Using the 40-item Eating Attitudes Test and other self-report questions, a two-stage screening survey of 1020 (F 646, M 374) Chinese bilingual university students in Hong Kong showed that although female students were 'underweight' by Western standard, the majority of them and nearly all female students above a body mass index of 20.5 kg/m2 were cognitively inclined to diet and weigh less, albeit without being driven to actual weight control behaviour. In contrast, most male students and a minority of constitutionally thin female students clearly wished to gain weight. While a number of items were culturally inappropriate, factor analysis supported the overall cross-cultural conceptual validity of the EAT. The principal factor, reflecting dieting concerns, correlated positively with the current body mass index. Among the high scorers, only three female students with partial syndrome bulimia nervosa were identified, yielding a low prevalence of 0.46% for the spectrum of eating disorders. It is argued that the desire for slimness is widespread but its intensity and pathogenic potentiality vary across cultures. In the relative absence of obesity, it may not lead to more eating disorder. PMID:8332660
Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard
Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108
Filaire, E; Larue, J; Rouveix, M
The purpose of the study was to examine the abnormal eating attitudes in judoists and the possible relationships between eating attitudes, emotional intelligence, and body dissatisfaction. A total of 20 national judoists and 25 control participants were enrolled in the study. Subjects completed the following questionnaires: The Eating Attitudes Test, The Body Image Assessment Scale-Body Dimensions and the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. 30 % of the athletes (n=6) and 20% of the controls (n=5) presented disordered eating attitudes although these subjects were of normal weight. They also presented body dissatisfaction and had lower levels of emotional intelligence in comparison to the groups without disordered eating attitudes, particularly in factors such as intrapersonal (p<0.01), adaptability (p<0.05), stress tolerance (p<0.04) and general mood (p<0.04). The athletes reported using different weight loss methods such as self-induced vomiting (20%), fasting (40%), diuretics (15%), and laxatives (50%). Among disordered eating attitude groups (Controls+Judoists), Global EAT-26 was negatively correlated with stress tolerance (p<0.04: r=-0.64), emotional self-awareness (p<0.05: r=-0.70), general mood (p<0.01: r=-0.74), and positively correlated with body dissatisfaction (p<0.01: r=0.79). Results highlight the role of emotion in disordered eating attitudes, which is an important finding in terms of the prevention and management of disordered eating. PMID:21165809
Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a group of disorders with progressive language impairment. Abnormal behaviour may develop in PPA as the disease evolves, but the clinical features and brain basis of behavioural change in PPA have not been fully defined. 33 PPA patients (9 semantic dementia, SD, 14 progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA, 7 logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA and 3 patients with a PPA syndrome in association with progranulin mutations, GRN-PPA) were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to record behavioural changes, as well as volumetric MR imaging. The most common abnormal behaviours in SD were irritability, disinhibition, depression and abnormal appetite, in PNFA apathy, agitation and depression, in LPA anxiety, irritability, agitation and apathy, and in GRN-PPA apathy and irritability. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed greater atrophy of right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in PPA patients with anxiety, apathy, irritability/lability and abnormal appetite/eating disorders, and greater atrophy of left OFC in those with disinhibition. Areas involved beyond OFC included right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (apathy), right cingulate (irritability/lability) and left anterior superior and medial temporal lobe (disinhibition). Behavioural abnormalities may be clinically significant in PPA, and these abnormalities are underpinned by atrophy of overlapping frontotemporal networks centred on OFC. PMID:20400120
Kiziltan, Gül; Karabudak, Efsun
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and Bulimic Investigatory Test-Edinburg (BITE). Psychological factors were measured with the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE) and the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The mean eating attitudes first scores, bulimic investigatory test scores, and Rosenberg self-esteem scores were similar in both groups. Only the STAI score was significantly higher in dietetic students than non-dietetic students. Skipping breakfast was significantly higher in non-dietetic students. Unhealthy weightloss methods were used more by the non-dietetic students than dietetic students. There were no significant effects of nutrition education on BMI and eating attitudes of the students. PMID:19086678
Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel
There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152
Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…
Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan
Understanding and changing eating behaviours are central to the work of Nutrition Society members working in both research and applied settings. The present paper describes a recently published resource to guide the design of interventions to change behaviour, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions (BCW Guide). This is a practical guide to intervention design that brings together recently-developed theory-based tools in behavioural science into a coherent step-by-step design process. It is based on the BCW, a synthesis of nineteen frameworks of behaviour change found in the research literature. The BCW has at its core a model of behaviour known as 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour'. The model recognises that behaviour is part of an interacting system involving all these components. The BCW identifies different intervention options that can be applied to changing each of the components and policies that can be adopted to deliver those intervention options. The book shows how the BCW links to theory-based frameworks to understand behaviour such as the Theoretical Domains Framework and the recently developed Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 for specifying intervention content. In essence, it shows how to link what is understood about a given behaviour to types of intervention likely to be effective and then translate this into a locally relevant intervention. In addition, the present paper sets out some principles of intervention design. PMID:25998679
Kee P W; Ho BKW
Introduction: Eating disorders are common In developed countries. Its rising prevalence Is attributed to Western values that idealise slimness. There has been few local studies. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence and mean scores of abnormal eating attitudes among female undergraduates and the association between abnormal eating attitudes and various psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among
Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanr?verdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalç?n
Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675
Horne, Jennifer R
Objectives: This study was designed to examine the psychosocial correlates of eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction in a general sample of adult men and women, as well as to investigate whether coping may mediate the ...
Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J
Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977
Gibbons, Catherine; Finlayson, Graham; Dalton, Michelle; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E
The study of human appetite and eating behaviour has become increasingly important in recent years due to the rise in body weight dysregulation through both obesity and eating disorders. Adequate control over appetite is paramount for the control of body weight and in order to understand appetite, it is necessary to measure eating behaviour accurately. So far, research in this field has revealed that no single experimental design can answer all research questions. Each research question posed will require a specific study design that will limit the findings of that study to those particular conditions. For example, choices will be made among the use of laboratory or free-living studies, time period for examination, specific measurement techniques and investigative methodologies employed. It is important that these represent informed decisions about what design and which methodology will provide the most meaningful outcomes. This review will examine some of the 'gold standard' study designs and methodologies currently employed in the study of human appetite and eating behaviour. PMID:25052364
Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L
This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753
Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.
Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…
Carlton, Janis R; Manos, Gail H; Van Slyke, John A
Studies of abnormal eating behaviors in active duty military personal have found rates similar to or higher than the general population. We have reviewed these studies and extended the research to examine abnormal eating behaviors in a heterogeneous population at a major military medical center. We found high rates of body dissatisfaction, abnormal eating behaviors, and worry about passing the semiannual personal fitness assessment in both men and women. Abnormal eating behaviors were associated with worrying about the personal fitness assessment, and these measures were associated with body mass index and gender. Our data extend previous research indicating that cyclic or external pressure to maintain body weight within specified standards can produce unsafe eating and dieting behaviors. We recommend changes to the current system to incorporate treatment programs aimed at recognizing and treating eating disorders with a goal of producing more fit and healthy service members. PMID:16173205
Lukusa, T; Willekens, D; Lukusa, N; De Cock, F; Fryns, J P
A 10-year-old mentally retarded boy with terminal 6q25 deletion, dysmorphism and striking abnormal behaviour is reported. The main abnormal physical features recorded at different ages consisted of hydrocephalus, axial hypotonia, absence of spontaneous prehension, long face, synophris, hypertelorism with epicanthic folds, internal alternating strabismus, retinal abnormalities with macular degeneration, beaked nose, long philtrum, high-arched palate, lumbar spina bifida, right paravertebral dimple at the upper sacral region, prominent coccyx, broad thumbs and great toes, fetal pads and cryptorchidism. The special behavioural difficulties were made of restlessness, hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive reactions with a self-injurious tendency and episodes of apparently voluntary vomiting crisis concomitant with stress periods. A review of the available literature strongly suggests that individuals with small chromosomal deletions are at high risk of developing behavioural problems. PMID:11693783
Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora
Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. PMID:25240638
Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25982390
Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin
Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385
Cohen, D A; Babey, S H
This paper reviews some of the evidence that dietary behaviours are, in large part, the consequence of automatic responses to contextual food cues, many of which lead to increased caloric consumption and poor dietary choices. We describe studies that illustrate how these automatic mechanisms underlie eating behaviours, as well as evidence that individuals are subject to inherent cognitive limitations, and mostly lack the capacity to consistently recognize, ignore or resist contextual cues that encourage eating. Restaurants and grocery stores are the primary settings from which people obtain food. These settings are often designed to maximize sales of food by strategically placing and promoting items to encourage impulse purchases. Although a great deal of marketing research is proprietary, this paper describes some of the published studies that indicate that changes in superficial characteristics of food products, including packaging and portion sizes, design, salience, health claims and labelling, strongly influence food choices and consumption in ways for which people generally lack insight. We discuss whether contextual influences might be considered environmental risk factors from which individuals may need the kinds of protections that fall under the mission of public health. PMID:22551473
Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela
Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852
Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane
The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…
Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic
BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food
Soo, Kah Leng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Samah, Bahaman Abu
This cross-sectional study was undertaken with 489 secondary school girls, ages 15-17 years, to examine disordered eating behaviours of adolescent girls in Malaysia and to estimate associations with body weight, body-size discrepancy, and self-esteem. Dietary restraint, binge eating, body image, and self-esteem were assessed using the Restrained Eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Binge Scale Questionnaire, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Pearson correlations estimated associations between variables. There were 3.1% underweight, 9.8% at risk of being overweight, and 8.6% overweight girls. A total of 87.3% were dissatisfied with their own body size. Dietary restraint and binge eating were reported by 36.0% and 35.4%, respectively. Body Mass Index (r = .34, p < .01) and body-size dissatisfaction (r = .24, p < .01) were significantly associated with dietary restraint and binge eating, but self-esteem (r = -.20, p < .001) was significantly associated only with binge eating. PMID:18712205
Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim
Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…
Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia
The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control. PMID:18257948
Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy
This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…
Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113
ESTIMATING THE COMPLEXITY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR: HOW MOUNTAIN GORILLAS EAT THISTLES by RICHARD W gorillas use elaborate, multi-stage procedures for dealing with plant defences. This paper investigates estimates of task complexity; in the case of gorilla plant processing, both 1) E-mail address: rwb
Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.
Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…
Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C; Higgs, Suzanne; Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas
Research suggests a potential dysregulation of the stress response in individuals with bulimia nervosa. This study measured both cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to a standardised laboratory stress task in individuals identified as showing disordered eating behaviour to determine whether dysregulation of the stress response is characteristic of the two branches of the stress response system. Female students (N=455) were screened using two validated eating disorder questionnaires. Twelve women with disordered eating, including self-induced vomiting, and 12 healthy controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity, via Doppler imaging and semi-automatic blood pressure monitoring, were measured at resting baseline and during and after exposure to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. Compared to controls the disordered eating group showed blunted cortisol, cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume reactions to the acute stress, as well as an attenuated vasodilatory reaction. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, subjective task impact/engagement, age, BMI, neuroticism, cardio-respiratory fitness, or co-morbid exercise dependence. Our findings suggest that disordered eating is characterised by a dysregulation of the autonomic stress-response system. As such, they add further weight to the general contention that blunted stress reactivity is characteristic of a number of maladaptive behaviours and states. PMID:21962379
Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre
Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25974271
Katharine N. Thakkar; Frida E. Polli; Robert M. Joseph; David S. Tuch; Nouchine Hadjikhani; Jason J. S. Barton; Dara S. Manoach
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response moni- toring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing factors to autistic disorders. We investigated whether ACC structure and func- tion during
Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M
With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311
Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T
The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ? 30 kg m(-2) and binge eating scale scores ? 19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day(-1) GSK1521498, 5 mg day(-1) GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day(-1) caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day(-1) on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang the detection of global abnormal behaviours across a network of CCTV cameras. Although the problem of multiple behaviours of objects monitored by a network of CCTV cameras with disjointed camera views, and no effort has
Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara
Inhibitory control training has been shown to influence eating behaviour in the laboratory; however, the reliability of these effects is not yet established outside the laboratory, nor are the mechanisms responsible for change in behaviour. Two online Stop-Signal Task training interventions were conducted to address these points. In Study 1, 72 participants completed baseline and follow-up measures of inhibitory control, self-regulatory depletion, fat intake and body-mass index. Participants were randomly assigned to complete one of three Stop-Signal Tasks daily for ten days: food-specific inhibition--inhibition in response to unhealthy food stimuli only, general inhibition--inhibition was not contingent on type of stimuli, and control--no inhibition. While fat intake did not decrease, body-mass index decreased in the food-specific condition and change in this outcome was mediated by changes in vulnerability to depletion. In Study 2, the reliability and longevity of these effects were tested by replicating the intervention with a third measurement time-point. Seventy participants completed baseline, post-intervention and follow-up measures. While inhibitory control and vulnerability to depletion improved in both training conditions post-intervention, eating behaviour and body-mass index did not. Further, improvements in self-regulatory outcomes were not maintained at follow-up. It appears that while the training paradigm employed in the current studies may improve self-regulatory outcomes, it may not necessarily improve health outcomes. It is suggested that this may be due to the task parameters, and that a training paradigm that utilises a higher proportion of stop-signals may be necessary to change behaviour. In addition, improvements in self-regulation do not appear to persist over time. These findings further current conceptualisations of the nature of self-regulation and have implications for the efficacy of online interventions designed to improve eating behaviour. PMID:25725487
Wilson, A J; Touyz, S W; O'Connor, M; Beumont, P J
The aim of the present study was to assess whether direct informational feedback using videotape recordings would improve abnormal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. Eight inpatients participated in the study. A statistically significant improvement was noted in the occurrence of obsessional eating behaviour and in table manners. However, there was no change in the speed of eating, disposal of food or behaviours which reduce caloric intake. The implications of these findings for the treatment and prognosis of anorexia nervosa are discussed. PMID:4045758
Benbaibeche, Hassiba; Haffaf, El Mahdi; Kacimi, Ghouti; Oudjit, Brahim; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed
In Algeria, eating behaviour has been increasingly deviated from its traditional Mediterranean diet to modern fast food style. The present study examines the interactions between eating behaviour pattern (EBP), corticotropic hormone axis and the metabolic syndrome. Our Algerian population cohort comprised of 410 participants (130 obese, 170 type 2 diabetics and 110 healthy participants). The EBP was evaluated by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire test. The anthropometric and metabolic parameters (glucose, TAG, HDL, LDL and cholesterol) and the concentrations of hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone) were determined by biometrics, spectrophotometry and RIA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed a high correlation between the EBP and the metabolic syndrome, particularly between insulin-resistant state and hypertrophy of visceral adipose tissue. Compared with healthy participants, obese ones showed the hyperphagic type of EBP, i.e. disinhibition and hunger disorders. Conversely, the diabetics showed both the hypophagic and hyperphagic type of EBP. In diabetic and obese participants, cortisol and ACTH secretions were significantly altered, leading to metabolic disorders. The present study confirms the role of EBP in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25782454
Cropley, Mark; Michalianou, Georgia; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Millward, Lynne J
Inability to unwind about work during leisure time has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes. This study was concerned with a possible behavioural pathway between unwinding and disease and examined the relationship between work-related rumination and food choice. Work-related rumination is arguably a core to understanding the 'unwinding process', and food choice is a well-established indicator of nutritional health. Two hundred and sixty-eight full-time workers from a range of white-collar occupations completed a self-report measure of ruminative thinking about work and an eating behaviour questionnaire. Three types of ruminative thinking were identified by factor analysis and labelled affective rumination, problem-solving pondering and detachment. In terms of food choice, high-relative to low-affective ruminators reported eating more unhealthy foods, and low detachers reported eating less cooked meals and more processed foods compared to high detachers. Problem-solving pondering was not associated with food choice, and none of the factors were associated with healthy food choice. It was concluded that failure to unwind from work is not necessarily related to unhealthy food choices. What appears to be the crucial factor is the type of perseverative thinking that people engage in post-work. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:22259155
Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa
Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363
Hilbert, Anja; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
The present study sought to investigate effects of body exposure in the treatment of binge-eating disorder (BED). Cognitive-behavioural therapy with a body exposure component (CBT-E) was compared with CBT with a cognitive restructuring component focused on body image (CBT-C). Twenty-eight patients diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to CBT-E or CBT-C, both delivered in a group format. Negative automatic thoughts about one's body, dysfunctional assumptions about shape and weight, and body dissatisfaction were assessed using experimental thought-sampling techniques, a clinical interview (Eating Disorder Examination), and self-report questionnaires. At posttreatment and at 4-month follow-up, CBT-E and CBT-C were equally effective in improving body image disturbance on all indicators assessed. Both CBT-E and CBT-C produced substantial and stable improvements in the specific and general eating disorder psychopathology. Results suggest that both treatment components are equally effective in the treatment of BED. PMID:15381441
Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…
-esteem, perceived social support, eating-related outcomes and especially body dissatisfaction. The most important findings concerned emotional eating. For males, there were positive correlations between emotional eating and avoidance coping (r= .440, p<0...
Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: -0.01-0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders. PMID:25209691
Tortorella, Alfonso; Brambilla, Francesca; Fabrazzo, Michele; Volpe, Umberto; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Mastromo, Daniele; Monteleone, Palmiero
A large body of literature suggests the occurrence of a dysregulation in both central and peripheral modulators of appetite in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), but at the moment, the state or trait-dependent nature of those changes is far from being clear. It has been proposed, although not definitively proved, that peptide alterations, even when secondary to malnutrition and/or to aberrant eating behaviours, might contribute to the genesis and the maintenance of some symptomatic aspects of AN and BN, thus affecting the course and the prognosis of these disorders. This review focuses on the most significant literature studies that explored the physiology of those central and peripheral peptides, which have prominent effects on eating behaviour, body weight and energy homeostasis in patients with AN and BN. The relevance of peptide dysfunctions for the pathophysiology of eating disorders is critically discussed. PMID:24942507
McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela
This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…
Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.
Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…
Background Subclinical forms of eating disorders (ED) are highly prevalent, but relatively little is known about age trends, gender differences and distinctions among symptoms. This study investigates age trends and gender difference in binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours (CB) and the relationship of such behaviours to psychosocial problems. Methods Data from the national representative longitudinal study "Young in Norway" (ages 14-34 years) were analysed using ?2 tests, logistic random intercept models and analyses of covariance. Results For both genders, a decrease was found in the prevalence of CB from age 14-16 years to 23 years and over. For binging, however, a significant decrease was found only for females, whose binge eating also declined more markedly over time than did males'. A significant gender difference was detected for purging, with females at higher risk. Purging was related to particularly serious symptoms of psychosocial problems: Those who purged had significantly higher levels of appearance dissatisfaction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, self-concept instability and loneliness than those with symptoms of other forms of disordered eating. Conclusions Individuals affected by purging need to be targeted as a high-risk group. The distinction in severity among the subclinical ED may indicate the need for the reformulation of the eating disorder not otherwise specified category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V. PMID:22244266
This paper addresses the question: what can the practice of yoga offer the field of eating disorders in terms of prevention and treatment? Regarding prevention, preliminary research suggests that yoga may be effective in decreasing risk factors, and increasing protective factors, for eating disorders. Yoga was also found to be helpful in a small number of treatment studies. However, findings are not consistent across studies, which are limited in number, and due to the preliminary nature of this body of research, most studies have weaknesses in their designs (e.g. observational design, no control groups, or small sample sizes). The basic tenets of yoga, anecdotal reports of its effectiveness, its high accessibility and low cost, and initial research findings suggest that yoga may offer promise for the field of eating disorders. Two options are suggested for prevention: (1) eating disorder prevention can be integrated into ongoing yoga classes and (2) yoga can be integrated into eating disorder prevention programmes. Regarding treatment, it is important to examine the effectiveness of different teaching styles and practices for different eating disorders. Potential harms of yoga should also be explored. Further research, using stronger study designs, such as randomised, controlled trials, is needed. PMID:24955291
Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343
Waller, Glenn; Mountford, Victoria A
While weight, beliefs about weight and weight changes are key issues in the pathology and treatment of eating disorders, there is substantial variation in whether and how psychological therapists weigh their patients. This review considers the reasons for that variability, highlighting the differences that exist in clinical protocols between therapies, as well as levels of reluctance on the part of some therapists and patients. It is noted that there have been substantial changes over time in the recommendations made within therapies, including cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). The review then makes the case for all CBT therapists needing to weigh their patients in session and for the patient to be aware of their weight, in order to give the best chance of cognitive, emotional and behavioural progress. Specific guidance is given as to how to weigh, stressing the importance of preparation of the patient and presentation, timing and execution of the task. Consideration is given to reasons that clinicians commonly report for not weighing patients routinely, and counter-arguments and solutions are presented. Finally, there is consideration of procedures to follow with some special groups of patients. PMID:25938186
Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1?km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1?km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1?km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ?5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296
Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra
Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757
Skov, L R; Lourenço, S; Hansen, G L; Mikkelsen, B E; Schofield, C
The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. Twelve databases were searched systematically for experimental studies with predefined choice architecture interventions in the period of June 2011-March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. The evidence indicates that (i) health labelling at point of purchase is associated with healthier food choice, while (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. PMID:23164089
Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric
Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N?=?60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p?=?.018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042
Fortes, L de S; Kakeshita, I S; Almeida, S S; Gomes, A R; Ferreira, M E C
This study compared the different factors associated with eating behaviors among young female and male athletes and non-athletes. A total of 580 female and male athletes and 362 female and male non-athletes between 10 and 19 years old participated. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to evaluate the factors associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We found higher scores for females on the diet subscale compared with males, regardless of athletic group (P?0.05). Non-athlete youths scored higher on this subscale compared with male athletes (P?0.05). Our findings indicate higher scores for female athletes with regard to the bulimia and preoccupation with food subscale compared with other the groups (P?0.05). Moreover, we observed that non-athlete males were more likely to engage in binge eating compared with athletes of the same sex (P?0.05). Finally, females had higher scores on the oral self subscale than males, regardless of athletic group (P?0.05). We concluded that the factors associated with eating behaviors differ with regard to sex and group. PMID:23889336
Allison M. Hewitt; Christine Stephens
This study examined the roles of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and parental influence in predicting healthy eating intentions and behaviour among 10 – 13-year-old New Zealand children. Two hundred and sixty-one children completed questionnaires designed to measure the components of the TPB. In addition, their parents or caregivers completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. Subjective norm, behavioural belief, attitude
Fairburn, Christopher G; Harrison, Paul J
Eating disorders are an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity in adolescent girls and young adult women. They are much less frequent in men. Eating disorders are divided into three diagnostic categories: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and the atypical eating disorders. However, the disorders have many features in common and patients frequently move between them, so for the purposes of this Seminar we have adopted a transdiagnostic perspective. The cause of eating disorders is complex and badly understood. There is a genetic predisposition, and certain specific environmental risk factors have been implicated. Research into treatment has focused on bulimia nervosa, and evidence-based management of this disorder is possible. A specific form of cognitive behaviour therapy is the most effective treatment, although few patients seem to receive it in practice. Treatment of anorexia nervosa and atypical eating disorders has received remarkably little research attention. PMID:12573387
Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.
