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1

Abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours and perceived parental control: a study of white British and British-Asian school girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders\\u000a among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an\\u000a indication of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on\\u000a the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend

A. Furnham; S. Adam-Saib

2001-01-01

2

[Abnormal eating behaviours are not associated with micronutrient deficiencies among women of childbearing age from Mexico City].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight. PMID:21090277

Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María

2010-03-01

3

Characterisation of chocolate eating behaviour.  

PubMed

Knowledge concerning variation in chocolate eating behaviour amongst consumers, and the impact that differences in the physical properties of chocolate could have on such behaviour is limited. The eating behaviour of individuals, consuming two chocolate samples (A and B), of comparable melt viscosity but with different textural attributes, was investigated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate masticator muscle activity and electroglottography (EGG) was used to record swallowing events. Results showed that observed differences in mouthcoating affected the in-mouth residence time: chocolate A, perceived as more mouthcoating, showed an increased total chewing time and time of last swallow. Key differences across subjects were: time and number of chews, time of last swallow and total number of swallows. Subjects were grouped into three clusters of eating behaviour characterised as, "fast chewers", "thorough chewers" and "suckers". The main differences between clusters were the time chocolate was kept in mouth, chew rate and muscle work. PMID:21683729

Carvalho-da-Silva, A M; Van Damme, I; Wolf, B; Hort, J

2011-10-24

4

Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

2008-01-01

5

Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18–23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours.

Kylie Ball; Justin Kenardy

2002-01-01

6

Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and eating behaviours in preadolescents: the mediating role of anxiety.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75?years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours. PMID:24816324

Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

2014-09-01

7

Novel "thrifty" models of increased eating behaviour.  

PubMed

The thrifty genotype and phenotype hypotheses were developed to explain the rapid increase in diabetes and obesity in developed countries around the world. Most subsequent "thrifty" research has focused on the early developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome and cardio-metabolic disease. The goal of this manuscript is to review an emerging line of research that uses a similar thrifty framework to understand the early developmental origins of eating-related phenotypes that have primary relevance to many psychiatric disorders. Given the important role of environmental adversity in various psychiatric disorders that involve overeating, and their early age of onset, it is likely that several thrifty mechanisms are relevant in this regard. Understanding the early origins of increased eating behaviour based on a thrifty model might point the way to highly targeted preventative interventions during critical periods of development, and provide a new way of addressing these common and difficult to treat disorders. PMID:24057159

Levitan, Robert D; Wendland, Barbara

2013-11-01

8

Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI. PMID:24045208

Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

2013-12-01

9

Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis.  

PubMed

Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977

Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J

2014-01-01

10

The role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders: neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoid system has long been known as a modulator of several physiological functions, among which the homeostatic and hedonic aspects of eating. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in brain regions that control food intake, reward and energy balance. Animal and human studies indicate that CB1 receptor agonists possess orexigenic effects enhancing appetite and increasing the rewarding value of food. Conversely, CB1 antagonists have been shown to inhibit the intake of food. Eating disorders include a range of chronic and disabling related pathological illnesses that are characterized by aberrant patterns of feeding behaviour and weight regulation, and by abnormal attitudes and perceptions toward body shape image. The psychological and biological factors underlying eating disorders are complex and not yet completely understood. However in the last decades, converging evidence have led to hypothesise a link between defects in the endocannabinoid system and eating disorders, including obesity. Here we review the neurochemical and behavioural preclinical evidence supporting the role of the endocannabinoid system in eating disorders to offer the reader an update regarding the state of the art. Despite the recent withdrawal from the market of rimonabant for treating obesity and overweight individuals with metabolic complications due to its psychiatric side effects, preclinical findings support the rationale for the clinical development of drug which modulate the endocannabinoid system in the treatment of eating disorders. PMID:23829365

Scherma, Maria; Fattore, Liana; Castelli, Maria Paola; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

2014-01-01

11

Eating behaviour, personality traits and body mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three theories on the development and maintenance of human obesity are investigated. These theories are the psychosomatic theory, the externality theory and the theory of restrained eating.The psychosomatic theory focuses on emotional factors, and attributes overeating to confusion between internal arousal states accompanying emotional states and physiological states of hunger and satiety. Individuals having the tendency to

Strien van T

1986-01-01

12

Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review.  

PubMed

Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N?=?21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. PMID:24636206

O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S

2014-06-01

13

Metabolic Phenotyping Guidelines: studying eating behaviour in humans.  

PubMed

The study of human appetite and eating behaviour has become increasingly important in recent years due to the rise in body weight dysregulation through both obesity and eating disorders. Adequate control over appetite is paramount for the control of body weight and in order to understand appetite, it is necessary to measure eating behaviour accurately. So far, research in this field has revealed that no single experimental design can answer all research questions. Each research question posed will require a specific study design that will limit the findings of that study to those particular conditions. For example, choices will be made among the use of laboratory or free-living studies, time period for examination, specific measurement techniques and investigative methodologies employed. It is important that these represent informed decisions about what design and which methodology will provide the most meaningful outcomes. This review will examine some of the 'gold standard' study designs and methodologies currently employed in the study of human appetite and eating behaviour. PMID:25052364

Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Dalton, Michelle; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E

2014-08-01

14

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

15

ESTIMATING THE COMPLEXITY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR: HOW MOUNTAIN GORILLAS EAT THISTLES  

E-print Network

ESTIMATING THE COMPLEXITY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR: HOW MOUNTAIN GORILLAS EAT THISTLES by RICHARD W, eating thistle Carduus nyassanus, from eld observations of 38 adults and juveniles. Behaviour to be incomplete, but the rates of cumulative increase in actions differed between tasks. Thistle eating

16

Factors associated with abnormal eating attitudes among female college students in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Objectives: To determine the prevalence rates of abnormal eating attitudes and associated risk factors among female Japanese college\\u000a students.\\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods: The study population was 7812 female college students in Tokyo. They were asked to fill out the Japanese version of EAT-26\\u000a and lifestyle questionnaires.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: 5.1% of the subjects had a total EAT-26 score above the cutoff point

M. Makino; M. Hashizume; M. Yasushi; K. Tsuboi; L. Dennerstein

2006-01-01

17

Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern.  

PubMed

This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753

Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L

2012-06-01

18

Eating attitudes and behaviours in South african adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

We examined the presence and severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in a group of 895 South Africans. The Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE), were administered to high-school and college students (515 White, 126 Black, and 254 'Coloured'). There were few differences between these three groups on measures of eating disorder pathology and self-esteem. A small number of participants (3.5%) were identified as at 'high risk' for an eating disorder as shown by scores in the clinical range for both the EAT-26 and BITE. Weight, self-esteem and age were predictors for this subgroup. This study suggests that ethnicity per se may not 'protect' against the development of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in nonwestern black populations. These findings remain tentative until future survey studies employ interviews to confirm eating disorder diagnosis. PMID:17090625

le Grange, Daniel; Louw, Johann; Russell, Basil; Nel, Tanya; Silkstone, Christine

2006-09-01

19

Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Conclusions Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometric instrument for assessing children's eating behaviours in Swedish children aged 1-6 years. Measuring obesity related eating behaviours in longitudinal and interventional studies would offer opportunities for studying causal effects of eating behaviours in the development of obesity in children. PMID:22152012

2011-01-01

20

Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour

Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

2011-01-01

21

Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.  

PubMed

Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

Brown, A

2014-05-01

22

The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

2010-01-01

23

Influence of Biological, Social and Psychological Factors on Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Female University Students in Brazil  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to estimate abnormal eating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormal eating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormal eating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions. PMID:20411681

da Cunha Feio Costa, Larissa; Peres, Karen Glazer

2010-01-01

24

Preschool children's eating behaviours are related to dietary adequacy and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eating behaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and body weight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample

L Dubois; A P Farmer; M Girard; K Peterson

2007-01-01

25

Disordered eating behaviours and cognitions in young women with obesity: relationship with psychological status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine levels of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions of young women with obesity in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia and assess the impact upon psychological status.Design:General population cross-sectional survey.Subjects:A total of 4891 young women from the community aged 18–42 years, of which 630 were in the obese weight range.Measurements:Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder psychopathology (eating disorder examination questionnaire),

A Darby; P Hay; J Mond; B Rodgers; C Owen

2007-01-01

26

Eating Problems and Related Weight Control Behaviour in Adult Japanese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fewer studies concerning eating problems have been conducted in adult than in adolescent female populations. The aims of this study are to ascertain the proportion of eating problems and clarify weight control behaviour in adult Japanese women. Methods: This study employed a questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design. Subjects were adult females aged 20–39 years, working in a computer

Kazutoshi Nakamura; Yoshihiko Hoshino; Atsushi Watanabe; Kyoichi Honda; Shinichi Niwa; Masaharu Yamamoto

1999-01-01

27

Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the psychopathological processes that account for the persistence of severe eating disorders. Two separate but interrelated lines of argument are developed. One is that the leading evidence-based theory of the maintenance of eating disorders, the cognitive behavioural theory of bulimia nervosa, should be extended in its focus to embrace four additional maintaining mechanisms. Specifically, we

Christopher G Fairburn; Zafra Cooper; Roz Shafran

2003-01-01

28

The diving behaviour of mammal-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca): variations with ecological  

E-print Network

The diving behaviour of mammal-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca): variations with ecological: Mammal-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca (L., 1758)) are a rare example of social predators that hunt performance. Re´sume´ : Les orques (Orcinus orca (L., 1758)) mangeurs de mammife`res repre´sentent un rare cas

29

Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

2004-01-01

30

Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: Modifiable behaviours during early childhood may provide opportunities to prevent disease processes before adverse outcomes occur. Our objective was to determine whether young children’s eating behaviours were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Methods: In this cross-sectional study involving children aged 3–5 years recruited from 7 primary care practices in Toronto, Ontario, we assessed the relation between eating behaviours as assessed by the NutriSTEP (Nutritional Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) questionnaire (completed by parents) and serum levels of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. We also assessed the relation between dietary intake and serum non-HDL cholesterol, and between eating behaviours and other laboratory indices of cardiovascular risk (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol and apoliprotein A1). Results: A total of 1856 children were recruited from primary care practices in Toronto. Of these children, we included 1076 in our study for whom complete data and blood samples were available for analysis. The eating behaviours subscore of the NutriSTEP tool was significantly associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.03); for each unit increase in the eating behaviours subscore suggesting greater nutritional risk, we saw an increase of 0.02 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002 to 0.05) in serum non-HDL cholesterol. The eating behaviours subscore was also associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but not with HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1. The dietary intake subscore was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Interpretation: Eating behaviours in preschool-aged children are important potentially modifiable determinants of cardiovascular risk and should be a focus for future studies of screening and behavioural interventions. PMID:23775611

Persaud, Navindra; Maguire, Jonathon L.; Lebovic, Gerald; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine

2013-01-01

31

Eating disorders with binge-eating behaviour are associated with the s allele of the 3'-UTR VNTR polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene  

PubMed Central

Objective The dopaminergic system is associated with feelings of pleasure and reward and with positive hedonic processes related to food, sexual activity and certain substances. Because it is recognized that patients who have eating disorders with binge-eating behaviour have a high comorbidity of substance dependence, we examined the association between the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3? untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and eating disorders with binge-eating behaviour. Methods The subjects were 90 female Japanese patients with eating disorders diagnosed using DSM-IV; they were compared with 115 healthy female controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood, and standard polymerase chain reaction testing was performed. We compared the frequencies of a short allele (7 or 9 repeats) and a long allele (10 or 11 repeats) in both groups. Results In the group who had an eating disorder with binge-eating behaviour, the frequency of a short allele was significantly higher compared with the control group. Conclusion It seems plausible that the association between the DAT1 VNTR and binge-eating behaviour indicates that dysregulation of dopamine reuptake may act as a common pathophysiologic mechanism in eating disorders with binge-eating behaviour and in disorders related to substance use. PMID:15069467

Shinohara, Manabu; Mizushima, Hiroko; Hirano, Masami; Shioe, Kunihiko; Nakazawa, Mie; Hiejima, Yoshimitsu; Ono, Yutaka; Kanba, Shigenobu

2004-01-01

32

Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eating behaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:21450065

2011-01-01

33

How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?  

PubMed Central

Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications. PMID:21698219

Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

2011-01-01

34

The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.  

PubMed

The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. PMID:22365794

Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

2012-04-01

35

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

36

An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

2013-01-01

37

Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions  

PubMed Central

Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. Conclusions This is the first European study examining perceived determinants of eating behaviour in university students and collecting ideas and recommendations for healthy eating interventions in a university specific setting. University characteristics (residency, exams, etc.) influence the relationships between individual as well as social environmental determinants and university students’ eating behaviour, and should therefore be taken into account when designing effective and tailored multilevel intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. PMID:24438555

2014-01-01

38

The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

2009-01-01

39

Body weight, body image, and eating behaviours: relationships with ethnicity and acculturation in a community sample of young Australian women.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18-23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eating behaviours. Results showed that risk factors for eating disorders were present across a range of ethnic groups. Further, a strong acculturation effect was observed, such that the longer the time spent in Australia, the more women reported weight-related values and behaviours similar to those of Australian-born women. Results challenge claims that risk factors for disordered eating are restricted to Caucasian females in Western societies. Implications for understanding ethnic and sociocultural influences on body weight, dieting, and disordered eating are considered. PMID:15000999

Ball, Kylie; Kenardy, Justin

2002-01-01

40

Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang Gong, Tao Xiang  

E-print Network

Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang the detection of global abnormal behaviours across a network of CCTV cameras. Although the problem of multiple behaviours of objects monitored by a network of CCTV cameras with disjointed camera views, and no effort has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.  

PubMed

With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

2014-09-01

42

Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects.  

PubMed

The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ? 30 kg m(-2) and binge eating scale scores ? 19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day(-1) GSK1521498, 5 mg day(-1) GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day(-1) caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day(-1) on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384

Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

2013-12-01

43

The role of parents' romantic relationship warmth and hostility in child feeding practices and children's eating behaviours.  

PubMed

This research examined the associations between parents' reports of the quality of their romantic relationships with their partner/spouse, their feeding interactions with their children, and their children's eating behaviours. One hundred and fifty-six married/cohabiting mothers of young children completed self-report measures of their romantic relationship quality, child feeding practices and children's eating behaviours. Reports of a less warm, more hostile romantic relationship were associated with children's less adaptive eating behaviours. More hostile relationship quality was also related to greater restriction of their children's food intake. The quality of parents' romantic relationships is associated with parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviours. Further work should examine the emotional tone of mealtimes in order to discover whether this may be the mechanism of the relationship. PMID:20929498

Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

2010-07-01

44

The contribution of psychosocial and home environmental factors in explaining eating behaviours in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The present study aimed at investigating the influence of food availability, rules and television viewing habits on eating behaviours in adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting:Four randomly selected middle schools.Subjects:A sample of 534 seventh and eighth graders.Interventions:Validated questionnaires were used to measure the family environment and fat, soft drink and fruit consumption. Hierarchical regression analyses on fat, soft drink and fruit consumption, with demographic

L Haerens; M Craeynest; B Deforche; L Maes; G Cardon; I De Bourdeaudhuij

2008-01-01

45

Body image interventions in cognitive-behavioural therapy of binge-eating disorder: a component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to investigate effects of body exposure in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioural therapy with a body exposure component (CBT-E) was compared with CBT with a cognitive restructuring component focused on body image (CBT-C). Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to CBT-E or CBT-C, both delivered in a group format. Negative automatic thoughts

Anja Hilbert; Brunna Tuschen-Caffier

2004-01-01

46

Reliability of a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school

G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi

2003-01-01

47

Binge eating in adolescents: Its relation to behavioural problems and family-meal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between binge eating, behavioural problems and family-meal patterns in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a public secondary school completed the Bulimic Investigatory test, Edinburgh (BITE) [Henderson, M., & Freeman, C. P. (1987). A self-rating scale for bulimia. The “BITE”. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18–24.

Susana Sierra-Baigrie; Serafín Lemos-Giráldez; Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

2009-01-01

48

Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time; students with similar eating behaviours tend to form groups, represented by distinct clusters. Transition of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviour is non-linear and a sharp change is observed around a critical point where positive and negative influences are equal. Conclusions Conceptualizing the social environment of individuals is a crucial step to increasing our understanding of obesogenic environments of high-school students, and moreover, the general population. Incorporating both contextual, and individual determinants found in real datasets, in our model will greatly enhance calibration of future models. Complex mathematical modelling has a potential to contribute to the way public health data is collected and analyzed. PMID:23046793

2012-01-01

49

Development of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM): links with food intake among children and their mothers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a self-report questionnaire to explore parental modelling of eating behaviours and then to use the newly developed measure to investigate associations between parental modelling with healthy and unhealthy food intake in both mothers and their children. Mothers (n?=?484) with a child aged between 18 months and 8 years completed the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM), a new, self-report measure of modelling, as well as a food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis of the PARM identified 15 items grouped into three subscales: verbal modelling (modelling through verbal communication); unintentional modelling (UM) (children adopting eating behaviours that parents had not actively modelled); and behavioural consequences (children's eating behaviours directly associated with parental modelling). The PARM subscales were found to be differentially related to food intake. Maternally perceived consequences of behavioural modelling were related to increased fruit and vegetable intake in both mothers and children. UM was related to higher levels of savoury snack intake in both mothers and their children. This study has highlighted three distinct aspects of parental modelling of eating behaviours. The findings suggest that mothers may intentionally model healthy food intake while unintentionally acting as role models for their children's less healthy, snack food intake. PMID:22906242

Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

2014-10-01

50

Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.  

PubMed

Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904

Hill, Andrew J

2006-11-01

51

Child eating patterns and weight regulation: a developmental behaviour genetics framework.  

PubMed

There is relatively limited knowledge about the development of child eating patterns and how they may contribute to excess weight gain in early life. Particularly scarce are genetically informative studies that addressed environmental and genetic influences which can be challenging to disentangle. A review of this literature can help identify ongoing themes in the field and may stimulate new ideas for future research. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview about how select environmental factors (e.g. the portion size of foods) and parental feeding practices (e.g. dietary restriction) can affect children's eating behaviour and weight status. The second part of the review explains in more detail the types of studies that can be employed to assess genetic influences (e.g. heritability estimates) on child food intake and body weight and composition. The review closes with suggestions for future research emphasizing the importance of collaborations among investigators from different disciplines to further elucidate gene-environment interactions in the domains of child eating behaviour and obesity. PMID:17313412

Kral, Tanja V E; Faith, Myles S

2007-04-01

52

Refinement of behavioural traits in animals for the genetic dissection of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Both twin and family studies have revealed the involvement of genetic factors in disorders that affect the regulation of body weight, such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. However, pinpointing the genes that contribute to these human disorders has not yet been very successful. In contrast, genetic studies in animals have been basic for the identification of many genes involved in the regulation of various physiological processes of energy metabolism. We thus plan to review here ways in which findings from animal studies and what is known about behavioural diversity in the human population with eating disorders can be combined. This would probably optimise phenotype-based candidate gene analysis in humans. PMID:14623346

Kas, Martien J H; Van Elburg, Annemarie A; Van Engeland, Herman; Adan, Roger A H

2003-11-01

53

Maternal report of young children's eating styles. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in three ethnically diverse Australian samples.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to validate the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's ? estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562

Mallan, Kimberley M; Liu, Wei-Hong; Mehta, Rati Jani; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana

2013-05-01

54

Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’, ‘unbalanced weight control’) that significantly explained the risk of overweight among boys and girls. Conclusions Stress-related eating is highly prevalent among 16-year-old girls and is associated with obesity as well as adverse dietary and other health behaviours among both genders, but intrauterine conditions are seemingly uninvolved. In terms of obesity prevention and future health, adolescents who use eating as a passive way of coping could benefit from learning healthier strategies for stress and weight management. PMID:24708823

2014-01-01

55

Adapted group-based dialectical behaviour therapy for binge eating in a practicing clinic: clinical outcomes and attrition.  

PubMed

Research evidence has been accumulating for the efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) for binge eating. However, support for its effectiveness and transportability beyond efficacy trials is lacking. The current study evaluated the feasibility of group-based DBT for binge eating within the context of an operating community clinic. Women ages 24-49 (M?=?39.60, SD?=?9.53) with either subthreshold and full-threshold binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa formed the group and comprised the sample (n?=?5 treatment completers). Positive outcomes included significant improvement in both binge eating and secondary outcomes with the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales of Bulimia, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism and Interpersonal Distrust. Attrition was elevated compared with previous efficacy trials, suggesting the need for increased attention to how to improve retention within routine practice settings. Given our limited sample size, these findings are viewed as promising but preliminary. PMID:22367862

Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

2012-05-01

56

The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6–7  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass

Ester FC Sleddens; Stef PJ Kremers; Carel Thijs

2008-01-01

57

Clinicians' concerns about delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.  

PubMed

Despite research supporting the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in the treatment of eating disorders, those interventions are under-utilised in routine clinical practice, possibly due to clinicians' concerns about delivering the relevant techniques. This study examined what elements of therapy clinicians worry about when delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders, and what clinician variables are associated with such concerns. The participants were 113 clinicians who used individual CBT with eating disorder patients. They completed a novel measure of concerns about delivering elements of CBT, as well as demographic characteristics and a standardised measure of intolerance of uncertainty. Clinicians worried most about body image work and ending treatment, but least about delivering psychoeducation. Their concerns fell into four distinct factors. Older, more experienced clinicians worried less about delivering the CBT techniques, but those with greater levels of prospective and inhibitory anxiety worried more about specific factors in the CBT techniques. Clinicians' capacity to tolerate uncertainty might impair their delivery of evidence-based CBT, and merits consideration as a target in training and supervision of CBT clinicians. PMID:24793719

Turner, Hannah; Tatham, Madeleine; Lant, Marie; Mountford, Victoria A; Waller, Glenn

2014-06-01

58

A quantum explanation of the abnormal magnetic behaviour in Mn-doped ZnO nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective mass approximation is applied to explain the abnormal magnetic behaviour observed recently in Mn-doped ZnO nanowires. The magnetization versus temperature curves have been calculated for nanowires at different radii and carrier densities. Abnormal peaks in the M-T curves are observed at low temperature when the radii of the cylinders are in the nanometre region. Peaks have been observed in the calculated M-T curves for some carrier densities where the Fermi levels are near the peaks of the majority spins in the density of states (DOS) plots, and the peak position moves to the high-temperature region when the radius of the nanowire decreases. The abnormal magnetic peaks in the M-T curve can be explained as a quantum confinement effect of nanowires.

Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xueqiang; Huang, Yunhua; Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Yue

2007-06-01

59

Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dube, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

2014-01-01

60

Effect of ethnicity and geographical location on body weight, dietary restraint, and abnormal eating attitudes.  

PubMed

Previous studies have examined the effect of ethnicity on obesity, concerns about shape and weight, and attitudes about eating. We hypothesized that geographical location would also influence these variables, and that students growing up in the northern part of the United States and attending northern colleges would differ from students from the South. To examine this, we studied a random sample of 275 African-Americans (AA) and 224 white college students in the entering class of two northern colleges (University of Pittsburgh or University of Massachusetts) or two southern colleges (Augusta or Paine College). All subjects were weighed and completed the Revised Restraint Scale and the EAT-26. AA women were heavier than white women, with no differences due to geographical location. Despite being thinner, white women reported more dietary restraint than AA women. This difference between AA and white women was apparent in both northern and southern college students. In contrast, geographical location was the strongest determinant of bulimic attitudes; both men and women at northern colleges reported higher bulimia scores than those at southern schools. Thus ethnicity appears to be a major determinant of body weight and attitudes about shape and dieting, whereas geographical location appears to exert greater influence on bulimic attitudes. PMID:16353354

Wing, R R; Adams-Campbell, L L; Marcus, M D; Janney, C A

1993-05-01

61

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

62

Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0 ± 5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5 ± 7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6 ± 5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9 ± 12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P < 0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

2014-12-01

63

Central and peripheral peptides regulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a literature review.  

PubMed

A large body of literature suggests the occurrence of a dysregulation in both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), but at the moment, the state or trait-dependent nature of those changes is far from being clear. It has been proposed, although not definitively proved, that peptide alterations, even when secondary to malnutrition and/or to aberrant eating behaviours, might contribute to the genesis and the maintenance of some symptomatic aspects of AN and BN, thus affecting the course and the prognosis of these disorders. This review focuses on the most significant literature studies that explored the physiology of those central and peripheral peptides, which have prominent effects on eating behaviour, body weight and energy homeostasis in patients with AN and BN. The relevance of peptide dysfunctions for the pathophysiology of eating disorders is critically discussed. PMID:24942507

Tortorella, Alfonso; Brambilla, Francesca; Fabrazzo, Michele; Volpe, Umberto; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Mastromo, Daniele; Monteleone, Palmiero

2014-09-01

64

Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before…

Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

2004-01-01

65

Advertising of food to children: is brand logo recognition related to their food knowledge, eating behaviours and food preferences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eating behaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six

C. A. Kopelman; L. M. Roberts; P. Adab

2007-01-01

66

Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

2009-01-01

67

A note on eating behaviour of dairy cows at different stocking systems—diurnal rhythm and effects of ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was aimed at studying the diurnal rhythm of dairy cows eating behaviour at different stocking systems, and quantifying the effect of daily ambient temperature on this diurnal rhythm. In two experiments carried out in the summer of 2003 in The Netherlands, eight dairy cows were offered fresh pasture of perennial ryegrass. In the first experiment, four cows were

H. Z. Taweel; B. M. Tas; H. J. Smit; S. Tamminga; A. Elgersma

2006-01-01

68

Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…

Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

2011-01-01

69

Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

2012-01-01

70

Effects of cognitive–behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of cognitive–behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese patients, in relation to binge eating disorder.DESIGN: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study consisting of structured sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy, preceded by sessions chaired by a psychologist in subjects with binge eating.SUBJECTS: Two groups of obese patients (92 treated by cognitive–behavioural therapy (77 females); 76 untreated

G Marchesini; S Natale; S Chierici; R Manini; L Besteghi; S Di Domizio; A Sartini; F Pasqui; L Baraldi; G Forlani; N Melchionda

2002-01-01

71

The Eating Attitudes and Behaviours of Asian and British Schoolgirls: a Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study set out to examine dietary, weight and eating attitudes of 12-18 year old British and Asian girls. Ninety-six subjects from a state school completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Binge Eating Questionnnaire (BEQ) and a questionnaire concerning the perceived level of integration into British society. The mean EAT-26 score was higher than any other study has found

Adrian Furnham; Raj Patel

1994-01-01

72

Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: A population-based, longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Subclinical forms of eating disorders (ED) are highly prevalent, but relatively little is known about age trends, gender differences and distinctions among symptoms. This study investigates age trends and gender difference in binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours (CB) and the relationship of such behaviours to psychosocial problems. Methods Data from the national representative longitudinal study "Young in Norway" (ages 14-34 years) were analysed using ?2 tests, logistic random intercept models and analyses of covariance. Results For both genders, a decrease was found in the prevalence of CB from age 14-16 years to 23 years and over. For binging, however, a significant decrease was found only for females, whose binge eating also declined more markedly over time than did males'. A significant gender difference was detected for purging, with females at higher risk. Purging was related to particularly serious symptoms of psychosocial problems: Those who purged had significantly higher levels of appearance dissatisfaction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, self-concept instability and loneliness than those with symptoms of other forms of disordered eating. Conclusions Individuals affected by purging need to be targeted as a high-risk group. The distinction in severity among the subclinical ED may indicate the need for the reformulation of the eating disorder not otherwise specified category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V. PMID:22244266

2012-01-01

73

Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort  

PubMed Central

Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

2014-01-01

74

Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.  

PubMed

Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670

Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

2014-03-01

75

Yoga and eating disorders: is there a place for yoga in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders and disordered eating behaviours?  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2013-01-01

76

Treatment of compulsive behaviour in eating disorders with intermittent ketamine infusions.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that eating disorders are a compulsive behaviour disease, characterized by frequent recall of anorexic thoughts. Evidence suggests that memory is a neocortical neuronal network, excitation of which involves the hippocampus, with recall occurring by re-excitement of the same specific network. Excitement of the hippocampus by glutamate-NMDA receptors, leading to long-term potentiation (LTP), can be blocked by ketamine. Continuous block of LTP prevents new memory formation but does not affect previous memories. Opioid antagonists prevent loss of consciousness with ketamine but do not prevent the block of LTP. We used infusions of 20 mg per hour ketamine for 10 h with 20 mg twice daily nalmefene as opioid antagonist to treat 15 patients with a long history of eating disorder, all of whom were chronic and resistant to several other forms of treatment. Nine (responders) showed prolonged remission when treated with two to nine ketamine infusions at intervals of 5 days to 3 weeks. Clinical response was associated with a significant decrease in Compulsion score: before ketamine, mean +/- SE was 44.0 +/- 2.5; after ketamine, 27.0 +/- 3.5 (t test, p = 0.0016). In six patients (non-responders) the score was: before ketamine, 42.8 +/- 3.7; after ketamine, 44.8 +/- 3.1. There was no significant response to at least five ketamine treatments, perhaps because the compulsive drive was re-established too soon after the infusion, or because the dose of opioid antagonist, nalmefene, was too low. PMID:9797933

Mills, I H; Park, G R; Manara, A R; Merriman, R J

1998-07-01

77

Eating attitudes and behaviours in elite Canadian athletes with a spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393

Krempien, Jennifer Luella; Barr, Susan Irene

2012-01-01

78

Emotional eating: Eating when emotional or emotional about eating?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predictive validity of emotional eating compared to

Marieke A. Adriaanse; Denise T. D. de Ridder; Catharine Evers

2011-01-01

79

Skin rash, headache and abnormal behaviour: unusual presentation of intracranial haemorrhage in dengue fever  

PubMed Central

Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. The dengue virus is a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are four serotypes (DEN 1–4) classified according to biological and immunological criteria. Patients may be asymptomatic or their condition may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide and 2.5 billion people are at risk. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. We present an interesting case of dengue fever with headache, skin rash and abnormal behaviour who had a massive intracranial haemorrhage with fatal outcome. PMID:22242067

Wani, Abdul Majid; Mejally, Mousa Ali Al; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Maimani, Wail Al; Hanif, Sadia; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Siddiqi, Ahmad; Akhtar, Mubeena; Bafaraj, Mazen G; Fareed, Khurram

2010-01-01

80

Low-income consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards access, availability and motivation to eat fruit and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine low-income consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards fruit and vegetables, in particular issues of access to, affordability of and motivation to eat fruit and vegetables. Design and setting: Questionnaire survey mailed to homes owned by a large UK housing association. Participants: Participants were 680 low-income men and women, aged 17-100 years. Results: Age, employment, gender, smoking and marital

LA Dibsdall; N Lambert; RF Bobbin; LJ Frewer

2003-01-01

81

Remote treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: A randomized trial of Internet-assisted cognitive behavioural therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the efficacy of self-help based on cognitive behaviour therapy in combination with Internet support in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. After confirming the diagnosis with an in-person interview, 73 patients were randomly allocated to treatment or a waiting list control group. Treated individuals showed marked improvement after 12 weeks of self-help compared

B. Ljotsson; C. Lundin; K. Mitsell; P. Carlbring; M. Ramklint; A. Ghaderi

2007-01-01

82

Improving children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours: An evaluative study of a single session parent education programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a 'single session' group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the Fun not Fuss with Food group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours.Design A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before and twice following the intervention.Setting A health district within the southeast region of Queensland, Australia.Method Data were collected

Kim Fraser; Marianne Wallis; Winsome St John

2004-01-01

83

The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students  

PubMed Central

Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

2013-01-01

84

The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6-7  

PubMed Central

Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass index (BMI) were assessed. Methods In total, 135 parents of primary school children aged 6 and 7 completed the questionnaire (response rate 41.9%). Children's BMI was converted into standardised z-scores, adjusted for child gender and age to examine the association between mean scale scores and child weight status. Results Results generally confirmed the theoretical factor structure, with acceptable internal reliability and between-subscale correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were positively associated with the 'food approach' subscales of the CEBQ (food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating) (?'s 0.15 to 0.22) and negatively with 'food avoidant' subscales (satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional undereating, and food fussiness) (?'s -0.09 to -0.25). Significant relations with child BMI z-scores were found for food responsiveness (p = 0.02), enjoyment of food (p = 0.03), satiety responsiveness (p = 0.01) and slowness in eating (p = 0.01). Conclusion The results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometrically sound tool for assessing children's eating behaviours in Dutch children and the study demonstrates its applicability in overweight-related studies. PMID:18937832

Sleddens, Ester FC; Kremers, Stef PJ; Thijs, Carel

2008-01-01

85

Automatic Detection of Abnormal Vessel Behaviours Michel MOREL (DCNS), Jean-Pierre GEORGE (IRIT), Anne LITTAYE (ECOMER), Florent  

E-print Network

ScanMaris Automatic Detection of Abnormal Vessel Behaviours Michel MOREL (DCNS), Jean-Pierre GEORGE traffic...) and to automatically detect criminal traffic of illicit products. ScanMaris will use data of investigation organised to detect irregularities like illicit products flows, disasters, regulation violations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

A randomized wait-list controlled pilot study of dialectical behaviour therapy guided self-help for binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined the efficacy of guided self-help based on dialectical behaviour therapy (DBTgsh) for binge eating disorder (BED). Individuals (88.3% female; mean 42.8 years) were randomized to DBTgsh (n=30) or wait-list (WL; n=30). DBTgsh participants received an orientation, DBT manual, and six 20-min support calls over 13 weeks. All participants were assessed pre- and post-treatment using interview and self-report; also, DBTgsh participants were re-assessed six months post-treatment. At treatment end, DBTgsh participants reported significantly fewer past-month binge eating episodes than WL participants (6.0 versus 14.4) and significantly greater rates of abstinence from binge eating (40.0% versus 3.3%). At six-month follow-up, DBTgsh participants reported significantly improved quality of life and reduced ED psychopathology compared to baseline scores. In addition, most improvements in the DBTgsh group were maintained, although binge eating abstinence rates decreased to 30%. These preliminary positive findings indicate that DBTgsh may offer an effective, low-intensity treatment option for BED. PMID:24029304

Masson, Philip C; von Ranson, Kristin M; Wallace, Laurel M; Safer, Debra L

2013-11-01

87

Epidemiological studies on adverse dieting behaviours and eating disorders among young people in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Most results on the prevalence rates of eating disorders and related adverse dieting attitudes have been published in North America and Western Europe and there have been only a few pioneering surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe in this domain. The authors investigated the prevalence rates for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related adverse dieting attitudes and eating

T. Tölgyes; J. Nemessury

2004-01-01

88

Can social cognitive theory constructs explain socio-economic variations in adolescent eating behaviours? A mediation analysis.  

PubMed

Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 2529 adolescents aged 12-15 years, from 37 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their eating behaviours, self-efficacy for healthy eating, perceived importance of nutrition and health, social modelling and support and the availability of foods in the home. Parents provided details of maternal education level, which was used as an indicator of SEP. All social cognitive constructs assessed mediated socio-economic variations in at least one indicator of adolescents' diet. Cognitive factors were the strongest mediator of socio-economic variations in fruit intakes, while for energy-dense snack foods and fast foods, availability of energy-dense snacks at home tended to be strong mediators. Social cognitive theory provides a useful framework for understanding socio-economic variations in adolescent's diet and might guide public health programmes and policies focusing on improving adolescent nutrition among those experiencing socio-economic disadvantage. PMID:18927442

Ball, K; MacFarlane, A; Crawford, D; Savige, G; Andrianopoulos, N; Worsley, A

2009-06-01

89

Influences of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the body dissatisfaction and eating behaviour of Australian children and adolescents.  

PubMed

The present study examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, body dissatisfaction, and eating behaviours of 10- to 18-year-old children and adolescents. The study participants (N = 768) were categorised as Caucasian (74.7%), Chinese or Vietnamese (18.2%), and Italian or Greek (7.0%), and high (82%), middle (8.6%), and low SES (9.4%) according to parents' occupations. The chi(2), Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression model were used to determine the interaction between variables. Females and older participants were more likely to desire a body figure that was thinner than their perceived current figure. Furthermore, the same groups were also more likely to be preoccupied with eating problems (females 7.1% vs. males 1.4%; for participants aged 15-18 years, 7.8% vs. participants aged 10-14 years, 3.9%). The body dissatisfaction gender difference was females 42.8% vs. males 11.8%, and participants aged 15-18 years 41.7% vs. those aged 10-14 years, 28.3%. Participants whose parents were managers/professionals were more likely to desire a body figure that was thinner than their perceived current figure than those from white-collar and blue-collar families. This was also the case for Caucasian Australians compared to those from Chinese or Vietnamese backgrounds. In conclusion, age and gender differences in body image and problems in eating behaviour were evident among children and adolescents. However, there was no significant SES and ethnic difference in the proportion of participants with eating problems and body dissatisfaction. PMID:15567108

Wang, Zaimin; Byrne, Nuala M; Kenardy, Justin A; Hills, Andrew P

2005-01-01

90

Chlordiazepoxide normalizes behaviour and adrenal response abnormalities in septal rats in a dose and time dependent fashion.  

PubMed

Rats lesioned in the septal nuclei display a dramatic syndrome characterized by hypoactivity in a novel environment, but exaggerated behavioural and corticosterone responses to environmental stimuli. These abnormal responses are normalized 2 hours following 15 mg/kg i.p. of chlordiazepoxide (Seggie, CCNP, 1980). The present study was undertaken to map the dose and time response characteristics of this effect and see if behaviour and corticosterone respond in parallel fashion. Chlordiazepoxide in doses of 7.5-30 mg/kg affected the hyperreactivity of septal rats is a 'U' shaped function without affecting the behaviour of non-lesioned rats. Corticosterone levels in non-lesioned rats were unaffected by chlordiazepoxide, while drug treated septal rats had corticosterone levels undistinguishable from non-lesioned control rats. The drug effects were transitory, maximal at 2 hours after injection, but absent as 48 hours after injection. General abnormalities of behaviour and corticosterone responsiveness were altered in parallel fashion by the drug, but some evidence of differences in sensitivity to the effect of the drug were noticed. Locomotion, was unaffected by the drug in lesioned and non-lesioned rats. The possibility of a GABA mechanism underlying the abnormalities of responsiveness, but not activity in septal rats is discussed. PMID:6686708

Seggie, J; Krema, R

1983-01-01

91

Eating behaviour and attitudes to weight and shape in British women from three ethnic groups.  

PubMed

Attitudes towards eating, weight and shape were examined in 479 Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean and Asian British women. The Asian women were found to have significantly more disordered eating attitudes than the Caucasian women, but no difference was found between the three groups in their concern with their body weight and shape. However, while in the Caucasian group disordered eating attitudes were significantly positively correlated with feelings of anxiety and depression, this was not true in the other two groups. Although the concerns of British Afro-Caribbean and Asian women are similar to those of the Caucasian women, there may be ethnic differences in the relationship between feelings about eating, weight and shape and mood. PMID:2131133

Dolan, B; Lacey, J H; Evans, C

1990-10-01

92

Study of eating attitudes and behaviours in junior college students in Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating disorders have been described as possible 'culture-bound syndromes', with roots in Western cultural values and conflicts. They may, in fact, be more prevalent within various non-Western cultural groups than previously recognised, as Western values become more widely accepted. Cross-cultural experiences suggest that cultural change itself may be associated with increased vulnerability to eating disorders, especially when Western values

Tendulkar Prajakta; Krishnadas Rajeev; Durge Vijay; Sharma Sumit; Nayak Sapna; Kamat Sanjeev; Dhavale Hemangee

2006-01-01

93

Healthy eating among 10 – 13-year-old New Zealand children: Understanding choice using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the role of parental influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 – 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude

Allison M. Hewitt; Christine Stephens

2007-01-01

94

Eating behaviours in youths: A comparison between female and male athletes and non-athletes.  

PubMed

This study compared the different factors associated with eating behaviors among young female and male athletes and non-athletes. A total of 580 female and male athletes and 362 female and male non-athletes between 10 and 19 years old participated. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to evaluate the factors associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We found higher scores for females on the diet subscale compared with males, regardless of athletic group (P?eating compared with athletes of the same sex (P?eating behaviors differ with regard to sex and group. PMID:23889336

Fortes, L de S; Kakeshita, I S; Almeida, S S; Gomes, A R; Ferreira, M E C

2014-02-01

95

The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

96

Evaluating the Effects of a Peer-Support Model: Reducing Negative Body Esteem and Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Grade Eight Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization

Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni

2012-01-01

97

Development of the eating behaviour in Prader–Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of

C J McAllister; J E Whittington; A J Holland

2011-01-01

98

Purging disorder: a comparison to established eating disorders with purging behaviour.  

PubMed

This study is part of the larger Christina Barz Study, and it compared consecutively admitted patients with purging disorder (PurD; N?=?225) with consecutively admitted patients with anorexia nervosa binge eating/purging subtype (AN-bp; N?=?503) and bulimia nervosa purging subtype (BN-p; N?=?756). Participants answered self-rating questionnaires on admission, at the end of inpatient treatment, and in a 5-year follow-up. Patients with PurD reported lower severity of general psychopathology than patients with AN-bp and lower severity of eating disorder symptoms than patients with AN-bp and BN-p on admission. Eating disorder symptoms of patients with PurD improved less during the course than of the comparison groups. Diagnostic perseverance was stronger in the PurD group than for patients with AN-bp; mortality was higher than for patients with BN-p. Predictors for better outcome differed for the groups. Our results provide new data about the long-term course of patients with PurD and indicate clinical relevance of the disorder. PMID:23629831

Koch, Sonja; Quadflieg, Norbert; Fichter, Manfred

2013-07-01

99

The vocal behaviour of mammal-eating killer whales: communicating with costly calls  

E-print Network

prey has shaped the vocal behaviour of the transient killer whale ecotype. We recorded pulsed calls and transients. Resident killer whales feed on fish, a prey with poor hearing abilities, whereas transient killer and the associated behavioural context of groups of transient and resident killer whales in British Columbia

100

Fluoxetine and Fluvoxamine Combined with Individual Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder: A One-Year Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) is still the object of debate. In the present study, the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs (fluoxetine – FLX – 60 mg\\/day, fluvoxamine – FLV –300 mg\\/day), cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and combined treatments (CBT + FLX, CBT + FLV) has been evaluated in a randomized, clinical trial. Results at the end of the

Valdo Ricca; Edoardo Mannucci; Barbara Mezzani; Sandra Moretti; Milena Di Bernardo; Marco Bertelli; Carlo M. Rotella; Carlo Faravelli

2001-01-01

101

Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

2014-12-01

102

Behavioural abnormalities in children with nephrotic syndrome--an underappreciated complication of a standard treatment?  

PubMed

Behaviour and psychosocial adjustment are impaired in children with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Both illness-related variables and family climate play a role. Steroid treatment-both short- and long-term-is an important contributor among other determinants. The exact mechanisms by which steroids lead to behavioural alterations in humans is unclear. Optimizing the benefit/risk ratio of steroid treatment in children with SSNS is a constant goal. PMID:20573807

Neuhaus, Thomas J; Langlois, Valerie; Licht, Christoph

2010-08-01

103

Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increased risk of obesity amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and emerging evidence suggests that psychological stress may be a key factor in this relationship. This paper reports the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of relationships between perceived stress, weight and weight-related behaviours in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods This study used baseline and follow-up self-report survey data from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, comprising a cohort of 1382 women aged 18 to 46 years from 80 of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Women reported their height (baseline only), weight, sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, leisure-time physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours at baseline and three-year follow-up. Linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between stress (predictor) and weight, and weight-related behaviours. Results Higher perceived stress in women was associated with a higher BMI, and to increased odds of being obese in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were found between stress and both less leisure-time physical activity, and more frequent fast food consumption. Longitudinal associations were also found between stress and increased television viewing time. Conclusion The present study contributes to the literature related to the effects of stress on weight and weight-related behaviours. The findings suggest that higher stress levels could contribute to obesity risk in women. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, interventions that incorporate stress management techniques might help to prevent rising obesity rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:24020677

2013-01-01

104

Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids  

PubMed Central

The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F1 pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F1 sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. PMID:21624978

He, J. H.; Shahid, M. Q.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, X. A.; Liu, X. D.; Lu, Y. G.

2011-01-01

105

Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety.  

