratings of fullness. The BED subjects were then randomly assigned to treatment with cognitive-behavior therapy and diet (n = 5) or to a wait-list control (n = 4). Baseline ghrelin (P = 0.01) and AUC increased (P = 0.02), across both conditions, in which most subjects (7 of 9) stopped binge eating. The lower fasting and postmeal plasma ghrelin levels in BED are consistent with lower ghrelin levels in obese compared to lean individuals and suggests downregulation by binge eating. PMID:15867334

Geliebter, Allan; Gluck, Marci E; Hashim, Sami A

2005-05-01

290

Abnormal menstrual periods (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

291

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

292

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth. ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or just appear ...

293

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.

BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

2011-01-01

294

Identification of psychological dysfunctions and eating disorders in obese women seeking weight loss: cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools. PMID:24737999

Panchaud Cornut, Maude; Szymanski, Jennifer; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Giusti, Vittorio

2014-01-01

295

Social Anxiety and Self-consciousness in Binge Eating Disorder: Associations with Eating Disorder Psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Objective Research has consistently shown that anxiety disorders are common among individuals with eating disorders. Although social phobia has been found to be highly associated with eating disorders, less is known about social anxiety in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). The present study examined associations between social anxiety and self-consciousness with BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology in BED. Methods Participants were 113 overweight or obese treatment seeking men and women with BED. Participants were administered semi-structural diagnostic clinical interviews and completed a battery of self-report measures. Results Social anxiety was positively and significantly correlated with shape- and weight-concerns, and binge eating frequency. After accounting for depressive levels, social anxiety and self-consciousness accounted for significant variance in eating-, shape-, and weight-concerns and overall eating-disorder global severity scores (Eating Disorder Examination). Social anxiety also accounted for significant variance in binge eating frequency after co-varying for depressive levels. Social anxiety and self-consciousness were not significantly associated with BMI or dietary restraint. Discussion Our findings suggest that greater social anxiety and heightened self-consciousness are associated with greater eating disorder psychopathology, most notably with greater shape- and weight-concerns and binge eating frequency in patients with BED. Social anxiety and self-consciousness do not appear to be merely functions of excess weight, and future research should examine whether they contribute to the maintenance of binge eating and associated eating-disorder psychopathology.

Sawaoka, Takuya; Barnes, Rachel D.; Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2011-01-01

296

eat-2 and eat-18 are required for nicotinic neurotransmission in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx.  

PubMed Central

Mutations in eat-2 and eat-18 cause the same defect in C. elegans feeding behavior: the pharynx is unable to pump rapidly in the presence of food. EAT-2 is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit that functions in the pharyngeal muscle. It is localized to the synapse between pharyngeal muscle and the main pharyngeal excitatory motor neuron MC, and it is required for MC stimulation of pharyngeal muscle. eat-18 encodes a small protein that has no homology to previously characterized proteins. It has a single transmembrane domain and a short extracellular region. Allele-specific genetic interactions between eat-2 and eat-18 suggest that EAT-18 interacts physically with the EAT-2 receptor. While eat-2 appears to be required specifically for MC neurotransmission, eat-18 also appears to be required for the function of other nicotinic receptors in the pharynx. In eat-18 mutants, the gross localization of EAT-2 at the MC synapse is normal, suggesting that it is not required for trafficking. These data indicate that eat-18 could be a novel component of the pharyngeal nicotinic receptor.

McKay, James P; Raizen, David M; Gottschalk, Alexander; Schafer, William R; Avery, Leon

2004-01-01

297

The Relationships Among Trauma, Stress, Ethnicity, and Binge Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether trauma, stress, and discriminatory experiences influenced binge eating among 93 African American and 85 Caucasian women. Trauma and stress were significantly related to binge eating for both groups, although the stress–binge eating relationship was stronger for Caucasian women. Ethnicity did not moderate the relationship between trauma and binge eating, but did moderate the stress–binge eating

Ellen F. Harrington; Janis H. Crowther; Heather C. Payne Henrickson; Kristin D. Mickelson

2006-01-01

298

Eating Disorders in a Nonclinical Adolescent Population: Implications for Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated prevalence of adolescent eating disorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eating disorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eating disorders…

Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic; Muni-Brander, Paulette

1988-01-01

299

The History of Eating Utensils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the California Academy of Sciences, this online history of eating utensils is both stimulating and educational, with brief presentations on individual utensils and their evolution, as well as images of specimens from various cultures and periods. Learn, among other things, what Louis the XIV had to fear from the knife and what he did about it, and how it changed the shape of that instrument forever. Equally worth considering, chopsticks have also evolved over the course of five millennia. Called "kuai-zi" in Chinese, for quick little fellows, chopsticks were first joined together and only gradually came to be separated and made of less and less precious materials. Learn all about them and the rest of the instruments used by humans to eat gracefully in this brief online history. Better yet, if you are fortunate enough to be in the Bay area, visit the exhibit in person at the California Academy of Sciences.

300

Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders (EDs) are a group of severely impaired eating behaviors, which include three subgroups: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future.

Sun, Bomin; Liu, Wei

2013-01-01

301

Pilot Overmyer eats on middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On middeck port side, Pilot Overmyer, stabilized by intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints on interdeck access ladder and on floor, eats canned food. Personal egress air pack (PEAP), headset interface unit (HIU), and stowage locker appear below him, and launch entry helmet (LEH) in net stowage bag and wet trash stowage container appear on his right. Overmyer is wearing constant wear flight garment with notepad attached to one leg and expandable utensil and pen/pencil pocket on the other leg.

1982-01-01

302

Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs.

Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

2014-01-01

303

Eating Disorders: Facts About Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet presents facts about eating disorders such as: binge-eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; and bulimia nervosa - and the search for solutions to these disorders. It also discusses treatments and research directions.

2001-01-01

304

Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action. The pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion.  

PubMed

Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cognitive fusion (CF-BI) on the relationship between body dissatisfaction, unfavourable social comparisons, and eating psychopathology in a sample of 345 female students. Results from path analyses show that the impact of unfavourable social comparisons on eating psychopathology is fully mediated by CF-BI. Moreover, CF-BI also revealed a mediational effect on the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and the severity of eating symptoms, in spite of the fact that a direct effect of body dissatisfaction still exists. The tested model highlights the crucial role that cognitive fusion, in the specific domain of body image, plays in the relationship between risk factors and the severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, these findings present empirical support for the relevance of addressing acceptance and cognitive defusion techniques to prevent and treat eating disorders. PMID:24858833

Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A

2014-09-01

305

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

306

Thinness and Eating Expectancies Predict Subsequent Binge-Eating and Purging Behavior Among Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

One's expectancies for reinforcement from eating or from thinness are thought to represent summaries of one's eating-related learning history and to thus influence the development of binge-eating and purging behavior. In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors tested this hypothesis and the hypothesis that binge eating also influences subsequent expectancy development. The authors used trajectory analysis to identify groups of

Gregory T. Smith; Jean R. Simmons; Kate Flory; Agnes M. Annus; Kelly K. Hill

2007-01-01

307

Eating Their Feelings: Examining Emotional Eating in At-Risk Groups in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional eating affects many individuals and can lead to food overconsumption. The present research provides a theoretical\\u000a foundation for examining the influence of food advertising, social norms, and related mediating influences on emotional eating.\\u000a Insight offered through interviews with emotional eaters and an emotional eating conceptual model demonstrate that emotional\\u000a eating is heavily influenced by food advertising, which can incite

Elyria Kemp; My Bui; Sonya Grier

2011-01-01

308

How Frequent Are Eating Disturbances in the Population? Norms of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is a self-report instrument assessing the specific psychopathology and key behaviors of eating disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of eating disturbances, and to provide psychometric properties and norms of the EDE-Q, in a representative German population sample.MethodsA total of 2520 individuals (1166 men, 1354 women) were assessed with the EDE-Q.ResultsEating disorder psychopathology

Anja Hilbert; Martina de Zwaan; Elmar Braehler

2012-01-01

309

Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.Research Methods and Procedures: The Eating Disorders Examination–Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone interviews were conducted using the EDE for those who reported at least eight

Kelly C. Allison; Scott J. Crow; Rebecca R. Reeves; Delia Smith West; John P. Foreyt; Vicki G. DiLillo; Thomas A. Wadden; Robert W. Jeffery; Brent Van Dorsten; Albert J. Stunkard

2007-01-01

310

Assessment of Eating Disordered Behaviors in Middle School Students Using the Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eating disordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students

S. G. Affenito; E. J. Khu; K. Carroll

1998-01-01

311

Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training for Treating Binge Eating Disorder: The Conceptual Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food

Jean L. Kristeller; Ruth Q. Wolever

2010-01-01

312

Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears

Debra L. Franko

313

Binge eating disorder in extreme obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extremely obese binge eating disorder (BED) subjects (BED defined by the Eating Disorder Examination) differ from their extremely obese non-BED counterparts in terms of their eating disturbances, psychiatric morbidity and health status.DESIGN: Prospective clinical comparison of BED and non-BED subjects undergoing gastric bypass surgery (GBP).SUBJECTS: Thirty seven extremely obese (defined as BMI ?40 kg\\/m2) subjects (31

LKG Hsu; B Mulliken; B McDonagh; S Krupa Das; W Rand; CG Fairburn; B Rolls; MA McCrory; E Saltzman; S Shikora; J Dwyer; S Roberts

2002-01-01

314

[Association between body mass index and risk feeding behaviors to develop eating disorders in Mexican adolescents].  