The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…
Kistner, A; Deschmann, E; Legnevall, L; Vanpee, M
Aim This study examined the relationship between hypothalamic-associated hormones and behavioural and eating disorders in children with low birthweight. Methods We included 100 children (mean age 9.7 years): 39 were born preterm at <32 gestational weeks, 28 were full-term, but small for gestational age, and 33 were full-term controls. Behavioural histories were analysed, together with fasting blood samples of leptin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), prolactin, glucagon and cortisol. Results Preterm children had lower prolactin (p = 0.01) and higher IGF-I than controls (p < 0.05, adjusted for confounders), despite being significantly shorter than the predicted target height (p < 0.001). More preterm children displayed behavioural disorders (38% versus 10%, p < 0.001) and eating disorders (26% versus 8%, p < 0.05) than full-term children. These disorders were associated with lower leptin (p < 0.01), insulin (p < 0.05) and IGF-I (p < 0.05), but correlations between these hormones and leptin were similar among the groups. Combined behavioural and eating disorders were only observed in preterm children, who were also the shortest in height. Conclusion Behavioural and eating disorders among preterm children were associated with low leptin, insulin and IGF-1. Low prolactin in all preterm children indicated an increased dopaminergic tonus, which might inhibit body weight incrementation. This raises speculation about IGF-I receptor insensitivity. PMID:25040495
Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo
The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses. PMID:25416408
Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p?0.05), and also had a 0.184 z-score lower in height for age (95% CI: -0.332, 0.036; p?=?0.015), a 0.385 z-score lower in weight for age (95% CI: -0.533, -0.237; p?0.001), a 0.383 z-score lower in BMI for age (95% CI: -0.563, -0.203; p?0.001), and scored 2.726 points higher on the intelligence test (95% CI: 0.809, 4.643; p?=?0.006) when adjusted for children's birth weight and food allergy, mothers' education, and family income. Picky eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. PMID:25934087
Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization
Sarah M. Zala; Dustin J. Penn
Many chemical pollutants have become ubiquitous in the environment, including some that interfere with hormones and other physiological mechanisms. These ‘endocrine-disrupting chemicals’ (EDCs) have harmful effects on development and physiology. We reviewed published evidence and found that EDCs also have adverse effects on a wide range of behaviours, including sexual and other reproductive behaviours, activity, motivation, communication, aggression, dominance and
Porter, A J; Pillidge, K; Tsai, Y C; Dudley, J A; Hunt, S P; Peirson, S N; Brown, L A; Stanford, S C
Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display abnormal behaviours seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness). These abnormalities were evident when comparing the behaviour of separate (inbred: ‘Hom’) wildtype and NK1R-/- mouse strains. Here, we investigated whether the inbreeding protocol could influence their phenotype by comparing the behaviour of these mice with that of wildtype (NK1R+/+) and NK1R-/- progeny of heterozygous parents (‘Het’, derived from the same inbred strains). First, we recorded the spontaneous motor activity of the two colonies/genotypes, over 7 days. This continuous monitoring also enabled us to investigate whether the diurnal rhythm in motor activity differs in the two colonies/genotypes. NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were hyperactive compared with their wildtypes and their diurnal rhythm was also disrupted. Next, we evaluated the performance of the four groups of mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). During training, NK1R-/- mice from both colonies expressed more impulsive and perseverative behaviour than their wildtypes. During testing, only NK1R-/- mice from the Hom colony were more impulsive than their wildtypes, but NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were more perseverative. There were no colony differences in inattentiveness. Moreover, a genotype difference in this measure depended on time of day. We conclude that the hyperactivity, perseveration and, possibly, inattentiveness of NK1R-/- mice is a direct consequence of a lack of functional NK1R. However, the greater impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice depended on an interaction between a functional deficit of NK1R and other (possibly environmental and/or epigenetic) factors. PMID:25558794
Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours. PMID:23981951
W. M. Rowston; S. E. McCluskey; J. C. Gazet; J. Hubert Lacey; G. Franks; D. Lynch
Sixteen morbidly obese patients (12 females, four males) underwent the Scopinaro operation according to Gazet. Profound weight\\u000a loss occurred, along with marked improvements in eating patterns, mood and psychosocial functioning which were reported retrospectively\\u000a 1 year and repeated 2 years after surgery. Continued binge eating, comfort eating and ‘eating sensibly\\/making up in private’\\u000a were associated with reduced weight loss, suggesting
Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024
Thibault, Karine; Calvino, Bernard; Pezet, Sophie
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease, associated, in 50-80% of patients, with persistent pain. While the type of pain that affects these patients is being more documented, the mechanisms underlying this pathology are still poorly understood and animal models of such chronic pain associated with MS are required. The aim of our study was to characterize the sensory abnormalities and in particular the clinical signs linked to persistent pain in two models of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the rat. This behavioural characterization tested several sensory modalities such as mechanical and thermal (heat/cold) hyperalgesia or allodynia and explored some of these modalities on two different extremities: the hindpaws and the tail. Our study showed that while one of the model produced more robust motor impairment, animals of both models suffer from mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal allodynia to cold, both at the level of the tail and the hindpaws. While the time-course changes of some of these modalities are shifted in the time between the two models, they represent good models of the sensory abnormalities experienced by MS patients. The second part of our study aimed at characterizing from a pharmacological point of view the most robust model ("EAE+Cyclosporine") and showed that Gabapentin, Duloxetine and Tramadol partially relieved some of the clinical signs. Our results suggest that the model "EAE+Cyclosporine" in the rat is a good model of chronic sensory abnormalities observed in MS patients both from a behavioural and pharmacological point of view. PMID:20829083
Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A
The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. PMID:22524997
Adejumo, Adebayo O
This cross-sectional survey investigated the role of dispositional (self-efficacy and self esteem), and situational factors (distractibility and perceived food variety) as determinants of food eating behaviour (FEB). Hospital employees (N500) in Nigeria's premier teaching Hospital participated. Results showed that self-efficacy and self-esteem jointly predicted cognitive restraint dimension of FEB (F(2499) = 26.00; R2 = 0.10; p < .05). Dispositional variables also jointly predicted uncontrolled eating (F(2499) = 17.41; R2 = 0.07; p < .05), emotional eating (F(2499)= 28.58; R2 = 0.10; p < .05), and cognitive restraint (F(2499) = 35.60; R2 = 0.13; p < .05) dimensions of FEB. Age (chi2 = 64.81; df = 1; p < .05), and marital status (chi2 = 32.74; df = 4; p < .05) were associated with FEB. Therefore, dispositional and situational variables are predictors of FEB as evidenced in previous literatures. The need for primary prevention, and assertiveness to reduce distractibility and eating disorders was highlighted towards maintaining health and efficiency at work is recommended. PMID:22073876
Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence
Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…
Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce
Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…
AE Dingemans; MJ Bruna; EF van Furth
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new proposed eating disorder in the DSM-IV. BED is not a formal diagnosis within the DSM-IV, but in day-to-day clinical practice the diagnosis seems to be generally accepted. People with the BED-syndrome have binge eating episodes as do subjects with bulimia nervosa, but unlike the latter they do not engage in compensatory behaviours. Although
... is often accompanied by feelings of disgust or shame. The binge-eating and purging cycle happens anywhere ... and high blood pressure. They also experience guilt, shame, and distress about their binge-eating, which can ...
... what causes eating disorders, although there are many theories about it. Many people who develop an eating ... therapists, and working with dietitians and other professionals. Learning to be comfortable at your healthy weight is ...
Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran
This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).
Healthy Eating Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips Eating healthy foods helps everyone stay well. It’s even more important for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Here are some tips for healthy eating. Buying and Preparing Food When the person with ...
... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...
Trabalon, Marie; Schaal, Benoist
Mammalian, including human, neonates are considered to be obligate nose breathers. When constrained to breathe through their mouth in response to obstructed or closed nasal passages, the effects are pervasive and profound, and sometimes last into adulthood. The present paper briefly surveys neonates' and infants' responses to this atypical mobilisation of the mouth for breathing and focuses on comparisons between human newborns and infants and the neonatal rat model. We present the effects of forced oral breathing on neonatal rats induced by experimental nasal obstruction. We assessed the multilevel consequences on physiological, structural, and behavioural variables, both during and after the obstruction episode. The effects of the compensatory mobilisation of oral resources for breathing are discussed in the light of the adaptive development of oromotor functions. PMID:22811731
Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex
The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.
Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph
Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394
What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...
Gurenlian, JoAnn R
Eating disorders are a serious concern in clients health and a challenge to oral health professionals. These illnesses, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia, binge eating, and pica, are characterized by serious disturbances in eating and effects on psychological health. Physiologic changes associated with eating disorders may be devastating and can lead to mortality. Despite the serious consequences of eating disorders on physical and psychological health and well being, these disorders are often difficult to diagnose. Even when detected, ill clients may be averse to accepting treatment. Thus, oral health professionals must be aware of the signs of eating disorders, and be prepared to collaborate with other health care providers to treat them. The purpose of this course is to review the medical and dental literature concerning eating disorders types, risk factors, systemic health consequences, oral manifestations, and treatment considerations. The role of oral health professionals as part of an interdisciplinary health team focused on addressing the needs of clients with eating disorders will be addressed. PMID:12271868
Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu
Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817
Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu
Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817
Using websites and interactive games students will discover how eating healthy effects their bodies. Healthy eating is important in helping our bodies function at their best! Follow the links below and then answer the questions in our Healthy Foods project folder on our class wiki! VisitDining Decisionsand play a fun game where you will load your lunch tray with healthy choices. How do your current lunch choices ...
... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...
Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H
Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline. PMID:19744399
Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel
This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989
This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...
Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline
Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eating behaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793
Many insects eat their cast cuticle (exuviae) after moulting. The functional significance of this behaviour has not been addressed experimentally. I tested the hypothesis that exuviae eating constitutes a meal, so the animal recycles its nitrogen content. Nitrogenous compounds (protein and chitin) are major components of the cuticle in Periplaneta americana, accounting for as much as 87% of the total weight. It was found that insects almost invariably ate their exuviae during their larval life. The frequency of the behaviour decreased in newly emerged adults and varied between the sexes, males eating their exuviae less frequently than females. This may be due to the extra nitrogen endowment which females need for reproduction. Aposymbiotic animals, which lack the supply of essential amino acids from endosymbiotic bacteria, always ate their exuviae regardless of sex. When animals were reared on different diets throughout their larval life protein level in the diet correlated with exuviae eating. Animals reared on a low protein diet showed the highest levels of exuviae eating; animals reared on a high protein diet showed the highest levels of exuviae rejection. Analysis of the frass produced after exuviae meals showed that over 58% of the nitrogen present in the exuviae was recycled. This demonstrated that cockroaches digested nitrogenous compounds contained in the cuticle. The possibility that the exuviae meal has other functions is discussed, although the evidence supports a nutritional role. PMID:12770224
... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...
Tanya R. Schlam; G. Terence Wilson
As these two case studies illustrate, homework is absolutely essential to the effective use of CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and in the prevention of relapse. Adherence to homework assignments, including difficult assignments that provoke anxiety, is best achieved in the context of a strong relationship in which clients understand the rationale for the assignment and are able
The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...
Annie King; Bonnie Sutherly
ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate
Michael J. Howell; Carlos H. Schenck
Opinion statement Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic\\u000a and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime\\u000a energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose\\u000a metabolism that result in stable
Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...
eating came when I was a graduate student. Nearly every day my Brazilian colleague would walk the halls eaters would seem to benefit because they don't have to compete with others for food, which may be a limited resource. On the other hand, while social eaters must share the food, they benefit from
Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain
Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n?=?740) and Canada (n?=?456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. PMID:25769975
Healthy Eating Get your child on the path to healthy eating. Focus on the meal and each other. Your ... child’s throat—about the size of a nickel. Healthy Eating There are many ways to divide the Daily ...
El-Radhi, A Sahib
Eating disorders are essentially psychological diseases that are characterised by abnormal eating habits. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are the most common forms of eating disorders. There is an increased recognition of eating disorders among both men and women, and growing numbers of children and teenagers seeking help for eating disorders. Fear of body-weight gain is central to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Before the diagnosis of an eating disorder is made, it is essential to exclude organic diseases that may present with similar symptoms to eating disorders. Management initially should focus on correcting the nutritional deficiencies and dehydration at a paediatric or paediatric gastroenterology department, followed by a multidisciplinary approach. At the other extreme, the prevalence of obesity in children is increasing at an alarming rate, and presents a serious public health challenge. PMID:26018017
It's important to eat the right things to keep our bodies happy and healthy. As you explore these sites, look for ways you can better give your body what it needs. There's still an hour until lunch, and you're hungry. You do have a candy bar that you got for your birthday. It looks really tasty, but is that really what your body needs. Your mom always says they're bad for you, and they'll make you sick. Is that ...
Susan Hart; Suzanne Abraham; Richard C Franklin; Stephen M Twigg; Janice Russell
ObjectiveTo describe the incidence of hypoglycaemia, and variables associated with hypoglycaemia, in eating disorder patients following a mixed meal stimulus.MethodsPostprandial blood glucose values of patients admitted to a specialist eating disorder hospital for treatment of an eating disorder between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed and compared to body mass index (BMI), electrolytes, and weight losing behaviours. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.
Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.
Pat Burton; Hendrik J. Smit; Helen J. Lightowler
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eating behaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present
Russell-Pavier, Anna Louise
Objective: The objectives of the present study were to examine whether personality factors and coping methods can predict attitudes towards eating and patterns of eating behaviour among young women. In addition, it was ...
Helen A. Doll; Sophie E. Petersen; Sarah L. Stewart-Brown
Objective: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects with eating disorders in terms of eating disorder type and in relation to self-reports of longstanding illness, depression and self-harming behaviours. Method: Data on eating disorder history, SF-36 health status, longstanding illness, and self-reported frequencies of depression, self-harming behaviour, and suicidal thoughts or acts were collected during 1996 as part
Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and ...
Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746
Sarah A. Wildermuth; Glenn R. Mesman; Wendy L. Ward
Given the increasing frequency of obesity and related maladaptive eating patterns in pediatric populations, health care professionals in a variety of settings must find ways to treat persons who are obese and have maladaptive eating patterns. The authors summarized literature related to binge eating disorder, boredom eating, emotional eating, and night eating syndrome and developed educational handouts designed for children\\/adolescents
Cheryl L. Rock
The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in
Meany, Gavin; Conceição, Eva; Mitchell, James E
There is increasing evidence that patients who have problems with binge eating (BE) or BE disorder (BED) are quite common among the severely obese, including bariatric surgery candidates. The literature suggests that in many cases such eating behaviours improve after bariatric surgery, although this is not uniformly true. The current paper reviews the data on the development of BE, BED and loss of control (LOC) eating after bariatric surgery and the impact of these problems on long-term weight outcome. A search was made of various databases regarding evidence of BE, BED and LOC eating post-operatively in bariatric surgery patients. The data extracted from the literature suggests that 15 research studies have now examined this question. Fourteen of the available 15 studies suggest that the development of problems with BE, BED or LOC eating post-bariatric surgery is associated with less weight loss and/or more weight regain post-bariatric surgery. These data suggests that it is important to identify individuals at high risk for these problems, to follow them post-operatively, and, if appropriate interventions can be developed if such behaviours occur in order to maximize weight loss outcomes. PMID:24347539
Mouth-Healthy Eating Immediate Effects of Food Long-Term Effects What To Eat If you want to prevent cavities, how ... oral health is the first step toward mouth-healthy eating. Immediate Effects of Food Changes begin in your ...
This lesson plan introduces students to the prehistoric SuperCroc species (Sarcosuchus imperator) and its diet and eating habits. Students will investigate the diet and eating habits of American alligators and Nile crocodiles. They will draw pictures and write paragraphs explaining the similarities and differences they discover and the reasons they think scientists are so interested in what and how these animals eat.
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter
Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndrome are described in relation to the major eating disorders. PMID:21743711
Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid
Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217
Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika
Recent evidence from the eating domain shows a link between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. One possibility is an external eating style, which has been linked to both impulsivity and food intake. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of external eating in the relationship between impulsivity and food intake. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who completed measures of impulsivity and external eating, and took part in a laboratory taste test as a behavioural index of unhealthy snack food intake. It was found that attentional and motor impulsivity interacted in predicting sweet food intake, but only motor impulsivity predicted both external eating and sweet food intake. Furthermore, the relationship between motor impulsivity and food intake was mediated by external eating. These findings support the development of interventions aimed at targeting specific aspects of impulsivity in order to reduce unhealthy eating behaviour. PMID:25911264
Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried
The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed. PMID:20926059
CHIE YAMAMOTO; MASAHARU UEMOTO; NAOTAKA SHINFUKU; KIYOSHI MAEDA
Purpose:Individual psychological factors such as mental conditions and self-esteem and family relational factors are thought to be predisposing factors in the development of eating disorders. In this study, we conducted a survey of 12-15 year-old public junior high school students to extract factors related to abnormal eating behavior and determine what information could be used by schools to prevent eating
M de Zwaan
Binge eating disorder (BED) was included in the DSM IV as a proposed diagnostic category for further study and as an example for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). BED is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behavior such as vomiting or laxative abuse. Related features include eating until uncomfortably full, eating
Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra
Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Kelly C. Allison; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; Albert J. Stunkard
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several established measures. Depressive symptoms were greater in the
Jackson, Cherry Wyant; Cates, Marshall; Lorenz, Raymond
Eating disorders are complex, chronic disorders that are difficult to treat. In addition, the 2 primary eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, may have acute, life-threatening consequences. Medication trials for eating disorders have been hampered by high dropout rates, high placebo response, short trial duration, insufficient doses, and difficult outcome measures. Only 1 medication has been FDA approved for any eating disorder to date, and that is for fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia. Clearly, new large-scale, independent studies using novel agents, and studying the use of medications for both short- and long-term outcomes, are needed. PMID:20413695
Crisp, A H
Disgust with "fatness" and a consequent preoccupation with body weight, coupled with an inability to reduce it to or sustain it at the desired low level, characterizes the abnormal normal weight control syndrome. Individuals remain sexually active in a biological sense and often also socially. Indeed their sexual behaviour may be as impulse ridden as is their eating behaviour, which often comprises phases of massive bingeing coupled with vomiting and/or purgation. The syndrome is unlike frank anorexia nervosa in that the latter involves a regression to a position of phobic avoidance of normal body weight and consequent low body weight control with inhibition of both biological and social sexual activity. In abnormal normal weight control there is a strong and sometimes desperate hedonistic and extrovert element that will often not be denied so long as body weight does not get too low. Individuals nevertheless feel desperately "out of control" and insecure beneath their bravura. The syndrome is much more common in females than in males. There is a clinical overlap with anorexia nervosa and obesity in many cases as the disorder evolves. Depression, stealing, drug dependence (including alcohol) and acute self-poisoning and self-mutilation are common complications. Clinic cases probably only represent the tip of the iceberg of the much more widespread morbidity within the general population. Like anorexia nervosa and for the same reasons the disorder is probably more common than it used to be. PMID:7309391
... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Eating Out and Weight Gain URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Eating_Out_070615.html Eating Out and Weight ...
Gallant, A R; Lundgren, J; Drapeau, V
The rising prevalence of obesity is a global concern. Eating behaviour and circadian rhythm are proving to be important factors in the aetiology of obesity. The night-eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by increased late-night eating, insomnia, a depressed mood and distress. It is evident that prevalence is higher among weight-related populations than the general community. The exact relationship between this syndrome and obesity remains unclear. The reasons for the discrepancies found in the literature likely include varying diagnostic criteria and a wide range of study population characteristics. NES does not always lead to weight gain in thus certain individuals may be susceptible to night-eating-related weight gain. Weight loss through surgical and behavioural treatments has shown success in diminishing symptoms. The increasing literature associating obesity with circadian imbalances strengthens the link between the NES and obesity. Circadian genes may play a role in this syndrome. This review will examine different aspects of obesity in the context of the NES. PMID:22222118
Llorente de Andrés, F.; Morales-Durán, C.; Chavero, C.; de la Reza, R.