PubMed

This study tested if: (1) a preload of mycoprotein and tofu consumed before a lunch meal have a greater effect on satiety when compared to a chicken preload, (2) the mycoprotein and tofu preloads, compared to chicken, are not associated with compensation or eating more food at a subsequent dinner meal. These hypotheses were tested in a controlled laboratory study using universal eating monitors to measure food intake and visual analogue scales to monitor hunger and satiety. Forty-two overweight adult females consumed three meals in the laboratory on 3 test days. At lunch, isocaloric pasta preloads, containing mycoprotein, tofu, or chicken, varied across the days in a balanced order. The findings of the study supported the two hypotheses. Mycoprotein and tofu preloads, in comparison to the chicken preload, were associated with lower food intake shortly after consuming the preload at lunch. Food intake following consumption of mycoprotein and tofu did not differ, and participants did not compensate for lower food intake at lunch by consuming more food at dinner. The findings suggest that mycoprotein and tofu have satiating properties that persist for several hours after a meal. These findings have significant implications for the development of foods that are low in kilojoules, but are also filling. PMID:16364496

Williamson, Donald A; Geiselman, Paula J; Lovejoy, Jennifer; Greenway, Frank; Volaufova, Julia; Martin, Corby K; Arnett, Cheryl; Ortego, Lauren

2006-01-01

106

Eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour. Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries like India. As Western sociocultural ideals become more widespread one may expect to see an increase in number of cases of eating disorders in non-Western societies. Etiological theories suggest a complex interaction among psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Patients with anorexia nervosa manifest weight loss, fear of becoming fat, and disturbances in how they experience their body weight and shape. Patients with bulimia nervosa present with recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate methods of weight control such as self-induced vomiting, and abuse of diuretics and laxatives. Major complications of eating disorders include severe fluid and electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. The most common cause of death in anorexia nervosa is suicide. Management requires a team approach in which different professionals work together. Individual and family psychotherapy are effective in patients with anorexia nervosa and cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in bulimia nervosa. Pharmacotherapy is not universally effective by itself. Patients with eating disorders suffer a chronic course of illness. The pediatrician plays important role in early diagnosis, management of medical complications, and psychological support to the patient and the family. PMID:10773895

Patel, D R; Phillips, E L; Pratt, H D

1998-01-01

107

Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast  

PubMed Central

Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

2014-01-01

108

[Etiologic diagnosis and behaviour when confronted with abnormal hair growth in a child].  

PubMed

Knowledge of the physiology of hair follicle growth and its relationship to the endocrine and the metabolic system is essential in understanding abnormalities in hair development or hirsutism. Although there is no sexual dysmorphism in the distribution of hair follicles, there are many factors that induce hair growth. The first clinical measure is to differentiate all the intrinsic causes from auxologic and normal psychomotor development related to ethnic, racial and hereditary differences (generalized congenital or idiopathic hypertrichosis) and congenital causes within the context of a multi-malformation syndrome in which hirsutism is associated with mental retardation (Cornélia de Lange's syndrome), major hypotrophy (leprechaunism) or with abnormalities of the limbs (Rubinstein Taybi's syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis). In these cases, the hormone balance is normal and genetic and/or metabolic explorations are required. Secondly, virilism may occur with hirsutism combining pubis and axillary hair growth, hypertrophy of the clitoris, and android characteristics. This results from hyperandrogenia with increased circulation of plasma androgens. Dynamic hormone tests (ACTH test and dectanyl suppression test), together with sonography help to determine the adrenal (hyperplasia, more frequent than tumors), gonadic (tumors, cysts or gonadic dysgenesis) or paraneoplastic origins (choriocarcinoma). In practice, most hirsutism is considered as idiopathic. PMID:12223965

Pienkowski, C; Gayrard-Cros, M

2002-05-01

109

A 5-year longitudinal study of the relationship between the wish to be thinner, lifestyle behaviours and disturbed eating in 9-20-year old girls.  

PubMed

The aim of this 5-year longitudinal study of 593 girls (9-20-year-old) was to examine whether the internalization of the thinness ideal in terms of 'a wish to be thinner' might be related to lifestyle factors and longitudinally increase the risk of disturbed eating over time. Results showed that a wish to be thinner was related to lifestyle factors, eating attitudes and body mass index (BMI) longitudinally. Girls who wished to be thinner dieted more often, thought that they would be more popular if they were thinner, skipped meals, were eating breakfast more often alone and had a higher BMI compared to the girls without such a wish. Girls who wished to be thinner were 4 times more likely to develop disturbed eating attitudes over a 5-year period. These findings point to the importance of helping adolescents to establish regular eating habits, to avoid unhealthy dieting practices and to prevent sedentary behaviours that might lead to overweight and or obesity in early childhood. PMID:20443204

Westerberg-Jacobson, Josefin; Edlund, Birgitta; Ghaderi, Ata

2010-05-01

110

Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.  

PubMed

During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

2012-01-01

111

To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods.  

PubMed

Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

2012-10-17

112

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

113

The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension eating plan affects C-reactive protein, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests among type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Few studies exist regarding the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on novel cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetic patients. We evaluated the effects of the DASH eating pattern on C-reactive protein (CRP) level, coagulation abnormalities, and hepatic function tests in type 2 diabetic patients. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, 31 type 2 diabetic patients consumed a control diet or the DASH diet for 8 wk. The DASH diet was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fat, total fat, cholesterol, refined grains, and sweets, with a total of 2400 mg/d sodium. The control diet was a standard diet for diabetic patients. There was a 4-wk washout between the 2 trial phases. The main outcome measures were CRP level, coagulation indices, and hepatic function tests. The mean percent change for plasma CRP level was -26.9 ± 3.5% after the DASH diet period and -5.1 ± 3.8% after the control diet period (P = 0.02). Decreases in both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were greater after consuming the DASH diet compared with the control diet (-14.8 ± 3.0% vs -6.6 ± 3.4%; P = 0.001; -29.4 ± 3.7% vs -5.9 ± 1.4%; P = 0.001, respectively). The decrease in the plasma fibrinogen level during the DASH diet period (-11.4 ± 3.6%) was greater than that during the control diet (0.5 ± 3.4%) (P = 0.03). Among diabetic patients, the DASH diet can play an important role in reducing inflammation, plasma levels of fibrinogen, and liver aminotransferases. Future longer term studies are recommended. PMID:21525259

Azadbakht, Leila; Surkan, Pamela J; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Willett, Walter C

2011-06-01

114

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and associations with infant weight, gender and feeding mode in an Australian sample.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (BEBQ) in an Australian community sample of mother-infant dyads. A secondary aim was to explore the relationship between the BEBQ subscales and infant gender, weight and current feeding mode. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilising structural equation modelling examined the hypothesised four-factor model of the BEBQ. Only mothers (N=467) who completed all items on the BEBQ (infant age: M=17 weeks, SD= weeks) were included in the analysis. The original four-factor model did not provide an acceptable fit to the data due to poor performance of the Satiety responsiveness factor. Removal of this factor (three items) resulted in a well-fitting three-factor model. Cronbach's ? was acceptable for the Enjoyment of food (?=0.73), Food responsiveness (?=0.78) and Slowness in eating (?=0.68) subscales but low for the Satiety responsiveness (?=0.56) subscale. Enjoyment of food was associated with higher infant weight whereas Slowness in eating and Satiety responsiveness were both associated with lower infant weight. Differences on all four subscales as a function of feeding mode were observed. This study is the first to use CFA to evaluate the hypothesised factor structure of the BEBQ. Findings support further development work on the Satiety responsiveness subscale in particular, but confirm the utility of the Enjoyment of food, Food responsiveness and Slowness in eating subscales. PMID:25009080

Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; de Jersey, Susan J

2014-11-01

115

Cognitive behaviour therapy response and dropout rate across purging and nonpurging bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: DSM-5 implications  

PubMed Central

Background With the imminent publication of the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there has been a growing interest in the study of the boundaries across the three bulimic spectrum syndromes [bulimia nervosa-purging type (BN-P), bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP) and binge eating disorder (BED)]. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine differences in treatment response and dropout rates following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) across the three bulimic-spectrum syndromes. Method The sample comprised of 454 females (87 BED, 327 BN-P and 40 BN-NP) diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who were treated with 22 weekly outpatient sessions of group CBT therapy. Patients were assessed before and after treatment using a food and binging/purging diary and some clinical questionnaires in the field of ED. “Full remission” was defined as total absence of binging and purging (laxatives and/or vomiting) behaviors and psychological improvement for at least 4 (consecutive). Results Full remission rate was found to be significantly higher in BED (69.5%) than in both BN-P (p?

2013-01-01

116

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

117

Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

2014-01-01

118

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and/or maintain an imaginary appearance. Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet ... your area. Eating disorders are serious medical problems. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are ...

119

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are illnesses in which the people experience severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...

120

Eating Out  

MedlinePLUS

... outlines essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Eating Out Eating at a restaurant does not have ... range of topics including careers in dietetics, healthy eating, the Academy membership benefits, media interviewing skills and the professional role of the ...

121

Eating Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

122

Somatoform dissociation in eating-disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of somatoform dissociation in eating disorders and pathological eating behaviour, relative to the established association of eating pathology with psychological dissociation. The participants were 131 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexic or bulimic disorders and 75 women who had no such disorder. Each woman completed measures of psychological and somatoform dissociation, as well as a

G. Waller; M. Babbs; F. Wright; C. Potterton; C. Meyer; N. Leung

2003-01-01

123

Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 ± 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

2014-12-01

124

Ectopic Cerebellar Cell Migration Causes Maldevelopment of Purkinje Cells and Abnormal Motor Behaviour in Cxcr4 Null Mice  

PubMed Central

SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice. PMID:24516532

Huang, Guo-Jen; Edwards, Andrew; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Shin; Peng, Lei; Era, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chen, Shu-Jen; Flint, Jonathan

2014-01-01

125

Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

2009-05-01

126

It Takes a Mouth to Eat and a Nose to Breathe: Abnormal Oral Respiration Affects Neonates' Oral Competence and Systemic Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Mammalian, including human, neonates are considered to be obligate nose breathers. When constrained to breathe through their mouth in response to obstructed or closed nasal passages, the effects are pervasive and profound, and sometimes last into adulthood. The present paper briefly surveys neonates' and infants' responses to this atypical mobilisation of the mouth for breathing and focuses on comparisons between human newborns and infants and the neonatal rat model. We present the effects of forced oral breathing on neonatal rats induced by experimental nasal obstruction. We assessed the multilevel consequences on physiological, structural, and behavioural variables, both during and after the obstruction episode. The effects of the compensatory mobilisation of oral resources for breathing are discussed in the light of the adaptive development of oromotor functions. PMID:22811731

Trabalon, Marie; Schaal, Benoist

2012-01-01

127

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

128

Eat Right  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Diabetes Public Health Resource Share Compartir Eat Right On this Page What healthy food choices should ... exchange method ( www.diabetes.org ). Related Materials Eat Right - Other Resources Take Charge of Your Diabetes The ...

129

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

130

Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

Healthy Eating Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips Eating healthy foods helps everyone stay well. It’s even more important for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Here are some tips for healthy eating. Buying and Preparing Food When the person with ...

131

The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.  

PubMed

Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

2013-12-01

132

Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight\\/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating

Lise Dubois; Anna Farmer; Manon Girard; Kelly Peterson; Fabiola Tatone-Tokuda

2007-01-01

133

Brain lesions and eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses. Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded. Results: Although simple changes in appetite and eating behaviour occur with hypothalamic and brain stem lesions, more complex syndromes, including characteristic psychopathology of eating disorders, are associated with right frontal and temporal lobe damage. Conclusions: These findings challenge the traditional view that eating disorders are linked to hypothalamic disturbance and suggest a major role of frontotemporal circuits with right hemispheric predominance in the pathogenesis. PMID:15897510

Uher, R; Treasure, J

2005-01-01

134

Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Mall disorders’ such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery\\u000a of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity,\\u000a impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and excessive eating and compulsive buying\\u000a in 134 women. Reward sensitivity and cognitive anxiety were

Kate Davenport; James E. Houston; Mark D. Griffiths

135

Mutant forms of tumour necrosis factor receptor I that occur in TNF-receptor-associated periodic syndrome retain signalling functions but show abnormal behaviour  

PubMed Central

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder involving autosomal-dominant missense mutations in TNF receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) ectodomains. To elucidate the molecular effects of TRAPS-related mutations, we transfected HEK-293 cells to produce lines stably expressing high levels of either wild-type (WT) or single mutant recombinant forms of TNFRSF1A. Mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the first cysteine-rich domain (CRD1) were produced both as full-length receptor proteins and as truncated forms lacking the cytoplasmic signalling domain (?sig). High-level expression of either WT or mutant full-length TNFRSF1A spontaneously induced apoptosis and interleukin-8 production, indicating that the mutations in CRD1 did not abrogate signalling. Consistent with this, WT and mutant full-length TNFRSF1A formed cytoplasmic aggregates that co-localized with ubiquitin and chaperones, and with the signal transducer TRADD, but not with the inhibitor, silencer of death domain (SODD). Furthermore, as expected, WT and mutant ?sig forms of TNFRSF1A did not induce apoptosis or interleukin-8 production. However, whereas the WT full-length TNFRSF1A was expressed both in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface, the mutant receptors showed strong cytoplasmic expression but reduced cell-surface expression. The WT and mutant ?sig forms of TNFRSF1A were all expressed at the cell surface, but a proportion of the mutant receptors were also retained in the cytoplasm and co-localized with BiP. Furthermore, the mutant forms of surface-expressed ?sig TNFRSF1A were defective in binding TNF-?. We conclude that TRAPS-related CRD1 mutants of TNFRSF1A possess signalling properties associated with the cytoplasmic death domain, but other behavioural features of the mutant receptors are abnormal, including intracellular trafficking and TNF binding. PMID:15312137

Todd, Ian; Radford, Paul M; Draper-Morgan, Kelly-Ann; McIntosh, Richard; Bainbridge, Susan; Dickinson, Peter; Jamhawi, Lama; Sansaridis, Marios; Huggins, Mary L; Tighe, Patrick J; Powell, Richard J

2004-01-01

136

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a survey to characterize dietitians’ involvement in the treatment of eating disorders and to determine the appropriateness of current training. The survey was mailed to 601 Florida Registered Dietitians. Completed surveys were returned by 170 dietitians. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of three categories: Category A: participates in the identification\\/diagnosis of eating disorders (n=l 10);

A. P. Wittkowsky; R. E. Turner; L. B. Bobroff; G. D. Evans

1999-01-01

137

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 ? 4 ? 5 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC The Deal With Diets Female Athlete Triad I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? Anemia Body Image and Self-Esteem Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Binge Eating ...

138

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

139

An introduction to eating disorders: clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis.  

PubMed

The spectrum of eating disorders varies widely, ranging from mildly abnormal eating habits to life-threatening chronic disease. Given the many different cultural food norms and individual preferences, along with the fact that dieting behavior is extremely common, it can be challenging to differentiate unusual eating behaviors from clinically significant eating disorders. In this article, the authors provide an introduction to eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified, focusing on the clinical presentation, epidemiology, and prognosis. PMID:20413691

Miller, Catherine A; Golden, Neville H

2010-04-01

140

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

141

Body Image, Binge Eating, and Bulimia Nervosa in Male Bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eating behaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes

Gary S Goldfield; Arthur G Blouin; D Blake Woodside

2006-01-01

142

Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Aina Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Goncalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

2014-01-01

143

Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

2012-01-01

144

Psychometric properties of the eating attitudes test and children's eating attitudes test in Croatia.  

PubMed

The factor structure of the children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were examined in Croatian girls of different ages. A self-report survey was given to 225 girls (Grades 5 to 8), 525 high school girls (Grades 9 to 12), and 646 female university students. Factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors for ChEAT, and three interpretable factors for EAT-26. Internal consistency of both instruments was satisfactory. 10.3% of school girls scored 20 or higher on ChEAT, when 7.6% of high school girls and 11.3% of university students had elevated EAT-26 scores. The ChEAT and EAT-26 were useful for screening large non-clinical groups and measuring disturbed eating behaviours. Those with elevated ChEAT and EAT-26 scores were more likely than those with lower scores to be engaged in extreme weight control methods (e.g. vomiting, binging). PMID:16682865

Ambrosi-Randi?, N; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

2005-12-01

145

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders and obesity are problems that dramatically impact psychological and medical well-being. These disorders carry some of the highest mortality rates in psychiatry. At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to 1. Describe the medical approach to a patient presenting with an eating disorder 2. Compare the epidemiology, pathophysiology, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, clinical course, treatment,

Hy Gia Park; Cathy K. Bell

146

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...

Smith, Mrs.

2011-12-12

147

Binge eating disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... Eats even though not hungry. Eats alone (in secret). Feels guilty, disgusted, ashamed, or depressed after eating ... large amounts of high-calorie foods, often in secret. After this binge eating, they often force themselves ...

148

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... to overeat. Continue How It Differs From Other Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are all considered eating disorders because they involve unhealthy patterns of eating. Both ...

149

Adolescent aesthetic athletes: a group at risk for eating pathology?  

PubMed

Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793

Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

2012-04-01

150

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

Brobison

2010-12-03

151

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

152

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

MedlinePLUS

... Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat can ... Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video (MP4) Keywords: self-management , healthy eating , National Diabetes ...

153

Functional assessment and behavioural intervention for eating difficulties in children with autism: a study conducted in the natural environment using parents and ABA tutors as therapists.  

PubMed

Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that appropriate and disruptive mealtime behaviour was maintained by different contingencies. A non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was utilized to validate the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention for all participants included presentation of food on a spoon for 30 s unless acceptance occurred. Acceptance resulted in putative reinforcement. The meal ended after 20 presentations. For all participants, acceptance and mouth cleans increased while disruptive behaviour decreased, and effects were maintained at follow-up. PMID:21181250

Gale, Catherine M; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

2011-10-01

154

Body image and health: eating disorders and obesity.  

PubMed

Eating behavior in adolescents can be as high risk as other behaviors that arise during this period and can have serious health consequences. This article presents a framework for screening and treatment of abnormal adolescent eating behavior by the primary care provider. A review of the types of disordered eating is presented along with suggested ways to screen. Indications for subspecialty eating disorder referrals and key aspects of screening and intervention in adolescent obesity and eating disorders are also reviewed. Specific attention is paid to the aspects of care that can be provided in primary care and multidisciplinary care. PMID:25124204

Jasik, Carolyn Bradner

2014-09-01

155

EATING DISORDERS AWARENESS Eating Disorders Among Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate

Annie King; Bonnie Sutherly

156

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes). It is accompanied by feeling of being out of control, guilt and shame. Bulimia also involves being overly concerned with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa

Leistikow, Bruce N.

157

Eating the elephant whole or in slices: views of participants in a smoking cessation intervention trial on multiple behaviour changes as sequential or concurrent tasks  

PubMed Central

Background This paper explores smoking cessation participants’ perceptions of attempting weight management alongside smoking cessation within the context of a health improvement intervention implemented in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods One hundred and thirty-eight participants were recruited from smoking cessation classes in areas of multiple deprivation in Glasgow and randomised to intervention, receiving dietary advice, or to control groups. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the % change in body weight. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 intervention and 15 control participants at weeks 6 (during the intervention) and 24 (at the end of the intervention). The current paper, though predominantly qualitative, links perceptions of behaviour modification to % weight change and cessation rates at week 24 thereby enabling a better understanding of the mediators influencing multiple behaviour change. Results Our findings suggest that participants who perceive separate behaviour changes as part of a broader approach to a healthier lifestyle, and hence attempt behaviour changes concurrently, may be at comparative advantage in positively achieving dual outcomes. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to assess participants’ preference for attempting multiple behaviour changes sequentially or simultaneously in addition to assessing their readiness to change. Further testing of this hypothesis is warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN94961361 PMID:22759785

2012-01-01

158

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US

SHERYL L WHISENANT; BARBARA A SMITH

1995-01-01

159

Eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Eating disorders (EDs) are an important public health problem in developed countries. Despite the amount of epidemiological\\u000a studies and causal theories, there is a great disparity of estimates and many questions remain still unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to estimate the prevalence of the population at risk of developing EDs and describe the risk profiles among adolescents\\u000a and

Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso; María Ángeles Rasillo Rodríguez; José Eugenio Lozano Alonso; Gloria Rodríguez Carretero; Manuel Franco Martín

2005-01-01

160

Loneliness and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each

Martha Peaslee Levine

2012-01-01

161

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

162

Healthy Eating for Preschoolers  

MedlinePLUS

Healthy Eating Get your child on the path to healthy eating. Focus on the meal and each other. Your ... child’s throat—about the size of a nickel. Healthy Eating There are many ways to divide the Daily ...

163

Eating Disorders in Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Eating Disorders in Children HealthDay July 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Eating ... Health Teen Health Transcript When it comes to children most at risk for an eating disorder, focus ...

164

Tracheostomy tube - eating  

MedlinePLUS

Trach - eating ... tell you when it is safe to begin eating solids and liquids by mouth. At this time, ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ...

165

Kids and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...

166

Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their\\u000a normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about\\u000a thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed\\u000a to compare perceived weight status, desired

Jennifer A O’Dea; Nancy K Amy

2011-01-01

167

Examining the Addictive-Like Properties of Binge Eating Using an Animal Model of Sugar Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has encouraged research efforts aimed at understanding the etiology of abnormal eating behaviors. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviors when consuming palatable foods. Binge eating is a behavioral component of bulimia and obesity and has also become increasingly common in nonclinical populations

Nicole M. Avena

2007-01-01

168

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's important to eat the right things to keep our bodies happy and healthy. As you explore these sites, look for ways you can better give your body what it needs. There's still an hour until lunch, and you're hungry. You do have a candy bar that you got for your birthday. It looks really tasty, but is that really what your body needs. Your mom always says they're bad for you, and they'll make you sick. Is that ...

Thorpe, Mr.

2012-04-30

169

Shortness of Breath and Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... of Breath and Eating Shortness of Breath and Eating Shortness of breath can make eating hard work. If you use all your energy ... tired. Breathe evenly while you are chewing and eating. Stop eating if you need to catch your ...

170

Safe Eats - Eating Out and Bringing In  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Educators Education Campaigns for the Hispanic Community Food Safety for Moms-To-Be: Safe Eats - Eating Out & ... and beyond! Also available in Spanish > En español > Food Safety for Moms-To-Be Main Page Meat, Poultry & ...

171

Symposium: Normal and abnormal REM sleep regulation: REM sleep behaviour disorder: an update on a series of 96 patients and a review of the world literature.  