PubMed

The body self-perception and its dissatisfaction are related with the risk for developing abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), especially in eating disorders (ED) in adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between dietary habits and the risk for AEB and their association with body mass index (BMI) in a group of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 671 adolescents, both sex, between 12 and 15 years. A validated questionnaire was used to assess the risk for developing AEB. BMI was obtained, and information from the practice and knowledge of food consumption was available. The prevalence of the risk for developing AEB in this study was 12%. It showed that 48% of participants were overweight or obese, 20% did not eat breakfast, 16% took their food without doing other activity simultaneously (p = 0.012). The variables associated with the risk AEB, for developing of ED were doing any activity simultaneously with food intake (OR: 4.23 p = 0.006), overweight-obesity (OR: 2.59 p = 0001), eating without company (OR: 2.04 p = 0.005), not eating fruit (OR: 1.96 = 0.008) or milk (OR:1.79 p = 0.026), being female (OR: 1.74 p = 0.024) and skipping breakfast (OR: 1.57 p = 0,035). Food intake differed with what themselves recommended being healthy, which was lower in vegetables, fruits, leguminous and higher in sugars, fats and soda. We conclude there is a relationship between BMI and the risk for developing AEB. There was no consistency between what adolescents say they should eat to be healthy and what they eat. PMID:23610901

Sámano, Reyna; Zelonka, Rosa; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Ramírez, Cristina; Ovando, Georgina

2012-06-01

315

Adolescents’ views of food and eating: Identifying barriers to healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or

Clifford Stevenson; Glenda Doherty; Julie Barnett; Orla T. Muldoon; Karen Trew

2007-01-01

316

Loss of control over eating reflects eating disturbances and general psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the clinical significance of the loss of control over eating as a key component of eating disorders. It investigated the association of eating-related psychopathology and general psychopathology with objective bulimic episodes (OBEs; experiencing a loss of control while consuming large amounts of food) and subjective bulimic episodes (SBEs; experiencing a loss of control while consuming small\\/moderate amounts).

Janet D. Latner; Thomas Hildebrandt; Juliet K. Rosewall; Amy M. Chisholm; Kentaro Hayashi

2007-01-01

317

Validation of the Barcelona Bipolar Eating Disorder Scale for Bipolar Patients with Eating Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disturbances are frequent in bipolar disorder and are associated with poor outcome. Our objective is to assess the psychometric properties of a specific scale for the evaluation of eating disturbances in bipolar patients. Sampling and Methods: Validation study of 2 groups with a 6-month follow-up (90 patients diagnosed with bipolar and eating disturbances and 40 healthy controls). Results:

Carla Torrent; Eduard Vieta; Margarida Garcia-Garcia

2008-01-01

318

Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

2006-01-01

319

Perfect Illusions: Eating Disorders and the Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to the PBS documentary of the same name, which aired February 24, 2003, as part of Eating Disorders Awareness Week. With this "hidden epidemic" affecting millions of people in the US alone, especially young women, this site provides a valuable resource for those wishing to learn more about three common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. In addition to presenting detailed information for each disorder -- including symptoms, health consequences, and prevention -- the Web site supplies information for seeking help, and other resources such as personal stories from eating disorder sufferers and survivors.

2003-01-01

320

Laboratory animal welfare: Cage enrichment and mouse behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show

David P. Wolfer; Oxana Litvin; Samuel Morf; Roger M. Nitsch; Hans-Peter Lipp; Hanno Würbel

2004-01-01

321

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

322

Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility  

PubMed Central

Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour.

Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

2013-01-01

323

Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible mediating factor for this relationship. CONCLUSION: The data supported a mediation model where cortisol levels mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology (concern about body shape) and REE.

Castellini, Giovanni; Castellani, Walter; Lelli, Lorenzo; Sauro, Carolina Lo; Dini, Carla; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Bencini, Lorenza; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ricca, Valdo

2014-01-01

324

Can the impact of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating be weakened by one's decentering abilities?  

PubMed

Decentering has been defined as the ability to deal with thoughts and emotions as subjective and ephemeral inner events. Since it implies a non-judging and present focused attitude towards thoughts and emotions, decentering has been considered as an important protective process against psychopathology, as it has been empirically shown to decrease depressive relapse rates. Nevertheless, its role in eating disordered attitudes and behaviours has not been fully uncovered. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the moderator effect of decentering on the relationship between eating psychopathology and one of its main risk factors, body image dissatisfaction. The sample comprised 279 female students, aged between 14 and 21years-old. Results revealed that decentering abilities were negatively linked to body image dissatisfaction and to the global score of eating psychopathology. Through a path analysis, the buffer effect of decentering was confirmed. The findings suggest that the ability to take a non-judgmental and accepting stance towards internal experiences diminishes the impact of one's body dissatisfaction on disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. This study seems especially pertinent since it uncovers a mechanism to lessen the pervasive impact of body image dissatisfaction, which is highly prevalent in women from Western societies. PMID:25064288

Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

2014-08-01

325

The Children’s DEBQ (DEBQ-C) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7-12 year old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Construct an age adapted version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for measurement of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7- to 12-year-old children: the DEBQ-C. xxx METHOD: The DEBQ-C was constructed and tested for its reliability, factorial validity, factorial invariance for sex, overweight (BMI-status), and age, and correlations with measures for unhealthy life style in one sample

Tatjana van Strien; Paul Oosterveld

2008-01-01

326

Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: An epidemiologic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for

Ana R Sepulveda; Jose A Carrobles; Ana M Gandarillas

2008-01-01

327

Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed. Description The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders. Conclusion Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions.

2013-01-01

328

Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.  

PubMed

A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. PMID:24055170

Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

2013-11-01

329

Health-Related Quality of Life in Women with Eating Disorders: Association with Subjective and Objective Binge Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined health-related quality of life (QOL) and its association with different forms of binge eating in 53 women\\u000a with eating disorders. Participants had enrolled in treatment for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder,\\u000a or other eating disorders not otherwise specified and completed measures of QOL, eating-related psychopathology, and mood\\u000a disturbance. Eating- and mood-related psychopathology, and to a

Janet D. Latner; Joanna K. Vallance; Geoffrey Buckett

2008-01-01

330

The European health and behaviour survey: Rationale, methods and initial results from the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess a wide range of health-related behaviours, beliefs concerning the importance of behaviours for health, and health knowledge, using a standardized protocol suitable for translation and administration in different countries of Europe. An inventory was developed from previous literature for the assessment of substance use, positive health practices, diet and eating habits, driving

Jane Wardle; Andrew Steptoe

1991-01-01

331

Night eating is associated with emotional and external eating in college students.  

PubMed

The night eating syndrome (NES) consists of evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal eating and has been associated with depressed mood that worsens in the evening. However, it is not consistently related to elevated BMI. The present study was conducted to examine whether a relationship exists between NES and emotional, external, and restrained eating. BMI and sleep quality were also obtained. A sample of 246 students completed the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), Sleep Quality Index (SQI), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), containing subscales for emotional, external, and restrained eating. They also provided demographic information, including height and weight. Participants were grouped by severity of NES features using the NEDQ and NESHI: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full night eater syndrome. MANOVA was used to compare DEBQ subscores for the groups; those in the full syndrome category had significantly higher emotional eating scores and external eating scores than those in the normal and mild categories. There was no difference in restrained eating between the normal and full syndrome groups. Those with moderate and full syndrome NES symptoms also reported significantly lower sleep quality. No significant relationship was found between NES and BMI. The results show that NES is associated with more eating in response to negative mood and in response to food cues. PMID:22664397

Nolan, Laurence J; Geliebter, Allan

2012-08-01

332

Night Eating is Associated with Emotional and External Eating in College Students  

PubMed Central

The night eating syndrome (NES) consists of evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal eating and has been associated with depressed mood, that worsens in the evening. However, it is not consistently related to elevated BMI. The present study was conducted to examine whether a relationship exists between NES and emotional, external, and restrained eating. BMI and sleep quality were also obtained. A sample of 246 students completed the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), Sleep Quality Index (SQI), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), containing subscales for emotional, external, and restrained eating. They also provided demographic information, including height and weight. Participants were grouped by severity of NES features using the NEDQ and NESHI: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full night eater syndrome. MANOVA was used to compare DEBQ subscores for the groups; those in the full syndrome category had significantly higher emotional eating scores and external eating scores than those in the normal and mild categories. There was no difference in restrained eating between the normal and full syndrome groups. Those with moderate and full syndrome NES symptoms also reported significantly lower sleep quality. No significant relationship was found between NES and BMI. The results show that NES is associated with more eating in response to negative mood and in response to food cues.