Due to its fragility, the light element lithium (Li) is an excellent and very used indicator of stellar processes. Our interest here is to explore and try to understand the Li dispersion observed in some stellar open clusters which are not explained by the standard theories. A typical and historical case, for example, is that found for stars cooler than the stellar effective temperature Teff ˜ 5500 K in the Pleiades cluster with an age of ˜ 130 My (see details in Figure 2 of this poster). What is the mechanism that provoques this dispersion?. Up to now, mainly three mechanisms are being proposed : (1) Episodic accretion during the protostellar phase (Barafee et al. 2010). (2) Rotational stellar internal mixing shears due to a star-disk interaction (Eggenberger at al. 2012) and (3) Li depletion by an increased stellar radius (Somers et al. 2014). We will explore this problem using the rotational option (2) (Chavero et al. 2014) and also identifying stellar interlopers in some groups.
Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar
This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 ?g g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 ?g ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set. PMID:25954046
Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others
Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…
P. Södersten; M. Zandian; I. Ioakimidis; C. Bergh
The results suggest that linear eaters, who eat at a constant rate, are unable to adjust their intake when challenged to eat at a rate that differs from their baseline rate. This is referred to as disinhibition, which is shown by those at risk for both eating disorders (too little food when eating slowly) and obesity (too much food when
Ramos, M; Stein, L M
OBJECTIVES: Review the literature, exploring factors that contribute to the development of children's eating behavior such as the role of learning and social context. METHODS: The review of the literature was done using Medline, Psyclit, and Lilacs as resources for assessing international and national research articles on child nutrition, with an emphasis on children's eating behavior. These articles were revised and grouped together according to the topic. RESULTS: Family is responsible for the development of children's eating behavior through social learning. Parents are children's first nutritional educators. Children's eating experiences are influenced by cultural and psychosocial factors. Social context plays a relevant role in this process, especially through the strategies used by parents to encourage children to have a balanced diet and to eat specific foods. These strategies may contain adequate and inadequate stimuli as to the development of children's food preference and food intake self-control. CONCLUSION: The learning process is a determining factor for children's eating behavior, and is associated with three factors: food flavor conditioning, food postingestional consequences, and social context. Parents are deeply concerned with the amount of food their children eat and not with the development of more adequate habits and attitudes related to dietary quality. PMID:14676901
Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy
This study investigated the dietary restraint and depression pathway to loss of control over eating among a sample of overweight youngsters based on the assumptions of the extended cognitive behavioural theory for bulimia nervosa. The children's version of the eating disorder examination interview and the children's depression inventory were administered to 350 overweight youngsters (with a mean age of 13.30 years old). Structural equation modelling indicated that the over-evaluation of eating, weight and shape was significantly associated with dietary restraint, which in turn was significantly associated with loss of control over eating. Evidence was also found for a direct pathway between depressive symptoms and loss of control over eating. It can be concluded that in general, the main components to maintain the bulimic cycle in eating disordered patients operate in a similar way to maintain loss of control over eating in overweight youngsters. PMID:20107850
This activity is on page 10 (continued on the right side of page 11) of the pdf, part of the Forest Animals Discovery Box. In this game, learners act out the food web. They are introduced to the idea of the food chain in the "Who Eats What" book and then divide into two groups. Learners pretend to be either a bear, deer, or grass and play a game like "Rock, Paper, Scissor" to simulate how the bear eats the deer and the deer eats the grass. Learners compete to "win."
Clark-Stone, Sam; Joyce, Heidi
Eating disorders can be severe and enduring mental illnesses that have serious physical, psychological and social consequences. They can also have a significant effect on the person's friends and family. In this patient group, control of body shape, weight or eating is over-valued and becomes the main or only way of judging self-worth. Eating disorders can be mild and self-limiting, but they commonly run a chronic course unless treatment is successful. Nurses play an important role in early detection, assessment and treatment. PMID:14649135
Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…
Archer, Lynda A.; Szatmari, Peter
The Revised Children's Eating Behaviour Inventory, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Krug Autism Behavior Checklist were used to assess eating/mealtime problems and related variables in 33 young high functioning autistic children (mean age 5 years, 3 months), 295 normally developing children (mean age 5 years, 8 months) and 11 young boys (mean…
... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of the week so you can prepare healthy, well-balanced meals each evening. Get rid of ...
... Men For Women For Seniors Eating Right During Pregnancy Published January 16, 2014 Print Email The 40 ... Gain for Pregnant Women .) Key Nutrients for Healthy Pregnancy Folic Acid: Folic acid reduces the risk of ...
Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise
Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802
Pietro Cottone; Valentina Sabino; Luca Steardo; Eric P Zorrilla
Binge eating and an increased role for palatability in determining food intake are abnormal adaptations in feeding behavior linked to eating disorders and body weight dysregulation. The present study tested the hypothesis that rats with limited access to highly preferred food would develop analogous opioid-dependent learned adaptations in feeding behavior, with associated changes in metabolism and anxiety-like behavior. For this
Nunes, M A; Camey, S; Olinto, M T A; Mari, J J
In a cross-sectional study conducted four years ago to assess the validity of the Brazilian version of the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) for the identification of abnormal eating behaviors in a population of young females in Southern Brazil, 56 women presented abnormal eating behavior as indicated by the EAT-26 and the Edinburgh Bulimic Investigation Test. They were each matched for age and neighborhood to two normal controls (N = 112) and were re-assessed four years later with the two screening questionnaires plus the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The EAT results were then compared to diagnoses originating from the CIDI. To evaluate the temporal stability of the two screening questionnaires, a test-retest design was applied to estimate kappa coefficients for individual items. Given the prevalence of eating disorders of 6.2%, the CIDI psychiatry interview was applied to 161 women. Of these, 0.6% exhibited anorexia nervosa and 5.6%, bulimia nervosa (10 positive cases). The validity coefficients of the EAT were: 40% sensitivity, 84% specificity, and 14% positive predictive value. Cronbach's coefficient was 0.75. For each EAT item, the kappa index was not higher than 0.344 and the correlation coefficient was lower than 0.488. We conclude that the EAT-26 exhibited low validity coefficients for sensitivity and positive predictive value, and showed a poor temporal stability. It is reasonable to assume that these results were not influenced by the low prevalence of eating disorders in the community. Thus, the results cast doubts on the ability of the EAT-26 test to identify cases of abnormal eating behaviors in this population. PMID:16258635
The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention program based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, with the addition of attitude strength and role identity. The aim was to alter adolescents' healthy eating attitudes and behaviour. In the sample were 335 high school students, who were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and included posters and lectures promoting healthy eating. The measures included a questionnaire assessing the hypothesis and a food frequency questionnaire which measured eating habits. Analysis showed the intervention was effective in proving attitudes toward healthy eating and attitude strength, intention, perceived behavioral control, and healthy eating behaviour, but not effective in predicting subjective norms and role identity. Results provide evidence that intervention changed attitudes toward a behavior in a school setting. PMID:16383096
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
... Get Free Stuff Be a Partner What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans , ... help, too! Download the Tip Sheet What Does “Healthy Eating” Mean? (PDF, 513.2 KB) You Might Also ...
... Free Stuff Be a Partner Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating Sometimes it’s hard to make smart food choices . ... from Go4Life to help you overcome barriers to healthy eating. Does food taste different? Your sense of taste ...
Ramirez-Cash, Ana L.
Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are more prevalent in today's society than ever. As a result, several prevention programs targeting the common eating disorder risk factors have been developed. The purpose of the current study...
Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan
There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103
This project will get kids to explore what it means to be healthy. The students will go through various websites to learn about healthy eating and exercise. Students you will answer the various questions and go to each website to explore what you need to do to be a healthy eater and what your body needs to function daily. Use the following website to explore your body and what the foods you eat really do for your body. Why you need certain foods Use ...
James E. Mitchell; Melissa Pederson Mussell
Research in obesity has generally not demonstrated an association with increased rates of psychopathology compared to normal-weight comparison groups. However, studies of obese individuals from clinical samples with recurrent binge eating or binge eating disorder (BED) have generally revealed increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity compared to nonbinge eating obese individuals. Also, several studies have reported finding an association between BED
Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam
The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046
Day, Jemma; Ternouth, Andrew; Collier, David A
The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesity. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family-based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical illness with metabolic and genetic origins, and thought to be best treated by mainstream medicine, involving dietary, drug or surgical treatment. We believe that this polarisation is fundamentally flawed, and research and treatment of both types of disorder would be better served by greater appreciation of the psychosocial components of obesity and the biological and genetic components of eating disorders. There are similarities in phenotype (such as excessive attempts at weight control, binge eating behaviours) and in risk factors (such as low self-esteem, external locus of control, childhood abuse and neglect, dieting, media exposure, body image dissatisfaction, weight-related teasing and shared susceptibility genes). One example of shared genetic risk is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) gene, in which the valine allele of the Val66Met amino acid polymorphism predisposes to obesity, whereas the methionine allele predisposes to eating disorders. Thus the evidence suggests that these disorders will have both shared and distinct susceptibility factors; some will predispose to both types of disorder, some will push in opposite directions, and some will separate them. PMID:19526739
Jennifer D. Lundgren; Ashley McCune; Carrie Spresser; Paula Harkins; Lauren Zolton; Konoy Mandal
The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating
Oshida, Haruki; Kutsuma, Ayano; Nakajima, Kei
Little is known about the associations of eating a late-evening meal (ELM), a putative unhealthy eating behavior, with low serum amylase, other eating behaviors, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether ELM before bedtime was associated with low serum amylase or other clinical factors in 2,426 asymptomatic adults aged 20-80 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ELM was significantly associated with low serum amylase (<60 IU/l), overweight, smoking, daily alcohol consumption, skipping breakfast, and rapid eating, but not with abnormal glucose metabolism. In conclusion, ELM may be independently associated with low serum amylase and common unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24354901
Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Susan Z. Yanovski
Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing
The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…
Lucia Godini; Giovanni Castellini; Carolina Lo Sauro; Valdo Ricca; Carlo Faravelli
IntroductionThe night eating syndrome (NES) is a disorder that has been the object of interest in the scientific community only in recent years. For this reason, there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for this syndrome, and data in the literature on NES are often discordant. We conducted a critical review of the literature, which focused on the epidemiologic, psychopathological,
This Geotimes article highlights recent work done by Derek Lovley on the microbe Geobacter. The article discusses the ability of Geobacter to eat metal wastes as well as the prospect of using Geobacter as a microbial fuel cell. The web site also contains links to the Geotimes' home page, the American Geological Institute (AGI) home, and other useful AGI links.
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
... drinks have a lot of sugar and calories. Water is still the best drink for your body and it ... time to practice or play, you'll get energy from the foods you've been eating all week. But it's ...
Lauer, Christoph J; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian
Sleep research on eating disorders has addressed two major questions: (1) the effects of chronic starvation in anorexia nervosa and of rapidly fluctuating eating patterns in bulimia nervosa on the sleep regulating processes and (2) the search for a significant neurobiological relationship between eating disorders and major depression. At present, the latter question appears to be resolved, since most of the available evidences clearly underline the notion that eating disorders (such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa) and affective disorders are two distinct entities. Regarding the effects of starvation on sleep regulation, recent research in healthy humans and in animals demonstrates that such a condition results in a fragmentation of sleep and a reduction of slow wave sleep. Although several peptides are supposed to be involved in these regulatory processes (i.e. CCK, orexin, leptin), their mode of action is still poorly understood. In opposite to these experimentally induced sleep disturbances are the findings that the sleep patterns in eating disorder patients per se do not markedly differ from those in healthy subjects. However, when focusing on the so-called restricting anorexics, who maintain their chronic underweight by strictly dieting, the expected effects of malnutrition on sleep can be ascertained. Furthermore, at least partial weight restoration results in a 'deepening' of nocturnal sleep in the anorexic patients. However, our knowledge about the neurobiological systems (as well as their circadian pattern of activity) that transmit the effects of starvation and of weight restoration on sleep is still limited and should be extended to metabolic signals mediating sleep. PMID:15033150
Wildermuth, Sarah A; Mesman, Glenn R; Ward, Wendy L
Given the increasing frequency of obesity and related maladaptive eating patterns in pediatric populations, health care professionals in a variety of settings must find ways to treat persons who are obese and have maladaptive eating patterns. The authors summarized literature related to binge eating disorder, boredom eating, emotional eating, and night eating syndrome and developed educational handouts designed for children/adolescents and their families who present with these eating problems. These educational handouts may be used by primary care physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and other specialists in medical settings. They are free for use in educational purposes, with permission from the authors, but are not intended to replace appropriate health care and follow-up. PMID:23414976
Kim, Sangwon F.
Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439
The characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied in ballet dancers in full-time training and compared with other young women at school. Dancers had higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test. Dancers were more likely to have an eating disorder when strict modified DSM-3-R criteria were applied. Currently 1 dancer (1.6%) and no student had anorexia nervosa, 1 dancer (1.6%) and 3 students (1.3%) had bulimia nervosa and 5 dancers (8.3%) and 9 students (4.2%) had an unclassified eating disorder. Another dancer had been treated for anorexia nervosa in the past. One dancer was treated for bulimia nervosa and 6 for weight loss. Dancers were more likely to have been told to increase their body weight. Dancers were not more likely to be afraid of losing control of their weight and becoming obese if they attempted weight gain, to ignore the advice to gain weight or resist gaining weight. Regular self-induced vomiting was reported by 4% of women. Dancers are at risk for the development of eating disorders. Ballet dancers are under pressure to maintain low body weight. The low body weight and menstrual disturbance found among young dancers during training are two of the characteristics of anorexia nervosa Ballet dancers use behaviours aimed at weight control and weight loss. In dancers and professional groups under intense pressure to diet, low body weight and amenorrhoea are not sufficient criteria to diagnose anorexia nervosa. These behaviours can result in binge eating and multiple behaviours aimed at preventing binge eating. Whether the characteristics of bulimia among dancers are sufficient for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa to be made is unknown. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified among young ballet dancers in full-time ballet training and to provide information about the risk of development of eating disorders among young women required to maintain below average body weight while continuing above average exercise. PMID:8865353
Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.
Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718
Baker, Jessica H; Girdler, Susan S; Bulik, Cynthia M
Much remains to be understood about the etiology of eating disorders. There is substantial evidence that reproductive hormones, specifically estrogens, play a direct role in normal food intake. Evidence is increasing that the reproductive hormones play a role in the abnormal food intake associated with eating disorders. For example, there is an inverse association between estradiol and eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary studies also suggest that hormone augmentation may be a beneficial adjunct to the standard treatment of choice for eating disorders. However, research is limited, so definitive conclusions about the benefit of hormone augmentation in treatment cannot be drawn. Future research, with a focus on translational studies, should continue to explore the role of reproductive hormones in the vulnerability to and maintenance of eating disorders. PMID:23585773
Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio
Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.
Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25537489
Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon
High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25944170
Lundgren, Jennifer D; McCune, Ashley; Spresser, Carrie; Harkins, Paula; Zolton, Lauren; Mandal, Konoy
The prevalence, correlates, and symptom coherence of night eating syndrome (NES) in individuals seeking inpatient treatment for eating disorders were assessed. Inpatients (n=68; M age=29.8 years; % female=94.1; % diagnosed with anorexia nervosa [AN]=47.1; % diagnosed with bulimia nervosa [BN]=47.1) were interviewed with the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed and participants completed measures of eating behavior and quality of life. NES was diagnosed in 25% of patients; significantly more patients diagnosed with BN meet criteria for NES compared to those diagnosed with AN. In general, patients with NES did not differ from patients without NES on eating behaviors, attitudes, or quality of life; symptoms of NES frequently co-occurred. This study supports previous research finding that night eating behavior is common in individuals diagnosed with eating disorders. PMID:20826005
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of eating at the transition from night-time sleep to arousal. SRED patients describe eating in an out-of-control manner with preference for high-caloric foods and sometimes with inedible or toxic items. Level of consciousness during SRED episodes ranges from partial consciousness to dense unawareness typical of somnambulistic episodes. SRED is sometimes associated with psychotropic medication, in particular sedative hypnotics, and other sleep disorders, including parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Night eating syndrome (NES) is another important condition in the disordered night-time eating spectrum showing hyperphagia episodes at full arousal from nocturnal sleep without accompanying amnesia. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. The two conditions often overlap and possibly share a common pathophysiology. Studies have suggested that central nervous system serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES, while the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective SRED treatment. PMID:25495278
Martins, Y; Pliner, P; O'Connor, R
The present study explored the relationships among dietary style (ranging from meat eating to veganism), cognitive restraint and feminist values. Two-hundred and twenty-seven participants with varying dietary styles completed the restraint subscale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Attitudes Towards Feminism Scale (ATFS). Results indicated that among males, those who are high in cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those low in cognitive restraint. Among women who are high in feminist values, those with high cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those with low cognitive restraint, whereas for women low in feminist values those with high and low cognitive restraint are equally likely to exhibit vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary styles. It is suggested that for some individuals, adoption of a vegetarian dietary style is an attempt to mask their dieting behaviour from others. PMID:9989924
Mills, Pamela Ann
Objectives: To determine if emotion regulation mediates the link between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behaviour in a community sample of adolescents. Design and method: Participants were 222 secondary ...
Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N?=?770; T2: N?=?510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. PMID:25770914
Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Shoar, Nasrin; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Khorgami, Zhamak; Hoseini, Sayed Shahabuddin
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387
Albert J. Stunkard; Kelly C. Allison; John P. O'Reardon
The night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder marked by a delay in the circadian pattern of eating that disrupts sleep. Studies have shown that those with NES eat a significant proportion of their calories after their evening meal and wake up during the night to eat. However, the timing of the sleep cycles are phase appropriate, with similar
S. FASSINO; G. ABBATE DAGA; S. DEFILIPPI; L. GIANOTTI; F. GASTALDI; N. DELSEDIME
Summary Objective Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) often have comorbid sleep disorders. Currently, the cluster of Eating Disorders (EDs) includes also syndromes other than AN and BN, such as Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and other disorders related to sleep disorders which are still being studied: Night Eating Syndrome, Nocturnal Eating Syndrome, Sleep-related Eating Disorder.
Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.
Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)
Grethe Støa Birketvedt; Jon R. Florholmen
The typical behavioral characteristics of the night eating syndrome have been described as morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia\\u000a and insomnia. The neuroendocrine characteristics have been described as changes in the circadian rhythm by an attenuation\\u000a in the nocturnal rise of the plasma concentrations of melatonin and leptin and an increased circadian secretion of cortisol.\\u000a The night eaters also have an overexpressed
Pamela K. Keel; Scott Crow; Traci L. Davis; James E. Mitchell
Objective: This paper examines diagnostic agreement between interview and questionnaire assessments of women participating in a long-term follow-up study of bulimia nervosa. Methods: Women (N=162) completed follow-up evaluations comprising questionnaires and either face-to-face or telephone interviews. Results: Consistent with previous research, rates of eating disorders were higher when assessed by questionnaire than when assessed by interview; however, rates of full
Grace M. Burton
In this 7- lesson unit students use tallies, pictographs, bar graphs, line plots, circle graphs, box-and-whisker plots, and glyphs to collect and display data about healthy eating. The unit includes lessons in which two sets of data are being compared and data sets are being analyzed for measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode). Learning objectives, materials, student questions, extensions, teacher reflections, and links to create graphs virtually are included.
Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A
Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125
da Luz, F Q; Hay, P; Gibson, A A; Touyz, S W; Swinbourne, J M; Roekenes, J A; Sainsbury, A
Severe dietary energy restriction is often used for overweight or obese individuals to achieve rapid weight loss and related health improvements. However, the extent of putative adverse effects on eating behaviour is unknown. We thus systematically searched seven databases for studies that assessed binge eating before and after severe dietary energy restriction (low or very low energy diets) in overweight or obese individuals. Fifteen clinically supervised interventions from 10 publications (nine of which involved only women) were included. Among individuals with clinically relevant pre-treatment binge eating disorder, severe dietary energy restriction significantly decreased binge eating in all four interventions involving this population, at least during the weight loss programme. In contrast, no consistent association between severe dietary energy restriction and the onset of bingeing was found in 11 interventions involving individuals without pre-treatment binge eating disorder, with four such interventions showing significant increases, two showing no change, and five showing significant decreases in binge eating. We conclude that clinically supervised severe dietary energy restriction appears safe and beneficial for overweight or obese individuals with pre-treatment binge eating disorder, and does not necessarily trigger binge eating in those without binge eating disorder. PMID:26094791
Stefanie Teri Greenberg; Eva G. Schoen
Mental health professionals may wonder how males with eating disorders differ from females with eating disorders and how best to treat males with eating disorders. The eating disorder literature largely focuses on females. Limited research has examined assessment and treatment of eating disorders in males. This article offers a unique view of eating disorder treatment for males by integrating it
Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors. PMID:21740596
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.
... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...