PubMed

REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is an injurious clinical disorder of attempted dream-enactment ('oneirism') in humans which has a corresponding experimental animal model involving dorsolateral pontine tegmental lesions in cats. To date, our sleep disorders centre has collected data on 96 chronic RBD cases which can be compared with pooled data on 70 chronic RBD cases from other centres contained in 26 reports published in the world literature since 1985, when our initial cases were first reported. The data from our centre and from other centres demonstrate a male predominance in RBD (87.5% vs 63.5%); indicate a similar mean age of RBD onset (52.4 y vs 55.9 y); contain substantial numbers of diverse central nervous system disorders causally associated with RBD (47.9% vs 60.0%); and identify clonazepam treatment as being very effective in controlling both the (violent) dream and sleep behavioural disturbances of RBD. Our centre's data additionally reveal an 80% prevalence of elevated stage 3/4 (slow-wave) sleep% for age in RBD, and reveal a frequent presence of periodic and aperiodic limb movements during NREM sleep. Thus, RBD in humans is a complex syndrome in which there is generalized REM and NREM sleep motor dyscontrol, as was originally observed in the animal RBD model by Jouvet and Delorme in 1965. PMID:10607098

Schenck; Hurwitz; Mahowald

1993-12-01

172

Is overweight at 12 months associated with differences in eating behaviour or dietary intake among children selected for inappropriate bottle use?  

PubMed

Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24?h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (?85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ?2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3?kcal day(-1) (standard deviation?=?346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. PMID:23556429

Bonuck, Karen; Avraham, Sivan Ben; Hearst, Mary; Kahn, Richard; Hyden, Christel

2014-04-01

173

Hypoglycaemia following a mixed meal in eating disorder patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo describe the incidence of hypoglycaemia, and variables associated with hypoglycaemia, in eating disorder patients following a mixed meal stimulus.MethodsPostprandial blood glucose values of patients admitted to a specialist eating disorder hospital for treatment of an eating disorder between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed and compared to body mass index (BMI), electrolytes, and weight losing behaviours. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Susan Hart; Suzanne Abraham; Richard C Franklin; Stephen M Twigg; Janice Russell

2011-01-01

174

Eating Disorders: Could They be Autoimmune Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent research on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has shown an increasing understanding of the biological and physiological abnormalities that underlie the development of an eating disorder. Cultural pressures, individual and family experiences, along with physiological and genetic systems all appear to contribute to the onset of these disorders. There is significant evidence for genetic factors in

Melissa Stevenson

2006-01-01

175

[Epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain].  

PubMed

Considerable advances have been made in research of epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain. This report summarizes recent studies. This review suggests that the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in Spanish clinical and non-clinical populations is not markedly different from that already reported for other developed countries. The wide range of variation in published prevalence rates for eating disorders in adults and adolescents can be understood in the face of the many methodological problems inherent to this type of research. Anorexia nervosa and related eating disorders are most commonly investigated in adolescent girls and young women and a number of researchers have investigated prevalence rates in this group. No good epidemiological research has been carried out with child populations and male populations. PMID:12677473

Ruiz-Lazaro, P M

2003-01-01

176

Effect of Excitonic Interactions on Abnormal Luminescence Behaviour of InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Electron Tunneling Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the unique correlations between the electrical and optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with n-AlGaN layer and n-InGaN/GaN superlattice electron tunneling layer (ETL). It was found that the ideality factor of the two devices increased with decreasing temperature from 300 to 20 K. Levine's model was used to characterize the anomaly, and the ideality factor could be shown as a function of temperature by n = 1 + To/T. The device with ETL inherently exhibited a large pseudo-temperature To with a large characteristic energy and charge population in the multilayer interface, over wide temperature and voltage ranges. Owing to the more interface state distribution and the less effective density of state (DOS) in the quantum wells, the excitons formed in the ETL sample augment the spectral radiations at temperatures higher than 150 K. The carrier tunneling processes via the extent of charge population consequently caused anomalous To and resulted in the abnormal deterioration of the EL intensities with a small density of state.

Wu, Gwo-Mei; Cheng, Kung-Yu; Fang, Chia-Hui; Nee, Tzer-En; Wang, Jen-Cheng; Chen, Nie-Chuan; Hu, Yeu-Jent; Lee, Jiunn-Chyi; Wu, Ya-Fen

2008-01-01

177

The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present

Pat Burton; Hendrik J. Smit; Helen J. Lightowler

2007-01-01

178

Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesi- ty. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family- based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical

JEMMA DAY; ANDREW TERNOUTH; DAVID A. COLLIER

179

Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.  

PubMed

This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified. PMID:16042160

Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

2005-01-01

180

Eating disorders and emotional and physical well-being: Associations between student self-reports of eating disorders and quality of life as measured by the SF36  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects with eating disorders in terms of eating disorder type and in relation to self-reports of longstanding illness, depression and self-harming behaviours. Method: Data on eating disorder history, SF-36 health status, longstanding illness, and self-reported frequencies of depression, self-harming behaviour, and suicidal thoughts or acts were collected during 1996 as part

Helen A. Doll; Sophie E. Petersen; Sarah L. Stewart-Brown

2005-01-01

181

Adolescents with eating disorders: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents face stress in relation to normal growing up, to cultural pressures in looking slim and having a body image that mirrors peers' norms and values. Many adolescents make it through their youth without showing significant behavioural difficulties. Others negotiate these pressures through eating disorders. Both quantitative and qualitative data are used to identify adolescents' experiences and meanings in relation

Zoubida Guernina

1998-01-01

182

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder and allied diagnoses such as eating disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have attempted to define genetic risk factors for these disorders, including case-control and family-based candidate gene association studies and linkage analysis of multiply affected nuclear families. These have used both clinical diagnoses and eating disorder-related intermediate phenotypes such as drive-for-thinness or body dissatisfaction. Candidate gene studies have focussed on neurotransmitter and neurodevelopmental systems [e.g. serotonergic, opioid, cannabinoid and dopaminergic receptors, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)], appetite regulatory peptides and their receptors [leptin, ghrelin, agouti-related protein (AgRP), melanocortin receptors, neuropeptide Y], energy balance systems (e.g. uncoupling proteins), genes implicated in obesity (e.g. FTO) and sex hormone systems (e.g. oestrogen receptors), either identified on the basis of their function alone or as positional candidates from linkage analysis. Of these studies, linkage analysis implicates 1p33-36 for AN, 1q31.3 for quantitative behavioural traits related to anorexia and 10p14 for BN, as well as other behavioural phenotypes across both disorders. Candidate gene association has implicated BDNF, delta 1 opioid receptor (OPDR1) and AgRP. More recently, with the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analysis with microsatellite markers has implicated novel candidate loci for AN at 1q41 and 11q22, and further GWAS results are expected in the near future. PMID:21243475

Helder, Sietske G; Collier, David A

2011-01-01

183

Athletic identity and disordered eating in obligatory and non-obligatory runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong “running” role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours\\/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery

Jennifer I. Gapin; Steven J. Petruzzello

2011-01-01

184

Eating attitudes in urban and suburban adolescents.  

PubMed

We administered the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory to two populations of high school students. The first group, 268 suburban females (mean age 16.2 years), completed their questionnaires in May 1988. The second population, 389 females and 281 males (mean age 16.0 years) in a city school with 92% black of Hispanic students, completed their questionnaires in February 1990 and were also measured for height and weight as part of a health screening. Scores of 21 or higher on the EAT-26 were achieved by 17.5% of the suburban females, 15.0% of the urban females, and 6.0% of the urban males. Significantly more suburban females (63%) considered themselves overweight, compared with both urban females (35%) and males (19%), yet only 14% of suburban females were calculated to be > 10% over ideal body weight, compared with 45% of urban females and 39% of urban males. Contrary to expectations, self-esteem was higher and anxiety lower in the urban students than the suburban students; self-esteem and anxiety were each significantly correlated with higher EAT scores in both populations, but believing oneself overweight was correlated with higher EAT scores in only the suburban students. These data indicate that abnormal eating attitudes are present among both urban and suburban students but with important differences in their manifestations and implications. PMID:7920583

Fisher, M; Pastore, D; Schneider, M; Pegler, C; Napolitano, B

1994-07-01

185

Eating habits and behaviors  

MedlinePLUS

... to help you feel better without turning to food as a reward. Plan your meals. Know what you will eat ahead of time so you can avoid buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. ...

186

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents/Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to ... Aim for a Healthy Weight Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering ...

187

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family

Toronto, University of

188

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

189

Healthy Eating for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Intolerances Autism Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Digestive Health Eating Disorders Fertility and Reproductive Health Heart and Cardiovascular HIV/ ... outlines essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Healthy Eating for Women A balanced diet is a cornerstone ...

190

Healthy Eating for Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Intolerances Autism Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Digestive Health Eating Disorders Fertility and Reproductive Health Heart and Cardiovascular HIV/ ... outlines essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Healthy Eating for Men Food is more than just fuel. ...

191

Eating Right during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... outlines essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Eating Right During Pregnancy The 40 weeks of pregnancy ... range of topics including careers in dietetics, healthy eating, the Academy membership benefits, media interviewing skills and the professional role of the ...

192

Prevention of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in

Cheryl L. Rock

193

Understanding eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome in eating disorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eating disorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disordered eating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the

Per Södersten; Cecilia Bergh; Michel Zandian

2006-01-01

194

Preadolescent Disordered Eating Predicts Subsequent Eating Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Objective?This article tested whether disordered eating in the spring of sixth grade can be predicted by the behaviors of fifth grade elementary school children.?Method?Measurements of disordered eating were collected from 1906 children (mean age = 10.86 years) at Time 1 (spring of fifth grade), Time 2 (fall of sixth grade), and Time 3 (spring of sixth grade).?Results?A number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating during the previous 2 weeks: 12.1% reported objective binge episodes, 4.8% reported purging food, and 9.8% reported restricting food intake. These behaviors predicted disordered eating during the spring of sixth grade. In addition, fifth grade pubertal onset predicted higher levels of restricting for girls.?Conclusion?A substantial number of fifth grade children reported disordered eating behaviors, and these behaviors predicted disordered eating behaviors in the spring of sixth grade. Disordered eating can be studied at least as early as fifth grade. PMID:22961314

Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.

2013-01-01

195

Re-embodying Eating  

PubMed Central

Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

2014-01-01

196

Simultaneous nutritional cognitive–behavioural therapy in obese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important problem in cognitive–behavioural therapies for obese patients is to initiate weight loss without reinforcing the eating–behavioural disorders. We propose to assess the cognitive–behavioural therapy in obese patients suffering from eating disorders with and without combining a nutritional approach based on fat information. The patients (n=60) have followed a group treatment of 12 weekly cognitive–behavioural therapy sessions with

Dominique Painot; Sébastien Jotterand; Anne Kammer; Michelle Fossati; Alain Golay

2001-01-01

197

The evolving genetic foundations of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Data described earlier are clear in establishing a role for genes in the development of eating abnormalities. Estimates from the most rigorous studies suggest that more than 50% of the variance in eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors can be accounted for by genetic effects. These high estimates indicate a need for studies identifying the specific genes contributing to this large proportion of variance. Twin and family studies suggest that several heritable characteristics that are commonly comorbid with AN and BN may share genetic transmission with these disorders, including anxiety disorders or traits, body weight, and possibly major depression. Moreover, some developmental research suggests that the genes involved in ovarian hormones or the genes that these steroids affect also may be genetically linked to eating abnormalities. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infant stages. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, and estrogen receptor beta gene), and several large-scale linkage and association studies are underway. These studies likely will provide invaluable information regarding the appropriate phenotypes to be included in genetic studies and the genes with the most influence on the development of these disorders. PMID:11416922

Klump, K L; Kaye, W H; Strober, M

2001-06-01

198

Potential link between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and alexithymia in an eating-disordered treatment-seeking sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image.

Andrea Siân Fenwick; Karen Anne Sullivan

2011-01-01

199

Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high-intensity sports.  

PubMed

Dieting is an important risk factor for disordered eating and eating disorders. Disordered eating occurs on a continuum from dieting and restrictive eating, abnormal eating behavior, and finally clinical eating disorders. The prevalence of eating disorders is increased in elite athletes and for this group the cause of starting to diet is related to (a) perception of the paradigm of appearance in the specific sport, (b) perceived performance improvements, and (c) sociocultural pressures for thinness or an "ideal" body. Athletes most at risk for disordered eating are those involved in sports emphasizing a thin body size/shape, a high power-to-weight ratio, and/or sports utilizing weight categories, such as in some high-intensity sports. In addition to dieting, personality factors, pressure to lose weight, frequent weight cycling, early start of sport-specific training, overtraining, injuries, and unfortunate coaching behavior, are important risk factors. To prevent disordered eating and eating disorders, the athletes have to practice healthy eating, and the medical staff of teams and parents must be able to recognize symptoms indicating risk for eating disorders. Coaches and leaders must accept that disordered eating can be a problem in the athletic community and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:20840569

Sundgot-Borgen, J; Torstveit, M K

2010-10-01

200

Diagnosis and treatment of normal eating  

E-print Network

The shift in societal preference toward a thin physique has led to an increasing prevalence of dieting such that "normal " eating for North American women is now characterized by dieting. In this article, we explore similarities between such normal dieters and individuals with an eating disorder and question whether a continuity exists between normal and abnormal eating behavior. The regulation of intake among normal dieter and patient populations is compared and is explained by the boundary model of consumption, which leads to the conclusion that in neither group is eating technically disordered, although it does depart from appropriate physiological norms. We conclude that many normal eaters (i.e., dieters or restrained eaters) display characteristics of eating-disorder pathologies and should be treated accordingly. Such treatment involves changing both the patient and the environment, especially societal attitudes toward body weight and shape. The current societal preference for a thin physique has spawned a corresponding societal preoccupation with dieting and weight loss. The extent of this preoccupation is such that it may now be accurate to regard dieting and its attendant diet mentality as normative, both descriptively and prescriptively.

Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman

1987-01-01

201

Negative affect-induced food intake in non-dieting women is reward driven and associated with restrained–disinhibited eating subtype  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans the presence of negative affect is thought to promote food intake, although widespread variability surrounds this issue. Susceptibility to negative affect-induced eating may depend on trait eating behaviours, notably ‘emotional eating’, ‘restrained eating’ and ‘disinhibited eating’, but the evidence is not consistent. In the present study, 30 non-obese, non-dieting women were given access to palatable food while in

Stephanie H. Fay; Graham Finlayson

2011-01-01

202

Overcoming picky eating. Eating enjoyment as a central aspect of children's eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Picky eating is a relatively common problem during childhood, and parents lack clear strategies with which to decrease picky eating. This study examined whether increasing eating enjoyment and cooking enjoyment might give opportunities to decrease picky eating. Parents (n=305), mainly mothers with children between 6 and 12 years of age (53.8% boys; 46.2% girls), completed a questionnaire on pressure and restriction, eating enjoyment, and picky eating, and cooking enjoyment. Path analyses were performed to examine the mediating role of eating enjoyment. The final model provided a good fit to the data and explained 33% variance in picky eating. A strong inverse association between eating enjoyment and picky eating was found (?=-.44). Significant direct effects were found between cooking enjoyment and picky eating (?=-.16) and restriction and picky eating (?=.18). Eating enjoyment partly mediated the association between cooking enjoyment and picky eating. Results showed pressure had only an indirect effect on picky eating through eating enjoyment. Eating enjoyment serves as an important and central factor in children's picky-eating behavior. High controlling practices might create a negative environment around food and healthy eating and so decrease eating enjoyment and increase picky eating. PMID:22245133

van der Horst, Klazine

2012-04-01

203

Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory: exploring the dimensionality of eating disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum. PMID:22049653

Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio

2011-08-01

204

Development of Eating Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As can be seen throughout this book, childhood and adolescent obesity is of great concern. Obesity during childhood and adolescence\\u000a has been associated with physical, behavioral, and academic difficulties (Anderson & Butcher, 2006; Datar & Sturm, 2006).\\u000a This chapter will discuss developmental patterns related to normative eating habits as well as eating patterns associated\\u000a with problematic eating. Given that the

Vicky Phares; Jessica Curley; Ariz Rojas

205

The Usefulness of Body Image Tests in the Prevention of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Individual psychological factors such as mental conditions and self-esteem and family relational factors are thought to be predisposing factors in the development of eating disorders. In this study, we conducted a survey of 12-15 year-old public junior high school students to extract factors related to abnormal eating behavior and determine what information could be used by schools to prevent eating

CHIE YAMAMOTO; MASAHARU UEMOTO; NAOTAKA SHINFUKU; KIYOSHI MAEDA

206

Identifying eating disorders.  

PubMed

While most nurses are familiar with anorexia and bulimia, how many nurses have heard of compulsive overeating, also known as binge eating? This is not a new condition but the medical profession has been very slow to recognize it as a problem, let alone as an eating disorder. This article looks at the different types of eating disorders, their differences, how to identify sufferers and where to refer them. Identifying patients with eating disorders is a very hard task since sufferers have learned the art of secrecy, denial and deception. PMID:16301950

Jenkins, Alison

207

Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in eating disorders: Recent findings and its pathophysiological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are disorders characterized by abnormal patterns of weight regulation and eating behaviors, and by disturbances in attitudes and perceptions toward weight and body shape. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in regulating neural survival, development, function, and plasticity in the brain. Recent findings using heterozygous BDNF (±)

Kenji Hashimoto; Hiroki Koizumi; Michiko Nakazato; Eiji Shimizu; Masaomi Iyo

2005-01-01

208

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

209

Understanding eating disorders.  

PubMed

The outcome in eating disorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eating disorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disordered eating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the neuroendocrine mechanisms that have been under this evolutionary pressure are anatomically versatile and show synaptic plasticity to allow for flexibility. Many of the neuroendocrine changes in starvation are responses to the externally imposed shortage of food and the associated neuroendocrine secretions facilitate behavioral adaptation as needed rather than make an individual merely eat more or less food. A parsimonious, neurobiologically realistic explanation why eating disorders develop and why they are maintained is offered. It is suggested that the brain mechanisms of reward are activated when food intake is reduced and that disordered eating behavior is subsequently maintained by conditioning to the situations in which the disordered eating behavior developed via the neural system for attention. In a method based on this framework, patients are taught how to eat normally, their physical activity is controlled and they are provided with external heat. The method has been proven effective in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:16890228

Södersten, Per; Bergh, Cecilia; Zandian, Michel

2006-11-01

210

Ghrelin in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating. PMID:21453750

Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H

2011-06-20

211

Personality and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity

Kristin M von Ranson

212

Wilderness Eating Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

Rhea, Jessica

2006-01-01

213

Boys with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-01-01

214

Eating Disorders among Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)

Fairbanks, George

1987-01-01

215

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eating disorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eating disorders and the level

Mervat Nasser

2009-01-01

216

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of

Mervat Nasser

2006-01-01

217

DASH Eating Plan  

MedlinePLUS

... Plan » What Is... DASH Eating Plan Explore DASH Eating Plan What Is... Benefits Following DASH Healthy Lifestyle Getting Started Links Related Topics High Blood Pressure Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Stroke Overweight and Obesity Related Media Videos Quizzes Send a link to NHLBI to ...

218

Boys with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders PMID:16419341

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-12-01

219

Prevalence of eating disorders in adults with celiac disease.  

PubMed

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V; Siniscalchi, M; Zingone, F; Bucci, C; Tortora, R; Iovino, P; Ciacci, C

2013-01-01

220

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

2013-01-01

221

Bulimics' responses to food cravings: is binge-eating a product of hunger or emotional state?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the roles of hunger, food craving and mood in the binge-eating episodes of bulimic patients, and identified the critical factors involved in the processes surrounding binge-eating episodes that follow cravings. This was a prospective study of the binge-eating behaviour of 15 women with bulimia nervosa. The participants used food intake diaries and Craving Records to self-monitor their

Anne Waters; Andrew Hill; Glenn Waller

2001-01-01

222

Personality characteristics predict outcome of eating disorders in adolescents: A 4-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies on predictive factors in eating disorders have not been very clear until now. Attention has focused primarily\\u000a on the predictive value of eating behaviour, duration of illness, comorbidity, and population characteristics for groups with\\u000a mixed eating disorders, but lately several studies have concentrated on the influence of psychological and personality characteristics.\\u000a In this 4-year prospective follow-up study

T. van der Ham; D. C. van Strien; H. van Engeland

1998-01-01

223

Relationship between dietary restraint, binge eating, and leptin in obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe some biological, behavioural and psychological correlates of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and to determine the relationship between dietary restraint, binge eating, and leptin among obese women seeking treatment.DESIGN: Consecutive series of obese women enrolled in a clinical program for weight reduction treatment.SUBJECTS: Forty-two obese women. Eight participants met the criteria for ‘severe binge eating’ as measured by

A d'Amore; C Massignan; P Montera; A Moles; A De Lorenzo; S Scucchi

2001-01-01

224

Eat your troubles away: electrocortical and experiential correlates of food image processing are related to emotional eating style and emotional state.  

PubMed

Emotional eating, a trait-like style of food intake in response to negative emotion states, represents an important aspect of overeating and eating related psychopathology. The mechanisms of emotional eating both on experiential and neuronal levels are not well delineated. We recorded event related potentials (ERPs) while individuals with high or low emotional eating style (HEE, n=25; LEE, n=20) viewed and rated pictures of high-caloric food during neutral state vs. negative idiosyncratic emotion induction. Craving ratings increased in HEE and decreased in LEE during negative relative to neutral states. ERPs to food pictures showed an enhanced late positive potential (LPP) over parieto-occipital regions for HEE compared to LEE. Emotional state modulated food picture evoked ERPs over right frontal regions in HEE only. This suggests that appetitive food processing is susceptible to both concurrent emotion and habitual eating style which is of relevance for overeating in healthy and abnormal eating. PMID:24361542

Blechert, Jens; Goltsche, Julia E; Herbert, Beate M; Wilhelm, Frank H

2014-02-01

225

Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.  

PubMed

The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. PMID:22446723

Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

2012-08-01

226

The influence of restrained and external eating patterns on overeating.  

PubMed

Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eating behaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717

Burton, Pat; Smit, Hendrik J; Lightowler, Helen J

2007-07-01

227

Psychological factors predict eating disorder onset and maintenance at 10-year follow-up.  