Nolan, Laurence J.; Geliebter, Allan

2012-01-01

333

Get Healthy, Eat The Pyramid!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The kind of food you eat makes a difference in how you feel and even how you are able to think in school. This activity will give you the chance to learn how to keep your body happy and healthy! Introduction Just like cars need gasoline to run, our bodies need food to give us energy to learn in school, run at recess and play our favorite games. You get the chance to learn all about the Pyramid, which helps us better design our diets, play fun games and eventually ...

Malan, Miss

2009-04-24

334

Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

2012-01-01

335

Binge eating in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish what is known about binge eating in children and adoles- cents and to identify unresolved questions. Method: We reviewed relevant studies to high- light and synthesize salient research findings. Discussion: Available research has suggested that loss of control over eating may be more important than consumption of an objectively large amount of food in the assessment of

Marsha D. Marcus; Melissa A. Kalarchian

2003-01-01

336

Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

1988-01-01

337

Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging\\/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared

V. Vaidya

2006-01-01

338

Factors Associated with Eating Disorders in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various factors associated with eating disorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eating disorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the

Christina Knowles; Faculty Mentor; Frances Smith

339

Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

2006-01-01

340

Vegetarian Eating for Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, vegetarianism has risen in popularity among American families. Well-planned vegetarian diets can satisfy the nutritional needs and promote normal growth of infants and children. Research has highlighted nutritional advantages to vegetarian diets and has indicated that this style of eating can lead to lifelong healthy eating habits when adopted at a young age. Several vitamins, minerals,

Laurie Dunham; Linda M. Kollar

2006-01-01

341

Diagnosis and Treatment of Normal Eating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores similarities between normal dieters and individuals with eating disorders. Compares regulation of intake among normal dieter and patient populations, using the boundary model of consumption. Concludes that in neither group is eating technically disordered, though it departs from appropriate physiological norms, and that many normal eaters…

Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

1987-01-01

342

Alexithymia and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of evidence indicates an association between alexithymia and eating disorder symptoms. This possible association was evaluated in a non-clinical sample of late adolescents. Seven hundred and twenty nine adolescents completed the questionnaire and formed the final sample. Alexithymia was measured using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale and eating disorder symptoms were assessed using the SCOFF questionnaire. The

Max Karukivi; Lea Hautala; Jan Korpelainen; Kirsi-Maria Haapasalo-Pesu; Pirjo-Riitta Liuksila; Matti Joukamaa; Simo Saarijärvi

2010-01-01

343

Eating disorders in adolescence and their sequelae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are prevalent in adolescents and are associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Amenorrhoea, one of the cardinal features of anorexia nervosa, is the most likely reason for consulting the gynaecologist. Amenorrhoea in a young woman should alert the gynaecologist to the possibility of an underlying eating disorder. Osteopenia is a potentially irreversible complication of prolonged amenorrhoea and

2003-01-01

344

School Counselors' Knowledge of Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from 337 school counselors revealed 11 percent rated themselves as very competent in helping students with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa), 49 percent considered themselves moderately competent, 40 percent believed they were not very competent; 75 percent did not believe it was their role to treat students with eating

Price, Joy A.; And Others

1990-01-01

345

Ghrelin and Eating Disturbances in Psychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Appetite and eating behavior are frequently altered in psychiatric patients. The newly discovered gut-derived neuropeptide ghrelin simulates hunger and weight gain. Therefore, it might be involved in appetite regulation during psychiatric disorders. Methods: In 83 depressed, 42 schizophrenic patients and 46 healthy controls plasma ghrelin levels were measured, and the psychometric scores on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) were

A. Schanze; U. Reulbach; M. Scheuchenzuber; M. Gröschl; J. Kornhuber; T. Kraus

2008-01-01

346

Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

Grenier, Victoria; And Others

347

Sleep and Dreams in Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of several studies on sleep EEG and dreams in patients with eating disorders are presented and compared with the data obtained in patients with a major depression. The sleep pattern, which is characteristic of depression, could not be found in the eating disorder group. Regarding the cholinergic REM induction test, the depressives displayed a pronounced shortening of REM

Bertram Dippel; Christoph Lauer; Dieter Riemann; Katrin Majer-Trendel; Jürgen-Christian Krieg; Mathias Berger

1987-01-01

348

Disordered eating, perfectionism and body-esteem of elite synchronized swimmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to determine the extent to which unhealthy compensatory behaviours are observed in synchronized swimmers, and to examine the relationships between perfectionism, body-esteem dimensions, and restrained eating. Thirty-three elite adolescent synchronized swimmers completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS-H), the Body-Esteem Scale, the Dietary Restraint Scale, and a self-report questionnaire during their pre-competitive period. The

Claude Ferrand; Claire Magnan; Mathieu Rouveix; Edith Filaire

2007-01-01

349

Behavioral management of night eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.

Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

2013-01-01

350

Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules.  

PubMed

Clinically significant trait perfectionism is often characteristic of individuals exhibiting symptoms of eating disorders. The present study reports on a measure developed to assess the use of food rules and evaluates the hypothesis that adherence to food rules may be one mechanism through which trait perfectionism exacerbates risk for developing eating disorder symptoms. Forty-eight female college students completed a battery of questionnaires, and multiple regression analyses were used to test a mediational model. Results indicated that adherence to food rules mediated the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and three indices of disordered eating in this sample. This relationship was specific to self-oriented perfectionism and did not hold for other-oriented or socially prescribed perfectionism. These findings may have implications for designing early interventions for disordered eating and may be useful in tailoring treatment for individuals with disordered eating who also report high levels of perfectionism. PMID:23121786

Brown, Amanda Joelle; Parman, Kortney M; Rudat, Deirdre A; Craighead, Linda W

2012-12-01

351

Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.

Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-01-01

352

Eating Disorders: Disorders of Under and Overnutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications

Kelly C. Allison

353

Parenting styles and eating disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and ?(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

2011-10-01

354

Treatment of night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

Although treatment research for NES remains limited, several options are available for patients whose symptoms require clinical attention. Pharmacotherapy has received the most empirical support of the proposed treatments. Controlled trials are needed to confirm the initial results from pilot studies with CBT, behavioral therapy, and phototherapy, and an extended controlled trial of progressive muscle relaxation would be useful. In their comprehensive review of the field, Striegel-Moore and colleagues have questioned the clinical utility of NES as a diagnostic entity and stress the very limited nature of treatment studies to date. Research in this field has to provide a systematic examination of the approaches described here, as well as others yet to be identified. This pursuit seems warranted given that persons suffering with the cluster of symptoms identified as NES are approaching health care providers for relief and are often frustrated by the lack of recognition of this syndrome. Future studies should test a wider variety of medications that would target serotonin or the circadian timing of eating. Additionally, trials comparing and combining medication treatments and CBT (or progressive muscle relaxation alone) would also be useful in addressing which treatment should be used as a first line treatment. With NES being considered for inclusion as a Feeding and Eating Condition Not Elsewhere Classified (FEC-NEC) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, it is likely that more clinical attention and studies will address these important issues in the coming years. PMID:22098804

Allison, Kelly C; Tarves, Ellen P

2011-12-01

355

[Stomatologic complications of eating disorders].  

PubMed

Since the 1990s numerous international experts have reported about the somatic complications of eating disorders including those having a dental and stomatological nature. Several reports emphasised that deformations in the oral cavity resulting from this grave nutritional disease typical of the young generation could already appear in the early stage and, therefore, dentists are among the first to diagnose them. Dentists are still often unaware of the importance of their role in multidisciplinary treatment. Even if they knew what the disease was about and recognised it on the basis of deformations in the oral cavity in time, their advice that their patients should brush their teeth more often would fail to eliminate the root cause of the problem. Not only the earliest possible treatment of the complications of the bingeing-purging mechanism and the maintenance of oral hygiene are important, but controlling and curing pathological habits with active participation of psychiatrists are also required to ensure full recovery. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the disease, manifold communication is required. For this reason, publishing the dental ramifications of organic and systemic diseases at dental conferences and in technical journals, as well as providing information about oral complications of eating disorders for general practitioners and specialists are particularly important. PMID:23123325

Resch, Mária; Nagy, Agnes

2012-11-11

356

Eating disorders: implications for the 1990's.  