Kate Tchanturia; Helen Davies; Marion Roberts; Amy Harrison; Michiko Nakazato; Ulrike Schmidt; Janet Treasure; Robin Morris
BackgroundPeople with eating disorders (ED) frequently present with inflexible behaviours, including eating related issues which contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Small scale studies point to difficulties with cognitive set-shifting as a basis. Using larger scale studies will lend robustness to these data.Methodology\\/Principal Findings542 participants were included in the dataset as follows: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) n = 171; Bulimia
Scaglioni, Silvia; Arrizza, Chiara; Vecchi, Fiammetta; Tedeschi, Sabrina
Parents have a high degree of control over the environments and experiences of their children. Food preferences are shaped by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. This article is a review of current data on effective determinants of children's eating habits. The development of children's food preferences involves a complex interplay of genetic, familial, and environmental factors. There is evidence of a strong genetic influence on appetite traits in children, but environment plays an important role in modeling children's eating behaviors. Parents use a variety of strategies to influence children's eating habits, some of which are counterproductive. Overcontrol, restriction, pressure to eat, and a promise of rewards have negative effects on children's food acceptance. Parents' food preferences and eating behaviors provide an opportunity to model good eating habits. Satiety is closely related to diet composition, and foods with low energy density contribute to prevent overeating. Parents should be informed about the consequences of an unhealthy diet and lifestyle and motivated to change their nutritional habits. Parents should be the target of prevention programs because children model themselves on their parents' eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating-related attitudes, and dissatisfaction regarding body image. Pediatricians can have an important role in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Informed and motivated parents can become a model for children by offering a healthy, high-satiety, low-energy-dense diet and promoting self-regulation from the first years of life. PMID:22089441
Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean
Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than
Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…
Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F
During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21971198
S. Bryn Austin
The distinguishing pathology of eating disorders is obsessive concern with food, fat, and diet, yet these characteristics are not abnormal in our culture, particularly for women. We are inundated with entreaties to diet, to lose weight, and to keep weight off. Our media is saturated with images of the slender ideal, the fantastical promises of what rewards are bestowed on
Allan Geliebter; Marci E. Gluck; Sami A. Hashim
Binge-eating disorder (BED), characterized by binge meals without purging afterward, is found in about 30% of obese individuals seeking treatment. The study objective was to ascertain abnormalities in hormones influencing appetite in BED, especially ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating peptide, which was expected to be elevated. Measurements were made of plasma insulin, leptin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, as well as glucose following
Just what's on that apple, or in that salad or ice cream? Although they are unlikely to be happy with what they find, users can now discover which and how many pesticides are likely to be on the food they eat. Provided by the non-profit Environmental Working Group (EWG), this site allows users to match selections from hundreds of food items with more than 90,000 government lab tests. Visitors to the site have four sections to choose from: Daily Fare, which lets users select a full day's worth of meals and find out what pesticides they ate; Fruit Salad Roulette, which reveals the pesticides in a typical fruit salad or individual piece of fruit; the EWG Supermarket, which allows users to fill a cart and then picks random samples of each food chosen from government data and lists the pesticides; and a Kids Menu, which analyzes the pesticides that a child between the ages of one and five eats in a typical day. In addition, the site offers a selection of chemical and food FAQS and tips for reducing exposure.
Elford, L; Brown, A
Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825
Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Józefik, Barbara; Sa?apa, Kinga
Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eating disorders. PMID:23197240
Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P
Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases.
Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B
We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988
Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M
We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15?years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R (2)???41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800
John W. Winkelman
Background: Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and nocturnal eating syndrome (NES) combine features of sleep disorders and eating disorders. Treatment of these nocturnal eating behaviors has been directed towards underlying identifiable sleep or eating disorders using dopaminergic or opioid agonists, as well as anorectic agents, at times with the addition of sedatives.Methods: Two patients with SRED and two with NES, who
Squire, Larry R.
PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only now believe that part of the problem has to do with how our brains process information about
Jennifer D. Lundgren; Kelly C. Allison; Albert J. Stunkard
Objective: This study examined the extent to which the night eating syn- drome (NES) affects first-degree relatives of NES and control probands. Method: NES participants and controls were assessed with the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), 10 day sleep and food records, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), the Struc- tured Clinical Interview for
Emma Haycraft; Jackie Blissett
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings
Melissa A. Kalarchian; G. Terence Wilson; Robert E. Brolin; Lisa Bradley
Objective: Eating behavior, attitudes toward eating and body weight and shape, and depression were assessed in a sample of 64 morbidly obese gastric bypass surgery candidates. Method: The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Three-Factor Eating Ques- tionnaire (TFEQ), and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) were administered at the first preoperative visit. Results: Twenty-five subjects (39%) reported at least one binge
1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology
John P. O’Reardon; Brenda L. Ringel; David F. Dinges; Kelly Costello Allison; Naomi L. Rogers; Nicole S. Martino; Albert J. Stunkard
Objective: To compare the eating and sleep-wake patterns of persons with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight\\/obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 ± 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls (mean age 39.0 ± 11.0 years; 28 women) wore wrist actigraphs for 7 days and completed sleep and food
Kistler, Brandon; Benner, Deborah; Burgess, Mary; Stasios, Maria; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Wilund, Kenneth R
Providing food or nutrition supplements during hemodialysis (HD) may be associated with improved nutritional status and reduced mortality; however, despite these potential benefits, eating practices vary across countries, regions, and clinics. Understanding present clinic practices and clinician experiences with eating during HD may help outline best practices in this controversial area. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine clinical practices and experiences related to eating during HD treatment. We surveyed clinicians about their clinic practices during the 2014 International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism Conference. We received 73 responses from six continents. Respondents were primarily dietitians (71%) working at units housed in a hospital (63%). Sixty-one clinics (85%) allowed patients to eat during treatment, with 47 of these patients (65%) actively encouraging eating. Fifty-three clinics (73%) provided food during HD. None of the nine clinics from North America, however, provided food during treatment. The majority (47 clinics; 64%) provided supplements during treatment. Clinics in the hospital setting were more likely to provide food during treatment, whereas outpatient clinics were less likely to provide nutrition supplements (P? 0.05 for both). We also asked clinicians about their experience with six commonly cited reasons to restrict eating during treatment using a four-point scale. Clinicians responded they observed the following conditions "rarely" or "never": choking (98%), reduced Kt/V (98%), infection control issues (96%), spills or pests (83%), gastrointestinal issues (71%), and hypotension (62%). Our results indicate that while eating is common during treatment in some areas, disparities may exist in global practices, and most of the proposed negative sequelae of eating during HD are not frequently observed in clinical practice. Whether these disparities in practice can explain global differences in albumin warrants further research to help inform decisions regarding eating during HD. PMID:25443543
Ball, Christopher T
Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. PMID:25655207
... other ingredients that have caffeine-like effects. Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over the past several days and weeks. But you can boost your performance ...
Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.
The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)
Keel, Pamela K; Brown, Tiffany A; Holland, Lauren A; Bodell, Lindsay P
Current diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) account for a minority of individuals with clinically significant disorders of eating, raising concerns about the clinical utility of current definitions. This review examines evidence for the validity of current and alternative approaches to defining eating disorders and implications for draft criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Although this review largely supports the predictive validity of distinctions among AN, BN, and the newly proposed binge eating disorder (BED), it also highlights that our tendency to "study what we define" has created a gap between the problems that people have and what we know about those problems. Future research on the causes and consequences of eating disorders should include more heterogeneous groups to enable identification of meaningful boundaries that distinguish between disorders based on etiological and predictive validity. PMID:22136228
The various psychotherapeutic strategies for eating disorders (EDs) include psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioral, family oriented, arts therapy and others. In this paper, the psychodynamism of EDs and their therapy are reexamined and considered holistically from "the separate aspects of eating" point of view. That is the separation of eating regulated by biological appetite and the eating or not eating deriving from the patient's mind, unrelated to appetite. A new therapeutic technique called "formalization", which clarifies the separation of aspects of eating are invented. For integrated psychotherapy of EDs, it is necessary to combine the formalization technique of which clarifies and promotes patients' conflicts, and the integrated psychodynamic therapies that treat the promoted conflicts. The psychodynamism of EDs is the subject of much argument by many therapist. Although these arguments differ, they are similar in two points. Firstly, all of them consider EDs as distinctly separate from biological appetites. Secondly, the behavior of patients with EDs are taken as "false solution" or "substitution" of their essential problem. It is impossible to completely separate the physical action of eating mentally, however there may be a second meaning of eating separate from appetite. Seen in this light, psychotherapies are classified into two groups. One supports and sympathizes with these conflicts and the other is an educational one, telling the patients that a false solution is invalid. The former approach is employed by almost all psychodynamic therapies, such as psychoanalysis, family oriented therapy, arts therapy, self-help groups and the like. These therapies treat patients' conflicts with a non-judgemental approach, transform the psychodynamism, and consequently improve the eating behavior. The latter is applied by behavior therapy. Under strict operant conditioning, adequate behavior is reinforced by reward and inadequate behavior is eliminated by punishment. This way aims to transform the behavior first, change the cognition, and turn off the conflicts. In this sense the eating behavior and its psychological meaning are rated by a fixed value system. It is therefore important to integrate the strong points of these therapies. In other words, the therapeutic approach must be effective in improving behavior, maintaining good therapeutic relationships, radically transforming their psychodynamism. Formalization is a process of clarification of the separate aspects of eating in cases of EDs. At the beginning of treatment it is essential to clarify the double meaning of symptoms. Psychodynamically, there must be a "good" meaning in ED and it is necessary to be appraised.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7568514
Gísladóttir, M; Svavarsdóttir, E K
The aim of this study was to develop and test an educational and support nursing intervention in Iceland to help families assist with the recovery of relatives with eating disorders. Studies indicate that if families receive adequate help in the recovery process of a relative with an eating disorder, the prognosis is better. The study is a pre-post design. The intervention was based on the Calgary Family Intervention Model. An educational and support intervention, which lasted for 3 weeks, was provided for 21 family members of individuals with eating disorders. The patients had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants were divided into three groups. The main findings revealed a significant improvement according to the scales used for measuring understanding in the level of expressed emotion questionnaire and for measuring eating behaviour, concern with weight and food, and denial of the problem in the anorectic behaviour observation scale. The participants' responses to the research questions about their satisfaction with the educational and support intervention were positive. The study indicates that an educational and support intervention can prove beneficial for families and patients with eating disorders. PMID:21299724
KAMRYN T. EDDY; CATHERINE M. NOVOTNY; DREW WESTEN
To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,
Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia
Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self. Furthermore, results indicated that the path model explained 32% of binge eating behaviours and confirmed that body image shame has a significant direct effect on binge eating, and that this effect is partially mediated by increased hated self. These findings suggest that binge eating may emerge as a maladaptive way to cope with the threat of being negatively viewed by others because of one's physical appearance and the consequent engagement in a severe critical self-relating style marked by hatred, disgust and contempt towards the self. This study contributes therefore for the understanding of the processes underlying binge eating. Also, these findings have important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of developing eating disorder treatments that specifically target shame and self-criticism, through the development of self-compassionate skills. PMID:25248129
Albert J Stunkard; Kelly Costello Allison
OBJECTIVE: Binge eating disorder (BED) and the night eating syndrome (NES) have been linked to obesity. This review summarizes their characteristics, implications of their diagnoses and treatment outcomes.METHOD: Selective review of the literature on BED and NES.RESULTS: BED was proposed as a distinctive disorder on the basis of two large multisite studies in the early 1990s. It is associated with
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Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.
The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.
McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O’Melia, Anne M
Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research. PMID:22654518
The activity behaviour of the vole, Microtus agrestis, has been recorded in order to investigate the relationship between short-term rhythm and circadian rhythm. A simple device was developed, allowing separate monitoring of the time spent in or outside the nest, wheel-running, eating and drinking. Under natural light conditions during summer, a distinct differentiation between a short term rhythm of eating
Zitarosa, Dino; de Zwaan, Martina; Pfeffer, Meike; Graap, Holmer
The purpose of this article is to describe the background and procedure of a skills training program provided for carers of patients suffering from anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Caring for someone suffering from an eating disorder is associated with psychological distress and may lead to unhelpful interactive behaviours that maintain the illness. Recent investigations in supporting carers, especially skills sharing workshops that target interpersonal maintaining factors are described. A 5-session training concept in teaching basic skills and information about eating disorders to carers in order to improve caregiving burden and reduce interpersonal maintaining factors like expressed emotions (EE) is currently examined in our department. Design and content will be described in detail. Carers' and sufferers' perceptions of the impact of the sessions and acceptance of the provided skills training are reported. PMID:22814922
... Eating at Family Gatherings and Special Events Video Healthy Eating at Family Gatherings and Special Events Video Family ... to stay on track when it comes to healthy eating at special events. Healthy Eating at Family Gatherings ...
Christian Sturmbauer; Wolfgang Mark; Reinhard Dallinger
Synopsis The Aufwuchs-eating cichlids of Lake Tanganyika show clear trophic differences that are correlated to their morphology, physiology and foraging behaviour. The species are grouped into three categories of relative intestinal length according to their feeding habits. A correlation between the intestinal length and the diet could be demonstrated, ranging from around 2.5 for species ingesting more animal food, to
Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto
Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…
Sepulveda, Ana; Carrobles, José Antonio; Gandarillas, Ana M
This study has examined bio-socio-demographic and psychopathological factors probably associated with unhealthy eating patterns among university students and to estimate a multifactorial model following the associated factors by gender. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to describe associations on basis of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) stratified by gender in a representative sample of Spanish university students (n = 2551). The high EDI scorers for both sexes presented higher prevalence of dieting, body dissatisfaction, levels of psychopathology and lower self-esteem than the low EDI scorers. The results suggest that older students and higher self-esteem scores present lower scores in the EDI. In the female population, depression, paranoid dimension, dieting and body dissatisfaction were associated with population with unhealthy eating patterns. In the male sample, dieting, body dissatisfaction and interpersonal sensibility were also associated with unhealthy eating patterns. The results corroborate that abnormal eating patterns tend to affect specific vulnerable groups. We do not know the precise mechanisms through which these risk behaviors and attitudes, such as dieting or body dissatisfaction, may facilitate the later development of an eating disorder. PMID:20480703
Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu
Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).
Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M
Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240
Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978
Summary This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation’s Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (9–12 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child development and to encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:25132804
Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.
Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4–38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were “learners” (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled “plate-clearers”. 16% were considered “non-eaters” eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as “others” (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745
Caton, Samantha J; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M
Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n?=?332) aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745
... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...
Nagahama, Satsue; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Dan, Masashi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Mizoue, Tetsuya
Objectives To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan. Participants A total of 56?865 participants (41?820 male and 15?045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke. Main outcome measure Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Results In multiple logistic regression models, eating rate was significantly and positively associated with metabolic syndrome. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for slow, normal and fast were 0.70 (0.62 to 0.79), 1.00 (reference) and 1.61 (1.53 to 1.70), respectively, in men (p for trend <0.001), and 0.74 (0.60 to 0.91), 1.00 (reference) and 1.27 (1.13 to 1.43), respectively, in women (p for trend <0.001). Of metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity showed the strongest association with eating rate. The associations of eating rate and metabolic syndrome and its components were largely attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index; however, the association of slow eating with lower odds of high blood pressure (men and women) and hyperglycaemia (men) and that of fast eating with higher odds of lipid abnormality (men) remained statistically significant. Conclusions Results suggest that eating rate is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome and that this association is largely accounted for by the difference in body mass according to eating rate. PMID:25192877
Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna
Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)
Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.
Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…
Dexa Stoutjesdyk; Ronna Jevne
The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes
... Do not let your child fill up on water or juice before or during meals. Make eating pleasant and fun. Play music your child likes. Eat with family or friends. Let your child listen to the radio or watch TV while eating. Try new recipes or new ...
Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali
The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…
Ronette L. Kolotkin; Elaine S. Revis; Betty G. Kirkley; Linda Janick
This study was conducted to determine if Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) characteristics are associated with binge-eating severity among obese women. Obese women (N = 207) were administered the MMPI and Gormally's Binge Eating Scale (which measures binge-eating behavior and related attitudes and feelings). Binge scores varied along a continuum from nonbinging to very severe binging and were consistently and
Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.
This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…
Pennsylvania, University of
with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects. Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight/ obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls diaries at home. Results: There was no difference between the total energy intake of the NES
Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif
The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909
Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick
The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844
Bravender, T.; Bryant-Waugh, R.; Herzog, D.; Katzman, D.; Kriepe, R. D.; Lask, B.; Le Grange, D.; Lock, J.; Loeb, K. L.; Marcus, M. D.; Madden, S.; Nicholls, D.; O’Toole, J.; Pinhas, L.; Rome, E.; Sokol-Burger, M.; Wallin, U.; Zucker, N.
Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of neural development and physical growth. The malnutrition and related medical complications resulting from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified may have more severe and potentially more protracted consequences during youth than during other age periods. The consensus opinion of an international workgroup of experts on the diagnosis and treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders is that (a) lower and more developmentally sensitive thresholds of symptom severity (e.g. lower frequency of purging behaviours, significant deviations from growth curves as indicators of clinical severity) be used as diagnostic boundaries for children and adolescents, (b) behavioural indicators of psychological features of eating disorders be considered even in the absence of direct self-report of such symptoms and (c) multiple informants (e.g. parents) be used to ascertain symptom profiles. Collectively, these recommendations will permit earlier identification and intervention to prevent the exacerbation of eating disorder symptoms. PMID:20151366
Bravender, T; Bryant-Waugh, R; Herzog, D; Katzman, D; Kriepe, R D; Lask, B; Le Grange, D; Lock, J; Loeb, K L; Marcus, M D; Madden, S; Nicholls, D; O'Toole, J; Pinhas, L; Rome, E; Sokol-Burger, M; Wallin, U; Zucker, N
Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of neural development and physical growth. The malnutrition and related medical complications resulting from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified may have more severe and potentially more protracted consequences during youth than during other age periods. The consensus opinion of an international workgroup of experts on the diagnosis and treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders is that (a) lower and more developmentally sensitive thresholds of symptom severity (e.g. lower frequency of purging behaviours, significant deviations from growth curves as indicators of clinical severity) be used as diagnostic boundaries for children and adolescents, (b) behavioural indicators of psychological features of eating disorders be considered even in the absence of direct self-report of such symptoms and (c) multiple informants (e.g. parents) be used to ascertain symptom profiles. Collectively, these recommendations will permit earlier identification and intervention to prevent the exacerbation of eating disorder symptoms. PMID:20151366
J. Scott Mizes
Over the past few decades, there has been significant progress in research on eating disorders that has informed the clinical management of these difficult, and sometimes refractory, disorders. Indeed, sufficient progress has been made such that practice guidelines have been offered to delineate standards of clinical care and guidance to clinicians in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa.
Laura M. Hart; Anthony F. Jorm; Susan J. Paxton; Claire M. Kelly; Betty A. Kitchener
The objective of this study was to develop first aid guidelines, based on expert consensus, that provide members of the community with information on how to assist someone who is thought to be developing or experiencing an eating disorder. An online Delphi study was carried out with expert panels consisting of 36 clinicians, 27 care-givers and 22 consumers. The panel
... found in some types of fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Check product labels for foods high in potassium (unless you’ve been advised to restrict the amount of potassium you eat). ... beans, vegetables, and whole grains. Feel like getting creative in ...
Prohaska, Jennifer A.
, prosocial behavior, social resources 2 Table of Contents I. Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii. II. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 3 III. Traditional Clinical Approaches... interventions for aggressive behavior and disordered eating. Traditionally, clinical theory and literature have supported the premise that negative social behaviors such as relational aggression, regardless of frequency, form, or skill, produce negative...
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…
Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young
Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251
Francis, Lori A.; Birch, Leann L.
This study examined whether mothers' preoccupation with their own weight and eating was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior. Participants included 173 non-Hispanic, White mother–daughter dyads, measured longitudinally when daughters were ages 5, 7, 9, and 11. Mothers who were preoccupied with their own weight and eating reported higher levels of restricting daughters' intake and encouraging daughters to lose weight over time. Mothers' encouragement of daughters' weight loss was linked to daughters' restrained eating behavior; this relationship was partially mediated by daughters' perception of maternal pressure to lose weight. These findings suggest that mothers' preoccupation with weight and eating, via attempts to influence daughters' weight and eating, may place daughters at risk for developing problematic eating behaviors. PMID:16287400
Deaver, Cristine M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua; Meidinger, Amy; Crosby, Ross
The affect regulation model of binge eating suggests that binge eating occurs because it provides momentary relief from negative affect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in affect during binge eating to evaluate the merits of this model. Participants were young adult women from a midwestern university. Binge eaters recorded their level of pleasantness using the affect grid at 2-minute intervals before, during, and after binge eating episodes and regular meals. Controls recorded in a similar manner during meals. The results showed a different pattern of affect for binge eaters during binge eating episodes and normal meals and for binge eaters and controls at normal meals. The results support the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating is negatively reinforced because it produces momentary relief from negative affect. PMID:12971129
Uher, Rudolf; Rutter, Michael
Current classification of eating disorders is failing to classify most clinical presentations; ignores continuities between child, adolescent and adult manifestations; and requires frequent changes of diagnosis to accommodate the natural course of these disorders. The classification is divorced from clinical practice, and investigators of clinical trials have felt compelled to introduce unsystematic modifications. Classification of feeding and eating disorders in ICD-11 requires substantial changes to remediate the shortcomings. We review evidence on the developmental and cross-cultural differences and continuities, course and distinctive features of feeding and eating disorders. We make the following recommendations: a) feeding and eating disorders should be merged into a single grouping with categories applicable across age groups; b) the category of anorexia nervosa should be broadened through dropping the requirement for amenorrhoea, extending the weight criterion to any significant underweight, and extending the cognitive criterion to include developmentally and culturally relevant presentations; c) a severity qualifier "with dangerously low body weight" should distinguish the severe cases of anorexia nervosa that carry the riskiest prognosis; d) bulimia nervosa should be extended to include subjective binge eating; e) binge eating disorder should be included as a specific category defined by subjective or objective binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behaviour; f) combined eating disorder should classify subjects who sequentially or concurrently fulfil criteria for both anorexia and bulimia nervosa; g) avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder should classify restricted food intake in children or adults that is not accompanied by body weight and shape related psychopathology; h) a uniform minimum duration criterion of four weeks should apply. PMID:22654933
UHER, RUDOLF; RUTTER, MICHAEL
Current classification of eating disorders is failing to classify most clinical presentations; ignores continuities between child, adolescent and adult manifestations; and requires frequent changes of diagnosis to accommodate the natural course of these disorders. The classification is divorced from clinical practice, and investigators of clinical trials have felt compelled to introduce unsystematic modifications. Classification of feeding and eating disorders in ICD-11 requires substantial changes to remediate the shortcomings. We review evidence on the developmental and cross-cultural differences and continuities, course and distinctive features of feeding and eating disorders. We make the following recommendations: a) feeding and eating disorders should be merged into a single grouping with categories applicable across age groups; b) the category of anorexia nervosa should be broadened through dropping the requirement for amenorrhoea, extending the weight criterion to any significant underweight, and extending the cognitive criterion to include developmentally and culturally relevant presentations; c) a severity qualifier “with dangerously low body weight” should distinguish the severe cases of anorexia nervosa that carry the riskiest prognosis; d) bulimia nervosa should be extended to include subjective binge eating; e) binge eating disorder should be included as a specific category defined by subjective or objective binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behaviour; f) combined eating disorder should classify subjects who sequentially or concurrently fulfil criteria for both anorexia and bulimia nervosa; g) avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder should classify restricted food intake in children or adults that is not accompanied by body weight and shape related psychopathology; h) a uniform minimum duration criterion of four weeks should apply. PMID:22654933
Brown, S B; Docherty, J C
The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385
Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.
Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.
Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155
Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann
The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510
Panchaud Cornut, Maude; Szymanski, Jennifer; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Giusti, Vittorio
Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools. PMID:24737999
Presented by the California Academy of Sciences, this online history of eating utensils is both stimulating and educational, with brief presentations on individual utensils and their evolution, as well as images of specimens from various cultures and periods. Learn, among other things, what Louis the XIV had to fear from the knife and what he did about it, and how it changed the shape of that instrument forever. Equally worth considering, chopsticks have also evolved over the course of five millennia. Called "kuai-zi" in Chinese, for quick little fellows, chopsticks were first joined together and only gradually came to be separated and made of less and less precious materials. Learn all about them and the rest of the instruments used by humans to eat gracefully in this brief online history. Better yet, if you are fortunate enough to be in the Bay area, visit the exhibit in person at the California Academy of Sciences.
Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic; Muni-Brander, Paulette
Investigated prevalence of adolescent eating disorders across gender, cultural groupings, and socioeconomic status. Administered Eating Attitudes Test, Binge-Eating Questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire to 1,261 high school students. Results indicated high rate of eating disorders in nonclinical adolescent population. Eating disorders…
Ashley M. Kroon Van Diest; Tracy L. Tylka
Certain caregiver eating messages – restriction of food intake and pressures to eat – are associated with body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances among young girls. This study explored whether these messages are also associated with body attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult women and men. The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale was developed to measure this construct. Two studies (Ns=238,
Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko
Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become,the focus of epidemiologic,studies. This article provides a comprehen- sive review,of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined,and summarized,in the form of a narrative review. Results: Similar to the early studies of bulimia nervosa (BN), the first generation of epidemiologic,studies of BED is limited in
Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.
Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917
The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.
Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G
Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340
Bos, Sandra Carvalho; Soares, Maria João; Marques, Mariana; Maia, Berta; Pereira, Ana Telma; Nogueira, Vasco; Valente, José; Macedo, António
The aim of the present study was to investigate if disordered eating behaviors predicted the development of sleep disturbances. A total of 870 students participated at baseline, 592 one year later (T1) and 305 two years later (T2). The Eating Attitudes Test-40 was used to assess global disordered eating behaviors, dietary concerns (DC), bulimic behaviors (BB) and social pressure to eat (SPE). Sleep disturbances were assessed by two items related to difficulties initiating sleep (DIS) and maintaining sleep (DMS). A sleep disturbance index (SDI) was calculated by summing DIS and DMS scores. Results revealed that global disordered eating behaviors at baseline predicted DIS, DMS and SDI at T1 and T2. Students with increased BB and SPE scores at baseline were more likely to experience sleep onset and sleep maintenance difficulties in the long term. These results suggest that assessment and correction of eating behaviors might prevent sleep disturbances. PMID:23557819
Kelly C. Allison; Scott J. Crow; Rebecca R. Reeves; Delia Smith West; John P. Foreyt; Vicki G. DiLillo; Thomas A. Wadden; Robert W. Jeffery; Brent Van Dorsten; Albert J. Stunkard
Objective: To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study.Research Methods and Procedures: The Eating Disorders Examination–Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone interviews were conducted using the EDE for those who reported at least eight
Jean L. Kristeller; Ruth Q. Wolever
This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food
Debra L. Franko
Eating disorders are most often diagnosed during the childbearing years. Pregnancy and postpartum issues for women with eating\\u000a disorders are discussed with regard to symptoms, complications, course of pregnancy, delivery, breast-feeding, and postpartum\\u000a depression (PPD). Research findings indicate that women with eating disorders during pregnancy may be at risk for a variety\\u000a of pregnancy and obstetric complications. Moreover, there appears
Papies, Esther K.
This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263
Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p?0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p?0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. PMID:25889877
Akkermann, Kirsti; Kaasik, Kadri; Kiive, Evelyn; Nordquist, Niklas; Oreland, Lars; Harro, Jaanus
Adverse life events have been shown to predict weight fluctuations and dietary restraint, as well as eating disorders during adolescence or early adulthood. Since the s-allele carriers of the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are biologically more reactive to stress related stimuli, we aimed to explore whether the eating disturbances are predicted by environmental stressors and moderated by the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The sample was based on the younger cohort of the Estonian Children Personality, Behaviour and Health Study and included those participating in its second and third wave. The history of stressful life events was self-reported at age 15. Data on eating behaviour and attitudes, anxiety, impulsivity and depressiveness were collected at age 18. The effect of the adverse life events on binge eating and on drive for thinness was found to be moderated by the 5-HTTLPR. Adolescent girls who at age 15 had reported a history of frequent adverse life events had elevated scores in EDI-2 Bulimia subscale at age 18 if they were carrying the s-allele. The effect of the s-allele on binge eating was even more pronounced when solely the experience of sexual abuse was considered. The interaction effect of the 5-HTTLPR and the past sexual abuse was also observed on drive for thinness. These data give further support to the idea that adverse life events in childhood may heighten susceptibility to serotonergic dysregulation following stress, and suggest that in individuals vulnerable to eating disorders this may result in disturbed eating behaviours. PMID:22018958
Sandra Sassaroli; Giovanni Maria Ruggiero; Piergiuseppe Vinai; Silvia Cardetti; Gabriella Carpegna; Noemi Ferrato; Paola Vallauri; Donatella Masante; Silvio Scarone; Sara Bertelli; Roberta Bidone; Luca Busetto; Simona Sampietro
We tested if there were any differences about nocturnal and diurnal anxiety between patients either affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Night eating Syndrome (NES). Fifty four patients affected by BED, 13 by NES and 16 by both BED and NES were tested using the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ). Their nocturnal eating
Reifschneider, Marianne J.; Hamrick, Karen S.; Lacey, Jill N.
Time spent eating and exercising can impact quality of life measures such as general health and risk for obesity. This article links data from the American Time Use Study and the Eating and Health Module to explore exercise and eating patterns for varying age groups, over different times of day, and by self-reported health status. Younger…
Janet D. Latner; Thomas Hildebrandt; Juliet K. Rosewall; Amy M. Chisholm; Kentaro Hayashi
This study examined the clinical significance of the loss of control over eating as a key component of eating disorders. It investigated the association of eating-related psychopathology and general psychopathology with objective bulimic episodes (OBEs; experiencing a loss of control while consuming large amounts of food) and subjective bulimic episodes (SBEs; experiencing a loss of control while consuming small\\/moderate amounts).
Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly
Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…
Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…
Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.
Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…
Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes
This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033
--------------------------------------------------------Context Dependent Manufacturers Regulatory Agencies Company (Management, Dispatch, Maintenance) Flight and Cabin Crews ATC #12;Economic and Regulatory Pressures Philosophies Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Taxonomy of the Domain Economic and Regulatory Pressures Pertaining to Dealing with and Training
Nancy L. Zucker; Molly Losh
Restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests (RRBs) greatly contribute to the burden of psychiatric illness for the individual and his or her family. While as a class the presence of RRBs may evidence continuity, the form of the behaviour may change. Further, a given individual may exhibit a multitude of RRBs that compromise different areas of functioning. In eating disorders,
Pearson, Crystal Anne
I used reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and the Bulimia Test (BULIT). Reliability generalization is a type of meta-analysis used...
Jennifer L. Scheid; Nancy I. Williams; Sarah L. West; Jaci L. VanHeest; Mary Jane De Souza
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine if gastrointestinal hormones, associated with energy intake and energy balance, are altered in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and (2) to assess the association between gastrointestinal hormones and behavioural indicators of subclinical disordered eating in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like
A study of about 600 eighth grade students by the Bremen Department of Health show that overweight and the risk of an eating disorder are widespread among teenagers in Bremen. In the school year 2008/2009 a quota sample of eighth graders was questioned in regard to their dietary habits, their bodily self-perception and their eating behaviour, and they were weighed and measured. 21% of the students were overweight, 10% were even obese. Our studies showed that the share of overweight students had doubled between the beginning and the end of primary school and only increased marginally after that. The students' bodily self-perception frequently did not correspond to their actual body weight, not only among those who were overweight, but also among those with an objectively normal body weight. In one in 7 of the teenagers with normal body weight, furthermore, we found signs of disrupted eating behaviour. The actuality of the topic of eating disorders for the health of teenagers becomes apparent when taking into account further results of the study. If, moreover, we bring to mind the long-term consequences of overweight and the often massive adverse effects through illnesses like anorexia or bulimia, it becomes clear that the disruptions addressed here should be a central concern for prevention. The study presented here shows where interventions are most needed. PMID:21249625
Monteleone, Palmiero; Maj, Mario
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are characterized by abnormal eating behaviors often resulting in dramatic physical consequences for the patients. The etiology of eating disorders (EDs) is currently unknown; however, a strong genetic contribution is likely to be involved. To date, the majority of genetic studies have focused on candidate genes, and polymorphic variants of genes coding for substances likely to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of EDs have been assessed for association with AN, BN, BED and/or ED-related phenotypic traits. Results have been generally inconsistent and cannot be considered conclusive because of several methodological flaws and differences, such as small sample sizes, ethnic heterogeneity of studied populations, lack of statistical correction for multiple testing, adoption of different diagnostic criteria and population stratification. Although, at present, no convincing evidence for associations of candidate genes with EDs has been provided, the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene and the BDNF gene seem to be promising candidates for genetic influences on AN, since polymorphic variants of these genes have been found quite consistently, although not specifically, linked to AN restricting subtype in large sample studies. Moreover, pharmacogenetic investigations have suggested a possible role of some gene polymorphisms in predicting the response to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in BN, but results are still preliminary. The heterogeneity of ED phenotypes is believed to represent the most relevant variable responsible for contradictory and not conclusive results. Future studies should focus on more homogeneous subgroups, either relying on specific ED traits or identifying endophenotypes. This will be useful also for prevention and treatment of EDs. PMID:18855537
Ana R Sepulveda; Jose A Carrobles; Ana M Gandarillas
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for
Tatjana van Strien; Paul Oosterveld
OBJECTIVE: Construct an age adapted version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for measurement of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7- to 12-year-old children: the DEBQ-C. xxx METHOD: The DEBQ-C was constructed and tested for its reliability, factorial validity, factorial invariance for sex, overweight (BMI-status), and age, and correlations with measures for unhealthy life style in one sample
Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola; Celi, Pietro
The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5?m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600?m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600?m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare. PMID:24587940
Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola
The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5?m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600?m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600?m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare. PMID:24587940
Nolan, Laurence J; Geliebter, Allan
The night eating syndrome (NES) consists of evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal eating and has been associated with depressed mood that worsens in the evening. However, it is not consistently related to elevated BMI. The present study was conducted to examine whether a relationship exists between NES and emotional, external, and restrained eating. BMI and sleep quality were also obtained. A sample of 246 students completed the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ), Night Eating Syndrome History and Inventory (NESHI), Sleep Quality Index (SQI), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), containing subscales for emotional, external, and restrained eating. They also provided demographic information, including height and weight. Participants were grouped by severity of NES features using the NEDQ and NESHI: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full night eater syndrome. MANOVA was used to compare DEBQ subscores for the groups; those in the full syndrome category had significantly higher emotional eating scores and external eating scores than those in the normal and mild categories. There was no difference in restrained eating between the normal and full syndrome groups. Those with moderate and full syndrome NES symptoms also reported significantly lower sleep quality. No significant relationship was found between NES and BMI. The results show that NES is associated with more eating in response to negative mood and in response to food cues. PMID:22664397
Katterman, Shawn N; Kleinman, Brighid M; Hood, Megan M; Nackers, Lisa M; Corsica, Joyce A
Mindfulness-based approaches are growing in popularity as interventions for disordered eating and weight loss. Initial research suggests that mindfulness meditation may be an effective intervention for binge eating; however, no systematic review has examined interventions where mindfulness meditation was the primary intervention and no review has examined its effect on subclinical disordered eating or weight. Using the PRISMA method for systematic reviews, we reviewed 14 studies that investigated mindfulness meditation as the primary intervention and assessed binge eating, emotional eating, and/or weight change. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation effectively decreases binge eating and emotional eating in populations engaging in this behavior; evidence for its effect on weight is mixed. Additional research is warranted to determine comparative effectiveness and long-term effects of mindfulness training. PMID:24854804
Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko; Douglas Thompson; Sandra Affenito; Helena C. Kraemer
Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of night eating, the core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome among adolescents and adults, using two public access survey databases of nationally representative samples.Research Methods and Procedures: Data were extracted for individuals age 13 years or older who completed food diary data for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (N
Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.
Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…
Christina Knowles; Faculty Mentor; Frances Smith
Although various factors associated with eating disorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eating disorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the
Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.
Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…
The UAPB Delta Obesity Research Project is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excessive weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of healthy weight during college years. Adjusting to college life can lead to poor eating and no physical activity for c...
M. M Hagan; P. K Wauford; P. C Chandler; L. A Jarrett; R. J Rybak; K Blackburn
Dieting and stress are important in the etiology and maintenance of eating disorders, and dieting strongly predicts stress-induced overeating in humans. We hypothesized that caloric restriction and stress interact in a unique manner to promote binge eating. To test this hypothesis, a group of young female rats were cycled through a restriction period (4 days of 66% of control food
Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer
Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…
Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.
A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)
Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Keel, Pamela K.; Williamson, Donald A.; Crosby, Ross D.
Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in…
Previous attempts at formulating binge-eating (usually as part of the syndrome of bulimia nervosa) are reviewed and common themes are extracted from the literature. Two main themes in formulations of bingeing are highlighted — that bingeing may result from eating behavior or from emotional difficulties. A functional analysis paradigm is utilized to integrate this information in a clinically useful manner.
Sturm, Virginia E.; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0–3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987
Perry, David C; Sturm, Virginia E; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Rosen, Howard J
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0-3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987
Sepulveda, Ana R; Kyriacou, Olivia; Treasure, Janet
Background Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. Methods A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED), was jointly generated by professionals and expert carers through qualitative analysis. In the first stage, this instrument was given to 201 family members of relatives diagnosed with an eating disorder, with additional self-report measures including the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Family Questionnaire (FQ). In the second stage, the sensitivity of the AESED to change was tested in a pre-and-post design study with a new sample of 116 caregivers, using a DVDs-distance skills training for caregivers. Results A 33 item instrument was derived consisting of five factors: Avoidance and Modifying Routine, Reassurance Seeking, Meal Ritual, Control of Family and Turning a Blind Eye, which together explained 60.1% of the variance. This scale had good psychometric properties in terms of Cronbach's alpha which ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. Regarding the convergent validity, most of the AESED subscales was moderately supported by correlations with anxiety (HADS; r = 0.24 to 0.48) and depression levels (HADS; r = 0.17 to 0.47), negative caregiving (ECI; r = 0.18 to 0.45), and expressed emotion levels (FQ; r = 0.17 to 0.51). Pre-post intervention assessments showed that the overall AESED scale (d = 0.38) and the avoidance and modifying routine (d = 0.52), meal ritual (d = 0.27) and control of the family (d = 0.49) subscales were sensitive to change. Conclusion Internal consistency was good and initial validity of the scale was adequate, it was able to discriminate differences between clinical variables, however, further work is needed to confirm the factor structure and validity of the AESED. Nevertheless, this scale may be of value in exploring and helping to improve carers' coping strategies and in examining the effectiveness of family based interventions. PMID:19775448
Jill L. Silverman; Mu Yang; Catherine Lord; Jacqueline N. Crawley
Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100–150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate genes for autism. As the diagnostic criteria for autism are
Kelly C. Allison
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating disorder diagnoses consist of anorexia nervosa (restricting type and binge-eating\\/purging type); bulimia nervosa (purging\\u000a and nonpurging types); and eating disorder, not otherwise specified (including binge-eating disorder, night eating syndrome,\\u000a and purging disorder).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Physical complications of anorexia nervosa affect most major systems in the body and are caused by starvation and the effects\\u000a of purging. Most physical complications
Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.
Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334
How is genetic involvement interpreted for disorders whose medicalisation is contested? Framing psychiatric and behavioural disorders in terms of genetics is expected to make them seem more medical. Yet a genetic aetiology can also be used to frame behaviour as acceptable human variation, rather than a medical problem (for example, sexual orientation). I analyse responses to the idea that there is a genetic component in anorexia and bulimia nervosa (AN or BN) via semi-structured interviews with a sample of 50 women diagnosed with an eating disorder (25 had recovered). All but three volunteered that genetics would medicalise AN or BN by (i) making eating disorders seem more like 'real diseases'; implying that these disorders need (ii) professional treatment or (iii) a biologically based treatment. The results also indicate there are several counter-logics by which genetic framing could support non-medical definitions of AN or BN. I argue that genetic framing reduces perceived individual responsibility, which can support definitions of behaviour as either a reflection of disease (which entails intervention) or a reflection of normal human diversity (which does not). In the context of public scepticism as to the 'reality' of AN or BN, genetic involvement was taken as evidence of disease in ongoing negotiations about the medical and moral status of people with eating disorders. PMID:24286479
Allison, Kelly C; Tarves, Ellen P
Although treatment research for NES remains limited, several options are available for patients whose symptoms require clinical attention. Pharmacotherapy has received the most empirical support of the proposed treatments. Controlled trials are needed to confirm the initial results from pilot studies with CBT, behavioral therapy, and phototherapy, and an extended controlled trial of progressive muscle relaxation would be useful. In their comprehensive review of the field, Striegel-Moore and colleagues have questioned the clinical utility of NES as a diagnostic entity and stress the very limited nature of treatment studies to date. Research in this field has to provide a systematic examination of the approaches described here, as well as others yet to be identified. This pursuit seems warranted given that persons suffering with the cluster of symptoms identified as NES are approaching health care providers for relief and are often frustrated by the lack of recognition of this syndrome. Future studies should test a wider variety of medications that would target serotonin or the circadian timing of eating. Additionally, trials comparing and combining medication treatments and CBT (or progressive muscle relaxation alone) would also be useful in addressing which treatment should be used as a first line treatment. With NES being considered for inclusion as a Feeding and Eating Condition Not Elsewhere Classified (FEC-NEC) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, it is likely that more clinical attention and studies will address these important issues in the coming years. PMID:22098804
Fullerton, D T; Getto, C J; Swift, W J; Carlson, I H
There is evidence that endogenous opiates are involved in the control of feeding in experimental animals. Several types of experimental obesity are associated with increased opiate production and/or increased numbers and sensitivity of opiate receptors. Research with experimental animals suggests that nutrients, particularly sugar, have an effect on feeding behavior that is mediated by opiates. For instance, the obesity-producing effect of a palatable diet in rodents is blocked by opiate antagonists. Stress induced feeding in rodents leads to preferential sucrose ingestion and is blocked by opiate antagonists and beta-endorphin. The effect of nutrients on the endogenous opiate system of humans is less clear. Clinical experience suggest that carbohydrates (sugar in particular) play a role in binge eating and obesity. Many binge eaters preferentially eat sweets during a binge. Many obese individuals consume more than half of their total daily calories as carbohydrates. Sweet snacking is a frequent behavior at times of stress. Recent evidence suggests that sugar can lead to increased beta-endorphin production in obese subjects. PMID:3161588
Abstract Eating disorders often develop during adolescence and young adulthood, and are associated with significant psychological and physical burden. Identifying evidence-based interventions is critical and there is need to take stock of the extant literature, to inform clinical practice regarding well-researched interventions and to direct future research agendas by identifying gaps in the evidence base. Aim To investigate and quantify the nature and distribution of existing high-quality research on the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people using evidence mapping methodology. Method A systematic search for prevention and treatment intervention studies in adolescents and young adults (12–25 years) was conducted using EMBASE, PSYCINFO and MEDLINE. Studies were screened and mapped according to disorder, intervention modality, stage of eating disorder and study design. Included studies were restricted to controlled trials and systematic reviews published since 1980. Results The eating disorders evidence map included 197 trials and 22 systematic reviews. Prevention research was dominated by trials of psychoeducation (PE). Bulimia nervosa (BN) received the most attention in the treatment literature, with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and antidepressants the most common interventions. For anorexia nervosa (AN), family based therapy (FBT) was the most studied. Lacking were trials exploring treatments for binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Relapse prevention strategies were notably absent across the eating disorders. Conclusions Despite substantial literature devoted to the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people, the evidence base is not well established and significant gaps remain. For those identified as being at-risk, there is need for prevention research exploring strategies other than passive PE. Treatment interventions targeting BED and EDNOS are required, as are systematic reviews synthesising BN treatment trials (e.g., CBT, antidepressants). FBTs for AN require investigation against other validated psychological interventions, and the development of relapse prevention strategies is urgently required. By systematically identifying existing interventions for young people with eating disorders and exposing gaps in the current literature, the evidence map can inform researchers, funding bodies and policy makers as to the opportunities for future research. PMID:24999427
Stano Pekár; Jan Šobotník; Yael Lubin
In a predator–prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural\\u000a and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced\\u000a by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders.\\u000a We investigated potential and actual
Pérez-Quintero, Luis-Alberto; Roncagalli, Romain; Guo, Huaijian; Latour, Sylvain; Davidson, Dominique
Ewing’s sarcoma-associated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is an Src homology 2 domain-containing intracellular adaptor related to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP), the X-linked lymphoproliferative gene product. Both EAT-2 and SAP are expressed in natural killer (NK) cells, and their combined expression is essential for NK cells to kill abnormal hematopoietic cells. SAP mediates this function by coupling SLAM family receptors to the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and the exchange factor Vav, thereby promoting conjugate formation between NK cells and target cells. We used a variety of genetic, biochemical, and imaging approaches to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which EAT-2 controls NK cell activation. We found that EAT-2 mediates its effects in NK cells by linking SLAM family receptors to phospholipase C?, calcium fluxes, and Erk kinase. These signals are triggered by one or two tyrosines located in the carboxyl-terminal tail of EAT-2 but not found in SAP. Unlike SAP, EAT-2 does not enhance conjugate formation. Rather, it accelerates polarization and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules toward hematopoietic target cells. Hence, EAT-2 promotes NK cell activation by molecular and cellular mechanisms distinct from those of SAP. These findings explain the cooperative and essential function of these two adaptors in NK cell activation. PMID:24687958
Pérez-Quintero, Luis-Alberto; Roncagalli, Romain; Guo, Huaijian; Latour, Sylvain; Davidson, Dominique; Veillette, André
Ewing's sarcoma-associated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is an Src homology 2 domain-containing intracellular adaptor related to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP), the X-linked lymphoproliferative gene product. Both EAT-2 and SAP are expressed in natural killer (NK) cells, and their combined expression is essential for NK cells to kill abnormal hematopoietic cells. SAP mediates this function by coupling SLAM family receptors to the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and the exchange factor Vav, thereby promoting conjugate formation between NK cells and target cells. We used a variety of genetic, biochemical, and imaging approaches to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which EAT-2 controls NK cell activation. We found that EAT-2 mediates its effects in NK cells by linking SLAM family receptors to phospholipase C?, calcium fluxes, and Erk kinase. These signals are triggered by one or two tyrosines located in the carboxyl-terminal tail of EAT-2 but not found in SAP. Unlike SAP, EAT-2 does not enhance conjugate formation. Rather, it accelerates polarization and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules toward hematopoietic target cells. Hence, EAT-2 promotes NK cell activation by molecular and cellular mechanisms distinct from those of SAP. These findings explain the cooperative and essential function of these two adaptors in NK cell activation. PMID:24687958
This essay examines the existential philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas in relation to issues of food and eating. I argue that for Levinas, the act of eating is central to founding the ethical self, and that any understanding of Levinas's approach to embodiment must begin with what it means for us to ingest the outside world. Even in Levinas's earliest work, food is already a freighted ontological category. As his ideas mature, eating is transformed from the grounding for an ethical system to the system itself. The act of giving bread to another person takes its place as the ethical gesture par excellence. The story is not that we eat. The story is that we eat and develop a relationship to eating, and that relationship in turn helps determine our sense of ourselves in the world. Eating is the ethical event. The essay ends by asking how Levinas can help us answer the question, what would it mean to imagine every bite I take, or give to another, as a direct engagement with my own and my neighbor's existence? PMID:21542212
Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria
Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research. PMID:19501782
Baker, Jessica H.; Thornton, Laura M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective Early maturing girls are at increased risk for disordered eating. However, it is unclear if the association between puberty and disordered eating continues throughout pubertal development and if a similar association is exhibited in boys. Method Participants included 1340 same- and 624 opposite-sex twins from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development. Pubertal development was assessed at age 13–14 with the Pubertal Development Scale. General disordered eating, measured with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI) was assessed at age 16–17, and dieting and purging behaviors were assessed at both ages 16–17 and 19–20. We applied analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses to determine whether pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence predicted eating disorder-related behaviors in late adolescence and young adulthood Results Pubertal development in early-to-mid adolescence was significantly associated with EDI scores and dieting in late adolescence. No significant association was observed between pubertal development and dieting and purging in young adulthood. Discussion Complex combinations of cultural and biological influences likely converge during pubertal development increasing vulnerability to disordered eating. The impact of pubertal development on disordered eating appears to be limited to the adolescent period. PMID:22522282
Brown, Lora Beth; Larsen, Katrina J.; Nyland, Nora K.; Eggett, Dennis L.