PubMed

The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviours in men and women (N = 1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-up. Multivariate models indicated higher Perfectionism (p = .025), lower Interpersonal Distrust (p < .001), and higher Maturity Fears (p = .037) predicted increased risk for eating disorder onset at 10-year follow-up, but only Perfectionism (p = .004) predicted eating disorder maintenance. Differential prediction of eating disorder onset versus maintenance highlights potentially different psychological foci for prevention versus treatment efforts. PMID:23847146

Holland, Lauren A; Bodell, Lindsay P; Keel, Pamela K

2013-09-01

228

healthy eating CHEAP AND EASY  

E-print Network

for healthy meals. healthy eating CHEAP AND EASY For more information on healthy eating, call 1-800-667-DIET example eating healthy foods more often offering meals and snacks at regular times, and giving your kids a variety of foods at meals and snacks. children NEED HEALTHY FOOD healthy eating doesn't mean forcing kids

229

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

230

Predictors of functional and exercise amenorrhoea among eating and exercise disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of amenorrhoea self-reported by patients who are suffering or recovering from eating or exercise disorders. METHODS: Menstrual status, eating and exercise behaviours and feelings, and weight history of 268 female patients, 16-40 years old and not taking oral contraception or hormone replacement, were assessed on admission to hospital or

Suzanne F. Abraham; Bianca Pettigrew; Catherine Boyd; Janice Russell

231

The Biology of Binge Eating  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating. PMID:19501749

Mathes, Wendy Foulds; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Mo, Xiaofei; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2009-01-01

232

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

233

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

234

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

235

Eating during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Protein cell growth and blood production lean meat, fish, poultry, egg whites, beans, peanut butter, tofu Carbohydrates ... red blood cells, maintaining nervous system health meat, fish, poultry, milk (Note: vegetarians who don't eat ...

236

Eating during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... talk to your doctor. Back Continue More About Fish Fish and shellfish can be an extremely healthy part ... in saturated fat. But limit the types of fish you eat while pregnant because some contain high ...

237

Standing While Eating  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Standing on the Ginza, Tokyo's primo shopping zone, one sees the expected: people in a hurry to shop until they drop, and the unexpected: people eating standing up at the counters of a McDonald's franchise. Why...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2005-10-05

238

Eating for Sports  

MedlinePLUS

... fine just eating a balanced diet of healthy meals and snacks. If you're concerned about your ... can cause serious problems, like kidney damage. Skipping meals, eliminating certain food groups, or going on fasts ( ...

239

Spotlight on Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Spotlight on Eating Disorders Subscribe to Blog Recent Posts Depression, Daughters, and Cellular Aging October 23, 2014 ... Beyond - Services Research for ASD September 11, 2014 Posts by Year 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 ...

240

Hygienic food handling behaviours. An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires regarding their attitudes, perceived behavioural control (PBC), subjective norm, intentions and past behaviour. Behaviour was measured 4 weeks later. The TPB predicted a high proportion of variance in both intentions and behaviour, and past behaviour/habit was found to be the strongest predictor of behaviour. The results of the present study suggest interventions aimed at increasing safe food handling intentions should focus on the impact of normative influences and perceptions of control over their food handling environment; whereas interventions to change actual behaviour should attempt to increase hygienic food handling as a habitual behaviour. PMID:19501776

Mullan, Barbara A; Wong, Cara L

2009-06-01

241

Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.  

PubMed

Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

2009-03-01

242

Predictors of disinhibited eating in children with and without overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study examined how 7–13-year-old children with and without overweight respond to free access to snack food in the absence of hunger and whether this eating behaviour could be predicted by parental feeding strategies and child's characteristics.

Ellen Moens; Caroline Braet

2007-01-01

243

Academy of eating disorders international conference.  

PubMed

New information is being acquired and disseminated about eating disorders, particularly in terms of integrating the roles of genes and environment, and new treatment approaches. Although evidence indicates that genes are not more important in the aetiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) than bulimia nervosa, Western culture does appear to be more important in the aetiology of bulimia nervosa than AN. Pathological fear conditioning offers a very useful and experimentally testable theory of the aetiology of AN. New evidence suggests that an enhanced, 'transdiagnostic' form of cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in eating disorder patients suitable for out-patient treatment. Patients who are homozygotic for the short (s) allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene promoter region appear to be more resistant to multimodal treatment. PMID:15212626

Brewerton, Timothy D

2004-07-01

244

Candidate gene polymorphisms in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex disorders characterized by disordered eating behaviour. Attitudes towards weight and shape as well as the perception of body shape are disturbed. A substantial genetic influence on these disorders has been suggested by formal genetic studies. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour, perfectionism and anxious personality traits seem to occur premorbidly in several patients. Disturbances of neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems have been reported in acutely ill and followed-up patients. Hence, these systems might be involved in the etiology of these eating disorders.Genetic studies on candidate genes have mainly focussed on the serotonergic system and on genes involved in body weight regulation. Up to now, polymorphisms and variations in various genes (e.g. genes for 5-HT receptors, leptin gene, melanocortin MC(4) receptor gene) have been assessed for association and transmission disequilibrium pertaining to anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia nervosa. Most of the studies yielded negative results. Four studies of a polymorphism (-1438 G/A) within the promoter of the 5-HT(2A) gene (5-HT(2A)) revealed an association of the A-allele to anorexia nervosa. However, three studies could not confirm this result. Furthermore, a meta-analysis did not support the positive association. Currently, combined efforts within the European Union will answer the question of whether or not the A-allele is involved in the predisposition to anorexia nervosa. A transmission disequilibrium test is being performed in about 300 trios consisting of a patient with anorexia nervosa and both parents. As candidate gene approaches did not unequivocally identify susceptibility genes (alleles) for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, systematic model-free genome-wide screenings should also be performed in order to identify currently unknown genes involved in eating disorders. This kind of approach has already been initiated for anorexia nervosa. Genetic research on eating disorders will hopefully lead to new pharmacological treatment strategies. PMID:11134666

Hinney, A; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

2000-12-27

245

Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

246

Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in eating disorders: recent findings and its pathophysiological implications.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are disorders characterized by abnormal patterns of weight regulation and eating behaviors, and by disturbances in attitudes and perceptions toward weight and body shape. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in regulating neural survival, development, function, and plasticity in the brain. Recent findings using heterozygous BDNF (+/-) knock-out (reduced BDNF levels) mice have provided evidence that BDNF plays a role in regulating eating behaviors. Recently, we found that serum levels of BDNF in patients with eating disorders are significantly decreased compared with normal controls. In addition, an association between the BDNF gene polymorphism and eating disorders has been demonstrated. We reviewed the role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of eating disorders and the BDNF gene as a susceptibility gene for eating disorders. Considering the low levels of BDNF in patients with eating disorders, using drugs that increase the BDNF levels and/or BDNF gene therapy are possible novel therapeutic approaches. Providing confirmation that the BDNF gene is the true susceptibility gene for eating disorders could lead to rapid therapeutic progress in treating these disorders. In addition, a more complete understanding of the signal transduction pathway via the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and TrkB receptors would provide new perspectives for treating eating disorders. PMID:15866349

Hashimoto, Kenji; Koizumi, Hiroki; Nakazato, Michiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Iyo, Masaomi

2005-05-01

247

The role of ghrelin, salivary secretions, and dental care in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

2012-08-01

248

Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

2014-11-01

249

Dieting Frequency in Obese Patients With Binge Eating Disorder: Behavioral and Metabolic Correlates  

PubMed Central

This study examined the clinical significance of self-reported frequency of time spent dieting in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). A total of 207 treatment-seeking obese BED patients (57 men and 150 women) were dichotomized by dieting frequency and gender and compared on a number of historical, psychological, and metabolic variables. Frequent dieters reported significantly earlier age of onset for binge eating, dieting, and obesity, more episodes of weight cycling, greater weight suppression, and greater eating disorder pathology than infrequent dieters; no differences, however, emerged on current binge eating frequency or psychological distress. Among women but not among men, frequent dieters had consistently lower chances of abnormalities in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio while infrequent dieters had greater chances of abnormalities on these variables. Dietary restraint was inversely correlated with abnormalities in triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the total/HDL cholesterol ratio but was unrelated to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. In summary, frequent dieters of both genders had greater lifetime and current eating and weight concerns, and in women, decreased chance of metabolic abnormalities than infrequent dieters. Our findings suggest that frequent dieting attempts, particularly in women, are associated with greater eating disorder pathology but may have a beneficial effect on metabolic functioning and cardiovascular disease risk independent of actual weight status. These findings may have implications for clinical advice provided to obese BED patients. PMID:19165172

Roehrig, Megan; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

2013-01-01

250

Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

2009-01-01

251

Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and communication about healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to

Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen

2009-01-01

252

Diet and eating after esophagectomy  

MedlinePLUS

... a feeding tube, or even when you start eating regular foods again. Notice if any specific foods ... talking to your doctor. What you should be eating: You will be drinking liquids at first. Then ...

253

What Does "Healthy Eating" Mean?  

MedlinePLUS

... nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Em What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans , ... or boiled, rather than fried. l Wh en eating out, select a dish from the menu, rather ...

254

Safe eating during cancer treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... their containers. Do not eat soft cheeses or cheeses with blue veins (such as Brie, Camembert, Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola, and Bleu). Do not eat Mexican-style cheeses (such as queso blanco fresco and cojita). Fruits ...

255

Couples Eating Disorder Prevention Program  

E-print Network

Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are more prevalent in today's society than ever. As a result, several prevention programs targeting the common eating disorder risk factors have been developed. The purpose of the current study...

Ramirez-Cash, Ana L.

2010-07-14

256

It's Not Easy Eating Green  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can I eat without harming others? Motivated by this question, I ask Torontonians active in the local food movement about the food they eat and the work they do. Listening to their stories, I learn that \\

Laurel Waterman

257

Selflessness and perfectionism as predictors of pathological eating attitudes and disorders: A longitudinal study.  

PubMed

This paper examines the role that selflessness and perfectionism may play as possible predictors of pathological eating attitudes and eating disorders (ED). 1057 schoolgirls (seventh to ninth grade) participated in the initial screening phase. They were administered the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Selflessness Scale (SS) and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Based on their EAT-26 scores, 150 girls were invited to a clinical interview 2 years later (second phase). In the third phase 4 years later, 243 girls who completed the questionnaires in the seventh grade were the target of re-administration of these scales. Seventh-grade selflessness scores at initial screening phase predicted ED status determined in clinical interview at the 2-year interval and abnormal eating attitudes at the 4-year interval, above and beyond baseline seventh-grade eating-attitude scores. Perfectionism was not found to predict the development of neither ED nor abnormal eating attitudes. Preventional and therapeutic implications of the role of selflessness as a predisposing factor for ED are discussed. PMID:20196091

Bachar, Eytan; Gur, Eitan; Canetti, Laura; Berry, Elliot; Stein, Daniel

2010-01-01

258

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.  

PubMed

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

2013-05-01

259

Ghrelin and Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

2012-01-01

260

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

261

Eating Disorders among College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 10 years, eating disorders among adolescent females have become of increasing concern. To assess the prevalence of eating disorders, unusual eating-related behaviors and attitudes, and psychological states among college women, 677 women, from three private northeastern United States colleges, completed a questionnaire assessing…

Basow, Susan A.; Schneck, Renae

262

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

Ray, Shannon L.

2004-01-01

263

Eating disorders and obesity: two sides of the same coin?  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesity. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family-based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical illness with metabolic and genetic origins, and thought to be best treated by mainstream medicine, involving dietary, drug or surgical treatment. We believe that this polarisation is fundamentally flawed, and research and treatment of both types of disorder would be better served by greater appreciation of the psychosocial components of obesity and the biological and genetic components of eating disorders. There are similarities in phenotype (such as excessive attempts at weight control, binge eating behaviours) and in risk factors (such as low self-esteem, external locus of control, childhood abuse and neglect, dieting, media exposure, body image dissatisfaction, weight-related teasing and shared susceptibility genes). One example of shared genetic risk is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) gene, in which the valine allele of the Val66Met amino acid polymorphism predisposes to obesity, whereas the methionine allele predisposes to eating disorders. Thus the evidence suggests that these disorders will have both shared and distinct susceptibility factors; some will predispose to both types of disorder, some will push in opposite directions, and some will separate them. PMID:19526739

Day, Jemma; Ternouth, Andrew; Collier, David A

2009-01-01

264

Eating behavior and other distracting behaviors while driving among patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study sought to better characterize eating behavior, binge-eating behavior, and other potentially problematic, distracting behaviors while driving in patients with eating disorders. Forty patients with eating disorders who reported eating in their car at least once per week were included. Thirty subjects with eating disorders reported binge-eating while driving. A surprisingly high number of subjects reported engaging in

John Glass; James E Mitchell; Martina de Zwaan; Steve Wonderlich; Ross D Crosby; James Roerig; Melissa Burgard; Kathryn Lancaster; Janeen Voxland

2004-01-01

265

Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,

Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson

2008-01-01

266

The eating attitudes test: Comparative analysis of female and male students at the Public Ballet School of Berlin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiated examination of eating attitudes and behaviours of female and male German ballet school students with particular\\u000a reference to their age and analysis of common points with and differences from female Anorexia nervosa (A.n.) patients. The\\u000a Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) was used. Male and female adolescent students of a ballet school and a high school as well\\u000a as anorectic patients

K.-J. Neumärker; N. Bettle; O. Bettle; U. Dudeck; U. Neumärker

1998-01-01

267

Eating Disorder or Disordered Eating? Non-normative Eating Patterns in Obese Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing

Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Susan Z. Yanovski

2004-01-01

268

Eat Your Weedies!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)

Duke, James

2001-01-01

269

Binge Eating in Humans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…

Edelman, Barbara

270

Eating for Your Eyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

2011-01-01

271

Inaccessibility in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details some different manifestations of inaccessibility encountered in working with eating disorders. Using clinical material relating to anorexia and bulimia, the destructive and defensive measures that make it so difficult to reach, understand and change such pathologies are explored. The main hypothesis is that the degree of inaccessibility is a salient prognostic indicator and marker of the severity

Alexandra Willner

2009-01-01

272

Garbage-eating Geobacter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Geotimes article highlights recent work done by Derek Lovley on the microbe Geobacter. The article discusses the ability of Geobacter to eat metal wastes as well as the prospect of using Geobacter as a microbial fuel cell. The web site also contains links to the Geotimes' home page, the American Geological Institute (AGI) home, and other useful AGI links.

Zaffos, Joshua; Geotimes

273

A psychodynamic hypothesis on the night eating syndrome.  

PubMed

The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is usually interpreted in organicistic and physiological terms. This paper looks at it dynamically in terms of the psychic dimension of the patient through an examination of the contrasting tensions (emptiness and fullness; saving and destroying the object, etc.) that are the unconscious cause of his NES. A relationship is suggested between nocturnal reawakenings as a form of eating behaviour and the undreamt or avoided dreams used by the patient as a defence against "perception" of the unconscious. PMID:10728174

Cavaggioni, G

1999-03-01

274

Do Coping Strategies Discriminate Eating Disordered Individuals Better Than Eating Disorder Features? An Explorative Study on Female Inpatients with Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory),\\u000a an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire\\u000a for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients\\u000a with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A

Valentina Villa; Gian Mauro Manzoni; Francesco Pagnini; Gianluca Castelnuovo; Gian Luca Cesa; Enrico Molinari

2009-01-01

275

Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…

Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

2007-01-01

276

Animal models of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating, is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

Kim, S F

2012-06-01

277

'I want to lose weight': Early risk for disordered eating?  

PubMed

The present study examined the risk of disordered eating and its relation to attempts to lose weight by surveying a Maritime Canadian sample of 247 girls and boys in grades 6, 7 and 8. Current attempts to lose weight were highest in grade 8 girls (41% of girls and 9% of boys) compared with grade 6 (14% of girls and 24% of boys) and grade 7 (21% of girls and 13% of boys) children. Of those trying to lose weight, 71.4% were in the average range for weight and height, 12.2% were overweight and 16.3% were obese. The Children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to assess eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used as a measure of self-esteem. The results showed that 8.5% of the children fell in the high-risk group for disordered eating (ChEAT score 20 or higher). Those in the high-risk group were significantly more likely to fear being overweight (90%), to have tried to lose weight in the past (81%), to be currently trying to lose weight (76%), and to have engaged in binge eating (38%) and self-induced vomiting (24%). The best predictor of membership in the high-risk group for girls was current attempts at weight loss and having lower self-esteem. Only two boys fell in the high-risk group. Body mass index and current weight category (underweight, average, overweight and obese) could not explain the differences between the low- and high-risk groups. Knowing that a child is trying to lose weight can aid in identifying youth at risk for disordered eating, and can provide an opportunity for preventive education. PMID:19183713

Gusella, Joanne; Goodwin, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Erica

2008-02-01

278

'I want to lose weight': Early risk for disordered eating?  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the risk of disordered eating and its relation to attempts to lose weight by surveying a Maritime Canadian sample of 247 girls and boys in grades 6, 7 and 8. Current attempts to lose weight were highest in grade 8 girls (41% of girls and 9% of boys) compared with grade 6 (14% of girls and 24% of boys) and grade 7 (21% of girls and 13% of boys) children. Of those trying to lose weight, 71.4% were in the average range for weight and height, 12.2% were overweight and 16.3% were obese. The Children’s version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) was used to assess eating attitudes and behaviours, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used as a measure of self-esteem. The results showed that 8.5% of the children fell in the high-risk group for disordered eating (ChEAT score 20 or higher). Those in the high-risk group were significantly more likely to fear being overweight (90%), to have tried to lose weight in the past (81%), to be currently trying to lose weight (76%), and to have engaged in binge eating (38%) and self-induced vomiting (24%). The best predictor of membership in the high-risk group for girls was current attempts at weight loss and having lower self-esteem. Only two boys fell in the high-risk group. Body mass index and current weight category (underweight, average, overweight and obese) could not explain the differences between the low- and high-risk groups. Knowing that a child is trying to lose weight can aid in identifying youth at risk for disordered eating, and can provide an opportunity for preventive education. PMID:19183713

Gusella, Joanne; Goodwin, Jacqueline; van Roosmalen, Erica

2008-01-01

279

Restrained and External-Emotional Eating Patterns in Young Overweight Children-Results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight) filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI?=?.968) and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (?2(8)?=?79.29, p<.001). The EPI-C is a valid assessment tool in this young age group. Overweight children consciously restrain their eating. PMID:25141134

Brandt, Stephanie; Moss, Anja; Weck, Melanie; Florath, Ines; Wabitsch, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Christiansen, Hanna

2014-01-01

280

Individual Psychopathology Relative to Reports of Unwanted Sexual Experiences as Predictor of a Bulimic Eating Pattern  

E-print Network

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether family and individual psychopathology mediate the relationship between unwanted sexual experiences and bulimic eating behavior. Method: Sixty-one women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and 92 women students and university staff who had never met critia for an eating disorder completed standardized questionnaires on eating behavior, sexual abuse, individual psychopathology, and family psychopathology. Results: Linear regression showed bulimic eating behavior to be significantly related to sexual abuse ( ? =.40; p psychopathology as independent variables in addition to sexual abuse showed only individual psychopathology to predict significantly abnormal eating behavior ( ? =.53, p psychopathology most directly associated with bulimia. Discussion: The findings suggest that the primary focus in treatment should not be the traumatic events themselves, but their long-term consequences for the individual. © 1997 by John Wiley &

Regina C. Casper; Sonja Lyubomirsky

1996-01-01

281

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

282

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

283

‘Bad Boys’’ Bodies: The Embodiment of Troubled Lives. Body Image and Disordered Eating Among Adolescents in Residential Childcare Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk-group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image disorders. The objective of this study was to describe pathological eating behaviour, dysfunctional body focusing and psychological

Finn Skårderud; Pär Nygren; Birgitta Edlund

2005-01-01

284

[Psychopathology in eating disorders: new trends].  

PubMed

Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness. PMID:18361275

Dupont, Marie-Estelle; Corcos, Maurice

2008-01-31

285

Eating Epilepsy in Oman  

PubMed Central

Eating epilepsy (EE), where seizures are triggered by eating, is rare and has not been reported in the Gulf region. In EE, the ictal semiology includes partial or generalised seizures. Focal brain changes on imaging, if present, are often confined to the temporal lobe or perisylvian region. Therapeutic options, especially in those patients who are refractory to pharmacotherapy, have not been well-established. We report a series of five patients with EE from Oman, a country located in the eastern part of the Arabian Gulf region, and highlight the usefulness of temporal lobectomy in one patient who had medically-intractable EE. Surgical intervention could be considered as a potential therapeutic option in carefully selected patients with medically-intractable seizures. PMID:23573399

Gujjar, Arunodaya R.; Jacob, P. C.; Ramanchandiran, Nandhagopal; Al-Asmi, Abdullah

2013-01-01

286

Genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Disordered eating behavior is the core symptom of the complex disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Twin and family studies derive high heritability estimates. Hence, substantial genetic influences on the etiology can be assumed for both. Initially, candidate gene studies pertaining to the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems and to body weight regulation comprised the core of the genetic analyses. Unfortunately, confirmed, solid findings substantiated in meta-analyses are rare, so that eventually none of these associations is unequivocal. Thus, systematic, genome-wide approaches emerged to identify genes with no a priori evidence for their involvement in eating disorders. Genome-wide association studies have hinted to formerly unknown genetic regions. However, significant genome-wide findings have not yet been reported. PMID:24202964

Hinney, Anke; Volckmar, Anna-Lena

2013-12-01

287

Assessment of eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper examines diagnostic agreement between interview and questionnaire assessments of women participating in a long-term follow-up study of bulimia nervosa. Methods: Women (N=162) completed follow-up evaluations comprising questionnaires and either face-to-face or telephone interviews. Results: Consistent with previous research, rates of eating disorders were higher when assessed by questionnaire than when assessed by interview; however, rates of full

Pamela K. Keel; Scott Crow; Traci L. Davis; James E. Mitchell

2002-01-01

288

Nutria, Eating Louisiana's Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

'Eating-out' might be a term you associate with a pleasant experience, especially in south Louisiana where the food is good and the atmosphere is casual. Another kind of 'eat-out' in Louisiana that is not so pleasant, though, is where nutria, large semiaquatic rodents introduced from South America, have literally eaten up the coastline. Nutria live in fresh, intermediate, and brackish marshes and wetlands and feed on vegetation (herbivory) that is vital to sustaining the Louisiana coastline. Their 'eat-outs' create openings in the marsh vegetation, and they are currently affecting an estimated 100,000 acres of coastal wetlands. With Louisiana's coastal wetlands converting to open water at a rate of 25-35 square miles (65-91 square kilometers) each year, nutria are an additional burden to an already stressed ecosystem. The nutria, or coypu (Myocastor coypus), was introduced into the United States in 1899 in California for the fur-farming industry. Since then, they have been introduced to many states and currently have viable populations in 15. Like many introductions of nonnative plants and animals, the introduction of nutria into the United States was intentional and originally viewed as a way to provide economic benefit.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2000-01-01

289

Males and Eating Disorders: Gender-Based Therapy for Eating Disorder Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health professionals may wonder how males with eating disorders differ from females with eating disorders and how best to treat males with eating disorders. The eating disorder literature largely focuses on females. Limited research has examined assessment and treatment of eating disorders in males. This article offers a unique view of eating disorder treatment for males by integrating it

Stefanie Teri Greenberg; Eva G. Schoen

2008-01-01

290

Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

2008-01-01

291

Candidate genes in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Environmental influences, as well as biological and genetic factors influence risk for eating disorders. Family and twin studies have shown that eating disorders are familial and suggest the influence of genetic factors on their etiology. Positive associations have been observed for some candidate genes that have been studied (such as 5HT2A receptor gene); however, the field has been plagued by nonreplications. In this paper we review the extant association studies of eating disorders. PMID:12769810

Tozzi, Federica; Bulik, Cynthia M

2003-02-01

292

The List Heuristic for Studying Personality Correlates of Food Choice Behaviour: a Review and Results from Two Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past half century, a methodology has been used to investigate predictors of eating behaviour which involves the use of a list of foods, with subjects answering some preference question(s) about each food. For each person, the number of foods which elicit a particular response, usually of rejection, is used as a psychometric measure of their eating behaviour. We

HENRY W. W. POTTS; JANE WARDLE

1998-01-01

293

[Neurobiology of suicidal behaviour].  