PubMed

In the past decade much has been learned about the clinical features, diagnosis and understanding of people with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In order to provide the next level of improvement in our care for these patients, our understanding of certain problems must be addressed by empirical research. Areas which require further study include the definition of high risk groups, the refinement of diagnoses, understanding factors which result in chronicity, determining the complications of chronicity and comparative evaluations of different treatments. These five areas are outlined in this article. Populations at risk for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa may be those who must be thin and achieve according to career choice, those with a particular family and personal psychiatric history; obesity and chronic medical illnesses may be further risks. Improved diagnostic understanding has occurred by the differentiation of bulimic from restricting subtypes of anorexia nervosa. Further work must determine the relationship between the bulimic subtype of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in normal weight women and to further clarify the relationship between eating disorders and affective disorders. A number of factors may result in a chronic illness. These have been described on a variety of levels. The consequences of starvation in altering an individual's thinking, feeling and behaviour do play a role. It is not clear what factors at a neurochemical level contribute to this. Elevated endogenous opiates decreased noradrenergic function and decreased serotonin may be important. Information about the chronic complications is required for clinicians to understand the broad range of difficulties that may develop over time so that clinicians may use this information in planning treatment strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3315172

Garfinkel, P E; Garner, D M; Goldbloom, D S

1987-10-01

357

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

358

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C. E.

1995-01-01

359

Physical activity as a moderator of the association between emotional eating and BMI: Evidence from the Swiss Food Panel.  

PubMed

Objective: Research has demonstrated that emotional eating (eating induced by negative affect or distress) is associated with overconsumption and weight gain. This study tests whether recreational physical activity attenuates the relationship between emotional eating and body weight. Design: Analyses are based on the second (2011) and third (2012) wave of the Swiss Food Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of the eating and activity behaviour of the Swiss population. Data from 3425 participants (47% males) with a mean age of 56?years (SD?=?14) were analysed. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, health consciousness and food consumption (vegetables/fruits and sweet, high-fat foods). Results: Analyses revealed an independent interaction effect of emotional eating and recreational physical activity, over and above other predictors of Body Mass Index (BMI). Compared to their low-active counterparts, highly active emotional eaters had a lower BMI and consumed more vegetables and fruits. No difference was found for sweet, high-fat foods. Conclusion: The results suggest that emotional eaters who are also highly active may still feel the urge to eat when under emotional distress; however, they also choose more healthy foods to cope with this distress. Increasing physical activity could be a promising intervention strategy in preventing weight gain in emotional eaters. PMID:24689843

Dohle, Simone; Hartmann, Christina; Keller, Carmen

2014-09-01

360

Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). Findings The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. Conclusions This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts.

2012-01-01

361

Mapping the evidence for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people  

PubMed Central

Abstract Eating disorders often develop during adolescence and young adulthood, and are associated with significant psychological and physical burden. Identifying evidence-based interventions is critical and there is need to take stock of the extant literature, to inform clinical practice regarding well-researched interventions and to direct future research agendas by identifying gaps in the evidence base. Aim To investigate and quantify the nature and distribution of existing high-quality research on the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people using evidence mapping methodology. Method A systematic search for prevention and treatment intervention studies in adolescents and young adults (12–25 years) was conducted using EMBASE, PSYCINFO and MEDLINE. Studies were screened and mapped according to disorder, intervention modality, stage of eating disorder and study design. Included studies were restricted to controlled trials and systematic reviews published since 1980. Results The eating disorders evidence map included 197 trials and 22 systematic reviews. Prevention research was dominated by trials of psychoeducation (PE). Bulimia nervosa (BN) received the most attention in the treatment literature, with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and antidepressants the most common interventions. For anorexia nervosa (AN), family based therapy (FBT) was the most studied. Lacking were trials exploring treatments for binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Relapse prevention strategies were notably absent across the eating disorders. Conclusions Despite substantial literature devoted to the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people, the evidence base is not well established and significant gaps remain. For those identified as being at-risk, there is need for prevention research exploring strategies other than passive PE. Treatment interventions targeting BED and EDNOS are required, as are systematic reviews synthesising BN treatment trials (e.g., CBT, antidepressants). FBTs for AN require investigation against other validated psychological interventions, and the development of relapse prevention strategies is urgently required. By systematically identifying existing interventions for young people with eating disorders and exposing gaps in the current literature, the evidence map can inform researchers, funding bodies and policy makers as to the opportunities for future research.

2014-01-01

362

A descriptive analysis of factors contributing to binge eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine temporally proximal and remote antecedents as well as immediate and delayed consequences of binge eating behavior. Participants included 16 undergraduate females who reported engaging in binge eating at least two times per week and experiencing a sense of lack of control during binge eating episodes on the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns. Results

Marcella I Stickney; Raymond G Miltenberger; Gretchen Wolff

1999-01-01

363

Culture and the Development of Eating Disorders: A Tripartite Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are often conceptualized as “culture-bound problems;” however, the processes by which culture contributes to eating disorders have yet to be elucidated by researchers. This manuscript moves beyond research's current emphasis on evaluating the prevalence rates of eating disorders among ethnic groups, and presents a tripartite model to aid in understanding how cultural processes influence eating disorders. Cultural influences

CHARLOTTE N. MARKEY

2004-01-01

364

Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

2007-01-01

365

Eating Disorders Among College Women: Prevention, Education, and Treatment Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses eating disorders in college females, recommending use of the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified framework to identify and target various eating concerns for intervention. The paper also suggests using a multiple-level, developmental-intervention model to conceptualize preventive, educational, and remedial responses to eating

Schwitzer, Alan M.; Bergholz, Kim; Dore, Terri; Salimi, Lamieh

1998-01-01

366

A Preliminary Investigation of the Eating Disorder Continuum with Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men largely are neglected in research on eating disturbances, including research on the eating disorder continuum. This research explored whether the eating disorder continuum provides an accurate representation for men of characteristics related to disturbed eating in women. Results for a sample of 166 men were mixed, offering limited support for…

Tylka, Tracey L.; Subich, Linda Mezdlo

2002-01-01

367

Eating Competence of College Students in an Introductory Nutrition Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. Methods: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages…

Brown, Lora Beth; Larsen, Katrina J.; Nyland, Nora K.; Eggett, Dennis L.

2013-01-01

368

Help-Seeking for Eating Disorders in Female Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents an exploratory analysis of the factors preventing females from seeking counseling for eating disorder symptoms. High school junior and senior females (N = 238) completed assessments of eating disorders, attitudes toward counseling, and reasons for avoiding counseling for eating disordered behaviors. Results indicated that participants with moderate to high levels of eating disorder symptoms (49% of the

Dinah F. Meyer

2001-01-01

369

Genetic Relationships Between Personality and Eating Attitudes and Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic and environmental factors underlying relationships between personality traits and disordered eating were examined in 256 female adolescent twin pairs (166 monozygotic, 90 dizygotic). Eating behaviors were assessed with the Total Score, Body Dissatisfaction, Weight Preoccupation, Binge Eating, and Compensatory Behavior subscales from the Minnesota Eating Disorders Inventory (M-EDI; K. L. Klump, M. McGue, & W. G. Iacono, 2000). Personality

Kelly L. Klump; Matt McGue; William G. Iacono

2002-01-01

370

Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors. PMID:23702994

Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

2013-05-01

371

Emmanuel Levinas and the ontology of eating.  