Objective: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. Methods: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages…
Schwitzer, Alan M.; Bergholz, Kim; Dore, Terri; Salimi, Lamieh
Discusses eating disorders in college females, recommending use of the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified framework to identify and target various eating concerns for intervention. The paper also suggests using a multiple-level, developmental-intervention model to conceptualize preventive, educational, and remedial responses to eating…
Papini, Dennis R.; Lloyd, Paul J.
Heightened concern about eating behavior has been expressed in recent surveys of high school and college students. There have been increased requests for treatment of eating disorders among college students and many colleges have developed programs that provide treatment for students afflicted with an eating disorder. The Eating Disorder Inventory…
Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric
Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…
Galef Jr., Bennett G.
their behaviour with that of a blood-feeding specialist. The generalist species were the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, a 1520-g insectivore; the Antillean fruit-eating bat, Brachyphylla cavernarum, a 3550-g prima
Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103
Vodola, Thomas M.
As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…
Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim
A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405
Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang
A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,
Sweeten, Mary K.
Station ? Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Control Your Weight While Eating Out Mary K. Sweeten* Eating Out Trend The eating out trend is here to stay. Approximately $61 billion was spent for food eaten away from home in 1978. In 1975, 56... percent of food eaten away from home was eaten in conventional restaurants, lunchrooms and cafe terias, or was catered. Fast food restaurants showed an in crease in sales from 10 to 26 percent during a 10-year period. Most employed homemakers...
The consideration of existing literature, especially in light of new knowledge of eating disorders and new diagnostic categories, highlights the necessity to increase the efficacy of current forms of therapy, and to develop novel therapies for eating disorders. This pertains, in particular, to bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. A considerable gain in knowledge is to be expected from a systematic analysis of the therapeutic process as well as the moderators and mediators. Furthermore, dissemination of evidence-based treatment methods in practical settings and an examination of stepped care models are important avenues of future research. PMID:25594273
Fairbrother, Hannah; Curtis, Penny; Goyder, Elizabeth
Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood are linked to childhood and adult health inequalities. They are particularly closely associated with inequalities in nutritional and consequently health status. Recent research links this to the high cost of nutrient-rich and low cost of nutrient-poor foods and explores how parents negotiate food purchase on a limited budget. However, we know little of children's perspectives on the material and social realities of their lives and their involvement in health-relevant behaviour. This contrasts with a growing body of research which emphasises children's active role in making sense of and participating in health practices while growing up and their potential to act in continuity with and as agents of change in family health cultures. This paper explores children's understanding of family finances and how they perceive this to relate to eating healthily. It draws upon data from a qualitative study of 53 children aged 9-10 from two socioeconomically contrasting schools in the North of England during 2010 and 2011. Data were generated in friendship group interviews and debates at school and individual interviews in the home, and analysed thematically. Children incorporated a variety of media information into their understandings and sought explanations from their personal experience. They had sophisticated ideas about the interrelationships between diet, cost and health and were acutely aware of how family finances influenced food purchase. Children proposed different strategies to facilitate eating healthily on a budget, but prioritised state and corporate responsibility in ensuring that eating healthily is affordable. This contrasts with current health-related policy, which does not address cost as a potential barrier to eating healthily in the home. Children also consistently conflated healthy eating with eating fruit and vegetables, highlighting a need to reinforce other important nutritional messages. PMID:22607461
Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle; Amy Baltzell
The objective of this study was to elicit advice from female collegiate athletes who achieved recovery from an eating disorder for coaches, parents, and other athletes with eating disorders. Participants were 16 female collegiate athletes who had experienced eating disorders. Data was obtained through structured interview questions. Advice for coaches included confronting athletes with a suspected eating disorder and receiving
Zara Lipsey; Stephen B. Barton; Angela Hulley; Andrew J. Hill
Objective. This study investigated the relationship between exercise and eating disorder features in a community sample of adult women with and without eating disorder psychopathology. The research focus was on the cognitions of exercisers who scored high and low on eating disorder symptoms. It was hypothesized that women with eating disorder symptoms would have more negative thoughts and beliefs about
C Cerú-Björk; I Andersson; S Rössner
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to identify subjects with (1) night eating syndrome (defined as morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia and insomnia) and (2) nocturnal eating syndrome (defined as eating at night after having gone to bed). In the literature the differences and similarities between these two syndromes are not clear.SUBJECTS: One-hundred and ninety-four obese patients from an
S L Colles; J B Dixon; P E O'Brien
Objective:Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by a time-delayed pattern of eating relative to sleep, where most food is consumed in the evening and night. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of NES and nocturnal snacking by exploring the relationship between NES and (1) obesity, (2) binge eating disorder (BED) and (3) psychological distress.Subjects:One hundred and eighty bariatric
Cartwright, Martina M
Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940
Shojaeizadeh, D.; asl, R. Gharaaghaji; Niknami, S.; Khorami, A.
ABSTRACT The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670
De Young, Kyle P; Zander, Mary; Anderson, Drew A
Emotions are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of binge eating (BE). It is largely unknown whether BE is more strongly tied to emotions for certain individuals. This study investigated whether beliefs about the function of eating moderate the relationship between positive and negative affect and the frequency of BE. A mixed eating disorder sample (n=105) prospectively reported their weekly BE frequency and positive and negative affect for 12 weeks after completing the Eating Expectancy Inventory. Results indicated that holding the expectancy that eating helps to relieve negative affect prospectively predicts higher frequencies of BE, and holding the expectancy that eating is pleasurable and useful as a reward predicts lower frequencies. Further, increases in negative affect were associated with increases in BE, and increases in positive affect were associated with decreases in BE. Neither of the hypothesized relationships between affect and BE was moderated by expectancies. However, an interaction between negative and positive affect was found, indicating that only the combination of high positive and low negative affect is specifically related to reduced BE. Holding specific expectancies about the function of eating and fluctuations in both positive and negative affect appear to be associated with BE among individuals with eating disorders. Cognitive interventions should target eating-related expectancies that may maintain BE behavior. PMID:24411746
De Young, Kyle P; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel
The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overall negative affect and guilt exhibited a statistically significantly decrease in the hour immediately following binge eating episodes. The decrease in guilt, but not overall negative affect, was moderated by eating disorder diagnosis and the tendency to engage in self-induced vomiting. Specifically, individuals with BN reported a greater reduction in guilt than those with AN, and individuals who did not typically engage in self-induced vomiting reported more decreases in guilt than those who typically engaged in self-induced vomiting. This study extends the existing literature on the relationship between negative affect and eating disorder behaviors, suggesting guilt as a potentially relevant facet of negative affect in the maintenance of binge eating. In addition, the findings indicate that two individual differences, eating disorder diagnosis and self-induced vomiting, may influence the trajectory of guilt following binge eating episodes. PMID:23245289
Huang, Terry T-K; Sorensen, Dina; Davis, Steven; Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Celentano, Joseph; Callahan, Kelly
We developed a new tool, Healthy Eating Design Guidelines for School Architecture, to provide practitioners in architecture and public health with a practical set of spatially organized and theory-based strategies for making school environments more conducive to learning about and practicing healthy eating by optimizing physical resources and learning spaces. The design guidelines, developed through multidisciplinary collaboration, cover 10 domains of the school food environment (eg, cafeteria, kitchen, garden) and 5 core healthy eating design principles. A school redesign project in Dillwyn, Virginia, used the tool to improve the schools’ ability to adopt a healthy nutrition curriculum and promote healthy eating. The new tool, now in a pilot version, is expected to evolve as its components are tested and evaluated through public health and design research. PMID:23449281
... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...
Graham, Erin Collins
The purpose of the studies presented was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ). The author designed the 21-item self-report inventory to assess cognitions, behaviors, and feelings related...
This is an activity about asteroids. Learners will shape mashed potatoes into their own odd-shaped asteroids. They can then bake them in the oven to turn them (more or less) asteroid color, and eat them for dinner.
Sweeten, Mary K.
, French pastries or foods prepared with rich gravies or wine sauces. Limited menu restaurants serving only pizzas, tacos, fried chicken, hamburgers or french fries should be avoided. If you do eat these foods, select the small burger without french...
Pritts, Sarah D; Susman, Jeffrey
Eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. Eating disorders are associated with devastating medical and psychologic consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Prompt diagnosis is linked to better outcomes. A good medical history is the most powerful tool. Simple screening questions, such as "Do you think you should be dieting?" can be integrated into routine visits. Physical findings such as low body mass index, amenorrhea, bradycardia, gastrointestinal disturbances, skin changes, and changes in dentition can help detect eating disorders. Laboratory studies can help diagnose these conditions and exclude underlying medical conditions. The family physician can play an important role in diagnosing these illnesses and can coordinate the multidisciplinary team of psychiatrists, nutritionists, and other professionals to successfully treat patients with eating disorders. PMID:12562151
Jenkins, Catherine M.; McKenzie, Karen
Background: The utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentions of care staff to encourage healthy eating behaviour in those they supported was examined. Method: A quantitative, within-participant, questionnaire based design was used with 112 carers to assess the performance of two TPB models. The first contained the…
S. Montaudouin; G. Le Pape
In order to assess the influence of environmental parameters on their behaviour, 16 European brown bears were observed in six different zoological parks. Activities were measured by scan sampling and their relationships to housing conditions were established by multifactorial correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. The largest enclosures were characterised by high scores of play, social behaviours, eating, and interest in
Nicolette Siep; Anita Jansen; Remco Havermans; Anne Roefs
\\u000a The cognitive model of eating disorders (EDs) states that the processing of external and internal stimuli might be biased in mental disorders. These biases, or cognitive errors, systematically distort the individual’s experiences and, in that\\u000a way, maintains the eating disorder. This chapter presents an updated literature review of experimental studies investigating\\u000a these cognitive biases. Results indicate that ED patients show
Bassett, Andrew M; Baker, Charley
The 'multicultural clinical interaction' presents itself as a dilemma for the mental health practitioner. Literature describes two problematic areas where this issues emerges - how to make an adequate distinction between religious rituals and the rituals that may be symptomatic of 'obsessive compulsive disorder' (OCD), and how to differentiate 'normative' religious or spiritual beliefs, behaviours, and experiences from 'psychotic' illnesses. When it comes to understanding service user's 'idioms of distress', beliefs about how culture influences behaviour can create considerable confusion and 'normative uncertainty' for mental health practitioners. In the absence of clear diagnostic and assessment criteria on distinguishing between 'culture' and 'psychopathology', practitioners have had to rely on their own intuition and seek out possible 'strategies' or 'procedures' from a contradictory and cross-disciplinary evidence base. Decontextualisation of service users' experiences may result in the pathologisation of culturally 'normative' phenomenon, 'category fallacy' errors, and poor health care experiences and outcomes for service users.This paper situates this dilemma within a wider debate that has concerned both the biomedical and social sciences, namely, the unresolved question of 'normality' or 'abnormality'. Indeed, issues that arise from dilemmas surrounding the question of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' are intimately tied to wider cultural ideas about what is considered 'normal'. The disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, and medical anthropology have struggled to establish workable criteria against which to judge behaviour as 'normal', 'abnormal', or 'pathological'. Three models for understanding mental 'abnormality' are evident in 'transcultural psychiatry' (what is now commonly known as 'cultural psychiatry'), and these models have corresponded closely to the interpretive models used by anthropologists attempting to make sense of the apparent diversity of human societies . The three models of 'absolutism', 'universalism' and 'cultural relativism' have not only important consequences for the nature and conduct of research enquiry, but also have implications for how the dilemma of 'culture' or 'psychopathology' is attended to in clinical practice. PMID:25613082
Bisetto Pons, David; Botella Guijarro, Álvaro; Sancho Muñoz, Alberto
The aim of the study was to show whether there was a connection between drug use and Eating Disorders, as well as to identify the type of drugs most widely used and to ascertain whether they are used to suppress appetite. An "ad hoc" scale was developed using the items of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, whose aim is to detect cases at risk of certain types of eating disorder, and items for assessing drug use. This scale was applied to samples of teenagers (n=446) aged 13-18 from various secondary schools in the Valencia Region (Comunidad Valenciana) in Spain. An association was found between teenagers that use drugs, and particularly between the variable "use of some kind of drug as an appetite suppressant", and being at risk of having an eating disorder. Tobacco was the drug most commonly used (accounting for 66% of those within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale). We conclude that those teenagers from the sample who fall within any of the risk thresholds consume more drugs than those who do not fall within the risk threshold of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Stimulant-type drugs are those most widely used by these teenagers with the aim of suppressing appetite. PMID:22508012
Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella
Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369
R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen
Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important
I. A. Stewart-Scott
Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in
Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link
\\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a . These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in
Jessica K. Wickenheisser; Jan M. McAllister
Androgen excess, theca, granulosa, polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, estrogen, insulin sensitivity,\\u000a signaling defect. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately\\u000a 6–10% of premenopausal women [1, 2]. Hyperandrogenemia is the biochemical hallmark of PCOS. Reproductive and endocrine abnormalities\\u000a include disordered gonadotropin secretion, oligomenorrhea and anovulatory infertility, and endometrial hyperplasia. Obesity,\\u000a hirsutism, acne, and alopecia
Mark Fellowes; Jacques Alphen; Mark Jervis
In this chapter, we consider practical aspects of the foraging behaviour of insect natural enemies in its widest sense. Initially,\\u000a most insect natural enemies must locate the habitat where potential victims may be found. Within that habitat, the victims\\u000a themselves must be discovered. Once a patch of potential targets is identified, the predator or parasitoid must choose its\\u000a victim. Furthermore,
Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography Mohamed Hachama, Agn`es Desolneux (e.g. lesions) in mammography are solved separately, although the solutions of these problems 2006 #12;Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography 179 The definition
Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J
The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusive. Despite the fact that a huge body of research has carefully examined the possible risk factors associated with the eating disorders, they have failed not only to uncover the exact etiology of eating disorders, but also to understand the interaction between different causes of eating disorders. This failure may be due complexities of eating disorders, limitations of the studies or combination of two factors. In this review, some risk factors including biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural are discussed. PMID:25206042
Kelly C. Allison; Thomas A. Wadden; David B. Sarwer; Anthony N. Fabricatore; Canice E. Crerand; Lauren M. Gibbons; Rebecca M. Stack; Albert J. Stunkard; Noel N. Williams
Objective: To assess the prevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) and binge eating disorder (BED) and their related behavioral and psychological correlates in persons who sought bariatric surgery.Research Methods and Procedures: A consecutive series of 215 persons with extreme obesity (82% women, 70% European American) completed the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory and a semistructured interview as part of a pre-surgery
Raphaela Riener; Karin Schindler; Bernhard Ludvik
ObjectivesBinge eating disorder (BED) is a frequent and significant psychiatric comorbidity among patients seeking treatment for obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether morbidly obese subjects with BED differ from those without BED (NBED) in terms of eating behavior, social\\/environmental variables, and depression.
Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Curhan, Gary C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.
Objective Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2381 women from two U.S cohorts. Genotypes were extracted from genome-wide scans and a genetic-risk score (GRS) derived from 32 obesity-loci was calculated. Results The GRS was positively associated with emotional and uncontrolled eating(P<0.002). In exploratory analysis, BMI-increasing variants of MTCH2, TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with emotional eating and those of TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with uncontrolled eating. The BMI-increasing variant of FTO was positively and those of LRP1B and TFAP2B were inversely associated with cognitive restraint. These associations for single SNPs were independent of BMI but were not significant after multiple-testing correction. Conclusions An overall genetic susceptibility to obesity may also extend to eating behaviors. The link between specific loci and obesity may be mediated by eating behavior but larger studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23929626
Janet D. Latner; G. Terence Wilson
Objective: The current study tested the hypothesis that supplemental dietary protein would reduce binge eating frequency and test meal intake in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). Method: Eighteen women with BN or BED ingested high- carbohydrate or high-protein supplements (280 kcal) three times daily over two 2-week periods. On the morning after each period, participants
Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.
Developed the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire (AMDQ) to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/DE). Athletes from various sports completed the AMDQ, two other tests, and a structured diagnostic interview to determine which test screened most effectively. The AMDQ identified ED/DE more accurately than the…
Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.
Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…
V. Boschi; M. Siervo; P. D’Orsi; N. Margiotta; E. Trapanese; F. Basile; G. Nasti; A. Papa; O. Bellini; C. Falconi
Aims: Dieting is a behavioral phenomenon which is becoming more frequent among adolescents and the search for weight loss, through dieting, may result in an unbalanced nutrition both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our study intended to look at the eating habits and behavior on a cohort of adolescent girls to verify the presence of unbalanced diets and the prevalence of eating
The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…
The evidence- and practice-based Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) outlines an inclusive definition of the interrelated spectrum of eating attitudes and behaviors. The model is predicated on the utility and effectiveness of biopsychosocial processes: hunger and the drive to survive, appetite and the need for subjective reward and the…
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children’s eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationsh...
Lorraine Cassidy; David Taylor; Christopher Harris
Abnormal eye movements in the infant or young child can be congenital or acquired. They may be a result of abnormal early visual development or a sign of underlying neurologic or neuromuscular disease. It is important to be able to detect these abnormalities and to distinguish them from normal but immature eye movements. The spectrum of disease in children differs
Gemming, Luke; Doherty, Aiden; Utter, Jennifer; Shields, Emma; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona
Research investigating the influence of the environmental and social factors on eating behaviours in free-living settings is limited. This study investigates the utility of using wearable camera images to assess the context of eating episodes. Adult participants (N?=?40) wore a SenseCam wearable camera for 4 days (including 1 familiarisation day) over a 15-day period in free-living conditions, and had their diet assessed using three image-assisted multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recalls. The images of participants' eating episodes were analysed and annotated according to their environmental and social contexts; including eating location, external environment (indoor/outdoor), physical position, social interaction, and viewing media screens. Data for 107 days were used, with a total of 742 eating episodes considered for annotation. Twenty nine per cent (214/742) of the episodes could not be categorised due to absent images (12%, n?=?85), dark/blurry images (8%, n?=?58), camera not worn (7%, n?=?54) and for mixed reasons (2%, n?=?17). Most eating episodes were at home (59%) and indoors (91%). Meals at food retailers were 24.8 minutes longer (95% CI: 13.4 to 36.2) and were higher in energy (mean difference?=?1196?kJ 95% CI: 242, 2149) than at home. Most episodes were seated at tables (27%) or sofas (26%), but eating standing (19%) or at desks (18%) were common. Social interaction was evident for 45% of episodes and media screens were viewed during 55% of episodes. Meals at home watching television were 3.1 minutes longer (95% CI: -0.6 to 6.7) and higher in energy intake than when no screen was viewed (543?kJ 95% CI: -32 to 1120). The environmental and social context that surrounds eating and dietary behaviours can be assessed using wearable camera images. PMID:26002278
Denny, Kara N.; Loth, Katie; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Intuitive eating (i.e., reliance on physiologic hunger and satiety cues to guide eating) has been proposed as a healthier, more effective, and more innate alternative to current strategies of weight management. The current study explored intuitive eating among young adults according to socio-demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI), and examined associations between intuitive and disordered eating behaviors. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III, a population-based study of 2,287 young adults (mean age: 25.3 years). More males reported trusting their bodies to tell them how much to eat than did females. Intuitive eating was inversely associated with BMI in both genders. Males and females who reported trusting their body to tell them how much to eat had lower odds of utilizing disordered eating behaviors compared to those that did not have this trust. Females who reported that they stop eating when they are full had lower odds of chronic dieting and binge eating than those who do not stop eating when full. Overall, this study found that intuitive eating practices are inversely associated with a number of harmful outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the concept of intuitive eating with their young adult patients to promote healthier weight-related outcomes. PMID:23063606
Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.
Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658
Goldstein, Mandy; Peters, Lorna; Thornton, Christopher E; Touyz, Stephen W
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of the direct treatment of perfectionism on the outcome of perfectionism and eating disorder pathology. Sixty-one participants, attending day hospital treatment, participated in a randomised controlled study, in which treatment as usual (TAU) was compared with TAU combined with a clinician-lead cognitive behavioural treatment for perfectionism (TAU+P). Linear mixed model analysis revealed no significant interaction effects but significant main effects for time on variables measuring eating pathology and perfectionism. Outcomes supported the effectiveness of overall treatment but suggested that adding direct treatment of perfectionism did not enhance treatment. The results are discussed in relation to the existing literature on the treatment of perfectionism. PMID:24474602
Phillips, Gemma; Bottomley, Christian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Yu, Ge; Lynch, Rebecca; Lock, Karen; Draper, Alizon; Moore, Derek; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Renton, Adrian
Background We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Methods Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 5×30?m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. Results There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: ?1.52, 95% CI ?3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: ?0.14, 95% CI ?0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). Conclusions The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings. There is a need for greater investment in refining such programmes before implementation; new methods to understand, longitudinally different pathways residents take through such interventions and their outcomes, and new theories of change that apply to each pathway. PMID:24489043
Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane
Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…
Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M
Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045
Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.
The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.
Gallagher, Patrick G
Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975
The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.
Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Lavender, Jason M.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Background Despite being characterized primarily by disturbances in eating behavior, relatively little is known about specific eating behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN) and how they relate to different emotional, behavioral, and environmental features. Methods Women with AN (n=118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on daily eating- and mood-related patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to identify classes of eating episodes based on the presence or absence of the following indicators: loss of control; overeating; eating by oneself; food avoidance; and dietary restraint. Results The best-fitting model supported a 5-class solution: avoidant eating; solitary eating; binge eating; restrictive eating; and loss of control eating. The loss of control and binge eating classes were characterized by high levels of concurrent negative affect and a greater likelihood of engaging in compensatory behaviors. The restrictive eating class was associated with the greatest number of concurrently-reported stressful events, while the avoidant and solitary eating episode classes were characterized by relatively few accompanying stressful events. Body checking was least likely to occur in conjunction with restrictive eating behaviors. Conclusions Results support the presence of discrete types of eating episodes in AN that are associated with varying degrees of negative affect, stress, and behavioral features of eating disorders. Loss of control and dietary restriction may serve distinct functional purposes in AN, as highlighted by their differing associations with negative affect and stress. Clinical interventions for AN may benefit from targeting functional aspects of eating behavior among those with the disorder. PMID:24630466
dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562
Jastran, Margaret; Bisogni, Carole A.; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M.
Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-hour dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as “routines” or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks. PMID:18835305
Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.; Rossor, Martin N.
We describe ten patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (pathologically confirmed in three cases) who developed abnormal laughter-like vocalisations in the context of progressive speech output impairment leading to mutism. Failure of speech output was accompanied by increasing frequency of the abnormal vocalisations until ultimately they constituted the patient's only extended utterance. The laughter-like vocalisations did not show contextual sensitivity but occurred as an automatic vocal output that replaced speech. Acoustic analysis of the vocalisations in two patients revealed abnormal motor features including variable note duration and inter-note interval, loss of temporal symmetry of laugh notes and loss of the normal decrescendo. Abnormal laughter-like vocalisations may be a hallmark of a subgroup in the PPA spectrum with impaired control and production of nonverbal vocal behaviour due to disruption of fronto-temporal networks mediating vocalisation. PMID:19435636
Berner, Laura A; Allison, Kelly C
Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. PMID:23569400
Kristensen, Søren T; Køster, Allan
Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework that employs logistic, social and discursive eating problems as analytic categories. Using cases from a health clinic situated at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen, we show that even if the structural conditions associated with eating problems may not be solvable through individual counselling sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet counselling. PMID:24443502
Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377
Phillips, Katie; Wood, Fiona; Spanou, Clio; Kinnersley, Paul; Simpson, Sharon A; Butler, Christopher C
Background As obesity levels increase, opportunistic behaviour change counselling from primary care clinicians in consultations about healthy eating is ever more important. However, little is known about the approaches clinicians take with patients. Aim To describe the content of simulated consultations on healthy eating in primary care, and compare this with the content of smoking cessation consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study of 23 audiotaped simulated healthy eating and smoking cessation consultations between an actor and primary care clinicians (GPs and nurses) within a randomised controlled trial looking at behaviour change counselling. Method Consultations were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then analysed inductively using thematic analysis. A thematic framework was developed by all authors and applied to the data. The content of healthy eating consultations was contrasted with that given for smoking cessation. Results There was a lack of consistency and clarity when clinicians discussed healthy eating compared with smoking; in smoking cessation consultations, the content was clearer to both the clinician and patient. There was a lack of specificity about what dietary changes should be made, how changes could be achieved, and how progress could be monitored. Barriers to change were addressed in more depth within the smoking cessation consultations than within the healthy eating encounters. Conclusion At present, dietary counselling by clinicians in primary care does not typically contain consistent, clear suggestions for specific change, how these could be achieved, and how progress would be monitored. This may contribute to limited uptake and efficacy of dietary counselling in primary care. PMID:22520664
Genetic variation influencing normal and abnormal human behaviour has been studied since Francis Galton's work in the second half of the 19th century. However, most of these studies have consisted of biometric analysis of complex phenotypes; the genotype has been treated as a 'black box'. The concepts and analytical tools of modern genetics have rarely been used. In this lecture, some examples are given of approaches combining tools from genetics, cytogenetics, and various fields of neurobiology which might help in the analysis of genetic mechanisms leading, in interaction with the environment, to individual differences in behaviour, mental performance, and susceptibility to mental diseases. PMID:2883319
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.
The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating…
... Communications Publications Eating Hints: Before, During, and After Cancer Treatment Eating Hints is for people who are having or are about to have cancer treatment. Family and friends may also want to read ...
Knoll, Susanne; Föcker, Manuel; Hebebrand, Johannes
The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) resulted in substantial changes with regard to the classification of Eating Disorders. In DSM-5, Feeding and Eating Disorders are for the first time subsumed in a single category. The Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was established as the third classical eating disorder in addition to Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN). The criteria for AN changed remarkably, whereas there were only minor changes to the BN criteria. The criteria for BED differ only marginally from the DSM-IV research criteria. There are now subtypes of AN, BN, and BED in the new category "Other Specific Feeding and Eating Disorders." The rest category "Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified" has been renamed to "Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorders." The practicability of the DSM-5 criteria for Eating Disorders, and for AN in particular, for both clinical practice and research remains to be seen. PMID:25163998
Tam, Sharon W
Stress has been shown to affect eating behavior which may lead to eating disorders. Stress may also affect health by causing the modification of behaviors such as physical exercise, smoking, or food choices. Thus, ...
... split pea soup. Make a hummusfilled pita sandwich. healthy eating for vegetarians 10 tips A vegetarian eating pattern ... www.ChooseMyPlate.gov for more information. 10 tips Nutrition Education Series DG TipSheet No. 8 June 2011 ...
There has been little scientific work exploring eating pathology among Jewish women in the United States, even though research has suggested that body image and eating behavior may be especially problematic within this group. Research has also...
Maxwell, Millie; Thornton, Laura M.; Root, Tammy L.; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Strober, Michael; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steve; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; Klump, Kelly L.; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James E.; Plotnicov, Kathy; Rotondo, Alessandro; Woodside, D. Blake; Berrettini, Wade H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective We investigated sociodemographic characteristics in women with and without lifetime eating disorders. Method Participants were from a multi-site international study of eating disorders (N = 2096). Education level, relationship status, and reproductive status were examined across eating disorder subtypes and compared with a healthy control group. Results Overall, women with eating disorders were less educated than controls, and duration of illness and age of onset were associated with educational attainment. Menstrual status was associated with both relationship and reproductive status, but eating disorder subtypes did not differ significantly from each other or from healthy controls on these dimensions. Conclusion Differences in educational attainment, relationships, and reproduction do exist in individuals with eating disorders and are differentially associated with various eating disorder symptoms and characteristics. These data could assist with educating patients and family members about long-term consequences of eating disorders. PMID:20143323
The purpose of this inquiry was to develop substantive theory that describes the social process that influences the eating behavior of hospitalized older adults. Undernutrition contributes to negative health outcomes, such as increased morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults. Despite the availability of vast nutritional resources within the hospital environment, hospitalized older adults often have inadequate dietary intake. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore this phenomenon. The Theory of Compromised Eating Behavior describes the process of compromise that older adults experience related to eating behavior while hospitalized. The theory has four stages: self-indication, joint action, negotiation, and action. The meaning of hospital food and mealtimes differs from at-home food and mealtimes for the older adult, resulting in compromise. Intervention, which enhances the meaning of food and mealtimes for the older adult during hospitalization, may improve dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. PMID:24094450
Jennifer D. Lundgren; John P. O’Reardon; Kelly C. Allison; Carrie D. Spresser
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are well-recognized eating disorders clinically. Night eating syndrome (NES)\\u000a and binge eating disorder (BED) are also of considerable importance and are increasingly recognized in the clinic, because\\u000a of the distress they cause and their links with obesity. Each of these four eating disorders has the capacity to disturb sleep\\u000a and in that respect
Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton
This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232
Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480
Background: Binge eating in the obese, specifically those undergoing bariatric surgery, has only recently been investigated.\\u000a This study is a continuation of a long-term effort to determine the impact of eating disorders on the outcome of bariatric\\u000a surgery. Methods: Self-report questionnaires (Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Questionnaire on Weight and Eating\\u000a Patterns) were completed by 125 patients preparing to
Bechtold, David A; Loudon, Andrew S I
Daily rhythms are evident across our physiology, ranging from overt behavioural patterns like sleep to intricate molecular rhythms in epigenetic coding. Driving these rhythms at an anatomical and cellular level are circadian clock networks comprising core clock genes and an ever-expanding list of clock-controlled genes. Research over the past decade has revealed an intimate relationship between the clockwork and metabolic processes. In line with this, feeding behaviour in many species exhibits a strong circadian rhythm and, when restricted, food becomes the most potent entraining stimulus for clocks of the body. Critically, there are several indications that disturbance of our daily rhythms contributes to the development of obesity and diabetes. Given our 24-h society, it is important that we understand how the circadian clock influences what and when we eat. PMID:23333345
Higgins, Joan Wharf; Cookson, Susanne; Hastings-James, Cynthia; Frazer, Amanda
By now, it's no secret that Canadians are struggling to maintain a healthy body weight, eat right and get enough physical activity to promote their health and prevent the early onset of or to manage, chronic disease. Considered with our tendency to have poor adherence rates to prescribed medications and difficulties overcoming addictive substances, this struggle threatens to shorten our life spans and overburden our healthcare system. To turn the tide, layered and coordinated initiatives at the population level are needed that educate, motivate and support individuals to embrace healthy living. In this commentary, the authors respond to Oliver's recent paper on the utility of user financial incentives and architectural choice interventions as mechanisms for facilitating voluntary behaviour change. They concur with many of his ideas and argue that a more comprehensive approach, particularly adhering to the principles and strategies of social marketing, is needed to stimulate and sustain behaviour change. PMID:23713400
Judith M. E. Walsh; Mary E. Wheat; Karen Freund
OBJECTIVE: To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a MEDLINE search on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating\\u000a disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and
This new book from the US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, USDA ERS (last noted in the May 7, 1999 Scout Report) offers a comprehensive review of eating habits and the state of nutrition in America. Downloadable by chapter or in its entirety in .pdf format, the book presents a multi-disciplinary perspective on nutrition issues, addressing topics ranging from "dietary guidelines to food consumption patterns, from the impact of food advertising to the economic costs of unhealthy diets." Other subjects covered include the impact of government programs and regulations, public and private efforts to encourage healthy eating, and the connections between dietary changes and US agriculture.
Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.
Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18–24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Gluantitative analysis of nycterohemeral eating and ruminating patterns in beef cattle fed pelleted) and 20% H. Spectral analysis of hourly time spent eating and ruminating was performed using the finite rhythm components (R). Patterns of time spent eating and ruminating the 5 diets consisted mainly of R1, 2
Katherine A. Halmi
Obsessions, compulsions, and personality traits such as perfectionism and inflexibility are commonly described in eating disorder patients. A lack of precise clarification has existed in defining the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in the various eating disorder subtypes. Research clarifying these definitions and the components of perfectionism as it pertains to eating disorders is reviewed in this
Kimberley K. Vaughan; Gregory T. Fouts
The relationship between girls' media exposure and their development of eating disorder symptomatology was assessed. At Time 1 and Time 2 (16 months later), participants (N = 374; M age = 12.0) completed a questionnaire that assessed eating disorder sympto-matology and television and fashion magazine exposure. Girls were divided into 3 groups: increased, decreased, or no change in eating disorder
Tylka, Tracy L.
Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooking and eating facilities. 654.413 ...Workers Housing Standards § 654.413 Cooking and eating facilities. (a) When...space shall be provided and equipped for cooking and eating. Such space shall be...
Kathleen D. Vohs; Todd F. Heatherton; Marcia Herrin
Objective: A longitudinal study was conducted to examine whether the transition to college changed eating disorder symptoms and related attitudes. Method: Participants were 342 women who completed an in-depth survey in the spring of their senior year of high school and again during their first year of college. We assessed changes in body self- perception, eating-related attitudes, and disordered eating
Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.
This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…
Snow, Janeanne T.; Harris, Mary B.
Investigated incidence of eating disorders in Pueblo Indian and Hispanic high school students (N=95). Found no ethnic differences. Majority of girls reported wanting to lose weight, being worried about weight, and indulging in binge eating. Nine girls reported eating habits consistent with bulimia. Few boys indicated concerns about weight or…
Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy
Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…
Erdal Vardar; Selma Arzu Vardar; Cem Kurt
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate of disordered eating behaviors in young female athletes and to compare the anxiety levels of the athletes with or without disordered eating behaviors. Female athletes (n=243) of 15 to 25 years old from the city, Edirne, in Turkey participated our study. Disordered eating behaviors and anxiety levels of participants were
a fork-type sensing device, Sensing Fork, which detects children's eating behavior (eating actions on these sensed activities, the phone can provide feedback to motivate human behavioral changes. Examples University email@example.com #12;targets young children's eating behavior, a most common concern
Marian Tanofsky-Kraff; Ann F. Haynos; Lisa A. Kotler; Susan Z. Yanovski; Jack A. Yanovski
The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits
Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard
Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Bryla, Karen Y.
Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…
Hawks, Steven R.; Goudy, Marylynn B.; Gast, Julie A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship between emotional eating and spiritual well-being. It was found that among college women lower levels of spiritual well-being correlated with higher levels of emotional eating (r = -0.22, p = 0.0015). In other studies emotional eating has been found to contribute to higher…
Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:21080921
Schäfer, M L
The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887
Lauren Reba-Harrelson; Ann Von Holle; Robert M. Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M. Bulik
The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms.
Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson
The authors compared 3 methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and completed the EDE Questionnaire (EDE–Q) at baseline. Participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then completed another EDE–Q. The EDE and the EDE–Q were significantly correlated on
Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson
Objective: To compare different methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 47 participants with BED were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Interview and completed the EDE-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at baseline. A total of 37 participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then
Premaratne, Vidath Sasanka; Saeger, Ivan; Macdonald, Bridget K
We present the case of a patient treated for hyperprolactinaemia with weekly doses of cabergoline for 12 years. Over this time she had suffered from binge eating and compulsive shopping which impacted on her weight and made her finances precarious. We discuss the features of impulse control disorders and suggest that seeking out these side effects in patients taking such agents is important. The behaviours may be embarrassing and patients may not volunteer them, likewise if the doctor dismisses them they may continue unabated, causing significant social harm. PMID:24715137
Ahonen, Pirkko S.
The purpose of this study was to examine, describe, and explain experiences of men with eating disorders and to gain understanding of the relevant life issues, perceptions, and attitudes. What are some of the contributing factors and experiences of men who suffer from eating disorders despite the widely held assumption that eating disorders are…
Per M. Hellström; Allan Geliebter; Erik Näslund; Peter T. Schmidt; Eric K. Yahav; Sami A. Hashim; Martin R. Yeomans
The worldwide increase in the incidence of obesity is a consequence of a positive energy balance, with energy intake exceeding expen- diture. The signalling systems that underlie appetite control are complex, and the present review highlights our current understanding of key components of these systems. The pattern of eating in obesity ranges from over-eating associated with binge-eating disorder to the
Brownstone, Lisa M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Printz, Katherine S.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Objective The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. Method Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. Results Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. Discussion SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology. PMID:23109272
Hitchcock, Adam P.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES LILLIAN ROSE STEGNE MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP $5, pursuing studies related to Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences. Deadline Four copies of the completed: Psychiatry Education Office c/o Nancy Devlin Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences St. Joseph
Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E
We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868
F. Mougeot; J.-C. Thibault; V. Bretagnolle
We studied copulation behaviour of the osprey, Pandion haliaetus, a semicolonial, fish-eating raptor, in Corsica (Mediterranean). Pairs copulated over a long period (45 days) and at a high rate, with, on average, 288 within-pair copulations (WPCs) for a clutch. Pairs breeding at higher density faced more frequent territorial intrusions than others and were potentially at an increased cuckoldry risk. However,
Collins O. Airhihenbuwa; Shiriki Kumanyika; Tanya D. Agurs; Agatha Lowe; David Saunders; Christiaan B. Morssink
The high mortality from diet?related diseases among African Americans strongly suggests a need to adopt diets lower in total fat, saturated fat and salt and higher in fiber. However, such changes would be contrary to some traditional African American cultural practices. Focus group interviews were used to explore cultural aspects of eating patterns among low? and middle?income African Americans recruited
The University of Arkansas – Pine Bluff Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project (DOPRP) is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excess weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of a healthy weight during the college years. Adjusting to college life ...
Students eating at Wu Hall improving a sense of campus community Housing Campus Life Athletics and activities for students, faculty, and staff alike, whether they live on campus or nearby. 106 The Plan to graduate students, faculty, and staff. The Campus Plan proposes a number of initiatives to address
Linda K. Riebel
Poor assertiveness, low self-esteem, and fragile boundaries are hallmarks of eating disorders, keeping the client isolated within herself, unable to name and express her own needs, and powerless to repel undesired attentions or create desired ones. In view of the recent trend toward introducing coping skills into treatment plans, teaching communication meets important client needs. It can provide observable improvement
The Children's Hospital of Denver has an internationally renowned outpatient-inpatient treatment program for children, adolescents, and young adults with eating disorders (EDs). A unique feature of this ED program is its inpatient location on a medical unit. The nurses are medically trained, yet their patients with EDs have complex emotional and psychological problems. To address the special needs of these
McCanne, Lynn P. Fisher
Recent research indicates that a significant number of college-age women suffer from bulimarexia (also called the gorging-purging syndrome, the binge-purge cycle, bulimia or bulimia nervosa). To examine the relationship of three personality variables (anxiety, assertiveness, and locus of control) to eating disorders, 46 college students…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ER(nr) non- resonant reflection (resonant) atomic response windo w dilute vapou r IR = |ER 6 8 9 @ A B 8 8 9 @ A B 8 (qualitative approach) Irefl = |ER(nr)1 + ER(nr)2 + Eat|² windo w dilute n1 =1 n3 = n1 windo w Continuity equations at the two boundaries between the three media: - air, n1
Kessler, Daniel B.
Daniel B. Kessler, MD, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician, provides guidance on establishing healthy eating patterns in the early years. He emphasizes the importance of the feeding relationship as an important part of a child's social and emotional development. How parents approach feeding and mealtime is about so much more than physical…
Let Us Eat Fish By RAY HILBORN Published: April 14, 2011 Yuko Shimizu THIS Lent, many ecologically conscious Americans might feel a twinge of guilt as they dig into the fish on their Friday dinner plates of fish stocks -- in 2006, for instance, an article in the journal Science projected that all fish stocks
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
... oil Safflower oil Sunflower oil Tub (soft) margarine Vegetable oil 4Eat the right amount of calories for you ? Everyone has a personal calorie limit. Staying within yours can help you get to or maintain a healthy weight. People who are ... Choose dishes that include vegetables, fruits, and/or whole grains. Order a smaller ...
Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo
Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…
William F. Quirk; George Sternbach
A Confederate Army surgeon, Joseph Jones, is generally credited to have provided the first modern description of necrotizing fasciitis, then known as hospital gangrene. This is a soft tissue infection characterized by a rapid and progressive course. In the 1990s, this entity has been popularized by the media as representing infection with “flesh eating bacteria.” Certain patients are at particular
Hamilton, Kristin L.
Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…
Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lei, Du; He, Ning; Hu, Xinyu; Chen, Ying; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jinbo; Guo, Lanting; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qiyong
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple behavioural problems and executive dysfunctions for which neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of abnormalities, with inconsistencies partly owing to confounding by medication and concurrent psychiatric disease. We aimed to investigate the microstructural abnormalities of white matter in unmedicated children and adolescents with pure ADHD and to explore the association between these abnormalities and behavioural symptoms and executive functions. Methods We assessed children and adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls using psychiatric interviews. Behavioural problems were rated using the revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale, and executive functions were measured using the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting test. We acquired diffusion tensor imaging data using a 3 T MRI system, and we compared diffusion parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, axial and radial diffusivities, between the 2 groups. Results Thirty-three children and adolescents with ADHD and 35 healthy controls were included in our study. In patients compared with controls, FA was increased in the left posterior cingulum bundle as a result of both increased axial diffusivity and decreased radial diffusivity. In addition, the averaged FA of the cluster in this region correlated with behavioural measures as well as executive function in patients with ADHD. Limitations This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and small sample size. The cluster size of the significant result was small. Conclusion Our findings suggest that white matter abnormalities within the limbic network could be part of the neural underpinning of behavioural problems and executive dysfunction in patients with ADHD. PMID:25853285
Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Hermann, Ernst; Tuch, Alex; Munsch, Simone
The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a recently described disordered eating style whose status in current diagnostic systems needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the clinical features of NES in a sample of 1514 young adults aged 18-26 years from the general population who participated in an anonymous Internet survey. We first examined characteristics of NES and tried to delineate it from healthy controls as well as from other eating disorders in terms of socio-demography, eating disorder pathology and general psychopathology. Second, we attempted to further clarify the clinical utility of the NES by assessing the degree of distress as well as impairment. Twenty (1.3%) participants with NES were identified and there was only modest overlap between NES and both Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia nervosa (BN) according to questionnaire-based DSM-IV criteria. Compared to healthy controls, NES individuals reported more pronounced eating disorder pathology as well as general psychopathology (depressive symptoms, chronic social stress). NES seems to be associated with considerable distress and impairment. Implications for the validity and classification of NES are discussed. PMID:22883837
Harb, Ana; Levandovski, Rosa; Oliveira, Ceres; Caumo, Wolnei; Allison, Kelly Costello; Stunkard, Albert; Hidalgo, Maria Paz
This cross-sectional study examined the association between the morningness/eveningness dimension and eating patterns. The sample consists of 100 subjects who were screened at a nutrition clinic and was composed of 77% women; mean age was 39.5 (±11.7) years; and 66% were overweight. Significant bivariate correlations were found between the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) total score and the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). The NEQ and BES were also significantly correlated. Body mass index (BMI) was correlated with the NEQ and BES, but it was not a confounding variable as no associations were found between the MEQ and BMI. To control for potential multicollinearity effects among variables, we also used multivariate regression analysis in which the values of the correlation coefficients were adjusted. Only the BES remained statistically associated with the MEQ. In conclusion, these results suggest that the study of chronotype may be an important issue to be considered when characterizing disordered eating. This study serves as an impetus for examining circadian intake patterns in more detail between those with binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) to help discern these important nosological questions. PMID:22906954
Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Method Adolescents (N=2231) and their parents (N=3431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Results Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or food restriction was significantly and positively associated with use of disordered eating behaviors among boys. For every one unit increase [Scale Range: 1-(low control) to 4 – (high control)] in mothers’ food restriction, boys were twice as likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p?0.01). Examination of the association between food-related parenting practices and disordered eating behaviors among girls revealed fewer significant associations. However, analyses did reveal that for every one unit increase in mothers’ food restriction, girls were 1.33 times more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p=0.04). Discussion Study findings provide evidence of an association between controlling food-related parenting practices and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, particularly in boys. Future longitudinal research is needed to establish directionality of observed associations. PMID:24105668
Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099
Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099
Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina
In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for abnormal neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal-directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future. PMID:19862349
Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; MacDonald, Christopher J; Moffa, Anthony; Zhou, Joanne; Redondo, Roger L; Tonegawa, Susumu
Stress is considered a potent environmental risk factor for many behavioural abnormalities, including anxiety and mood disorders. Animal models can exhibit limited but quantifiable behavioural impairments resulting from chronic stress, including deficits in motivation, abnormal responses to behavioural challenges, and anhedonia. The hippocampus is thought to negatively regulate the stress response and to mediate various cognitive and mnemonic aspects of stress-induced impairments, although the neuronal underpinnings sufficient to support behavioural improvements are largely unknown. Here we acutely rescue stress-induced depression-related behaviours in mice by optogenetically reactivating dentate gyrus cells that were previously active during a positive experience. A brain-wide histological investigation, coupled with pharmacological and projection-specific optogenetic blockade experiments, identified glutamatergic activity in the hippocampus-amygdala-nucleus-accumbens pathway as a candidate circuit supporting the acute rescue. Finally, chronically reactivating hippocampal cells associated with a positive memory resulted in the rescue of stress-induced behavioural impairments and neurogenesis at time points beyond the light stimulation. Together, our data suggest that activating positive memories artificially is sufficient to suppress depression-like behaviours and point to dentate gyrus engram cells as potential therapeutic nodes for intervening with maladaptive behavioural states. PMID:26085274
Liu, Jodi L; Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A
The objective of this study was to determine whether places of consumption are associated with types of eating occasions. Data on dietary behaviors of 226 adults in five U.S. cities were collected in food diaries for one week. Types of eating occasions and places of consumption were recorded. Eating occasions were defined as occurrences of meal, snack, beverage, and non-fruit dessert consumption. Nearly one-third of eating occasions occurred at non-designated eating places. Repeated measure generalized linear models were used to assess the associations between types of eating occasions and places where food was consumed. Snacking on low-nutrient foods were more likely to occur in non-designated eating places. Snacking was more likely at work than at home, and sugar sweetened beverage consumption was more likely at food service outlets than at home. The finding that places of consumption were associated with different types of eating occasions suggests that contextual characteristics of a place are important in individual eating behaviors. Policies and programs aiming to promote healthy eating should leverage contextual characteristics of eating environments. PMID:25558025
Cleator, J; Abbott, J; Judd, P; Sutton, C; Wilding, J P H
Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard's team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. PMID:23446659
Stickney, M I; Miltenberger, R G; Wolff, G
This study was designed to examine temporally proximal and remote antecedents as well as immediate and delayed consequences of binge eating behavior. Participants included 16 undergraduate females who reported engaging in binge eating at least two times per week and experiencing a sense of lack of control during binge eating episodes on the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns. Results indicated that the most frequent proximal antecedents to binge eating were negative emotions such as feeling depressed, angry, empty, hopeless, worried, or dissatisfied. The most frequent consequences of binge eating included relief from negative feelings and thoughts and decrease in hunger or craving. The results of this study suggest that the function of binge eating can be identified through assessment of antecedents and consequences with real time recording and retrospective reports. Treatment implications are discussed. PMID:10619542
Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century for the European region. The concept of personal responsibility affected social, legal, and political approaches to obesity. It evokes blame and weakness of the individual, and it is a leading basis for inadequate government efforts, given the importance of environmental conditions in explaining high rates of obesity. It is needed not only to gain a correct understanding of the progress of the epidemic but also to evaluate preventive initiatives that are progressively introduced. As part of the social, health and agri-food production in the country, knowledge of dietary habits and lifestyle of the population in real time is a valuable resource. The data from ADI-Nestlé Observatory confirmed that it is unfair to say that poor diet and sedentary behaviour are individually responsible for obesity-related health burden in Italy, but both factors need to be improved and addressed through structural political and social structural measures. PMID:22688375
Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara
This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at <33?weeks of gestation. Structural brain correlates and risk factors at birth, in childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21?years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15?years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14?years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd. PMID:25645448
Jongenelis, Michelle I; Byrne, Susan M; Pettigrew, Simone
Self-objectification has been examined extensively in adult populations. Despite theoretical evidence suggesting that children may also be vulnerable to experiencing self-objectification, whether children do self-objectify has not been determined. Accordingly, the present study examined the degree to which children self-objectify. The prevalence of body image and eating disturbances in this population, and the relationship between self-objectification and these disturbances, were also investigated. Results from over 250 boys and girls aged 6-11 years revealed that young girls report levels of self-objectification that are similar to those observed among older girls and women. Self-objectification was also found to be meaningfully related to body image and eating disturbances in children. A significant proportion of children reported body dissatisfaction and a minority engaged in disordered eating behaviours in the four weeks prior to the assessment. These results suggest that children may be at risk of experiencing the negative psychological outcomes associated with self-objectification. PMID:24958665
Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824
Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola
Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415
Scoffier, S; Paquet, Y; d'Arripe-Longueville, F
This study examined the influence of locus of control on disordered eating as mediated by the self-regulation of eating attitudes. The assessment instruments were adapted for athletes as the entire sample of 179 volunteer University students (M(age)=21.12; SD=2.87) were all regularly involved in competition. The results showed that (a) an internal locus of control had a positive influence on the self-regulation of eating attitudes in social interaction contexts; (b) self-regulatory eating attitudes had a negative influence on disordered eating in contexts of negative affect, social interaction, and lack of anticipation of consequences on performance; and (c) an internal locus of control had an influence on disordered eating through the mediation of self-regulatory eating attitudes in social interaction contexts, and an external locus of control attributed to the coach and sports friends had an influence on disordered eating through the mediation of self-regulatory eating attitudes in contexts of negative affect, social interaction and lack of anticipation of consequences on performance. This study, combined with an earlier study from Scoffier, Maïano, and d'Arripe-Longueville (2009) on the antecedents of athletes' eating disorders, suggests the powerful impact of the social environment on the development of disordered eating in athletes. PMID:20434063
Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming
Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…
Warren, Reed P.; And Others
A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron
David Heber; N. S. Tchekmedyian
Despite the development of advanced nutritional support technology, malnutrition remains a significant morbid and mortal complication of cancer. A number of metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated in malnourished cancer patients, including increased protein breakdown, increased glucose production, increased lipolysis, hypogonadism in male patients, and insulin resistance. Previous studies conducted under metabolic ward conditions have demonstrated that metabolic abnormalities interfere with
List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.
Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516
White, Geoffry D.
A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…
T. D. Shipp; B. Bromley; B. R. Benacerraf
Objectives: This study was undertaken as a retrospective chart review to evaluate the range of umbilical cord abnormalities detected by prenatal sonography, as well as the outcome and pathologic correlation. Methods: We identified 13 cases of umbilical cord abnormalities detected sonographically over a 46-month period. We evaluated the ultrasound appearance, size, location, and color Doppler characteristic in each case. Results:
Takuya Nanri; Nobuyuki Otsu
The detection of abnormal movements is an important prob- lem in video surveillance applications. We propose an unsupervised method for abnormal movement detection in scenes containing multiple persons. Our method uses cu- bic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) to extract movement features. We show that the additive property of CHLAC in combination with a linear subspace method is well suited to
detection of abnormal conditions in the heart. Unsupervised ICA neural networks can demix the components of measured ECG signals. Such components may correspond to individual heart functions, either normal for diagnosis well in advance of the actual onset of heart attack, in which abnormalities in the original
Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX
Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique
Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini
Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.
Christopher Cunniff; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Kurt Benirschke
To understand better the pathogenesis of ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with abnormalities such as 45,X Turner syndrome, trisomy 13, and trisomy 18, we have examined microscopically the ovaries of 36 infants with a number of chromosomal abnormalities confirmed by karyotype analysis. All infants with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, triploidy, and 45,X were found to have severe ovarian dysgenesis characterized by
Lindsay, Alistair C; Sriharan, Mona; Lazoura, Olga; Padley, Simon P G; Nicol, Edward D; Rubens, Michael B
For many years invasive angiographic techniques have been considered as the gold standard for the assessment of large arterial abnormalities. However, the complexities and complications inherent to invasive imaging have meant that more recently non-invasive techniques such as echocardiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and multidetector CT (MDCT) have been increasingly used in congenital cardiovascular disorders. In particular, MDCT has emerged as a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and pre-surgical work-up of aortic abnormalities due to its high spatial resolution, large area of coverage, and short scan time, and therefore is now one of the most widely used modalities for the detection of congenital abnormalities of the aorta. The purpose of this pictorial review is to review the spectrum of abnormalities of the aorta than can be reliably detected by MDCT both in infants and in adulthood. Abnormalities of the aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta will be described separately. PMID:24560026
In this paper the author describes her work with a woman who, in her mid 20s, sought analysis for her non-vomiting binge eating disorder. The paper explores how two aspects of Jung's view of the psyche as healthily dissociable were used to think about the potential for change contained within the explosive, aggressive energies in this patient's bingeing. The resultant approach takes the patient's splitting defences, dissociations and self-destructive behaviour as a point of access to her unconscious. Seen in this way, these behaviours contain the seeds of recovery and are the starting point for analysis rather than defences against it. The paper also brings a number of Jungian and post-Jungian ideas into conversation with aspects of contemporary thinking about subjectivity, identity and the longing for excess developed by Leo Bersani and Judith Butler. PMID:23750938
Bardone-Cone, Anna M
This study examined how individuals, clinically assessed as fully or partially recovered from an eating disorder (ED), subjectively perceived themselves in terms of stage of change in the recovery process. Individuals formerly seen for an ED at a Midwestern clinic were recruited. Using validated definitions of recovery, 18 were fully recovered (physical, behavioural and psychological recovery), and 15 were partially recovered (only physical and behavioural recovery); these groups were compared on overall stage of change and confidence related to this stage, dieting stage of change and internality of motivation. The fully and partially recovered groups endorsed being fully recovered (overall and for dieting) at similar rates. There were trends for the fully recovered group seeking change primarily for themselves and being more confident in their stage of change choice. Results have implications for approaches when a client's assessed recovery stage does not match her subjective sense of recovery and for better understanding recovery from an ED. PMID:21710559
Mordekar, Santosh R; Prendergast, Michael; Chattopadhyay, Arup K; Baxter, Peter S
Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) (ICD-10 F84.3) is defined by a period of normal development before onset followed by gradual loss of previously acquired skills with the development of characteristic abnormalities of social, communicative and behavioural functioning. We report two children with apparent CDD, who showed amelioration of behaviour, language and motor regression after corticosteroid treatment. PMID:18625572
Kalueff, Allan V.
behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test that hair condition is not an important factor in the forced swim test for this mouse strain, and suggest that this test may have wider utility for behavioural analyses of mice with abnormal hair. Keywords Swimming
Dodd, Helen F.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Porter, Melanie A.
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals…
Bruce Mizrach; Susan Weerts
We find that turnover rises on n-day highs and lows and is an increasing function of n. We offer several explanations from the technical and behavioural finance literature for why traders might use these signals. Turnover is persistent following these events, and new lows provide abnormal returns for up to 6 trading days.‘Technical analysis is about as useful as going
Medina-Pradas, Cristina; Navarro, J Blas; López, Steven R; Grau, Antoni; Obiols, Jordi E
Prevailing models of the association between expressed emotion (EE) and relapse conceptualize EE as a form of stress for patients. In eating disorders (ED), there is no research addressed to evaluate the degree to which patients feel stress due to their relatives' EE. It has been neither investigated how the EE and the subsequent stress relate to disordered behaviours and attitudes neither. Using a sample of 77 inpatients with ED, this study aimed to: (1) evaluate patients' reported level of stress as it relates to their caregivers' EE, particularly as associated with carer's criticism, emotional overinvolvement and warmth; (2) examine the associations of stress with the patients' perceptions (self-reported) and the caregivers' perspective (assessed by the Camberwell Family Interview) of the EE; and (3) study how the two views of EE (patients' and caregivers') and the stress due to EE relate to the ED symptoms. The findings indicate that patients judged their carers' critical stance as the most stressful, followed by emotional overinvolvement. Secondly, patients' perceptions of EE, whereas none of the interview indices focused on the caregivers' perspective, were associated to the stress and to the ED symptomatology. Additionally, the patients' stress due to criticism was positively related to the ED symptoms, while the stress associated with emotional overinvolvement and warmth was not. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Findings suggest attention to the ED patients' view of their family environment and support the utility of assessing their appraisals of EE. PMID:21907744
Kawabata, Yuuki; Noda, Takuji; Nakashima, Yuuki; Nanami, Atsushi; Sato, Taku; Takebe, Takayuki; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Arai, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Soyano, Kiyoshi
We examined whether we could identify the feeding behaviours of the trophic generalist fish Epinephelus ongus on different prey types (crabs and fish) using a data logger that incorporated a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours, including escape responses, intraspecific interactions and routine movements, were recorded from six E. ongus individuals using data loggers sampling at 200 Hz, and were validated by simultaneously recorded video images. For each data-logger record, we extracted 5 s of data when any of the three-axis accelerations exceeded absolute 2.0 g, to capture all feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours. Each feeding behaviour was then identified using a combination of parameters that were derived from the extracted data. Using decision trees with the parameters, high true identification rates (87.5% for both feeding behaviours) with low false identification rates (5% for crab-eating and 6.3% for fish-eating) were achieved for both feeding behaviours. PMID:25013109
Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483
Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo
The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. PMID:25810381
Franko, D L; Spurrell, E B
Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are associated with potential negative consequences during pregnancy, including higher rates of miscarriage, low birth weight, obstetric complications, and postpartum depression. Women with eating disorders are reluctant to disclose symptoms to health care providers, so it is important for obstetric clinicians to be aware of warning signs and assessment techniques to identify them. Signs suggestive of eating disorders include lack of weight gain, hyperemesis gravidarum, and a history of eating disorders. Recent studies showed that the Eating Disorder Examination, a newly developed assessment tool, can ascertain whether someone has an eating disorder. Questions from the Eating Disorder Examination about body image, food avoidance, food rules, and dieting behaviors have successfully differentiated women with eating disorders from healthy controls. We offer an approach to the clinical care of individuals identified or suspected of having eating disorders. We recommend a team approach that emphasizes ongoing communication and clear goal setting for the care of pregnant women with eating disorders. PMID:10831998
Zhang, Yuhai; Wang, Baoxi; Sun, Lijun; Shang, Lei
Background The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire for caregivers to assess the eating behavior of Chinese preschoolers. Methods To assess children’s eating behaviors, 152 items were derived from a broad review of the literature related to epidemiology surveys and the assessment of children’s eating behaviors. All of these items were reviewed by 50 caregivers of preschoolers and 10 experienced pediatricians. Seventy-seven items were selected for use in a primary questionnaire. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a variability analysis on the data from 313 preschoolers used to evaluate this primary questionnaire, we deleted 39 of these 77 items. A Chinese Preschoolers’ Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CPEBQ) was finally established from the remaining 38 items. The structure of this questionnaire was explored by factor analysis, and its reliability, validity and discriminative ability were evaluated with data collected from caregivers of 603 preschoolers. Results The CPEBQ consisted of 7 dimensions and 38 items. The 7 dimensions were food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habit, satiety responsiveness, exogenous eating, emotional eating and initiative eating. The Cronbach’s ? coefficient for the questionnaire was 0.92, and the test-retest reliability was 0.72. There were significant differences between the scores of normal-weight, overweight and obese preschoolers when it was referred to food fussiness, food responsiveness, eating habits, satiety responsiveness and emotional eating (p<0.05). Differences in caregiver’s education levels also had significant effects on scores for food fussiness, eating habits and exogenous eating (p<0.05). Conclusions The CPEBQ satisfies the conditions of reliability and validity, in accordance with psychometric demands. The questionnaire can be employed to evaluate the characteristics of Chinese preschoolers’ eating behaviors; therefore, it can be used in child health care practice and research. PMID:24520359
Jahanfar, Sh; Maleki, H; Mosavi, A R
The genetic property of subclinical eating behaviour (SEB) and the link between SEB and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been studied before but the role of leptin within this connection has never been investigated. The objective of this study was 1). to study the genetic property of SEB. 2). To find a link between leptin, SEB and PCOS. One hundred and fifty four (77 pairs) female-female Iranian twins including 96 MZ individuals (48 pairs) and 58 DZ individuals (29 pairs) participated in the study. Clinical, biochemical and ultrasound tools were used to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome. BITE questionnaire was filled out for subjects. Eight percent of subjects were diagnosed for subclinical eating disorder. No significant difference was found between intraclass correlation of MZ and DZ (z = 0.57, P = 0.569). Serum leptin level correlated significantly with bulimia score (P < 0.007). The mean (+/-SD) value for bulimia score was found to be higher among PCOS(positive) subjects (3.27 +/- 5.51) in comparison with PCOS(negative) subjects (2.06 +/- 4.48) (P < 0.001). The genetic property of subclinical eating disorder was not confirmed as shared environment might have played a major role in likeliness of DZ twins as well as MZ. Leptin is linked with both subclinical eating disorder and PCOS. PMID:16570705