PubMed

The authors of this paper present a review of actual data on the neurobiological background of suicidal behaviour. The results of epidemiological studies suggest that suicidal behaviours have certain genetic background which do not depend on the presence of concomitant mental disorders. The estimated heritability rate of suicide is about 21-50%, while the heritability rate of suicidal ideation and behaviour is about 30-55%. The genes of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, as well as the HPA axis genes, have been scrutinised in context of suicidal behaviour. Epigenetic factors are also believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of suicide. Serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic systems, as well as the HPA axis, are the main neural networks involved in the pathophysiology of suicide. Disorders of opioid and endocannabinoid systems can also be found in suicide victims. Pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour also contains abnormalities of cell signalising and pathology ofglial cells. Neurobiological background of akathisia and impulsivity (clinical issues closely related to the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour) have also been presented. Most of the available trials on neurobiological background of suicidal behaviour have significant methodological weaknesses, making the results difficult to interpret. Usually they contain small samples and only single biological variables (without adjustment on environmental factors) are being analysed. PMID:22232983

Jaeschke, Rafa?; Siwek, Marcin; Dudek, Dominika

2011-01-01

294

Feminism, eating, and mental health.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are prevalent health problems for women today. The traditional biomedical or psychiatric approaches offer a narrow perspective of the problem, its courses, and its treatment. Analyzing disordered eating from a feminist perspective, this article discusses cultural, political, and social phenomena that have had a significant impact on the development of these disorders. Parallels of eating disorders and other women's mental illnesses and the medicalization of their symptoms is explored. A "new view" of disordered eating in women is proposed that can be advanced only through feminist research. PMID:1707250

White, J H

1991-03-01

295

Watching your weight? The relations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating in young girls.  

PubMed

Although previous research showed that the thin ideal provided by the media affects body image and eating behaviour in young children, less is known about specific media contents that are related to body image and eating behaviour. This study tested the associations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating directly, and indirectly through thin ideal internalisation. We conducted a survey in class, in which 245 girls (aged 7-9) completed scales on their television watching behaviour, thin ideal internalisation, body dissatisfaction and restrained eating. Additionally, height and weight were measured. Watching soaps and music television often was associated with higher thin ideal internalisation, which in turn was associated with higher body dissatisfaction and restrained eating. Furthermore, a direct association between watching soaps and music television and restrained eating was found. If watching other types of children's programmes or maternal encouragement to be thin were included in the models, watching soaps and music television remained an important factor, especially with regard to restrained eating. Therefore, our results suggest that if young girls watch soaps and music television often, this is related to higher restrained eating and body dissatisfaction, directly or indirectly, through higher thin ideal internalisation. PMID:20205044

Anschutz, Doeschka; Engels, Rutger; Leeuwe, Jan Van; Strien, Tatjana van

2009-11-01

296

Poor Cognitive Flexibility in Eating Disorders: Examining the Evidence using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPeople with eating disorders (ED) frequently present with inflexible behaviours, including eating related issues which contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Small scale studies point to difficulties with cognitive set-shifting as a basis. Using larger scale studies will lend robustness to these data.Methodology\\/Principal Findings542 participants were included in the dataset as follows: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) n = 171; Bulimia

Kate Tchanturia; Helen Davies; Marion Roberts; Amy Harrison; Michiko Nakazato; Ulrike Schmidt; Janet Treasure; Robin Morris

2012-01-01

297

Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): Norms for young adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among young adult women, the questionnaire was administered to a large general population sample of women aged 18–42 yr in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) region of Australia. Normative data were derived for EDE-Q subscales and for the occurrence of specific eating disorder behaviours, for each of five

J. M. Mond; P. J. Hay; B. Rodgers; C. Owen

2006-01-01

298

Relations of dietary restraint and depressive symptomatology to loss of control over eating in overweight youngsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the dietary restraint and depression pathway to loss of control over eating among a sample of overweight\\u000a youngsters based on the assumptions of the extended cognitive behavioural theory for bulimia nervosa. The children’s version\\u000a of the eating disorder examination interview and the children’s depression inventory were administered to 350 overweight youngsters\\u000a (with a mean age of 13.30 years

Lien Goossens; Caroline Braet; Guy Bosmans

2010-01-01

299

Weight-based discrimination, body dissatisfaction and emotional eating: The role of perceived social consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Discrimination can have a negative impact on psychological well-being, attitudes and behaviour. This research evaluates the impact of experiences of weight-based discrimination upon emotional eating and body dissatisfaction, and also explores whether people's beliefs about an ingroup's social consensus concerning how favourably overweight people are regarded can moderate the relationship between experiences of discrimination and negative eating and weight-related

Claire Victoria Farrow; Mark Tarrant

2009-01-01

300

Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight in the Stanislas Family Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe the eating patterns of members of French families and to assess the relationships between dietary intakes, eating style and overweight.DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of nutritional and behavioural characteristics.SUBJECTS: 1320 members of 387 families (age 11–65 y) attending the Centre for Preventive Medicine for a routine medical check-up.MEASUREMENTS: Individual body weight and height were measured. Food intake was assessed

A Lluch; B Herbeth; L Méjean; G Siest

2000-01-01

301

EDdb: a web resource for eating disorder and its application to identify an extended adipocytokine signaling pathway related to eating disorder.  

PubMed

Eating disorder is a group of physiological and psychological disorders affecting approximately 1% of the female population worldwide. Although the genetic epidemiology of eating disorder is becoming increasingly clear with accumulated studies, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, integration of various high-throughput data expanded the range of candidate genes and started to generate hypotheses for understanding potential pathogenesis in complex diseases. This article presents EDdb (Eating Disorder database), the first evidence-based gene resource for eating disorder. Fifty-nine experimentally validated genes from the literature in relation to eating disorder were collected as the core dataset. Another four datasets with 2824 candidate genes across 601 genome regions were expanded based on the core dataset using different criteria (e.g., protein-protein interactions, shared cytobands, and related complex diseases). Based on human protein-protein interaction data, we reconstructed a potential molecular sub-network related to eating disorder. Furthermore, with an integrative pathway enrichment analysis of genes in EDdb, we identified an extended adipocytokine signaling pathway in eating disorder. Three genes in EDdb (ADIPO (adiponectin), TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1)) link the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) "adipocytokine signaling pathway" with the BioCarta "visceral fat deposits and the metabolic syndrome" pathway to form a joint pathway. In total, the joint pathway contains 43 genes, among which 39 genes are related to eating disorder. As the first comprehensive gene resource for eating disorder, EDdb ( http://eddb.cbi.pku.edu.cn ) enables the exploration of gene-disease relationships and cross-talk mechanisms between related disorders. Through pathway statistical studies, we revealed that abnormal body weight caused by eating disorder and obesity may both be related to dysregulation of the novel joint pathway of adipocytokine signaling. In addition, this joint pathway may be the common pathway for body weight regulation in complex human diseases related to unhealthy lifestyle. PMID:24302289

Zhao, Min; Li, XiaoMo; Qu, Hong

2013-12-01

302

Executive personality traits and eating behavior.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, commonly involve a dysregulation of behavior (e.g., a lack or excess of inhibition and impulsive eating patterns) that is suggestive of prefrontal dysfunction. Functional neuro-imaging studies show that prefrontal-subcortical systems play a role in eating behavior and appetite in healthy individuals, and that people with eating disorders have altered activity in these systems. Eating behavior is often disturbed by illnesses and injuries that impinge upon prefrontal-subcortical systems. This study examined relationships between executive functioning and eating behavior in healthy individuals using validated behavioral rating scales (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale and Eating Inventory). Correlations demonstrated that increased dysexecutive traits were associated with disinhibited eating and greater food cravings. There was also a positive association with cognitive restraint of eating, suggesting that increased compensatory behaviors follow disinhibited eating. These psychometric findings reinforce those of other methodologies, supporting a role for prefrontal systems in eating. PMID:14660070

Spinella, Marcello; Lyke, Jennifer

2004-01-01

303

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

2008-01-01

304

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

305

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

306

Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria

2008-04-01

307

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

308

The Relationship between Disordered Eating, Perceived Parenting, and Perfectionistic Schemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no clear understanding of the ways in which predisposing and maintaining variables exert their influence\\u000a on eating attitudes and behaviours. This study investigated two potentially meaningful variables: parental bonding and perfectionistic\\u000a schemas. Both variables have been implicated in the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (e.g. Bruch 1978; Davis et al. 2000). A cross-sectional design was employed,

Suzanne Deas; Kevin Power; Paula Collin; Alex Yellowlees; David Grierson

309

Self-reported history of overweight and its relationship to disordered eating in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims Increased body weight and disordered eating attitudes/behaviours are common in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Disordered eating increases risks for diabetes-related complications. This study aimed to identify a rapid screening approach for disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescent girls with T1D and to examine the relationship between disordered eating and body weight in this population. Methods Ninety adolescent girls, aged 12–19 years, provided a self-assessment of weight status. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess attitudes/behaviours toward food and eating, appetitive responsiveness to the food environment, disinhibition in eating and weight history. Results Forty-three per cent of participants reported a history of overweight. Compared with participants who reported never being overweight, those who reported ever being overweight were significantly older, scored significantly higher on all measures of disordered eating attitudes/behaviours (P ? 0.009) and were 4.8 times more likely to be currently overweight or obese (P < 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was similar between those who did and did not report ever being overweight. Conclusions Because of the ill-health effects of disordered eating and the higher rate of overweight in adolescent girls with T1D, effective screening tools are warranted. The single question ‘Have you ever been overweight?’ may be sufficient as a first question to screen for those at high risk for disordered eating attitudes/behaviours and to provide early intervention and prevention. PMID:19929996

Markowitz, J. T.; Lowe, M. R.; Volkening, L. K.; Laffel, L. M. B.

2010-01-01

310

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

311

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

312

An Examination of Eating Patterns in Community Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To better understand the eating patterns of persons with eating disorders. Method This study investigated typical eating behavior (meal frequency and snacking) and atypical eating behavior among 311 community women with online questionnaires. Participants were classified with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 39), binge eating disorder (BED; n = 69), or controls (CON; n = 203). Results In terms of typical eating behaviors, the BN group ate significantly fewer meals, particularly lunches, than the other two groups. Atypical eating, such as nibbling, eating double meals and nocturnal eating, was significantly more common in the eating disorder groups. More frequent breakfast consumption was associated with lower BMI in the BED and CON groups, and more frequent meal consumption was associated with less binge eating in the BED group only. Discussion Our study revealed differences in typical and atypical eating patterns, and associations with weight and eating disorder behaviors among eating disorder and control groups. PMID:21997425

Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

2013-01-01

313

A cognitive behavioural theory of anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cognitive behavioural theory of the maintenance of anorexia nervosa is proposed. It is argued that an extreme need to control eating is the central feature of the disorder, and that in Western societies a tendency to judge self-worth in terms of shape and weight is superimposed on this need for self-control. The theory represents a synthesis and extension of

Christopher G Fairburn; Roz Shafran; Zafra Cooper

1999-01-01

314

Eating disorders in men: update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than

Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean

2005-01-01

315

Eating disorders: The cultural dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The role of socio-cultural factors in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia has been the object of recent interest. The phenomena, mainly described in the West, were partly attributed to the idealisation of thinness in Western culture. The paper reviews published epidemiological research from non-western countries in the area of eating disorders to elucidate the difference

Mervat Nasser

1988-01-01

316

Communicating healthy eating to adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to explore perceptions of healthy\\/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted of 152 seventh, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings – Results showed that respondents frequently ate

Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen

2009-01-01

317

Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

2000-01-01

318

Healthy Eating in Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…

Robinson, Sally

2006-01-01

319

LEARN TO EAT COUNSELLING AND  

E-print Network

essential for maintaining good health and well being. There are significant benefits to eating healthily and body. For example: ­ Blood sugar imbalances, occur when we are skipping meals or eating the wrong foods, and can have a negative effect on mood and mental performance. ­ Too much caffeine, such as coffee

Viglas, Anastasios

320

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eating disorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the

Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips

2003-01-01

321

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

322

Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

2010-01-01

323

Anxiety, restraint, and eating behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that individual differences in eating behavior based on the distinction between obese and normal Ss could be demonstrated within a population of normal Ss classified as to the extent of restraint chronically exercised with respect to eating. Ss were 42 female college students. Restrained Ss resembled the obese behaviorally, and unrestrained Ss resembled normals. This demonstration was effected in

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

1975-01-01

324

Sociocultural influences on eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate

Pamela K Keel; Julie A Gravener

325

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Cynthia M. Bulik

2007-01-01

326

Social contagion of binge eating.  

PubMed

A social psychological account of the acquisition of binge eating, analogous to the classic social psychological work, "Social Pressures in Informal Groups" (Festinger, Schachter, & Back, 1950), is suggested and tested in two college sororities. In these sororities, clear evidence of group norms about appropriate binge-eating behavior was found; in one sorority, the more one binged, the more popular one was. In the other, popularity was associated with binging the right amount: Those who binged too much or too little were less popular than those who binged at the mean. Evidence of social pressures to binge eat were found as well. By the end of the academic year, a sorority member's binge eating could be predicted from the binge-eating level of her friends (average r = .31). As friendship groups grew more cohesive, a sorority member's binge eating grew more and more like that of her friends (average r = .35). The parsimony of a social psychological account of the acquisition of binge eating behavior is shown. I argue that there is no great mystery to how bulimia has become such a serious problem for today's women. Binge eating seems to be an acquired pattern of behavior, perhaps through modeling, and appears to be learned much like any other set of behaviors. Like other behaviors, it is under substantial social control. PMID:3193348

Crandall, C S

1988-10-01

327

Behavioural phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural phenotypes are specific psychological characteristics with a known genetic aetiology. Like their somatic counterparts, the identification of behavioural phenotypes is potentially of clinical value. Various genetic mechanisms are associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioural profiles. These include: normal functional variations (polymorphisms); genetic mutations (with associated loss of function); structural anomalies and chromosomal deletions. Most descriptions of behavioural phenotypes concern

Kate Lawrence

2005-01-01

328

The impact of a rural or urban context in eating awareness and self-regulation strategies in children and adolescents from eight European countries.  

PubMed

Complex relationships exist between eating behaviour and personal and environmental factors. Rural and urban geographic contexts seem to play a role in eating behaviour, and therefore deserve a deeper study. A healthy eating behaviour and the conditions that promote it are a major issue in the promotion of adolescent health. The study aims to investigate the associations between the area of residence (urban vs. rural), self-regulation strategies (TESQ-E) and eating behaviours among children and adolescents. A total of 11,820 adolescents (50.6% girls) participated in the study, with a mean age of 13.30 years (SD= 2.13). Nine countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, Romania, Germany, Finland and Belgium) completed a questionnaire in the school context, asking about the use of self-regulation strategies, eating behaviour awareness/care and sociodemographic questions such as age, gender and residential area. Both areas of residence (urban vs. rural) are associated with eating awareness/care in Romania and Portugal, controlling for age, gender and self-regulation strategies. In some European countries at least, and most probably around the world, health promotion should focus on an ecological approach that includes the understanding of the effect of both environmental factors and personal skills on eating behaviour/awareness. PMID:24821504

Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Baban, Adriana; Wit, John

2014-06-01

329

All You Can Eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just what's on that apple, or in that salad or ice cream? Although they are unlikely to be happy with what they find, users can now discover which and how many pesticides are likely to be on the food they eat. Provided by the non-profit Environmental Working Group (EWG), this site allows users to match selections from hundreds of food items with more than 90,000 government lab tests. Visitors to the site have four sections to choose from: Daily Fare, which lets users select a full day's worth of meals and find out what pesticides they ate; Fruit Salad Roulette, which reveals the pesticides in a typical fruit salad or individual piece of fruit; the EWG Supermarket, which allows users to fill a cart and then picks random samples of each food chosen from government data and lists the pesticides; and a Kids Menu, which analyzes the pesticides that a child between the ages of one and five eats in a typical day. In addition, the site offers a selection of chemical and food FAQS and tips for reducing exposure.

1999-01-01

330

Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?  

PubMed

Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

Elford, L; Brown, A

2014-04-01

331

Eating disorders and disordered eating in Israel: an updated review.  

PubMed

Israel presents a unique opportunity to study the role of socio-cultural parameters in the development of mental disturbances because of the exceptional diversity of the Israeli society. In the present review, we aimed to analyse the current state of disordered eating in Israel by means of an extensive literature review. The following are the main findings of our review: The frequency of maladaptive eating among female and male Israeli Jewish adolescents is higher in comparison to many other Westernized countries. Among different Jewish sub-populations, Kibbutz women have been found until recently to show higher rates of disordered eating in comparison to other Israeli samples. Recent studies show no such difference between Kibbutz members and the general Israeli population. No clear-cut findings emerge with respect to the influence of immigration and degree of Jewish religious affiliation on the occurrence of disordered eating. In contrast, disordered eating is less prevalent in Israeli-Arabs compared with Israeli-Jews. Moreover, diverse Israeli-Arab groups show different rates of disordered eating. We discuss the high rate of disordered eating in Israeli youth in light of Israel being a culture in transition that is constantly exposed to the risk of terrorism. The changes in the rates of disordered eating in the Kibbutzim are discussed in light of the dramatic societal changes occurring in these communities within a relatively brief period of time. The low rates of disordered eating in Israeli-Arabs reflect the traditional non-Westernized characteristics of their society, whereas the differences between diverse Arab sub-populations depend upon the degree of exposure to Westernized influences and the presence of conflicts between modern and traditional values. PMID:18613253

Latzer, Yael; Witztum, Eliezer; Stein, Daniel

2008-09-01

332

Disordered eating among mothers of Polish patients with eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eating disorders. PMID:23197240

Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Jozefik, Barbara; Salapa, Kinga

2012-01-01

333

Self-Regulatory Control and Habit Learning in the Development of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical evidence suggests that initial attempts to regulate weight gain quickly become habit-like in individuals with eating disorders. These behaviors are controlled excessively in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and are controlled more intermittently, with periods of lost control, in patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). We suspect that abnormalities in frontostriatal systems that subserve self-regulatory control and habit learning may

Rachel Marsh; Joanna E. Steinglass; Kara Graziano; Bradley S. Peterson; B. Timothy Walsh

2007-01-01

334

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

335

The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire in eating disorder patients.  

PubMed

The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was developed to measure a variety of personality variants on three biosocial dimensions, harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD), which are thought to be related to serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) function, respectively. Patients with eating disorders have been reported to have abnormalities in all of these systems, as well as personality variants described by these dimensions. We therefore administered the TPQ to 147 patients with DSM-III-R defined eating disorders (110 bulimia nervosa [BN], 27 with anorexia nervosa [AN], and 10 with BN+AN) and compared their scores to those of 350 female controls. When significant, post hoc Bonferroni t tests were performed using alpha = 0.05. All subtypes of eating disorder patients scored significantly higher on HA than controls (p < or = .0001, analysis of variance. Only patients with BN (+/- AN) had significantly higher degrees of NS (p < or = .0001), particularly on the impulsiveness subscale (NS2), although this may, in part, be due to age. No significant differences in total RD were found, although BN patients scored lower on RD3 (attachment vs. detachment) and higher on RD4 (dependence vs. independence) than controls. In addition, AN patients had significantly higher RD2 (persistence vs. irresoluteness) subscale scores. These data support a theory of 5-HT dysregulation in both types of eating disorders and suggest that further research be done on the role of DA and NE in BN. PMID:8401554

Brewerton, T D; Hand, L D; Bishop, E R

1993-09-01

336

Sudden death in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

Jauregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

337

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN  

E-print Network

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only now believe that part of the problem has to do with how our brains process information about

Squire, Larry R.

338

Eating Disorders: No Longer Trapped by Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and

Sara Oswalt; Helen M. Welle-Graf

339

Trastornos de la Alimentacion (Eating Disorders).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...

2011-01-01

340

Binge eating in bariatric surgery patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Eating behavior, attitudes toward eating and body weight and shape, and depression were assessed in a sample of 64 morbidly obese gastric bypass surgery candidates. Method: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Three-Factor Eating Ques- tionnaire (TFEQ), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) were administered at the first preoperative visit. Results: Twenty-five subjects (39%) reported at least one binge

Melissa A. Kalarchian; G. Terence Wilson; Robert E. Brolin; Lisa Bradley

1998-01-01

341

Punishment and reward sensitivity: are naturally occurring clusters in these traits related to eating and weight problems in adolescents?  

PubMed

Little is known about the role of sensitivity to punishment (SP) and reward (SR) in eating problems during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the naturally occurring clusters of high and low SP and SR among nonclinical adolescents and the between-cluster differences in various eating problems and weight. A total of 579 adolescents (14-19 years, 39.8% boys) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System scales (BIS/BAS scales), the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and were weighed and measured. On the basis of the SPSRQ, four clusters were established, interpreted as lowSP × lowSR, lowSP × highSR, highSP × highSR and highSP × lowSR. These were associated with eating problems but not with adjusted body mass index. It seemed that specifically the highSP × highSR cluster outscored the other clusters on eating problems. These results were partly replicated with the BIS/BAS scales, although less significant relations between the clusters and eating problems were found. The implications of the findings in terms of possible risk and protective clusters are discussed. PMID:23426856

Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Vervaet, Myriam

2013-05-01

342

[Genetic etiology of eating disorders].  