PubMed

This essay examines the existential philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas in relation to issues of food and eating. I argue that for Levinas, the act of eating is central to founding the ethical self, and that any understanding of Levinas's approach to embodiment must begin with what it means for us to ingest the outside world. Even in Levinas's earliest work, food is already a freighted ontological category. As his ideas mature, eating is transformed from the grounding for an ethical system to the system itself. The act of giving bread to another person takes its place as the ethical gesture par excellence. The story is not that we eat. The story is that we eat and develop a relationship to eating, and that relationship in turn helps determine our sense of ourselves in the world. Eating is the ethical event. The essay ends by asking how Levinas can help us answer the question, what would it mean to imagine every bite I take, or give to another, as a direct engagement with my own and my neighbor's existence? PMID:21542212

Goldstein, David

2010-01-01

372

Cross-sectional survey of daily junk food consumption, irregular eating, mental and physical health and parenting style of British secondary school children.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. METHODS: 10?645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. RESULTS: 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. DISCUSSION: A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. PMID:23594136

Zahra, J; Ford, T; Jodrell, D

2013-04-18

373

Toxic Prorocentrum lima induces abnormal behaviour in juvenile sea bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were exposed to both cell-free medium and whole cell cultures of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima strain PL2V. Fish were also fed a commercial fish diet in tanks containing live P. lima, and Artemia that had ingested the alga. Fish exposed to the cell-free medium and to whole cell cultures were stressed and

Cyril C. Ajuzie

2008-01-01

374

Early attachment quality moderates eating disorder risk among adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Objective: There is growing evidence that children's early relational environment has lasting implications for physical and mental health. In this paper, we test whether attachment insecurity in early childhood is associated with increased responsivity to risk factors for eating disorders (EDs; e.g. pubertal weight gain, maternal negative affect) during adolescence. Design: Hypotheses were tested with longitudinal data from 447 girls (final mean age?=?15.1?years) over a 12-year period. Tests of direct effects, moderation and moderated mediation were conducted using nested structural equation models and bootstrapped estimates of direct and indirect effects. Results: Early attachment quality was not directly associated with disordered eating attitudes and behaviours (DEABs), but did moderate relations between adolescent ED risk factors and DEABs. Specifically, among girls with an insecure attachment history, higher BMI at age 15 directly predicted more DEABs, while maternal negative affect and pubertal weight gain indirectly predicted DEABs via greater preoccupation with parental relationships. These same direct and indirect paths did not emerge among adolescent girls with a secure attachment history. Conclusion: Results delineate one way early attachment quality may contribute to EDs among some adolescent girls, and support recent efforts to incorporate relational components into obesity and ED prevention programmes. PMID:24559184

Milan, Stephanie; Acker, Jenna C

2014-08-01

375

Interventions to promote healthy eating habits: evaluation and recommendations.  

PubMed

Although in several EU Member States many public interventions have been running for the prevention and/or management of obesity and other nutrition-related health conditions, few have yet been formally evaluated. The multidisciplinary team of the EATWELL project will gather benchmark data on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and review existing information on the effectiveness of interventions using a three-stage procedure (i) Assessment of the intervention's impact on consumer attitudes, consumer behaviour and diets; (ii) The impact of the change in diets on obesity and health and (iii) The value attached by society to these changes, measured in life years gained, cost savings and quality-adjusted life years. Where evaluations have been inadequate, EATWELL will gather secondary data and analyse them with a multidisciplinary approach incorporating models from the psychology and economics disciplines. Particular attention will be paid to lessons that can be learned from private sector that are transferable to the healthy eating campaigns in the public sector. Through consumer surveys and workshops with other stakeholders, EATWELL will assess the acceptability of the range of potential interventions. Armed with scientific quantitative evaluations of policy interventions and their acceptability to stakeholders, EATWELL expects to recommend more appropriate interventions for Member States and the EU, providing a one-stop guide to methods and measures in interventions evaluation, and outline data collection priorities for the future. PMID:20202134

Traill, W B; Shankar, B; Brambila-Macias, J; Bech-Larsen, T; Aschemann-Witzel, J; Strand, M; Mazzocchi, M; Capacci, S; Verbeke, W; Perez-Cueto, F J A; D'Addesa, D; Saba, A; Turrini, A; Nied?wiedzka, B; Kozio?-Kozakowska, A; Kijowska, V; Piórecka, B; Infantes, M; Wills, J; Smillie, L; Chalot, F; Lyle, D

2010-12-01

376

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi W. J. Russell M. Komatsuda S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

377

A Risk Model for Pre-Adolescent Disordered Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested this risk model for disordered eating in pre-adolescent girls: pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency (the personality tendency to act rashly when distressed); negative urgency influences eating disorder symptoms by shaping psychosocial learning (expectancy formation), thus indirectly influencing symptom levels; and many influences on purging are mediated by binge eating. Method 905 fifth grade girls completed questionnaire measures of eating pathology, negative urgency, and dieting/thinness and eating expectancies. Results Binge eating and purging behaviors were present in 5th grade girls. As anticipated, pubertal status was associated with higher levels of negative urgency, negative urgency was associated with each expectancy measure, quadratic dieting/thinness and eating expectancies were associated with binge eating, and binge eating was associated with purging. Discussion It is important and feasible to develop risk models for pre-adolescent eating disordered behaviors. Our model that integrates puberty, personality, and psychosocial learning appears promising.

Combs, Jessica L.; Pearson, Carolyn M.; Smith, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

378

Children's understanding of family financial resources and their impact on eating healthily.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood are linked to childhood and adult health inequalities. They are particularly closely associated with inequalities in nutritional and consequently health status. Recent research links this to the high cost of nutrient-rich and low cost of nutrient-poor foods and explores how parents negotiate food purchase on a limited budget. However, we know little of children's perspectives on the material and social realities of their lives and their involvement in health-relevant behaviour. This contrasts with a growing body of research which emphasises children's active role in making sense of and participating in health practices while growing up and their potential to act in continuity with and as agents of change in family health cultures. This paper explores children's understanding of family finances and how they perceive this to relate to eating healthily. It draws upon data from a qualitative study of 53 children aged 9-10 from two socioeconomically contrasting schools in the North of England during 2010 and 2011. Data were generated in friendship group interviews and debates at school and individual interviews in the home, and analysed thematically. Children incorporated a variety of media information into their understandings and sought explanations from their personal experience. They had sophisticated ideas about the interrelationships between diet, cost and health and were acutely aware of how family finances influenced food purchase. Children proposed different strategies to facilitate eating healthily on a budget, but prioritised state and corporate responsibility in ensuring that eating healthily is affordable. This contrasts with current health-related policy, which does not address cost as a potential barrier to eating healthily in the home. Children also consistently conflated healthy eating with eating fruit and vegetables, highlighting a need to reinforce other important nutritional messages. PMID:22607461

Fairbrother, Hannah; Curtis, Penny; Goyder, Elizabeth

2012-09-01

379

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

380

Research Report Individual and family eating patterns during childhood and early adolescence: An analysis of associated eating disorder factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether there is an association between individual and family eating patterns during childhood and the likelihood of developing an eating disorder (ED) later in life. The sample comprised 261 eating disorder patients (33.5% (N ¼ 88) anorexia nervosa (AN), 47.2% (N ¼ 123) with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 19.3% (N ¼ 50) with Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified

Fernando Fernandez-Aranda; Isabel Krug; Roser Granero; Jose M. Ramona; Anna Badia; Laura Gimenez; Raquel Solano; David Collier; Andreas Karwautze; Janet Treasure

381

Surfing for Thinness: A Pilot Study of Pro-Eating Disorder Web Site Usage in Adolescents With Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Pro- eating disorder Web sites are communities of individuals who engage in disordered eating and use the Internet to discuss their activities. Pro-recovery sites, which are less numerous, express a recovery-oriented perspective. This pilot study investigated the awareness and usage of pro- eating disorder Web sites among adolescents with eating disorders and their parents and explored associa- tions with

Jenny L. Wilson; Rebecka Peebles; Kristina K. Hardy; Iris F. Litt

2010-01-01

382

Eating disorders in adolescents: Correlations between symptoms and central control of eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between eating disorders (binge eating and bulimia nervosa) and body image dissatisfaction with BMI, anorexigenic and orexigenic factors in adolescents. Thirty-two adolescents, (13 obese [BMI=36.65±5.68] and 19 non-obese [BMI=22.18±3.11]), aged between 14 and 19y, were recruited. Symptoms of eating disorders were measured by self-report questionnaires (BSQ, BITE and BES). Hormones,

Mara Cristina Lofrano-Prado; Wagner Luiz do Prado; Aline de Piano; Lian Tock; Danielle Arisa Caranti; Claudia Maria Oller do Nascimento; Lila Missae Oyama; Sergio Tufik; Marco Túlio de Mello; Ana Raimunda Dâmaso

2011-01-01

383

Pre-Surgery Binge Eating Status: Effect on Eating Behavior and Weight Outcome after Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of pre-surgical binge eating on postoperative outcomes is poorly understood. Previous studies have\\u000a found marked preoperative differences between binge eaters (BE) and non-binge eaters (NBE) in hunger and disinhibition using\\u000a the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Short-term prospective data are mixed regarding whether these differences persist\\u000a after surgery and if preoperative binge eating impacts postoperative weight outcomes. The

Lindsey E. Bocchieri-Ricciardi; Eunice Y. Chen; Daniel Munoz; Sarah Fischer; Maureen Dymek-Valentine; John C Alverdy; Daniel le Grange