PubMed

Most twin studies suggest a heritability of SO to 80% for liability to eating disorders. At least moderate heritability is further supported by family and adoption studies. Polymorphisms of the 5-HT2A and BDNF genes appear robust candidates for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, while linkage studies suggest loci for anorexia nervosa in chromosome 1 and a locus in chromosome 10 for bulimia nervosa. Contemporary Western culture has a salient role in the rising incidence of eating disorders, and epigenetic mechanisms are suggested to be involved. In the near future, GWAS will likely provide compelling new data of genetic etiology and mechanisms of eating disorders. PMID:24340712

Raevuori, Anu

2013-01-01

343

Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits\\u000a for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality\\u000a and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these\\u000a behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in

Vivien Swanson; Kevin G Power; Iain K Crombie; Linda Irvine; Kirsty Kiezebrink; Wendy Wrieden; Peter W Slane

2011-01-01

344

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

345

Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT(2C/2A) receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive ?2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs. PMID:24866852

van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

2014-10-01

346

Why we eat what we eat. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS).  

PubMed

Understanding why people select certain food items in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent the development of obesity and eating disorders. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) was developed within a frame of three different studies. In Study 1, a total of 331 motives for eating behavior were generated on the basis of different data sources (previous research, nutritionist interviews, and expert discussions). In Study 2, 1250 respondents were provided with a set of motives from Study 1 and the Eating Motivation Survey was finalized. In Study 3, a sample of 1040 participants filled in the Eating Motivation Survey. Confirmatory factor analysis with fifteen factors for food choice yielded a satisfactory model fit for a full (78 items) and brief survey version (45 items) with RMSEA .048 and .037, 90% CI .047-.049 and .035-.039, respectively. Factor structure was generally invariant across random selected groups, gender, and BMI, which indicates a high stability for the Eating Motivation Survey. On the mean level, however, significant differences in motivation for food choice associated with gender, age, and BMI emerged. Implications of the fifteen distinct motivations to choose foods in everyday life are discussed. PMID:22521515

Renner, Britta; Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald T

2012-08-01

347

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi, W. J. Russell, M. Komatsuda, S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

348

Athletic identity and disordered eating in obligatory and non-obligatory runners.  

PubMed

Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong "running" role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery of questionnaires including the Eating Disorder Inventory, Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). OEQ scores ?50 were indicative of obligatory exercise. The non-obligatory runners (n = 82) and obligatory runners (n = 91) were compared on the various measures. Obligatory runners scored significantly higher (P < 0.002) on all of the eating attitudes/disorder measures, and the AIMS (P ? 0.006). Scores on the AIMS were correlated with all disordered eating measures (P < 0.05). Exercising to maintain identification with the running role may be associated with pathological eating and training practices. PMID:21644168

Gapin, Jennifer I; Petruzzello, Steven J

2011-07-01

349

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

350

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

2003-01-01

351

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications. PMID:23537489

Trace, Sara E; Baker, Jessica H; Peñas-Lledó, Eva; Bulik, Cynthia M

2013-01-01

352

Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments  

Cancer.gov

These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

353

Validity of Retrospective Reports of Eating Behavior from the Eating Disorder Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Cooper and Fairburn 1987) is the most widely used instrument for the diagnosis of eating disorders. The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence...

J. M. Stone

1999-01-01

354

Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.  

PubMed

Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

2014-03-01

355

Eating at America's Table Study  

Cancer.gov

EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), a new and improved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs. In addition, within the overall EATS study, investigators evaluated the validity of two new short dietary assessment instruments developed by NCI staff.

356

Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans and other warm-blooded animals living with continuous access to a variety of good-tasting foods tend to eat too much and suffer ill health as a result—a finding that is incompatible with the widely held view that hunger and eating are compensatory processes that function to maintain the body’s energy resources at a set point. The authors argue that because

John P. J. Pinel; Sunaina Assanand; Darrin R. Lehman

2000-01-01

357

The genetics of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas for future research. PMID:21191522

Berrettini, Wade

2004-11-01

358

The Genetics of Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas for future research. PMID:21191522

Berrettini, Wade

2004-01-01

359

Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research.\\u000a The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed\\u000a the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders (ED) and substance use\\u000a disorders (SUD). One hundred and ninety three individuals seeking

Christine Marie Courbasson; Christian Rizea; Nicole Weiskopf

2008-01-01

360

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

361

The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

2014-01-01

362

Stress and Eating Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

2014-01-01

363

Stress and eating behaviors.  

PubMed

Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

2013-09-01

364

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

365

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

2011-04-22

366

Ecophysiology of Aufwuchs-eating cichlids in Lake Tanganyika: niche separation by trophic specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The Aufwuchs-eating cichlids of Lake Tanganyika show clear trophic differences that are correlated to their morphology, physiology and foraging behaviour. The species are grouped into three categories of relative intestinal length according to their feeding habits. A correlation between the intestinal length and the diet could be demonstrated, ranging from around 2.5 for species ingesting more animal food, to

Christian Sturmbauer; Wolfgang Mark; Reinhard Dallinger

1992-01-01

367

Reproductive failure and endocrine disruption by organohalogens in fish-eating birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of organohalogens in fish-eating birds in the field have been monitored largely by studying reproductive outcome in contaminated populations or, at the individual level, by studying the sexual behaviour, egg production, or embryonal and postnatal development and survival. Endocrine disruption has been suggested as a mechanism, but proven cause–effect relationships between specific compounds and endocrine disruption with subsequent reduced

Albertus T. C Bosveld; Martin van den Berg

2002-01-01

368

Examination of a sociocultural model of disordered eating among male and female adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. The results supported the sociocultural model among both male and female adolescents. Perceived pressure to lose weight was directly associated with eating behaviour, as well as indirectly associated through social comparisons, internalization and body dissatisfaction. However, social comparisons were most strongly related to body dissatisfaction among adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight. Conclusions. The findings indicate that models of

Emma Halliwell; Martin Harvey

2006-01-01

369

Treatment of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire

Wilson, G Terence

2011-12-01

370

Mothers with an eating disorder: 'food comes before anything'.  

PubMed

There is little research that has presented the voices of mothers with an eating disorder (ED). The aim of this study was to clinicians present the experiences of mothers, drawn from the community, who have an ED and their perceptions regarding how their ED impacts on their children and parenting. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with nine mothers with various EDs. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, alongside member checks and inter-rater reliability, was employed to analyze data. Six themes were identified: (1) the impact of an ED on children; (2) modelling disturbed eating behaviours; (3) prioritizing food before children's needs, or as described by one participant, 'food comes before anything'; (4) children motivate recovery; (5) secrecy within families; and (6) treatment needs. Overall, mothers juggled to balance the competing demands of an ED and the needs of their children. The need for clinicians to acknowledge and support a mother's role when treating EDs is highlighted. PMID:23869653

Stitt, N; Reupert, A

2014-08-01

371

Comparing measures of cognitive bias relating to eating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Consumption of and\\/or abstinence from substances with a high reward value (e.g. heroin, marijuana, alcohol, nicotine, certain foods) are associated with cognitive biases for information related to the substance. Such cognitive biases are important since they may contribute to difficulties in controlling intake of the substance. We examine cognitive biases for stimuli related to food. For the first time,

Emmanuel M. Pothos; Raff Calitri; Katy Tapper; Jeffrey M. Brunstrom; Peter J. Rogers

2009-01-01

372

Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research. PMID:22654518

McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O'Melia, Anne M

2012-01-01

373

Eating attitudes in a group of 11-year-old urban South African girls  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore and describe eating attitudes in early pubertal 11-year-old black and white South African girls in an urban environment undergoing transition. Design The study was designed as a cross-sectional baseline initiative within a longitudinal study. Subjects Two hundred and two subjects were randomly selected; 54 were white and 148 black. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Outcome measures Variables included body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes (EAT score), dietary intake, socio-economic status, pubertal status and level of physical activity. Results As expected, the prevalence rate of abnormal eating attitudes in this group of girls was low (1%). No significant ethnic differences were found in the total EAT scores. White participants displayed greater oral control, while their black peers displayed greater tendencies toward dieting (p = 0.05). Girls who scored higher on the dieting subscale had a larger body size and were more inactive than low dieting scorers (p = 0.05). A relationship between body size measurements and dietary intake was found only in black girls. Traditionally a larger figure is accepted in black culture. However our data suggest a move away from this, indicating acculturation, as awareness of increased body size significantly influenced dieting attitudes. However, scores were within the normal range. Conclusions There is early evidence suggesting the impact of societal transition on young black girls with regard to eating attitudes. Black girls in this age group are adopting Western ideals of beauty and thinness. PMID:20526468

Petersen, Carmen D; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; MacKeown, Jenny M

2009-01-01

374

Eat More Fish, Save Your Hearing?  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Eat More Fish, Save Your Hearing? Two or more servings weekly ... FRIDAY, Sept. 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Eating more fish may reduce a woman's risk for hearing loss, ...

375

Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…

O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

2002-01-01

376

Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorders Inventory: Norms for Adolescent Girls and Boys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing attention has been given to measuring symptoms of eating disorders in adolescents, but representative norms for the two widely used measures, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), have not been available. The present study collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in Grades 9–12. Significant sex, but not age, differences were

James C. Rosen; Nancy T. Silberg; Janet Gross

1988-01-01

377

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine  

E-print Network

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist. Massachusetts licensure required and supervised training in eating disorders treatment, CBT, Cognitive Therapy

Patel, Aniruddh D.

378

Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered. PMID:23291285

Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

2013-04-01

379

Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating  

E-print Network

Eating Disorders How to Help when you Think a Friend has a Problem with Eating The most common time of life for an eating disorder to develop is between the ages of 17 - 20. This coincides with the college years. Research has shown that as many as a third of college-age women have disordered eating patterns

380

[Dance training and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Medical history, eating habits, weight, current symptomatology and EDI (Eating Disorders Inventory)-scores of 41 bulimic female patients with and without past training in dancing, who came for treatment to an outpatient clinic, were compared. It was found that both groups of patients were not different for age, age at beginning of bulimia, actual as well as minimal and maximal BMI (Body mass index), length and severity of symptomatology, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and scores on the subscales of the EDI, but it should be noted that these similarities might be in relationship with some methodological shortcomings. Considering the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in women and the high frequency of ballet and sports training in teenagers, some hypotheses about the possible influence of strenuous physical exercise in childhood on the symptomatology and some psychological traits in adults with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder are presented. Further studies, including standardized scales and larger samples, are necessary. PMID:7526458

Archinard, M; Scherer, U; Reverdin, N; Rouget, P; Allaz, A F

1994-01-01

381

Predictors of decreased binge eating following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding using the Health Action Process Approach model.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to examine predictors of reduced binge eating in patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for severe obesity. Participants were 49 patients (13 males and 36 females) who completed measures of binge eating, behavioural intentions, planning and self-efficacy two weeks prior and three months after their operation. Reduced binge eating following surgery was predicted by behavioural intentions. Planning and volitional self-efficacy were unable to predict a significant amount of variance over and above intentions. The results highlight how the role of intentions must not be overlooked when investigating the prediction of health behaviour change and challenge the notion that post-intentional constructs that translate intentions into action are more important. Interventions aiming to increase preoperative levels of intention to follow the post-operative eating guidelines in patients presenting with binge eating might be a useful way of decreasing this behaviour in patients opting for LAGB surgery in order to achieve weight loss and physical well-being. PMID:24344688

Wood, Kerry Victoria; Ogden, Jane

2014-12-01

382

Eating disorders in females: genetics, pathophysiology, and treatment.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are best conceptualized as syndromes and are classified on the basis of the clusters of symptoms they present. According to the multidimensional model, eating disorders begin with dieting, which is propelled into a full-blown disorder by antecedent conditions of biological vulnerability and genetics, premorbid psychological characteristics, family interactions, and social climate. The medical abnormalities present in individuals with eating disorders are due to starvation conditions and purging behaviors and will resolve with nutritional rehabilitation and the cessation of purging. Comorbid psychiatric conditions such as affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and personality disorders are frequently present. For anorexia nervosa, the most effective strategy is multidimensional treatment, consisting of nutritional rehabilitation, medical attention, individual cognitive psychotherapy, and family counseling or therapy if the patient is younger than age 18 years. For bulimia nervosa, the treatment of choice is cognitive-behavioral therapy with directions in a manual for therapists. A second choice for treatment is an antidepressant, beginning with fluoxetine. PMID:12510994

Halmi, Katherine A

2002-12-01

383

Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

2007-01-01

384

Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

1993-01-01

385

Eating disorders among high performance athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes

Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne

1993-01-01

386

Binge Eating in Obesity: Associated MMPI Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine if Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) characteristics are associated with binge-eating severity among obese women. Obese women (N = 207) were administered the MMPI and Gormally's Binge Eating Scale (which measures binge-eating behavior and related attitudes and feelings). Binge scores varied along a continuum from nonbinging to very severe binging and were consistently and

Ronette L. Kolotkin; Elaine S. Revis; Betty G. Kirkley; Linda Janick

1987-01-01

387

Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

2004-01-01

388

Eating Disorders and Diabetes: Current Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 20 to 25 years, a significant amount of research has been directed toward diabetes and eating disorders. Evidence from the literature suggests that subclinical eating disorders and bulimia nervosa are prevalent in patients with type 1 diabetes, while subclinical and clinical binge eating disorders are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the determination of

Karen M. Davison

2003-01-01

389

Participation in Athletic Activitiesand Eating Disordered Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the following study was to examine the relationship between participation in athletic and exercise activities and eating disordered behavior among a college student population. A sample of 853 undergraduate students completed the EAT-26 and indicated participation in athletic activities to determine eating disorder-related dieting and exercise attitudes and behaviors. Results demonstrate that participation in recreational activities correlates

Dana Heller Levitt

2008-01-01

390

Saving Money When Eating Out SESSION GOALS  

E-print Network

money. However, many of us enjoy eating out. Today, we will also be discussing some ways we can saveSaving Money When Eating Out SESSION GOALS: Participants will understand the impact that eating out has on their personal food budget. In addition, participants will learn ways that they can save money

391

Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982), and four-factor (Dieting, Oral Control, Awareness of Food Contents, and

Liette B. Ocker; Eddie T. C. Lam; Barbara E. Jensen; James J. Zhang

2007-01-01

392

Empower Children to Develop Healthful Eating Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling a child's eating habits is counterproductive. By allowing children to make decisions about what and how much to eat, parents empower children to self-regulate their eating. The parent's role is to offer a variety of healthful foods, oversee the planning and assembly of meals, and set the schedule for meals and snacks. The child's responsibility is to decide what,

CONNIE EVERS

1997-01-01

393

Eating Well Healthy habits for children  

E-print Network

Eating Well Healthy habits for children and adults OHSU is an equal opportunity, affirmative action exercise. It's also a matter of healthful eating habits. Children need a wide variety of foods for good% wind power. #12;Where do I start? Once you have decided to make healthy choices in your eating habits

Chapman, Michael S.

394

Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

395

Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

2011-01-01

396

Childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) in the etiology and maintenance of eating psychopathology is reviewed. While childhood sexual and physical abuse have been hypothesized as risk factors in multifactorial models of eating disorders, a role for CEA has only recently been considered. Initial findings demonstrate a phenomenological link between CEA and eating psychopathology, and suggest that this

Angela Kent; Glenn Waller

2000-01-01

397

Binge Eating and Eating-Related Cognitions and Behavior in Ethnically Diverse Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine binge eating and eating-related cognitions and behavior in a sample of ethnically diverse women who are severely obese and seeking bariatric surgery.Research Methods and Procedures: Female bariatric surgery candidates (62 African Americans, 18 Latinas, 130 whites) completed questionnaires on binge eating and eating-related cognitions and behavior and completed a structured clinical interview to confirm binge-eating disorder diagnosis.Results:

Lisa A. P. Sánchez-Johnsen; Maureen Dymek; John Alverdy; Daniel le Grange

2003-01-01

398

Self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome in Japanese people: cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan. Participants A total of 56?865 participants (41?820 male and 15?045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke. Main outcome measure Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Results In multiple logistic regression models, eating rate was significantly and positively associated with metabolic syndrome. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for slow, normal and fast were 0.70 (0.62 to 0.79), 1.00 (reference) and 1.61 (1.53 to 1.70), respectively, in men (p for trend <0.001), and 0.74 (0.60 to 0.91), 1.00 (reference) and 1.27 (1.13 to 1.43), respectively, in women (p for trend <0.001). Of metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity showed the strongest association with eating rate. The associations of eating rate and metabolic syndrome and its components were largely attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index; however, the association of slow eating with lower odds of high blood pressure (men and women) and hyperglycaemia (men) and that of fast eating with higher odds of lipid abnormality (men) remained statistically significant. Conclusions Results suggest that eating rate is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome and that this association is largely accounted for by the difference in body mass according to eating rate. PMID:25192877

Nagahama, Satsue; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Dan, Masashi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Mizoue, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

399

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

400

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

401

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

402

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

403

Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment.  

PubMed

Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD. PMID:24488771

Morton, A Jennifer; Rudiger, Skye R; Wood, Nigel I; Sawiak, Stephen J; Brown, Gregory C; Mclaughlan, Clive J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Bawden, C Simon

2014-07-01

404

What helps children eat well? A qualitative exploration of resilience among disadvantaged families.  

PubMed

It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the family and environmental factors underlying resilience to poor nutrition among children and their mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 mother-child pairs (N = 76) from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Children were selected if they were a healthy weight, consumed adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables and were physically active. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: active strategies from parents to promote healthy eating and external barriers and supports to healthy eating. Mothers believed that exercising control over access to unhealthy food, providing education and encouragement for consumption of healthy food and enabling healthy food options aided their child to eat well. Children did not perceive food advertisements to be major influences on their eating preferences or behaviour. The results of the current study offer insight into potential avenues for nutrition promotion among disadvantaged children. PMID:21350037

Williams, Lauren K; Veitch, Jenny; Ball, Kylie

2011-04-01

405

We Are Family - eating disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-third monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Eating disorders often begin in adolescence and can last a lifetime. They are psychiatric disorders and their treatment is very difficult. New clinical experience points to a crucial component - family.

2010-12-01

406

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

407

Eating disorders and health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research evidence and clinical experience both indicate an increase in the incidence of eating disorders, particularly in younger children, including males under 14 years of age. Current health education material promotes diets low in fat and cholesterol as generally beneficial but generally does not report research evidence suggesting tentative links between such diets and increased aggression, depression and suicide. Animal

P. Hartley

1998-01-01

408

Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

Muuss, Rolf E.

1985-01-01

409

Modeling of eating pathology and social reinforcement of the thin-ideal predict onset of bulimic symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although social influences are thought to promote bulimic pathology, little research has examined the effects of multiple socialization agents, or considered both modeling and social reinforcement processes. Accordingly, these two studies tested whether social reinforcement of the thin-ideal, and modeling of abnormal eating behavior by family, peers, and the media, (i) correlated with bulimic symptoms in a sample of young

Eric Stice

1998-01-01

410

Distinct behavioural profiles in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To test predictions that frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia give rise to distinct patterns of behavioural change.?METHODS—An informant based semistructured behavioural interview, covering the domains of basic and social emotions, social and personal behaviour, sensory behaviour, eating and oral behaviour, repetitive behaviours, rituals, and compulsions, was administered to carers of 41 patients with semantic dementia and with apathetic (FTD-A) and disinhibited (FTD-D) forms of frontotemporal dementia.?RESULTS—Consistent with prediction, emotional changes differentiated FTD from semantic dementia. Whereas lack of emotional response was pervasive in FTD, it was more selective in semantic dementia, affecting particularly the capacity to show fear. Social avoidance occurred more often in FTD and social seeking in semantic dementia. Patients with FTD showed reduced response to pain, whereas patients with semantic dementia more often showed exaggerated reactions to sensory stimuli. Gluttony and indiscriminate eating were characteristic of FTD, whereas patients with semantic dementia were more likely to exhibit food fads. Hyperorality, involving inedible objects, was unrelated to gluttony, indicating different underlying mechanisms. Repetitive behaviours were common in both FTD and semantic dementia, but had a more compulsive quality in semantic dementia. Behavioural differences were greater between semantic dementia and FTD-A than FTD-D. A logistic regression analysis indicated that emotional and repetitive, compulsive behaviours discriminated FTD from semantic dementia with 97% accuracy.?CONCLUSION—The findings confirm predictions regarding behavioural differences in frontotemporal and semantic dementia and point to differential roles of the frontal and temporal lobes in affect, social functioning, eating, and compulsive behaviour.?? PMID:11181853

Snowden, J; Bathgate, D; Varma, A; Blackshaw, A; Gibbons, Z; Neary, D

2001-01-01

411

Impaired jaw function and eating difficulties in whiplash-associated disorders.  

PubMed

Eating requires mouth opening, biting, chewing and swallowing and should be performed without dysfunction or pain. Previous studies have shown that jaw opening-closing movements are the result of coordinated activation of both jaw and neck muscles, with simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. Consequently, it can be assumed that pain or dysfunction in any of the three joint systems involved could impair jaw activities. In fact, recent findings support this hypothesis by showing an association between neck injury and reduced amplitudes, speed and coordination of integrated jaw-neck movements. This study investigated the possible association between neck injury and disturbed eating behaviour. Fifty Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) patients with pain and dysfunction in thejaw-face region and 50 healthy age- and sex-matched controls without any history of neck injury participated in the study. All participants were assessed by a questionnaire, which contained 26 items about eating behaviour, jaw pain and dysfunction. For the WAD group there were significant differences in jaw pain and dysfunction and eating behaviour before and after the accident, but no significant differences between WAD before and healthy. The healthy and the WAD group before the accident reported no or few symptoms. The WAD patients after the accident reported pain and dysfunction during mouth opening, biting, chewing, swallowing and yawning and felt fatigue, stiffness and numbness in the jaw-face region. In addition, a majority also reported avoiding tough food and big pieces of food, and taking breaks during meals. Altogether, these observations suggest an association between neck injury and disturbed jaw function and therefore impaired eating behaviour. A clinical implication is that examination of jaw function should be recommended as part of the assessment and rehabilitation of WAD patients. PMID:19172918

Grönqvist, Johan; Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Eriksson, Per-Olof

2008-01-01

412

Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.  