2006-01-01

384

Cognitive Restraint and Impulsive Eating: Insights From the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stunkard and Messick's (1985) Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) has been criticized as being statistically and conceptually flawed. In the present study, the interrelationships among the factors of the TFEQ and their association with theoretically relevant predictors of restrained eating were examined. The TFEQ was found to consist of 2 relatively independent second-order factors: Cognitive Restraint and Impulsive Eating. These second-order

R. Lorraine Collins; William M. Lapp; Lynn Helder; Judith A. Saltzberg

1992-01-01

385

The Influence of Eating Behavior and Eating Pathology on Weight Loss after Gastric Restriction Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating behavior before surgery is considered to have great predictive value for the course of weight after surgery.\\u000a The present study investigates the predictive value of three dimensions of eating behavior and disturbed eating on weight\\u000a loss after gastric restriction surgery. Methods: 149 patients consisting of 47 males (32%), 102 females (68%), with mean age\\u000a 38.8+10.3 years, were investigated

Ramona Burgmer; Katrin Grigutsch; Stefan Zipfel; Anna Maria Wolf; Martina de Zwaan; Bernhard Husemann; Christina Albus; Wolfgang Senf; Stephan Herpertz

2005-01-01

386

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

387

Familial Transmission of Eating Behaviors in Preschool-aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine weight-related differences in eating behaviors and nutrition of preschool-aged children, the influence of maternal eating behavior on the child's eating behavior, and sex-related differences in the transmission of eating behaviors. A total of 142 mothers of children aged 3–6 years participated. Maternal and child's eating behaviors as well as child's food consumption were assessed using questionnaires completed by

Dörte L. Jahnke; Petra A. Warschburger

2008-01-01

388

Beliefs about the emotional consequences of eating and binge eating frequency.  

PubMed

Emotions are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of binge eating (BE). It is largely unknown whether BE is more strongly tied to emotions for certain individuals. This study investigated whether beliefs about the function of eating moderate the relationship between positive and negative affect and the frequency of BE. A mixed eating disorder sample (n=105) prospectively reported their weekly BE frequency and positive and negative affect for 12 weeks after completing the Eating Expectancy Inventory. Results indicated that holding the expectancy that eating helps to relieve negative affect prospectively predicts higher frequencies of BE, and holding the expectancy that eating is pleasurable and useful as a reward predicts lower frequencies. Further, increases in negative affect were associated with increases in BE, and increases in positive affect were associated with decreases in BE. Neither of the hypothesized relationships between affect and BE was moderated by expectancies. However, an interaction between negative and positive affect was found, indicating that only the combination of high positive and low negative affect is specifically related to reduced BE. Holding specific expectancies about the function of eating and fluctuations in both positive and negative affect appear to be associated with BE among individuals with eating disorders. Cognitive interventions should target eating-related expectancies that may maintain BE behavior. PMID:24411746

De Young, Kyle P; Zander, Mary; Anderson, Drew A

2014-01-01

389

Characterization of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores of a young French cohort.  

PubMed

The aims of our study were to characterize the psychological dimensions of eating behaviour of young French adults as measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and to analyze the association between the 3 TFEQ mean scores (main scales and subscales) and gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic data in this population. An online TFEQ questionnaire was used with a nationally representative sample of 1000 young French people (aged 20-39yrs). The average scores were 6.3±0.1 (sem) for dietary restraint, 6.0±0.1 for disinhibition and 5.0±0.1 for hunger. Compared to the limit commonly used in human food studies, young French adults were characterized by low restraint and low disinhibition levels. There was a significant gender effect on both restraint and disinhibition scores, with women showing significantly higher scores than men. Concerning the link between TFEQ scores and BMI, there was a significant effect of the BMI category on cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Disinhibition was the factor most strongly associated to BMI, independently of gender. Our results highlight both the importance of taking into account not only disinhibition but also cognitive restraint and the usefulness of subscales when studying eating behaviour and its link to body weight. We characterize the eating behaviour of a French cohort with criteria often chosen for healthy volunteers in human food studies. Consequently, we suggest new TFEQ limits (6 for cognitive restraint and disinhibition, 5 for hunger) lower than those traditionally used for this category of the population in clinical food studies. PMID:22664302

Aurélie, Lesdéma; Gilles, Fromentin; Jean-Jacques, Daudin; Agathe, Arlotti; Sophie, Vinoy; Daniel, Tome; Agnès, Marsset-Baglieri

2012-10-01

390

The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5?m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600?m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600?m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare.

Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola

2014-01-01

391

Maternal and best friends' influences on meal-skipping behaviours.  

PubMed

Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P < 0·001). Boys and girls who perceived that their mother often skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·15; P < 0·05 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·42, 2·59; P < 0·001) and lunch (OR = 2·05, 95 % CI 1·35, 3·12 and OR = 2·02, 95 % CI 1·43, 2·86; P < 0·001). Educating adolescents on how to assess and interpret unhealthy eating behaviours that they observe from significant others may be one nutrition promotion strategy to reduce meal-skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy. PMID:22289518

Pearson, Natalie; Williams, Lauren; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2012-09-01

392

The health of adolescents: beliefs and behaviour.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood in which interlocking changes in the body, mind and social relationship take place. Healthy development depends on both a propitious environment and the action of adolescents themselves. A stable family, peace, material conditions for physical health, and educational, social and vocational opportunities with a chance to make use of them before marriage, are necessary environment conditions. However, within this context the adolescent must experiment with new behaviours and relationships inevitably courting some risks. Adolescent health is especially linked to behaviour. If the environment is inadequate or dangerous and the adolescent lacks self-esteem, behaviours dangerous to health are more likely to occur. These include: precocious and unprotected sexual behaviour sometimes resulting in too early or unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; injuries arising accidentally from risk taking behaviours especially when combined with alcohol or drugs; intentional injury whether self-inflicted or inflicted by others; and poor eating and habits of hygiene leading to obesity, or emaciation, acne and poor teeth and gums. Adolescent behaviour is often governed by their beliefs about what others think. Two way communication in a trusting atmosphere will reduce myths and misinformation and encourage healthy behaviour. The promotion of health, the prevention of problems, and their treatment and rehabilitation when they arise can best be accomplished with the active co-operation of young people. PMID:2762859

Friedman, H L

1989-01-01

393

Most Kids Eat Fruit, Veggies Daily: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Most Kids Eat Fruit, Veggies Daily: CDC Survey finds 3 out of 4 are getting ... Samara Joy Nielsen, a nutritional epidemiologist with the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). "We weren' ...

394

When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

Lucas, Alexander R.

1984-01-01

395

Space Place: Make Asteroids You Can Eat!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about asteroids. Learners will shape mashed potatoes into their own odd-shaped asteroids. They can then bake them in the oven to turn them (more or less) asteroid color, and eat them for dinner.

396

Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

Yudkovitz, Elaine

1983-01-01

397

Men with Eating Disorders Often Ignore Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Men With Eating Disorders Often Ignore Symptoms British study finds that too many males associate anorexia, bulimia as only a woman's issue (*this news item ...

398

America's Eating Habits. Changes and Consequences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individual chapters in this book provide different perspectives on the nutrition problem in the United States: what are the economic costs associated with unhealth eating patterns; how do dietary patterns compare with dietary recommendations; how do natio...

E. Frazao

1999-01-01

399

Eating Out When Your Child Has Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... places have a few healthy options. Many national chains even have standardized food content and portion sizes. ... to eat, you should bring your child's testing supplies, snacks, and medications. You might also bring a ...

400

Toddlers Who Sleep Less May Eat More  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Toddlers Who Sleep Less May Eat More Short sleepers might be ... 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Obesity in Children Sleep Disorders Toddler Health TUESDAY, March 25, 2014 (HealthDay ...

401

Tips to Help You Eat Whole Grains  

MedlinePLUS

... stir in toasted nuts or chopped dried fruit. Experiment by substituting whole wheat or oat flour for ... less salt (or sodium). Whole Grain Tips for Children Set a good example for children by eating ...

402

Distress and eating: Why do dieters overeat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It has been shown that distress suppresses eating in nondieters (unre- strained eaters), but increases it in chronic dieters (restrained eaters). This study attempted to investigate several possible explanations for this phenomenon, in particular, the \\

Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman

1999-01-01

403

Healthy Choices: What to Eat during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

404

Prejudgments of Those Who Eat a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a \\

MICHAEL E. OAKES; CAROLE S. SLOTTERBACK

2004-01-01

405

Animal Models of Eating Disorder Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex\\u000a interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits\\u000a related to eating disorders may provide a way to functionally and systematically study neurobiological mechanisms underlying\\u000a these disorders. Interspecies trait genetics may offer opportunities to identify common neurobiological

Martien J. H. Kas; Roger A. H. Adan

406

Happy eating: the single target implicit association test predicts overeating after positive emotions.  

PubMed

For many years, questionnaires have been considered the standard when examining emotional eating behavior. However, recently, some controversy has arisen about these questionnaires, and their usefulness in identifying emotional eaters has been questioned. The current study aimed to investigate the Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) as a measure of emotional eating. Two ST-IATs (assessing food-positive and food-negative associations respectively) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were compared in undergraduate students. A positive, negative or neutral mood was induced by means of a film clip, and milkshake consumption was measured during and after the mood induction. It was hypothesized that participants with strong emotion-food associations on the ST-IATs (i.e., IAT-emotional eaters) would consume more food in the emotion induction condition corresponding to that emotion, as compared to those with weak emotion-food associations as well as to those in the neutral condition. Participants who scored high on both the positive and negative ST-IATs ate more during a positive mood induction than during a negative mood induction. This effect did not extend to milkshake consumption after the mood induction procedure. In addition, IAT-positive emotional eaters consumed more food than IAT-non-emotional eaters. No effects of the DEBQ on milkshake consumption were found. It is concluded that the ST-IAT has potential as a measure of emotional eating. PMID:23910779

Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne

2013-08-01

407

The offspring of mothers with eating disorders.  

PubMed

There is good evidence that children of parents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of disturbances in their development. There is considerable research on disorders such as depression and alcohol abuse, but research on the children of parents with eating disorders has only recently emerged. This paper reviews evidence in a number of domains, including genetic factors; pregnancy; the perinatal and postpartum period; followed by infancy, and the early years, focusing on feeding and mealtimes, general parenting functions and growth. Psychopathology in the children, parental attitudes to children's weight and shape, and adolescence are then considered. While numerous case reports and series have been published, there are very few systematic controlled studies, and virtually no reports of the influence of fathers with eating disorders or the male partners of mothers with eating disorders. The available evidence suggests that children of mothers with eating disorders are themselves at increased risk of disturbance in a variety of domains. This risk depends on a range of factors, and it should be noted that difficulties in the offspring of mothers with an eating disorder are far from invariable. Finally, based on current evidence, five types of mechanisms by which eating disturbance in parents can influence child development are summarised. PMID:12567222

Park, Rebecca J; Senior, Rob; Stein, Alan

2003-01-01

408

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

409

Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents. PMID:23477208

Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

2012-03-01

410

Behavioral and Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Binge Eating in Bulimic and Binge Eating College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…

Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

411

Classification of eating impairments based on eating efficiency in children with cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating impairments in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may vary widely from mild to severe. Accurate diagnosis of the severity of eating has been hampered by the lack of a classification system which would permit stratification of this wide range of problems into mild, moderate, and severe. We propose such a classification system based on measures of (1) growth: weight,

Erika G. Gisel; Elisabet Alphonce

1995-01-01

412

Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This…

Gillett, Kyle S.; Harper, James M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; Berrett, Michael E.; Hardman, Randy K.

2009-01-01

413

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

2008-01-01

414

Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

Klasey, Nicole

2009-01-01

415

Why do we Eat? Children's and Adults’ Understanding of Why we Eat Different Meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the author examined why children and adults think they need to eat. Preschoolers through adults were provided with physiological, social, psychological, and routine causes for eating breakfast, lunch, snack, and dinner, and were asked to either agree or disagree with the causal responses provided. A 4 Reason × 4 Meal repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant

Lakshmi Raman

2011-01-01

416

Dietary restraint, ambivalence toward eating, and the valence and content of spontaneous associations with eating.  

PubMed

In a random sample of the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N=1388, 730 women), the technique of spontaneous associations was used to examine the relationship between valence (positive, negative) and content of participants' spontaneous associations with the term "eating" and dietary restraint, ambivalence toward eating, and health consciousness. Regression analysis revealed ambivalence to be the most important and food health consciousness the second most important predictor of restrained eating. Correspondence analysis of the content of the spontaneous associations revealed high-restrained eaters to have fewer associations with eating than unrestrained eaters. High-restrained eaters most often had negative associations with diet and positive associations with health. Unrestrained eaters mentioned a variety of positive associations, such as community, comfort and well-being, preparation of food, aesthetics, and various specific foods (e.g., starchy side dishes, and sweets). Results support the notion that the conflict between weight control and eating enjoyment is rather pronounced in high-restrained eaters, resulting in ambivalence toward eating, and the inhibition of associations with palatable foods. This was less pronounced, but still present, in medium-restrained eaters. In contrast, unrestrained eaters seemed to have a balanced and conflict-free relationship with eating. However, restrained eating also seemed to be driven by health considerations. PMID:23201284

Keller, Carmen; van der Horst, Klazine

2013-03-01

417

Body Composition, Eating Behavior, Food-Body Concerns and Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating

V. Boschi; M. Siervo; P. D’Orsi; N. Margiotta; E. Trapanese; F. Basile; G. Nasti; A. Papa; O. Bellini; C. Falconi

2003-01-01

418

Restrained Eating Among Vegetarians: Does a Vegetarian Eating Style Mask Concerns About Weight?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the relationships among dietary style (ranging from meat eating to veganism), cognitive restraint and feminist values. Two-hundred and twenty-seven participants with varying dietary styles completed the restraint subscale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Attitudes Towards Feminism Scale (ATFS). Results indicated that among males, those who are high in cognitive restraint are more likely

Y. MARTINS; P. PLINER; R. O'CONNOR

1999-01-01

419

Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment.  

PubMed

Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD. PMID:24488771

Morton, A Jennifer; Rudiger, Skye R; Wood, Nigel I; Sawiak, Stephen J; Brown, Gregory C; Mclaughlan, Clive J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Bawden, C Simon

2014-07-01

420

Anatomical correlates of reward-seeking behaviours in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0-3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987

Perry, David C; Sturm, Virginia E; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Rosen, Howard J

2014-06-01

421

Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Binge Eating Disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided Self Help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and cost-effective than existing, efficacious BED specialty treatments which are limited in public health utility and impact given their time and expense demands. No existing BED GSH treatment has incorporated affect regulation models of binge eating, which appears warranted given research linking negative affect and binge eating. Integrative Response Therapy (IRT), a new group-based guided self-help treatment, based on the affect regulation model of binge eating, that has shown initial promise in a pilot sample of adults meeting DSM IV criteria for BED, is described. Fifty-four% and 67% of participants were abstinent at post-treatment and three month follow-up respectively. There was a significant reduction in the number of binge days over the previous 28 days from baseline to post-treatment [14.44 (±7.16) to 3.15 (±5.70); t=7.71, p<.001; d=2.2] and from baseline to follow-up [14.44 (±7.16) to 1.50 (±2.88); t=5.64, p<.001; d=1.7]. All subscales from both the Eating Disorder Examination – Questionnaire and Emotional Eating Scale were significantly lower at post-treatment compared to baseline. 100% of IRT participants would recommend the program to a friend or family member in need. IRT’s longer-term efficacy and acceptability are presently being tested in a National Institute of Mental Health funded randomized controlled trial.

Robinson, Athena

2014-01-01

422

The treatment of perfectionism within the eating disorders: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the direct treatment of perfectionism on the outcome of perfectionism and eating disorder pathology. Sixty-one participants, attending day hospital treatment, participated in a randomised controlled study, in which treatment as usual (TAU) was compared with TAU combined with a clinician-lead cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism (TAU+P). Linear mixed model analysis revealed no significant interaction effects but significant main effects for time on variables measuring eating pathology and perfectionism. Outcomes supported the effectiveness of overall treatment but suggested that adding direct treatment of perfectionism did not enhance treatment. The results are discussed in relation to the existing literature on the treatment of perfectionism. PMID:24474602

Goldstein, Mandy; Peters, Lorna; Thornton, Christopher E; Touyz, Stephen W

2014-05-01

423

Neither restrained eating nor tendency toward overeating predict food consumption after tension induction.  

PubMed

The present study investigates whether the so-called disinhibition effect is better accounted for by tendency toward overeating than by restraint. The rationale was that in mood-induction studies, so far, the disinhibition effect has only been found in studies that applied the Restraint Scale and hardly ever in studies that used other restraint scales. Tension was induced by the public-speaking method in half of 86 female college students before they participated in an alleged taste test. The Restraint Scale (RS), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were used to measure restraint and tendency toward overeating. No differences were found between the tension and the control condition as to the amounts of food the participants ate. Also no proof of the disinhibition effect was obtained and, remarkably, tendency toward overeating did not predict the amount of food eaten. Possible explanations for these results are offered in the discussion. PMID:17984631

Ouwens, M A; van Strien, T; van der Staak, C P

2007-09-01

424

Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

2012-04-15

425

Eating routines: Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective  

PubMed Central

Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-hour dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as “routines” or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks.