PubMed

Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

2013-12-01

413

Early motor development is abnormal in complexin 1 knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexin I expression is dysregulated in a number of neurological diseases including schizophrenia and depression. Adult complexin 1 knockout (Cplx1?\\/?) mice are severely ataxic and show deficits in exploration and emotional reactivity. Here, we evaluated early behavioural development of Cplx1?\\/? mice. Cplx1?\\/? mice showed marked abnormalities. They develop ataxia by post-natal day 7 (P7), and by P21 show marked deficits

Dervila Glynn; Rachel J. Sizemore; A. Jennifer Morton

2007-01-01

414

Structural Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bonded cement-based material overlays and their substrates constitute a hybrid or composite structural system. The interaction of these two material layers (with different ages), with each other, with the external boundary conditions\\u000a (foundations, supports) and possible joints, and under loading, defines the structural behaviour of this composite system. The main actions governing this structural behaviour are (1) the differential deformations

E. Denarié; J. Silfwerbrand; H. Beushausen

415

Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. PMID:24768646

Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

2014-05-28

416

Parental feeding behaviours and motivations. A qualitative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental feeding behaviours are considered major influences on children's eating behaviour. However, many questionnaire studies of feeding neglect subtle distinctions between specific feeding strategies and practices in favour of eliciting general feeding goals, and do not take account of the context provided by parents’ motivations. These factors may be critical to understanding child outcomes and engaging parents in child obesity

S. Carnell; L. Cooke; R. Cheng; A. Robbins; J. Wardle

2011-01-01

417

The European health and behaviour survey: Rationale, methods and initial results from the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess a wide range of health-related behaviours, beliefs concerning the importance of behaviours for health, and health knowledge, using a standardized protocol suitable for translation and administration in different countries of Europe. An inventory was developed from previous literature for the assessment of substance use, positive health practices, diet and eating habits, driving

Jane Wardle; Andrew Steptoe

1991-01-01

418

Fashion consciousness as a social influence on lifestyle behaviour in young Irish adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The influence of changing fashion as portrayed in the various media is an important potential influence on health-related behaviours, particularly in adolescence when peer pressure is reportedly strong. Such health behaviours include smoking and diet. There is also a strong risk of developing eating disorders during this age period. A cross-sectional street survey was undertaken in an Irish city

E. A. O'CONNOR; S. FRIEL; C. C. KELLEHER

1997-01-01

419

The History of Eating Utensils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the California Academy of Sciences, this online history of eating utensils is both stimulating and educational, with brief presentations on individual utensils and their evolution, as well as images of specimens from various cultures and periods. Learn, among other things, what Louis the XIV had to fear from the knife and what he did about it, and how it changed the shape of that instrument forever. Equally worth considering, chopsticks have also evolved over the course of five millennia. Called "kuai-zi" in Chinese, for quick little fellows, chopsticks were first joined together and only gradually came to be separated and made of less and less precious materials. Learn all about them and the rest of the instruments used by humans to eat gracefully in this brief online history. Better yet, if you are fortunate enough to be in the Bay area, visit the exhibit in person at the California Academy of Sciences.

420

Behavior genetics and eating disorders.  

PubMed

Behavior genetics is concerned with the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in the vulnerability to eating disorders. We should be skeptical about simple genetic explanations for disorders whose development, maintenance, and possible remission involve the interaction of individual behaviors and environmental circumstances. Twin, family, and adoption studies can help to delineate which phenotypes are most heritable, and which are most responsive to family circumstances or individual environments. Subsequent searches for individual genetic and environmental risk factors can be guided by these results. Although there is consistent evidence of genetic factors influencing vulnerability to eating disorders, the details are far from clear, and additional studies will be useful. The further development of dimensional indices of vulnerability will improve population-based and developmental genetic research, as well as facilitating the search for individual genes. PMID:9550878

Hewitt, J K

1997-01-01

421

The use of a vodcast to support eating and reduce anxiety in people with eating disorder: A case series.  

PubMed

Individuals with eating disorders have difficulty controlling obsessive intrusions and ritualistic behaviours relating to food and exercise. An imagery-based intervention using a vodcast (small video file played on a mobile phone or portable media device), with visual and aural components, was designed to target eating related psychopathology in a consecutive series of four patients. The vodcast was used to support consumption of a smoothie, both as a behavioural experiment and at home, in naturalistic circumstances. More of the smoothie was drunk in a shorter time when the smoothie was offered with the vodcast (mean of 218?g, SD?=?64) than in the comparison condition (mean of 160?g, SD?=?71). The vodcast condition was associated with reduced anxiety in three out of four patients. Three out of four patients used the vodcasts at home and found they provided them with support and motivation. All patients' weight increased after 3?months. Using a vodcast to support patients during meal times may be a useful addition to treatment for anorexia nervosa. PMID:20669153

Treasure, Janet; Macare, Christine; Mentxaka, Izaskun Ortega; Harrison, Amy

2010-01-01

422

Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, percep- tions, and dietary intakes by food security status. '• Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 pririiarily urban schools in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998-1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression

Rachel Widome; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Peter J. Hannan; Jess Haines

2009-01-01

423

Pilot Overmyer eats on middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On middeck port side, Pilot Overmyer, stabilized by intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints on interdeck access ladder and on floor, eats canned food. Personal egress air pack (PEAP), headset interface unit (HIU), and stowage locker appear below him, and launch entry helmet (LEH) in net stowage bag and wet trash stowage container appear on his right. Overmyer is wearing constant wear flight garment with notepad attached to one leg and expandable utensil and pen/pencil pocket on the other leg.

1982-01-01

424

Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating  

E-print Network

psychopathology models and newer evolutionary psychology models. Two of these behaviors/clusters of behaviors are relational aggression and disordered eating. Relational aggression is defined as “a form of aggression that involves attempts to harm others... social behaviors, although convenient, may lead to inaccurate and too simplistic conclusions about the role of relational aggression in psychopathology. The current study examined the relationships among relational aggression, prosocial behaviors...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2012-05-31

425

[Association between body mass index and risk feeding behaviors to develop eating disorders in Mexican adolescents].  

PubMed

The body self-perception and its dissatisfaction are related with the risk for developing abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), especially in eating disorders (ED) in adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between dietary habits and the risk for AEB and their association with body mass index (BMI) in a group of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 671 adolescents, both sex, between 12 and 15 years. A validated questionnaire was used to assess the risk for developing AEB. BMI was obtained, and information from the practice and knowledge of food consumption was available. The prevalence of the risk for developing AEB in this study was 12%. It showed that 48% of participants were overweight or obese, 20% did not eat breakfast, 16% took their food without doing other activity simultaneously (p = 0.012). The variables associated with the risk AEB, for developing of ED were doing any activity simultaneously with food intake (OR: 4.23 p = 0.006), overweight-obesity (OR: 2.59 p = 0001), eating without company (OR: 2.04 p = 0.005), not eating fruit (OR: 1.96 = 0.008) or milk (OR:1.79 p = 0.026), being female (OR: 1.74 p = 0.024) and skipping breakfast (OR: 1.57 p = 0,035). Food intake differed with what themselves recommended being healthy, which was lower in vegetables, fruits, leguminous and higher in sugars, fats and soda. We conclude there is a relationship between BMI and the risk for developing AEB. There was no consistency between what adolescents say they should eat to be healthy and what they eat. PMID:23610901

Sámano, Reyna; Zelonka, Rosa; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Ramírez, Cristina; Ovando, Georgina

2012-06-01

426

College Students' Attitudes towards Eating Disorders in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are a prevalent and serious health problem in the United States. Eating disorders are generally associated with young women. However, people are less aware of eating disorders among male; thus, there are fewer studies done on this issue and fewer eating disorder prevention programs for males. This study investigates men's attitudes regarding awareness and knowledge of eating disorders

Joy K. VanDeLoo; Christina Strommer

427

The Prevalence of Subclinical Eating Disorders among Male Cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered eating behaviors are typically seen as a problem in females and there are little data assessing their prevalence in males. The objective of the present cross-sectional investigation was to identify subclinical disordered eating patterns and dietary characteristics among competitive male cyclists. A nutritional questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Survey of Eating Disorders Among Cyclists, were completed by

Shaun K. Riebl; Andrew W. Subudhi; Jeffery P. Broker; Kim Schenck; Jacqueline R. Berning

2007-01-01

428

Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse  

E-print Network

Clinicians involved in substance abuse treatment have been aware for some time that women with alcohol or other drug abuse problems also frequently suffer from eating disorders. Some of the similarities, such as feelings of shame, need to hide the behavior, and the compulsive quality have led to speculations of an underlying common dynamic, and possibly to common organic predisposing factors. The treatment challenge is complex: One does not have the luxury of postponing the exploration of anxiety-producing issues until abstinence (sobriety) is well secured. Eating disorders are health threatening and some-times life threatening, and are frequently closely connected with the alcohol or other drug abuse pattern. This article focuses on bulimia and anorexia nervosa, omitting obesity because it is not characteristically associated with a distinct psychological or behavioral pattern (Norman 1984). It aims to clarify some of these issues and to provide recommendations to the treating clinician: guidelines on when to tackle the problem within the context of the substance abuse treatment and when to refer the clients elsewhere. It will also describe the major treatment approaches in the eating disorders field and offer criteria for selecting a program or therapist with whom to collaborate.

Joan Ellen Zweben, Ph.D.

429

Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

2014-01-01

430

Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action. The pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion.  

PubMed

Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cognitive fusion (CF-BI) on the relationship between body dissatisfaction, unfavourable social comparisons, and eating psychopathology in a sample of 345 female students. Results from path analyses show that the impact of unfavourable social comparisons on eating psychopathology is fully mediated by CF-BI. Moreover, CF-BI also revealed a mediational effect on the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and the severity of eating symptoms, in spite of the fact that a direct effect of body dissatisfaction still exists. The tested model highlights the crucial role that cognitive fusion, in the specific domain of body image, plays in the relationship between risk factors and the severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, these findings present empirical support for the relevance of addressing acceptance and cognitive defusion techniques to prevent and treat eating disorders. PMID:24858833

Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A

2014-09-01

431

Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, perceptions, and dietary intakes by food security status. Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 primarily urban schools in the Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998–1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression analysis to characterize associations between behaviors, perceptions, nutritional intake, and food security status. Results. Compared with food-secure youths, food-insecure youths were more likely to perceive that eating healthfully was inconvenient and that healthy food did not taste good. Additionally, food-insecure youths reported eating more fast food but fewer family meals and breakfasts per week than did youths who were food secure. Food-insecure and food-secure youths perceived similar benefits from eating healthfully (P = .75). Compared with those who were food secure, food-insecure youths had higher fat intakes (P < .01). Food-insecure youths were more likely to have a body mass index above the 95th percentile. Conclusions. The eating patterns of food-insecure adolescents differ in important ways from the eating patterns of those who are food secure. Policies and interventions focusing on improving the foods that these youths eat deserve further examination. PMID:19299675

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Haines, Jess; Story, Mary

2009-01-01

432

Eating Disorders: Facts About Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet presents facts about eating disorders such as: binge-eating disorder; anorexia nervosa; and bulimia nervosa - and the search for solutions to these disorders. It also discusses treatments and research directions.

2001-01-01

433

Eating disorders and women's health: an update.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified have a significant impact on the health care and childbearing outcomes of the female population. Primary care contact for gynecologic care, childbearing, or infertility can serve as a critical entry point for the initial recognition of potentially devastating disorders that may result in permanent impairment and/or chronic debilitation. This review addresses the nature and prevalence of eating disorders and the management of pregnancy complicated by an active eating disorder or a history of an eating disorder. Genetic influences and intergenerational transmission of eating disorders are discussed. Finally, the increased risk for postpartum depression among women with a current or past eating disorder is examined. Factors critical to improving pregnancy outcome and reducing the risk for exacerbation or relapse in the postpartum period are identified. PMID:16647671

Mitchell, Anne Marie; Bulik, Cynthia M

2006-01-01

434

Eating disorders in athletes: managing the risks.  

PubMed

Athletes risk injuries and make personal sacrifices in their education, careers, and personal relationships in pursuit of excellence. Well-prepared athletes and their support teams take steps to minimize these risks. Since the 1980s, it has been apparent that development of an eating disorder is a risk associated with considerable morbidity and significant mortality, and with shorter careers characterized by inconsistency and recurrent injury. How likely is it that an athlete will develop an eating disorder? Who is at risk? Can eating disorders be prevented? How can eating disorders be identified? What are the consequences of developing an eating disorder? What can be done to help an athlete who has an eating disorder? This article attempts to answer these questions. PMID:16169451

Currie, Alan; Morse, Eric D

2005-10-01

435

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

436

The impact of adverse life events and the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism on the development of eating disorder symptoms.  

PubMed

Adverse life events have been shown to predict weight fluctuations and dietary restraint, as well as eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Since the s-allele carriers of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are biologically more reactive to stress related stimuli, we aimed to explore whether the eating disturbances are predicted by environmental stressors and moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The sample was based on the younger cohort of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study and included those participating in its second and third wave. The history of stressful life events was self-reported at age 15. Data on eating behaviour and attitudes, anxiety, impulsivity and depressiveness were collected at age 18. The effect of the adverse life events on binge eating and on drive for thinness was found to be moderated by the 5-HTTLPR. Adolescent girls who at age 15 had reported a history of frequent adverse life events had elevated scores in EDI-2 Bulimia subscale at age 18 if they were carrying the s-allele. The effect of the s-allele on binge eating was even more pronounced when solely the experience of sexual abuse was considered. The interaction effect of the 5-HTTLPR and the past sexual abuse was also observed on drive for thinness. These data give further support to the idea that adverse life events in childhood may heighten susceptibility to serotonergic dysregulation following stress, and suggest that in individuals vulnerable to eating disorders this may result in disturbed eating behaviours. PMID:22018958

Akkermann, Kirsti; Kaasik, Kadri; Kiive, Evelyn; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus

2012-01-01

437

Anatomical correlates of reward-seeking behaviours in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0-3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987

Perry, David C; Sturm, Virginia E; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Rosen, Howard J

2014-06-01

438

Eating disorders: assessment and treatment.  

PubMed

Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eating disorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eating disorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective intervention lies in efforts to influence the media. As noted, standards for feminine beauty as portrayed in the media have changed significantly over the past 20 years. An attempt at the primary prevention of eating disorders would include efforts to convince the media to change their standards of femininity from cosmetic slimness to a focus on health and physical fitness. These efforts could stem from professional and lay organizations who have the interest and capability to influence policy. PMID:3863731

Johnson, W G; Schlundt, D G

1985-09-01

439

The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5?m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600?m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600?m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare. PMID:24587940

Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola

2014-01-01

440

Assessment of Eating Disordered Behaviors in Middle School Students Using the Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eating disordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students

S. G. Affenito; E. J. Khu; K. Carroll

1998-01-01

441

Onset of dieting vs binge eating in outpatients with binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential significance of the sequence of the onset of dieting and binge eating in binge eating disorder (BED).DESIGN: BED patients were interviewed and completed a battery of psychometrically well-established measures of current eating behaviors, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychological functioning.SUBJECTS: Participants were 98 consecutive outpatients with BED evaluated for a clinical trial.MEASURES: Interview data, self-report

CM Grilo; RM Masheb

2000-01-01

442

Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training for Treating Binge Eating Disorder: The Conceptual Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food

Jean L. Kristeller; Ruth Q. Wolever

2010-01-01

443

Eating Disorders in Pregnancy and the Postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears

Debra L. Franko

444

Parenting styles and eating disorder pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa,

Roni S. Enten; Moria Golan

2009-01-01

445

Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls’ self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures

Delyse M. Hutchinson; Ronald M. Rapee

2007-01-01

446

Perfect Illusions: Eating Disorders and the Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site is the online companion to the PBS documentary of the same name, which aired February 24, 2003, as part of Eating Disorders Awareness Week. With this "hidden epidemic" affecting millions of people in the US alone, especially young women, this site provides a valuable resource for those wishing to learn more about three common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. In addition to presenting detailed information for each disorder -- including symptoms, health consequences, and prevention -- the Web site supplies information for seeking help, and other resources such as personal stories from eating disorder sufferers and survivors.

2003-01-01

447

Behavioural phenotyping assays for mouse models of autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100–150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate genes for autism. As the diagnostic criteria for autism are

Jill L. Silverman; Mu Yang; Catherine Lord; Jacqueline N. Crawley

2010-01-01

448

Illness behaviour in elite middle and long distance runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To examine the illness attitudes and beliefs known to be associated with abnormal illness behaviour (where symptoms are present in excess of objective signs and pathology) in elite middle and long distance runners, in comparison with non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 150 athletes were surveyed using the illness behaviour questionnaire as an instrument to explore the psychological attributes

A. Currie; S. G. Potts; W. Donovan; D. Blackwood

1999-01-01

449

Exercise, Eating Patterns, and Obesity: Evidence from the ATUS and Its Eating & Health Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time spent eating and exercising can impact quality of life measures such as general health and risk for obesity. This article links data from the American Time Use Study and the Eating and Health Module to explore exercise and eating patterns for varying age groups, over different times of day, and by self-reported health status. Younger…

Reifschneider, Marianne J.; Hamrick, Karen S.; Lacey, Jill N.

2011-01-01

450

Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Male Collegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male athletes have been hypothesized to be at increased risk for disordered eating attitudes and behaviors due to unique pressures in the sport environment. In this study, 203 male collegiate athletes from three universities completed the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnosis (QEDD; Mintz, O'Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as well as provided information on binge eating and pathogenic weight control

Trent A. Petrie; Christy Greenleaf; Justine Reel; Jennifer Carter

2008-01-01

451

Academy for eating disorders position paper: The role of the family in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position It is the position of the Academy for Eating Disor- ders (AED) that family factors can play a role in the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders; cur- rent knowledge refutes the idea that they are either the exclusive or even the primary mechanisms that underlie risk. Thus, the AED stands firmly against any etiologic model of eating disorders

Daniel Le Grange; James Lock; Katharine Loeb; Dasha Nicholls

2009-01-01

452

The Eating Disorders Outreach Service: Enabling Clinicians Statewide to Treat Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the Eating Disorders Outreach Service (EDOS), which supports clinicians in the treatment and management of eating disorder patients across Queensland. EDOS's mandate is to facilitate intake to the specialist inpatient and outpatient services at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) and to provide eating disorders education and consultation liaison to

Elaine Painter; Warren Ward; Peter Gibbon; Brett Emmerson

2010-01-01

453

Assessing the functional nature of binge eating in the eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the functional nature of binge eating through the development of a new self-report instrument called the Binge Eating Adjective Checklist. Participants were 405 adult females who presented to a specialized eating disorders clinic. A subset of participants with bulimia nervosa also completed additional psychometrics and treatment. Those participants who reported greater reductions in negative affective and somatic

Ron Davis; John Jamieson

2005-01-01

454

It's Time to Eat! Using Mobile Games to Promote Healthy Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

It's never been more important to teach youth the importance of healthy eating habits. Time to Eat, a mobile-phone-based game, motivates children to practice healthy eating habits by letting them care for a virtual pet. Players send the pet photos of the food they consume throughout the day; the food's healthiness determines the game's outcome. An examination of the game's

John Pollak; Geri Gay; Sahara Byrne; Emily Wagner; Daniela Retelny; Lee Humphreys

2010-01-01

455

Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

2006-01-01

456

Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

2009-01-01

457

Evaluation of an Eating Disorders Prevention Curriculum on Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Female College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of an eating disorders prevention curriculum on eating attitudes and behaviors of female college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an academic college course on eating attitudes and behaviors of female college students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty female college students (19.4 ± 2.6 years old) participated in either the intervention

Amy Beth Magnuson

2010-01-01

458

Links between mothers' and children's disinhibited eating and children's adiposity.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined relationships between parents' and children's specific disinhibited eating behaviors. We investigated links among mothers' and children's binge/loss of control eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and children's adiposity in 305 non-treatment-seeking youth, aged 8-17 years (13.62±2.65 years; 49.8% female) and their mothers. Youths' loss of control eating and eating in the absence of hunger were assessed by interview and self-report questionnaire. Children's adiposity was assessed with BMI-z and air displacement plethysmography. Maternal binge eating, eating in the absence of hunger and highest, non-pregnant BMI were self-reported. In structural equation models controlling for mothers' BMI, mothers' binge eating related to children's loss of control eating, and mothers' eating in the absence of hunger related to children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers' binge eating and children's eating in the absence of hunger were unrelated, as were mothers' eating in the absence of hunger and children's loss of control. Further, mothers' binge eating was indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's loss of control eating. Likewise, mothers' eating in the absence of hunger indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers and children share similar, specific disinhibited eating styles. PMID:21182882

Zocca, Jaclyn M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Columbo, Kelli M; Raciti, Gina R; Brady, Sheila M; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem H; Matheson, Brittany E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

2011-04-01

459

Quality of life in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to assess differences in Quality of Life (QoL) across eating disorder (ED) diagnoses, and to examine the relationship of QoL to specific clinical features. Results 199 patients with a diagnosed ED completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) [Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders, 315–318, 2008] and the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) [Int J Eat Disord 6:1–8]. Differences between diagnostic groups were examined, as were differences between restrictive and binge-purge subtypes. CIA scores and EDE scores were positively correlated and higher in groups with binge-purge behaviours. CIA scores were not correlated with BMI, illness duration or frequency of bingeing/purging behaviours, except in the binge-purge AN group, where CIA scores negatively correlated with BMI. Conclusions Patients with EDs have poor QoL and impairment increases with illness severity. Patients with binge/purge diagnoses are particularly impaired. It remains unclear which clinical features best predict the degree of impairment experienced by patients with EDs. PMID:24999421

2013-01-01

460

Can the impact of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating be weakened by one's decentering abilities?  

PubMed

Decentering has been defined as the ability to deal with thoughts and emotions as subjective and ephemeral inner events. Since it implies a non-judging and present focused attitude towards thoughts and emotions, decentering has been considered as an important protective process against psychopathology, as it has been empirically shown to decrease depressive relapse rates. Nevertheless, its role in eating disordered attitudes and behaviours has not been fully uncovered. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the moderator effect of decentering on the relationship between eating psychopathology and one of its main risk factors, body image dissatisfaction. The sample comprised 279 female students, aged between 14 and 21 years-old. Results revealed that decentering abilities were negatively linked to body image dissatisfaction and to the global score of eating psychopathology. Through a path analysis, the buffer effect of decentering was confirmed. The findings suggest that the ability to take a non-judgmental and accepting stance towards internal experiences diminishes the impact of one's body dissatisfaction on disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. This study seems especially pertinent since it uncovers a mechanism to lessen the pervasive impact of body image dissatisfaction, which is highly prevalent in women from Western societies. PMID:25064288

Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

2014-08-01

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