Jastran, Margaret; Bisogni, Carole A.; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M.

2009-01-01

426

Behavioural Phenotype in Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLs) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterised by unusual facial features, abnormal fat distribution and intellectual disability. As many genetically determined disorders are characterised not only by physical features but also by specific behaviour, we studied whether a specific behavioural

de Winter, C. F.; van Dijk, F.; Stolker, J. J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

2009-01-01

427

Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of behaviour or morphology. One striking example of an evolved asymmetry in vertebrates comes from a group of scale-eating cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika. Members of the Perissodini tribe of cichlid

Thomas A Stewart; R Craig Albertson

2010-01-01

428

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

429

Behavioral management of night eating disorders.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400

Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C

2013-01-01

430

Is migraine related to the eating disorders?  

PubMed

Migraine and the eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, share some common demographics, phenomenology, psychopathology, and treatments. Bulimics also appear to be more sensitive to the induction of severe migrainous headaches than controls following challenge with the 5-HT agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), but not placebo or L-tryptophan. This supports a common pathophysiological relationship involving postsynaptic 5-HT dysfunction between these disorders. In order to further explore the possible relationship between eating disorders and migraine, we administered a modified version of the Diagnostic Survey of the Eating Disorders (DSED) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) to a group of female migraine patients attending the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) Neurology Clinic (n = 34). Of the 34 migraine patients surveyed, 88% reported dieting behavior, 59% reported binge eating, and 26% reported self-induced vomiting during their lifetimes. Compared to the responses of a group of normal female controls (n = 577), patients with migraine had elevated scores on four of the eight subscales of the EDI: Body Dissatisfaction (p < or = .02), Perfectionism (p < or = .01), Interpersonal Distrust (p < or = .02), and Ineffectiveness (p < or = .06). These findings support the hypothesis that common pathophysiological mechanisms, perhaps involving 5-HT dysregulation, may be involved in these two disorders. PMID:8339102

Brewerton, T D; George, M S

1993-07-01

431

Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling.  

PubMed

Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework that employs logistic, social and discursive eating problems as analytic categories. Using cases from a health clinic situated at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen, we show that even if the structural conditions associated with eating problems may not be solvable through individual counselling sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet counselling. PMID:24443502

Kristensen, Søren T; Køster, Allan

2014-05-01

432

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special emphasis is placed on how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are relevant to understanding excess energy intake and obesity and how they provide a framework for examining factors that may influence eating and are outside of those that may regulate energy homeostasis. Methods to measure food reinforcement are reviewed, along with factors that influence the reinforcing value of eating. Contributions of neuroscience and genetics to the study of food reinforcement are illustrated by using the example of dopamine. Implications of food reinforcement for obesity and positive energy balance are explored, with suggestions for novel approaches to obesity treatment based on the synthesis of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to food reinforcement.

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2008-01-01

433

Platelet serotonin transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding in adolescents with eating disorders.  

PubMed

The pathogenetic involvement of the serotonergic system in eating disorders is an established finding. Conclusions from platelet studies are based on results from investigations of subjects with a mean age of 20 years or more. The aim was to investigate whether previous findings in adults are valid also for adolescents who are examined within a relatively short interval after the onset of the eating disorder. [(3)H]paroxetine binding to the platelet serotonin transporter and [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) binding to the 5-HT2A receptor was studied in 15 female adolescents with eating disorders (11 with anorexia nervosa and 4 with clearly anorectic eating behaviour not fulfilling the criteria for anorexia nervosa) and 32 controls. The patients revealed a higher density of serotonin transporters and a lower density of 5-HT2A receptors compared with healthy controls of the same age (775 ± 165 vs. 614 ± 111 fmol/mg protein (p = 0.003) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding and 215 ± 59 vs. 314 ± 151 fmol/mg protein (p = 0.005) for [(3)H]LSD binding). The findings of increased density of platelet serotonin transporters and reduced density of 5-HT2A receptors differ from previous results in older patients. The lower patient age and the short duration of disease in the present study, possibly in conjunction with variations in stress-related psychological and biological factors, may have caused these differences. Although the present findings contradict prevailing evidence, they add further information concerning the nature of serotonergic involvement in eating disorders and indicate that demographic and course-related factors might influence the regulation of the serotonin system in these disorders. PMID:23360120

Sigurdh, Jeanette; Allard, Per; Spigset, Olav; Hägglöf, Bruno

2013-05-01

434

Breast or bottle? Eating disordered childbearing women and infant-feeding decisions.  

PubMed

Debates about infant-feeding methods have intensified in recent years with increasing pressures on women living in industrialized nations to breastfeed their infants. This paper, based on a qualitative study of 16 childbearing women with a pre-existing eating disorder living in the north of England, examines participants' motivations for, and understandings of, infant-feeding decisions and practices. In this study, a small number of participants reported being 'desperate' to formula feed in order to resume practices underpinning their eating disorder and thereby to shed the weight accumulated during pregnancy. These participants anticipated an early return to restrictive eating, heavy exercise regimes and/or bingeing/purging behaviours. Most participants, however, reported being 'desperate' to breastfeed because this implied 'good' mothering and prolonged the time during which they could consume 'naughty' treats. Women who opted to breastfeed generally believed this would accelerate weight loss. This study contributes to research on the subjective experiences of a particular group of women living with chronic illnesses and problematic relationships with their bodies. Negotiating individual transitions to motherhood required participants to confront their own, often longstanding, disrupted eating patterns and to make important decisions about infant-feeding methods. Findings from this study raise questions about some of the assumptions underpinning infant-feeding activities and articulate some of the complexities surrounding these issues. By highlighting ways in which women may compromise their own well-being by prioritizing their baby's needs, for example by persisting with breastfeeding when they were 'desperate' to re-engage with their disordered eating practices, an individualized cost-benefit framing is outlined. PMID:18336644

Stapleton, Helen; Fielder, Anna; Kirkham, Mavis

2008-04-01

435

Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): norms for young adult women.  

PubMed

In order to establish norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among young adult women, the questionnaire was administered to a large general population sample of women aged 18-42 yr in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) region of Australia. Normative data were derived for EDE-Q subscales and for the occurrence of specific eating disorder behaviours, for each of five age bands (18-22, 23-27, 28-32, 33-37, 38-42 yr). Mean scores (SDs) for the Restraint, Eating Concern, Weight Concern and Shape Concern subscales for the total sample (n = 5,255) were, respectively, 1.30 (1.40), 0.76 (1.06), 1.79 (1.51) and 2.23 (1.65). The mean global score was 1.52 (1.25). The regular occurrence of objective and subjective overeating episodes was reported by 10.6% and 12.7% of participants, respectively. The regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxative misuse, and use of diuretics, was reported by 1.4%, 1.0%, and 0.3%, of participants, respectively, while 2.2% of participants reported regularly using diet pills. "Extreme dietary restraint" and "excessive exercise" were reported by 3.4% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Both attitudinal and behavioural features of eating disorder psychopathology tended to decrease with increasing age. These data will inform researchers intending to use the EDE-Q in epidemiological studies. PMID:16301014

Mond, J M; Hay, P J; Rodgers, B; Owen, C

2006-01-01

436

A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

2007-01-01

437

Regimented and Lifestyle Restraint in Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Method Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as “Regimented” and “Lifestyle” restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Discussion Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment.

White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2009-01-01

438

Assessing Object Relations and Social Cognitive Correlates of Eating Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relation between eating disorder and disturbances in object relations and cognitive structure in undergraduate female college students (n=183). Results indicated that eating disorder was predicted by measures of object relations disturbance and cognitive structure. (Author/ABL)

Heesacker, Roberta S.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

1990-01-01

439

Eating and Health Module User's Guide (2009 Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Eating & Health (EH) Module in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) is to collect data to analyze the relationships among time use patterns and eating patterns, nutrition, and obesity; food and nutrition assistance programs; and grocer...

2009-01-01

440

Eating Healthier and Feeling Better Using the Nutrition Facts Label  

MedlinePLUS

... Materials Eating Healthier and Feeling Better Using the Nutrition Facts Label NOTE: FDA is proposing to update ... the calories you expend each day. USE THE NUTRITION FACTS LABEL TO EAT HEALTHIER Check the serving ...

441

Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.  

PubMed

There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopstick