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1

[Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].  

PubMed

Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108

Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

2012-12-01

2

Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

2008-01-01

3

Parental modelling of eating behaviours: Observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).  

PubMed

Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. PMID:25111293

Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

2015-03-01

4

WHAT TRIGGERS ABNORMAL EATING IN BULIMIC AND NONBULIMIC WOMEN? The Role of Dissociative Experiences, Negative Affect, and Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociative experiences and abnormal eating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormal eating and sexual abuse, abnormal eating and emotional distress, and abnormal

Sonja Lyubomirsky; Lorie Sousa; Regina C. Casper

5

Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours.  

PubMed

Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms. PMID:25451578

Higgs, Suzanne

2014-10-22

6

Eating behaviour, weight status and depressive feelings in female adolescents.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes towards food and eating, body image, mood, feelings and relationships in family and peer group in female adolescents with varying weight status in an attempt to explore whether a relationship between emotional difficulties and body weight could be found. The data on use of 81 item measure of emotional difficulties and behavioural symptoms related to eating disorders and dieting in female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years and group of eating disorder patients are reported. The findings suggest that the adolescents who by self-reported weight value appear to be relatively overweight and eating disorder patients score significantly higher on a body dissatisfaction subscale of the applied questionnaire than normal weight and underweight adolescents. Only in the clinical sample of eating disorder patients, however, difficulties in dealing with depressive feelings and fear of poor impulse control were present. PMID:9225523

Vidovi?, V; Palle Rotar, D; Komarica, V Z; Juresa, V

1997-06-01

7

Abnormal eating behaviors in adolescent and young adult women from southern Brazil: Reassessment after four years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate whether abnormal eating behaviors in young women could predict eating disorders after 4 years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  56 women were identified as presenting abnormal eating behaviors in a cross-sectional study (Eating Attitudes Test-26 and\\u000a Edinburgh Bulimic Investigation Test). They were matched for age and neighborhood to two controls (n = 112). Four years later, they were re-assessed with the two screening questionnaires plus the

Maria Angélica Nunes; Maria Teresa A. Olinto; Suzi Camey; Christina Morgan; Jair de Jesus Mari

2006-01-01

8

Abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse experiences in Turkish university women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse. The subject sample comprised 532 female Turkish undergraduate and nursing students in Istanbul. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Sexual Abuse Questionnaire, the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale, the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale and the Need for Control Scale (NCS) were the instruments of the study. The results showed that sexual abuse has a direct effect on EAT-Bulimia but not on EAT-Dieting. It also has some indirect effects on both of these through its effects on family functioning. Perfectionism, on the other hand, was independently linked with both EAT-Dieting and EAT-Bulimia but was not associated with sexual abuse. PMID:15656010

Elal, G; Sabol, E; Slade, P

2004-09-01

9

Sex hormones, appetite and eating behaviour in women.  

PubMed

Sex hormones play essential roles in the regulation of appetite, eating behaviour and energy metabolism and have been implicated in several major clinical disorders in women. Estrogen inhibits food intake, whereas progesterone and testosterone may stimulate appetite. This review describes recent findings concerning interactions between sex hormones and neuroendocrinological mechanisms in the control of appetite and eating in women. Furthermore, we are gaining insights into the roles played by sex hormones in the development of eating disorders and obesity. For instance, androgens may promote bulimia by stimulating appetite and reducing impulse control, a proposal supported by the observation that antiandrogenic treatment attenuates bulimic behaviour. Androgens are also involved in the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity in women. On the other hand, hormone replacement therapy with estrogen counteracts the weight gain and accumulation of abdominal fat associated with the menopausal transition. In conclusion, sex hormones and/or agents that exhibit similar activities may provide novel strategies for the treatment of eating disorders and android obesity, two of the most serious health problems for women today. PMID:22281161

Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

2012-03-01

10

Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is\\u000a most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours.\\u000a However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim\\u000a of this study was to examine mediators of

Natalie Pearson; Kylie Ball; David Crawford

2011-01-01

11

Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses.  

PubMed

Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. PMID:25240638

Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

2015-01-01

12

You are what your friends eat: systematic review of social network analyses of young people's eating behaviours and bodyweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis review synthesises evidence regarding associations between young people's social networks and their eating behaviours\\/bodyweight, and also explores how these vary according to the setting and sample characteristics.MethodsA systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies examining the association between measures of young people's social networks based on sociometric data and eating behaviours (including calorific intake) and\\/or bodyweight.ResultsThere is consistent

Adam Fletcher; Chris Bonell; Annik Sorhaindo

2011-01-01

13

Eating behaviours and attitudes in narcolepsy and their association with sleepiness and mood.  

E-print Network

??A number of studies have found maladaptive eating behaviours and attitudes in individuals with narcolepsy, however, few studies have comprehensively investigated possible reasons (other than… (more)

Gatti, Danielle Marie

2012-01-01

14

Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385

Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

2013-01-01

15

Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour

Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

2011-01-01

16

Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

2012-01-01

17

Eating Disorders in Late-life  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life.

Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

2015-01-01

18

Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.  

PubMed

Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers. PMID:24463067

Brown, A

2014-05-01

19

Ironic processes in the eating behaviour of restrained eaters.  

PubMed

Theory. The present study examines the processes underlying the disinhibition of the eating behaviour of restrained eaters following negative emotions. Based on Herman and Polivy's (1984) Boundary Model and Wegner's Ironic Process Theory (1994), the limited capacity hypothesis is formulated, suggesting that overeating in restrained eaters results from cognitive capacity limitations. Predictions were that (1) impairment of cognitive capacity during eating will lead to overeating in restrained but not in unrestrained eaters and that (2) this difference should only emerge with food perceived to be high in calories.METHOD: The hypotheses were tested in an experiment with a 2 (restrained/unrestrained) x 2 (distraction yes/no) x 2 (perceived calories high/low) design, in which subjects consumed ice-cream in a taste test situation. Ice-cream consumption was the dependent variable.RESULTS: A second-order interaction was found: as predicted, in the high calorie condition restrained eaters ate the same amount as unrestrained eaters when not distracted, but considerably more when distracted. There was also an unexpected main effect of distraction, which indicated that restrained as well as unrestrained eaters ate more if distracted than if not distracted.DISCUSSION: The restraintxdistractionxperceived calories interaction can be explained by both the Ironic Process Theory and the Boundary Model; and the limited capacity hypothesis appears to be confirmed. The overall main effect of distraction remains puzzling. Two speculative views for the latter effect are offered. PMID:14596713

Boon, Brigitte; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; Ijntema, Richta

2002-02-01

20

Eating Behaviour and Body Satisfaction in Mediterranean Children: the Role of the Parents  

PubMed Central

Although the prevalence of fully expressed Eating Disorders is rare in young children, childhood eating disturbances are fairly common. Parents can play a facilitating role for the development of overweight and eating problems among their children. The aim of this study is to detect the possible relationships between children’s eating attitudes and behaviour and the parents’ beliefs about eating habits and body shape of their offspring. This survey was conducted in the area of Arezzo (Italy), on 900 children, aged 7-12, and on their parents/substitute caregivers. The Kids’ Eating Disorder Survey questionnaire, and the CIBUS questionnaire were administered. A fully expressed Eating Disorder was diagnosed in two kids only. KEDS total score and weight/dissatisfaction subscale score positively correlated with parents’ answers to the following CIBUS’ items (How do you consider the body shape of your son/daughter? How much does your son/daughter eats? Have you ever thought of putting your son/daughter on a diet?). Positive correlations between the children BMI, desired BMI and the aforementioned CIBUS’ items were found. The prevalence of formal Eating Disorders in children aged 7-12 is low. Children appear to be more preoccupied with their weight than with their body shape. Parents’ beliefs about the offspring’s body shape and eating habits have a relevant impact on children’s eating attitudes and behaviour. PMID:20835356

Ricca, Valdo; Rotella, Francesco; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ravaldi, Claudia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lapi, Francesco; Cangioli, Linda; Martini, Paolo; Faravelli, Carlo

2010-01-01

21

Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: a “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the psychopathological processes that account for the persistence of severe eating disorders. Two separate but interrelated lines of argument are developed. One is that the leading evidence-based theory of the maintenance of eating disorders, the cognitive behavioural theory of bulimia nervosa, should be extended in its focus to embrace four additional maintaining mechanisms. Specifically, we

Christopher G Fairburn; Zafra Cooper; Roz Shafran

2003-01-01

22

Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

2004-01-01

23

Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Young People With or Without a Diabetic Sibling   

E-print Network

Objectives: Body image concerns and problematic eating attitudes and behaviours are recognised as an important concern for young people and clinicians. Identification of groups that might be at risk of developing such ...

Smith, Rachel K

2007-01-01

24

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food

Jane E Gregory; Susan J Paxton; Anna M Brozovic

2010-01-01

25

Sleep disturbances, body mass index and eating behaviour in undergraduate students.  

PubMed

This study investigates the association between sleep disturbances, body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviour in a sample of undergraduate students. The sample comprises 870 medicine and dentistry students from Coimbra University (62.5% females), aged between 17 and 25 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-40 was used to measure eating behaviour, and two questions were applied addressing difficulties of initiating sleep (DIS) and difficulties of maintaining sleep (DMS). A sleep disturbance index (SDI) was calculated from the sum of DIS and DMS scores. Body mass index (BMI) was determined from self-reported weight and height. The correlation analyses generally indicated that global eating disturbance, bulimic behaviour dimension and social pressure to eat were associated particularly with sleep difficulties. An association between diet concerns and sleep difficulties was less consistent. Regression analyses showed that bulimic behaviour (BB) and social pressure to eat (SPE) dimensions were associated significantly with sleep difficulties (DIS, DMS, SDI) in the total sample (BB: from P<0.01 to P<0.001; SPE: P<0.05) and in males (BB: from P<0.05 to P<0.001; SPE: P<0.05) and with insomnia symptoms (P<0.01). In females, bulimic behaviour was the only factor associated significantly with sleep difficulties (SDI, DIS; P<0.01) and with insomnia symptoms (P<0.05). Although BMI was correlated negatively with sleep difficulties (P<0.05), regression analyses indicated that it was not associated significantly with them. Our findings support an association between eating behaviour and sleep disturbances in both genders, which may have treatment implications. PMID:20887393

Soares, Maria J; Macedo, António; Bos, Sandra C; Maia, Berta; Marques, Mariana; Pereira, Ana T; Gomes, Ana A; Valente, José; Nogueira, Vasco; Azevedo, Maria H

2011-09-01

26

Maternal perception of the causes and consequences of sibling differences in eating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:The aim of this study is to explore mothers’ perceptions of differences between their children in the eating behaviour domain.Subjects\\/Methods:Twelve semistructured interviews were carried out with mothers who had at least two children aged between 6 and 15 years, to discuss feeding experiences, particularly around healthy eating. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis.Results:Mothers frequently identified

L Webber; L Cooke; J Wardle

2010-01-01

27

Barney and breakfast: messages about food and eating in preschool television shows and how they may impact the development of eating behaviours in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children’s television shows and found that non?nutritious foods are as common as

Leslie Margaret Anderson; Jim Anderson

2010-01-01

28

Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

2010-01-01

29

Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions  

PubMed Central

Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. Conclusions This is the first European study examining perceived determinants of eating behaviour in university students and collecting ideas and recommendations for healthy eating interventions in a university specific setting. University characteristics (residency, exams, etc.) influence the relationships between individual as well as social environmental determinants and university students’ eating behaviour, and should therefore be taken into account when designing effective and tailored multilevel intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. PMID:24438555

2014-01-01

30

Obesity-related eating behaviours in the adult population of Spain, 2008-2010.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the socio-demographic distribution of eating behaviours can aid our understanding of their contribution to the obesity epidemic and help to address healthy eating interventions to those who can benefit most. This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of self-reported eating behaviours among 11,603 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized Spanish population aged ? 18 years in the period 2008-2010. In the adult population of Spain, 24.3% had lunch and 18.2% had dinner away from home >3 times per month. About three-fourths of adults did not plan the amount of food to be eaten, and did not choose light foods and/or skim dairy products. Also, 26% did not trim visible fat from meat, and 74.7% usually ate while watching television. Compared with individuals with primary or less education, those with university studies were more likely to remove fat from meat (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.44), and to choose light food and/or skim dairy (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.30-1.77), and less likely to eat while watching television (aOR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.63). In conclusion, the prevalence of several obesity-related eating behaviours is high in Spain, which indicates a deficient implementation of dietary guidelines. Socioeconomic inequalities in eating behaviours should also be addressed. PMID:22577840

Mesas, A E; León-Muñoz, L M; Guallar-Castillón, P; Graciani, A; Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L; López-García, E; Aguilera, M T; Banegas, J R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

2012-10-01

31

ESTIMATING THE COMPLEXITY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR: HOW MOUNTAIN GORILLAS EAT THISTLES  

E-print Network

ESTIMATING THE COMPLEXITY OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR: HOW MOUNTAIN GORILLAS EAT THISTLES by RICHARD W gorillas use elaborate, multi-stage procedures for dealing with plant defences. This paper investigates estimates of task complexity; in the case of gorilla plant processing, both 1) E-mail address: rwb

32

Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food), and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI). Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term. PMID:20579397

2010-01-01

33

Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retro-nasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m2) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m2) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P = 0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting. PMID:21385504

Zijlstra, Nicolien; Bukman, Andrea Johanna; Mars, Monica; Stafleu, Annette; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; de Graaf, Cees

2011-07-01

34

Maternal perception of causes and consequences of sibling differences in eating behaviour  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore mothers’ perceptions of differences between their children in the eating behaviour domain. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews were carried out with mothers who had at least two children aged between 6 and 15 years, to discuss feeding experiences, particularly around healthy eating. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework Analysis. Results Mothers frequently identified differences in appetite and food preferences between their children, which they attributed largely to genetic factors. These sibling differences meant that although feeding goals might be common, the pathways to the goals varied depending on each child’s appetitive characteristics. The overall pattern was one of flexible responsiveness to each child. In contrast to perceptions of their own children’s eating behaviours, feeding difficulties in other families were usually attributed to lack of parental control. Conclusion The feeding relationship is complex and interactive, resulting in parents modulating their feeding strategies to match each child’s eating behaviour. Guidance to parents on healthy feeding needs to acknowledge the nuanced and interactive nature of feeding practices. PMID:20717131

Webber, Laura; Cooke, Lucy; Wardle, Jane

2014-01-01

35

How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?  

PubMed Central

Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications. PMID:21698219

Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

2011-01-01

36

Abnormalities in the response of plasma arginine vasopressin during hypertonic saline infusion in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

We examined the response of plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP) to intravenous 5% hypertonic saline in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Patients did not differ from controls in their subjective response for the onset of thirst; however, only 5 patients (3 AN and 2 BN) showed pAVP levels that were within the normal range (0.5-11.0 pg/ml) for this test. With the exception of two eating disorder (ED) patients, all others showed some nonlinear irregularities in the pattern of their secretion of pAVP in response to the hypertonic saline infusion. Seven of the ED patients showed an irregular abnormally high pAVP secretion, and three patients showed abnormally low pAVP responses. Both of these pAVP secretion abnormalities occurred in underweight and weight-recovered AN patients, as well as in BN patients. The cause and pathophysiological consequences of these abnormalities remain unresolved. PMID:2541809

Nishita, J K; Ellinwood, E H; Rockwell, W J; Kuhn, C M; Hoffman, G W; McCall, W V; Manepalli, J N

1989-05-01

37

Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.  

PubMed

With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity. PMID:24958311

Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

2014-09-01

38

The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n?=?12,667), academic performance (n?=?9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n?=?11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ?85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ?85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ?=?0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction?=?0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability?=?0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects?=?0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating?=?1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

2014-01-01

39

The association between types of eating behaviour and dispositional mindfulness in adults with diabetes. Results from Diabetes MILES. The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Although healthy food choices are important in the management of diabetes, making dietary adaptations is often challenging. Previous research has shown that people with type 2 diabetes are less likely to benefit from dietary advice if they tend to eat in response to emotions or external cues. Since high levels of dispositional mindfulness have been associated with greater awareness of healthy dietary practices in students and in the general population, it is relevant to study the association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in people with type 1 or 2 diabetes. We analysed data from Diabetes MILES - The Netherlands, a national observational survey in which 634 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (to assess restrained, external and emotional eating behaviour) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-Short Form (to assess dispositional mindfulness), in addition to other psychosocial measures. After controlling for potential confounders, including demographics, clinical variables and emotional distress, hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of dispositional mindfulness were associated with eating behaviours that were more restrained (??=?0.10) and less external (??=?-0.11) and emotional (??=?-0.20). The mindfulness subscale 'acting with awareness' was the strongest predictor of both external and emotional eating behaviour, whereas for emotional eating, 'describing' and 'being non-judgemental' were also predictive. These findings suggest that there is an association between dispositional mindfulness and eating behaviour in adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Since mindfulness interventions increase levels of dispositional mindfulness, future studies could examine if these interventions are also effective in helping people with diabetes to reduce emotional or external eating behaviour, and to improve the quality of their diet. PMID:25596042

Tak, Sanne R; Hendrieckx, Christel; Nefs, Giesje; Nyklí?ek, Ivan; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

2015-04-01

40

The effects of sibutramine on the microstructure of eating behaviour and energy expenditure in obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the suggestion that many potential anti-obesity drugs may enhance within-meal satiation, few studies have directly measured the effects of any drug on the microstructure of human eating behaviour. The effects of 7 days dosing with sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg a day on appetite and energy balance were determined in 30 obese women (BMI 34.6 ± 3.3 kg\\/m2,

JCG Halford; EJ Boyland; SJ Cooper; TM Dovey; MSB Huda; GR Dawson; JPH Wilding

2010-01-01

41

Reliability of a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutritional knowledge of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school

G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi

2003-01-01

42

The contribution of psychosocial and home environmental factors in explaining eating behaviours in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The present study aimed at investigating the influence of food availability, rules and television viewing habits on eating behaviours in adolescents.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting:Four randomly selected middle schools.Subjects:A sample of 534 seventh and eighth graders.Interventions:Validated questionnaires were used to measure the family environment and fat, soft drink and fruit consumption. Hierarchical regression analyses on fat, soft drink and fruit consumption, with demographic

L Haerens; M Craeynest; B Deforche; L Maes; G Cardon; I De Bourdeaudhuij

2008-01-01

43

Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time; students with similar eating behaviours tend to form groups, represented by distinct clusters. Transition of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviour is non-linear and a sharp change is observed around a critical point where positive and negative influences are equal. Conclusions Conceptualizing the social environment of individuals is a crucial step to increasing our understanding of obesogenic environments of high-school students, and moreover, the general population. Incorporating both contextual, and individual determinants found in real datasets, in our model will greatly enhance calibration of future models. Complex mathematical modelling has a potential to contribute to the way public health data is collected and analyzed. PMID:23046793

2012-01-01

44

Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

2008-01-01

45

[Eating disorders].  

PubMed

Abstract Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

2015-02-01

46

Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’, ‘unbalanced weight control’) that significantly explained the risk of overweight among boys and girls. Conclusions Stress-related eating is highly prevalent among 16-year-old girls and is associated with obesity as well as adverse dietary and other health behaviours among both genders, but intrauterine conditions are seemingly uninvolved. In terms of obesity prevention and future health, adolescents who use eating as a passive way of coping could benefit from learning healthier strategies for stress and weight management. PMID:24708823

2014-01-01

47

Inability to Control Eating: Addiction to Food or Normal Response to Abnormal Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the increasing prevalence of obesity in a society obsessed with trying to be thin, and the self-reported inability to control eating in many obese patients, point to the possibility that overeating may be prevalent despite attempts to control it. The apparent lack of control has led some to describe overeating as an addiction. This paper briefly reviews the problem

G. Ken Goodrick

2000-01-01

48

Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

2014-01-01

49

Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

2007-01-01

50

Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

2009-01-01

51

Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.  

PubMed

Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

2014-01-01

52

Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort  

PubMed Central

Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

2014-01-01

53

Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.  

PubMed

Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670

Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

2014-03-01

54

Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been evaluated using Parkinson's disease-related metabolic network. It is unknown whether this disorder is itself associated with a unique metabolic network. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was performed in 21 patients (age 65.0±5.6 years) with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 21 age/gender-matched healthy control subjects (age 62.5±7.5 years) to identify a disease-related pattern and examine its evolution in 21 hemi-parkinsonian patients (age 62.6±5.0 years) and 16 moderate parkinsonian patients (age 56.9±12.2 years). We identified a rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-related metabolic network characterized by increased activity in pons, thalamus, medial frontal and sensorimotor areas, hippocampus, supramarginal and inferior temporal gyri, and posterior cerebellum, with decreased activity in occipital and superior temporal regions. Compared to the healthy control subjects, network expressions were elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with this disorder and in the parkinsonian cohorts but decreased with disease progression. Parkinson's disease-related network activity was also elevated (P<0.0001) in the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder but lower than in the hemi-parkinsonian cohort. Abnormal metabolic networks may provide markers of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder to identify those at higher risk to develop neurodegenerative parkinsonism. PMID:25338949

Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

2014-12-01

55

The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

56

Development of the eating behaviour in Prader–Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of

C J McAllister; J E Whittington; A J Holland

2011-01-01

57

Testing the cognitive-behavioural maintenance models across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups: a multi-centre study.  

PubMed

The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses. PMID:25416408

Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

2014-11-22

58

Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

2014-12-01

59

The role of satisfaction, norms and conflict in families' eating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between satisfaction and consumer behaviour by proposing and testing a model of how moral and social influences interact with individual satisfaction and conflict to explain and understand consumer behaviour in a family context, using consumption of fish for the family as an example. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data from

Svein Ottar Olsen; Klaus G. Grunert

2010-01-01

60

Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increased risk of obesity amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and emerging evidence suggests that psychological stress may be a key factor in this relationship. This paper reports the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of relationships between perceived stress, weight and weight-related behaviours in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods This study used baseline and follow-up self-report survey data from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, comprising a cohort of 1382 women aged 18 to 46 years from 80 of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Women reported their height (baseline only), weight, sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, leisure-time physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours at baseline and three-year follow-up. Linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between stress (predictor) and weight, and weight-related behaviours. Results Higher perceived stress in women was associated with a higher BMI, and to increased odds of being obese in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were found between stress and both less leisure-time physical activity, and more frequent fast food consumption. Longitudinal associations were also found between stress and increased television viewing time. Conclusion The present study contributes to the literature related to the effects of stress on weight and weight-related behaviours. The findings suggest that higher stress levels could contribute to obesity risk in women. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, interventions that incorporate stress management techniques might help to prevent rising obesity rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:24020677

2013-01-01

61

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified: Translation from Randomized Controlled Trial to a Clinical Setting.  

PubMed

Background: Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) (Fairburn, Cooper and Shafran, 2003) was developed as a treatment approach for eating disorders focusing on both core psychopathology and additional maintenance mechanisms. Aims: To evaluate treatment outcomes associated with CBT-E in a NHS Eating Disorders Service for adults with bulimia and atypical eating disorders and to make comparisons with a previously published randomized controlled trial (Fairburn et al., 2009) and "real world" evaluation (Byrne, Fursland, Allen and Watson, 2011). Method: Participants were referred to the eating disorder service between 2002 and 2011. They were aged between 18-65 years, registered with a General Practitioner within the catchment area, and had experienced symptoms fulfilling criteria for BN or EDNOS for a minimum of 6 months. Results: CBT-E was commenced by 272 patients, with 135 completing treatment. Overall, treatment was associated with significant improvements in eating disorder and associated psychopathology, for both treatment completers and the intention to treat sample. Conclusions: Findings support dissemination of CBT-E in this context, with significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology. Improvements to global EDE-Q scores were higher for treatment completers and lower for the intention to treat sample, compared to previous studies (Fairburn et al., 2009; Byrne et al., 2011). Level of attrition was found at 40.8% and non-completion of treatment was associated with higher levels of anxiety. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:25331090

Knott, Sarah; Woodward, Debbie; Hoefkens, Antonia; Limbert, Caroline

2014-10-21

62

Eating behaviour, insulin resistance and cluster of metabolic risk factors in European adolescents. The HELENA study.  

PubMed

The present study examined the associations of food behaviours and preferences with markers of insulin resistance and clustered metabolic risk factors score after controlling for potential confounders, including body fat in European adolescents. A cross-sectional study "Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study" of 3546 European adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years was conducted, using a complete dataset on at least glucose, insulin and "Food Choice Questionnaire". Results indicated skipping breakfast, as well as the preference of some foods such as nuts, chocolate, burgers and pizzas, soft drinks or juices, explain part of homeostasis model assessment index variance. In addition, snacking regularly during school day is associated with higher metabolic risk score in females. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that intervention studies aimed to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in youth should focus not only in influencing food and drink preferences, but also to ensure healthy food behaviour in adolescents. The harmful consequences in the choice of certain foods or drinks and food habits can be countered with proper planning and intervention programs to prevent insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors. PMID:22524997

Sesé, Maria A; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Gilbert, Chantal C; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; de Henauw, Stefaan; Breidenassel, Christina; Wärnberg, Julia; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Manios, Yannis; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A

2012-08-01

63

To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

2013-01-01

64

Exposure to enriched environments during adolescence prevents abnormal behaviours associated with histone deacetylation in phencyclidine-treated mice.  

PubMed

Enriched environments (EEs) during development have been shown to influence adult behaviour. Environmental conditions during childhood may contribute to the onset and/or pathology of schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear whether EE might prevent the development of schizophrenia. Herein, we investigated the effects of EE during adolescence on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced abnormal behaviour, a proposed schizophrenic endophenotype. Male ICR mice (3 wk old) were exposed to an EE for 4 wk and then treated with PCP for 2 wk. The EE potentiated the acute PCP treatment-induced hyperlocomotion in the locomotor test and prevented chronic PCP treatment-induced impairments of social behaviour and recognition memory in the social interaction and novel object recognition tests. It also prevented the PCP-induced decrease of acetylated Lys9 in histone H3-positive cells and increase of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)5 level in the prefrontal cortex. To investigate whether the histone modification during adolescence might be critical for the effect of EE, 3-wk-old mice were first treated with sodium butyrate (SB; an HDAC inhibitor) for 4 wk and then treated with PCP for 2 wk. Chronic SB treatment during adolescence mimicked the effects of EE, including potentiation of hyperlocomotion induced by acute PCP treatment and prevention of social and cognitive impairments, decrease of acetylated Lys9 in histone H3-positive cells and increase of the HDAC5 level in the prefrontal cortex associated with chronic PCP treatment. Our results suggest that EEs prevent PCP-induced abnormal behaviour associated with histone deacetylation. EEs during childhood might prove to be a novel strategy for prophylaxis against schizophrenia. PMID:22093154

Koseki, Takenao; Mouri, Akihiro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Aoyama, Yuki; Toriumi, Kazuya; Suzuki, Shizuka; Nakajima, Azusa; Yamada, Takuma; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

2012-11-01

65

Perception of body weight and self-reported eating and exercise behaviour among obese and non-obese women in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A case control study was conducted to examine the theorized differences for eating and exercise behaviour among the obese and non-obese women from an urban health center in Saudi Arabia. Perceptions regarding actual and ideal body size were also determined. The obese were significantly more likely to eat under emotional conditions of stress and anger, in secrecy, and indulge in binge eating (P < 0.05). Frequent snacking and drinking of regular soda drinks was also more common in this group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A weak association was observed for nibbling at food without being aware and preference of sweet foods compared to savoury ones by the obese (P < 0.1). A large group of the study population (75%) were either not exercising at all or doing so infrequently--a feature expected in the middle and lower social class group of women in this region. A sizable proportion of women either overestimated (28.6%) or underestimated (28.9%) their actual body weight with increasing education significantly related to overestimation of weight and vice versa (P < 0.05). A change in the concept of an ideal body image from the overweight female to that of the slim figure was also observed with advancing education. To control and prevent obesity in this region, it is suggested that health education related to an awareness of a healthy body size and appropriate eating and exercise behaviour should be given through primary health centers, other health facilities and schools. PMID:9883039

Rasheed, P

1998-11-01

66

Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent’s eating behaviours: a population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent’s consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence on health behaviour needs to be explored in future studies. Initiatives to promote healthy eating should focus on education, habits and consciousness of a healthy diet, but also at reducing the high cost of fruit and vegetables. There is further a need for developing appropriate indicators for adolescent socio-economic status. PMID:23190697

2012-01-01

67

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

68

Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

2014-01-01

69

Low protein diet fed exclusively during mouse oocyte maturation leads to behavioural and cardiovascular abnormalities in offspring.  

PubMed

Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal LPD offspring also exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in males at 9 and 15 weeks and in both sexes at 21 weeks (P < 0.05). Male LPD offspring hypertension was accompanied by attenuated arterial responsiveness in vitro to vasodilators acetylcholine and isoprenaline (P < 0.05). LPD female offspring adult kidneys were also smaller, but had increased nephron numbers (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relationship between SBP and kidney or heart size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome. PMID:18308825

Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P

2008-04-15

70

Coping with the Usual Family DietEating Behaviour and Food Choices of Children with Down's Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders or Cri du Chat Syndrome and Comparison Groups of Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with learning disabilities have increased risk of delayed development of oral-motor, feeding and social skills. Questionnaires on the eating behaviour of children 2 to 18 years of age with Down's syndrome, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and cri du chat syndrome and their siblings were completed by their parents. Most children including the preschool children were reported to have some

MARGARET S. R. COLLINS; ROSALIND KYLE; SUZANNE SMITH; ANNE LAVERTY; SYLVIA ROBERTS; JILL EATON-EVANS

2003-01-01

71

More to ADHD than meets the eye: Observable abnormalities in search behaviour do not account for performance deficits on a discrimination task  

PubMed Central

Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often perform poorly on tasks requiring sustained and systematic attention to stimuli for extended periods of time. The current paper tested the hypothesis that such deficits are the result of observable abnormalities in search behaviour (e.g., attention-onset, -duration and -sequencing), and therefore can be explained without reference to deficits in non-observable (i.e., cognitive) processes. Forty boys (20 ADHD and 20 controls) performed a computer-based complex discrimination task adapted from the Matching Familiar Figures Task with four different fixed search interval lengths (5-, 10-, 15- and 20-s). Children with ADHD identified fewer targets than controls (p < 0.001), initiated searches later, spent less time attending to stimuli, and searched in a less intensive and less systematic way (p's < 0.05). There were significant univariate associations between ADHD, task performance and search behaviour. However, there was no support for the hypothesis that abnormalities in search carried the effect of ADHD on performance. The pattern of results in fact suggested that abnormal attending during testing is a statistical marker, rather than a mediator, of ADHD performance deficits. The results confirm the importance of examining covert processes, as well as behavioural abnormalities when trying to understand the psychopathophyiology of ADHD. PMID:16033644

Sonuga-Barke, Edmund JS; Elgie, Sarah; Hall, Martin

2005-01-01

72

Somatoform dissociation in eating-disordered patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of somatoform dissociation in eating disorders and pathological eating behaviour, relative to the established association of eating pathology with psychological dissociation. The participants were 131 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of anorexic or bulimic disorders and 75 women who had no such disorder. Each woman completed measures of psychological and somatoform dissociation, as well as a

G. Waller; M. Babbs; F. Wright; C. Potterton; C. Meyer; N. Leung

2003-01-01

73

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... get help, and be persistent. Many colleges have treatment programs for these conditions and trained counselors who can relate to people with an eating disorder. They can help the person with an eating ...

74

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).

Michael P. Levine; Niva Piran

75

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... to be alone after a meal. Back Continue Treatment for Eating Disorders Fortunately, eating disorders can be treated. People with ... your doctor, or another trusted adult. Remember that eating disorders are very common among teens. Treatment options depend on each person and their families, ...

76

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... and cardiovascular diseases. More on binge eating disorder. Treatment Eating disorders clearly illustrate the close links between emotional and ... by these illnesses, it is important that any treatment plan for a person with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder include general ...

77

Anger expression in eating disorders: Clinical, psychopathological and personality correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eating disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eating disorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory

Isabel Krug; Cynthia M. Bulik; Olga Nebot Vall-Llovera; Roser Granero; Zaida Agüera; Cynthia Villarejo; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Fernando Fernández-Aranda

2008-01-01

78

Effects of grain source and marginal change in lucerne hay particle size on feed sorting, eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of grain source and lucerne hay (LH) particle length on eating behaviour, chewing activity, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Eight Holstein dairy cows (175 ± 21 days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-days periods. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with barley grain alone or equal blend of barley and maize grains combined with short (15 mm) and long (30 mm) LH. Diets were fed ad libitum as total mixed ration with a concentrate to forage ratio of 60:40. Interactions between grain source and LH particle length on feed particle distributions, sorting index, chewing activity, and milk production were minimal. Partially replacing barley grain with maize in the diet overall did not change diurnal distributions of particles retained on the sieves of Penn State Particle Separator but reduced the proportion of particles on 1.18-sieve and increased that of particles on pan (p < 0.05). Grain source did not affect sorting index and chewing activity. However, feeding long LH increased (p < 0.01) intakes of long particles retained on 19- and 8-mm of sieve, prolonged (p < 0.05) eating time, and lowered eating rate (p < 0.05). Interestingly, cows fed with long LH ate more coarse particle during critical-early time post feeding (i. e. 1.5 h), where eating time increased and eating rate decreased (p < 0.05). Increasing particle length of dietary LH tended to increase milk fat-to-protein ratio (p = 0.08). The results suggested that the increased eating time and decreased eating rate as a result of marginally increasing LH particle length would be beneficial to alleviate reduction of ruminal pH and milk fat percentage following the ingestion of highly fermentable diets. PMID:24661569

Nasrollahi, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Yang, W Z

2014-12-01

79

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine

Rita DeBate; Heather Blunt; Marion Ann Becker

80

Problem eating behaviors related to social factors and body weight in preschool children: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of overweight\\/obesity and its association to eating patterns in adolescents and adults, little is known about the relationship between problematic eating behaviours and body weight in the preschool years within the context of various social factors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between social factors, mothers' perceptions of their child's eating behaviour (picky eating

Lise Dubois; Anna Farmer; Manon Girard; Kelly Peterson; Fabiola Tatone-Tokuda

2007-01-01

81

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.

Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

82

Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... women from developing an eating disorder. Also, specialized treatment of anorexia nervosa may help reduce the risk of death. Treating bulimia nervosa As with anorexia nervosa, treatment for bulimia nervosa often involves a combination of ...

83

Eat Right  

MedlinePLUS

... making a diabetes meal plan? Related Materials. What healthy food choices should I make? Eat smaller portions. ... nutrition professional that can help you develop a healthy meal plan ( www.eatright.org ). Visit the American ...

84

Psychometric properties of the eating attitudes test and children's eating attitudes test in Croatia.  

PubMed

The factor structure of the children's version of the Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were examined in Croatian girls of different ages. A self-report survey was given to 225 girls (Grades 5 to 8), 525 high school girls (Grades 9 to 12), and 646 female university students. Factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors for ChEAT, and three interpretable factors for EAT-26. Internal consistency of both instruments was satisfactory. 10.3% of school girls scored 20 or higher on ChEAT, when 7.6% of high school girls and 11.3% of university students had elevated EAT-26 scores. The ChEAT and EAT-26 were useful for screening large non-clinical groups and measuring disturbed eating behaviours. Those with elevated ChEAT and EAT-26 scores were more likely than those with lower scores to be engaged in extreme weight control methods (e.g. vomiting, binging). PMID:16682865

Ambrosi-Randi?, N; Pokrajac-Bulian, A

2005-12-01

85

Ectopic Cerebellar Cell Migration Causes Maldevelopment of Purkinje Cells and Abnormal Motor Behaviour in Cxcr4 Null Mice  

PubMed Central

SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling plays an important role in neuronal cell migration and brain development. However, the impact of CXCR4 deficiency in the postnatal mouse brain is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CXCR4 on cerebellar development and motor behaviour by conditional inactivation of Cxcr4 in the central nervous system. We found CXCR4 plays a key role in cerebellar development. Its loss leads to defects in Purkinje cell dentritogenesis and axonal projection in vivo but not in cell culture. Transcriptome analysis revealed the most significantly affected pathways in the Cxcr4 deficient developing cerebellum are involved in extra cellular matrix receptor interactions and focal adhesion. Consistent with functional impairment of the cerebellum, Cxcr4 knockout mice have poor coordination and balance performance in skilled motor tests. Together, these results suggest ectopic the migration of granule cells impairs development of Purkinje cells, causes gross cerebellar anatomical disruption and leads to behavioural motor defects in Cxcr4 null mice. PMID:24516532

Huang, Guo-Jen; Edwards, Andrew; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Shin; Peng, Lei; Era, Takumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Tsai, Ching-Yen; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Chen, Shu-Jen; Flint, Jonathan

2014-01-01

86

Development and validation of the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED) for caregivers in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. METHODS: A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale

Ana R. Sepulveda; Olivia Kyriacou; Janet Treasure

2009-01-01

87

Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

2009-05-01

88

Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Project will help you to discover how you're eating, and how that affects your life. You will also use the tools provided to help make healthy eating choices. First, Calculate your Body Mass Index using the BMI Calculator. Then, after exploring the website, answer these questions: 1) What exactly is the BMI? 2) What are two limitations of the BMI Calculator? 3) What is a healthy BMI for YOU (age group height? 4) List 7 other risk factors that can contribute to heart ...

BRobison

2010-12-03

89

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders are serious psychiatric disorders with significant medical and psychological morbidity and mortality. Most research has focused on the psychological and psychosocial risk factors for these disorders; however, recent genetic, neurocognitive, and neurotransmitter studies illustrate the biological underpinnings of these disorders. Treatments have generally focused on psychological interventions as well; however, a range of medications have been studied. Unfortunately,

B. Fleitlich-Bilyk; J. Lock

2008-01-01

90

Eating disorders  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

91

Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat can ... Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video (MP4) Keywords: self-management , healthy eating , National Diabetes ...

92

Gastrointestinal and nutritional aspects of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are potentially fatal eating disorders which primarily affect adolescent females. Differentiating eating disorders from primary gastrointestinal (GI) disease may be difficult. GI disorders are common in eating disorder patients, symptomatic complaints being seen in over half. Moreover, many GI diseases sometimes resemble eating disorders. Inflammatory bowel disease, acid peptic diseases, and intestinal motility disorders such as achalasia may mimic eating disorders. However, it is usually possible to distinguish these by applying the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and by obtaining common biochemical tests. The primary features of AN are profound weight loss due to self starvation and body image distortion; BN is characterized by binge eating and self purging of ingested food by vomiting or laxative abuse. GI complications in eating disorders are common. Recurrent emesis in BN is associated with dental abnormalities, parotid enlargement, and electrolyte disturbances including metabolic alkalosis. Hyperamylasemia of salivary origin is regularly seen, but may lead do an erroneous diagnosis of pancreatitis. Despite the weight loss often seen in eating disorders, serum albumin, cholesterol, and carotene are usually normal. However, serum levels of trace metals such as zinc and copper often are depressed, and hypophosphatemia can occur during refeeding. Patients with eating disorders frequently have gastric emptying abnormalities, causing bloating, postprandial fullness, and vomiting. This usually improves with refeeding, but sometimes treatment with pro-motility agents such as metoclopromide is necessary. Knowledge of the GI manifestations of eating disorders, and a high index of suspicion for one condition masquerading as the other, are required for the correct diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:8409109

McClain, C J; Humphries, L L; Hill, K K; Nickl, N J

1993-08-01

93

Eating Disorders About eating disorders  

E-print Network

-starvation. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that affects 2-4% of young women. It is associated with recurrent episodes). It is accompanied by feeling of being out of control, guilt and shame. Bulimia also involves being overly concerned with body weight and shape. Binge eating disorder (BED) is a condition that resembles bulimia nervosa

Leistikow, Bruce N.

94

Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?  

PubMed

We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B?=?-0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B?=?0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

2015-02-01

95

Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US

SHERYL L WHISENANT; BARBARA A SMITH

1995-01-01

96

Ablation of paternal accessory sex glands imparts physical and behavioural abnormalities to the progeny: an in vivo study in the golden hamster.  

PubMed

The functional significance of male accessory sex glands (ASG) remains unclear. This study explored their importance in reproduction. In previous investigations, embryos sired by males with ASG either totally or partially removed had a shift in the cell cycle and delayed cleavage during preimplantation development, higher incidence of apoptosis, early oviductal-uterine transit, higher proportion of embryo degeneration, lower implantation rate, and ultimately reduced fertility and fecundity. Some pups were born alive; but would they be normal? We hypothesized that the first generation offspring (F1) could also bear undesirable traits. To test our hypothesis, we raised and studied these F1 pups from birth to 8 weeks. We monitored physical growth and assessed behaviour such as nest patch odor preference, acoustic startle response (ASR) and exploratory activity. We detected deviations from the norm in physical growth, a premature cessation of nest patch odor preferences, accelerated acoustic startle habituation and more frequent rearing when exposed to a novel environment. In terms of structure, we found one incidence of diphallus with duplicated urethra. We concluded that sperm lacking contact with ASG secretions gave rise to progeny with abnormal traits. PMID:17597198

Wong, C L; Lee, K H; Lo, K M; Chan, O C; Goggins, W; O, W S; Chow, P H

2007-09-01

97

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

98

Perceived and desired weight, weight related eating and exercising behaviours, and advice received from parents among thin, overweight, obese or normal weight Australian children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their\\u000a normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about\\u000a thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed\\u000a to compare perceived weight status, desired

Jennifer A O’Dea; Nancy K Amy

2011-01-01

99

Investigation of schema modes in the eating disordered population   

E-print Network

Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and ...

Jenkins, Gwenllian

2009-01-01

100

Eating disorders and emotional and physical well-being: Associations between student self-reports of eating disorders and quality of life as measured by the SF36  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects with eating disorders in terms of eating disorder type and in relation to self-reports of longstanding illness, depression and self-harming behaviours. Method: Data on eating disorder history, SF-36 health status, longstanding illness, and self-reported frequencies of depression, self-harming behaviour, and suicidal thoughts or acts were collected during 1996 as part

Helen A. Doll; Sophie E. Petersen; Sarah L. Stewart-Brown

2005-01-01

101

Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: Who will gain weight in winter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values

Kurt Kräuchi; Simone Reich; Anna Wirz-Justice

1997-01-01

102

Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks in association to restrained, external and emotional eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied sugar-sweetened soft drinks and light soft drinks in their associations to psychological constructs of eating behavior and demographic data for adults and children. Soft drink intakes were assessed by consumption of soft drinks in number of days the last week, and eating behavior was measured by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). The sample included 3265 men and

K. Elfhag; P. Tynelius; F. Rasmussen

2007-01-01

103

Trauma and multi-impulsivity in the eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMultiple impulsive behaviours are common in the eating disorders, and multi-impulsive patients appear to do more poorly in treatment. However, comparatively little is known about the origins of multi-impulsivity in such cases. This study addresses the links between reported childhood trauma and multi-impulsivity in the eating disorders, examining whether specific types of trauma are predictive of specific impulsive behaviours in

Emma Corstorphine; Glenn Waller; Rachel Lawson; Christine Ganis

2007-01-01

104

Aggressiveness, Anger and Eating Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,

Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca

2006-01-01

105

Prevention of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in

Cheryl L. Rock

106

Binge Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

107

Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

2000-01-01

108

Athletic identity and disordered eating in obligatory and non-obligatory runners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong “running” role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours\\/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery

Jennifer I. Gapin; Steven J. Petruzzello

2011-01-01

109

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

110

EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndrome are described in relation to the major eating disorders. PMID:21743711

Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

1995-01-01

111

Behavioural effect of pretreatment with opioid antagonists and sigma binding site ligands on the abnormal motor response produced by the kappa opioid agonist U50,488H in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Dose-responsive motor activity induced by systemic injection of the kappa (kappa) preferring opioid agonist, U50,488H (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) in guinea pigs was recently reported [Brent P. J. and Bot G. (1992) Psychopharmacology 107: 581-590], characterised at the higher doses used (5-10 mg/kg) by sustained postural abnormalities. The effects on the U50,488H-induced, abnormal, motor response of pharmacological manipulation of opioid receptors and sigma (sigma) sites was studied. The opioid antagonist naloxone, [5 and 15 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)], the kappa selective antagonist, norbinaltorphimine (NBNI), administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 20 and 50 nM) 0.5 hr before U50,488H, and the anticonvulsant phenytoin [25 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] given 1 hr before, attenuated the abnormal postures, whereas naloxone methobromide (15 mg/kg), a quaternary opioid which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, had no significant effect on the movements. In contrast, the drugs with varying affinity for sigma binding sites such as 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG, 10 and 30 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 and 5 mg/kg, s.c.), dextromethorphan (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg, s.c.) and reduced haloperidol (1 mg/kg, s.c.), given 0.5-1 hr before U50,488H, exacerbated the severity of the abnormal motor activity in a dose-related manner by decreasing the latency to onset of maximum obtainable motor response and increasing the duration of the response. In addition, haloperidol (1 and 5 mg/kg, s.c.), dextromethorphan (10 mg/kg, s.c.) and DTG (30 mg/kg, s.c.), given in combination with U50,488H, induced behaviour characterised by marked oral activity. In contrast to the effect of haloperidol, pretreatment with the selective dopamine D-2 antagonist, raclopride (10 mg/kg, s.c.), had no significant effect on the abnormal movements induced by U50,488H, but did induce oral activity. These data indicate the possible involvement of kappa opioid receptors in the abnormal movement induced by U50,488H, and further demonstrate that there is an interaction between the kappa receptors and sigma sites which can influence the abnormal motor activity. PMID:8413839

Brent, P J

1993-08-01

112

Re-embodying Eating  

PubMed Central

Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

2014-01-01

113

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

114

PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008  

E-print Network

disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

Gallo, Linda C.

115

Development of Eating Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As can be seen throughout this book, childhood and adolescent obesity is of great concern. Obesity during childhood and adolescence\\u000a has been associated with physical, behavioral, and academic difficulties (Anderson & Butcher, 2006; Datar & Sturm, 2006).\\u000a This chapter will discuss developmental patterns related to normative eating habits as well as eating patterns associated\\u000a with problematic eating. Given that the

Vicky Phares; Jessica Curley; Ariz Rojas

116

Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.  

PubMed

Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

2014-03-01

117

Pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are complex, chronic disorders that are difficult to treat. In addition, the 2 primary eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, may have acute, life-threatening consequences. Medication trials for eating disorders have been hampered by high dropout rates, high placebo response, short trial duration, insufficient doses, and difficult outcome measures. Only 1 medication has been FDA approved for any eating disorder to date, and that is for fluoxetine in the treatment of bulimia. Clearly, new large-scale, independent studies using novel agents, and studying the use of medications for both short- and long-term outcomes, are needed. PMID:20413695

Jackson, Cherry Wyant; Cates, Marshall; Lorenz, Raymond

2010-04-01

118

Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

2005-01-01

119

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family help. What We Are A new initiative of the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University

Toronto, University of

120

Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

2001-01-01

121

Boys with Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

Hatmaker, Grace

2005-01-01

122

Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

Satter, Ellyn

2007-01-01

123

Medication management of pediatric eating disorders.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of psychopharmacological treatments for pediatric eating disorders (EDs). Although EDs usually begin in adolescence, there are few pharmacological treatment trials specific to this age group and a paucity of controlled data. Empirical evidence suggests that psychological, behavioural and family interventions should be the primary modalities of treatment for these conditions. In severely underweight patients behavioural weight restoration should be attempted before pharmacological intervention, especially since starvation is known to aggravate obsessional and depressive symptomatology. Evidence from controlled trials supports the use of antidepressants for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adults; however, similar studies have not yet been performed in youths. For anorexia nervosa (AN), there are no pharmacotherapies of proven efficacy in either adults or youths. Nonetheless, clinical experience and uncontrolled evidence suggests that some children and adolescents may benefit from thoughtful use of psychotropic medications on an individual basis in the context of a multimodal treatment plan. Regarding binge eating disorder (BED), adult literature shows positive short-term effects on binge eating for both pharmacological (especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and behavioural interventions, but unclear effects on weight. Clearly, psychopharmacological interventions for pediatric EDs would benefit from more research. PMID:18386210

Reinblatt, Shauna Pencer; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

2008-04-01

124

Eating pattern and the effect of oral glucose on ghrelin and insulin secretion in patients with anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE Ghrelin is thought to be involved in the regulation of eating behaviour and energy metabolism in acute and chronic feeding states. Circulating plasma ghrelin levels in healthy humans have been found to decrease significantly after oral glucose administra- tion. Because it is suggested that eating behaviour may influence the secretion of ghrelin and insulin in anorexia nervosa (AN),

Muneki Tanaka; Yoshiki Tatebe; Toshihiro Nakahara; Daisuke Yasuhara; Ken-ichiro Sagiyama; Tetsuro Muranaga; Hiroaki Ueno; Masamitsu Nakazato; Shin-ichi Nozoe; Tetsuro Naruo

2003-01-01

125

Correlates and consequences of eating dependency in institutionalized elderly.  

PubMed

Loss of independent eating capacity is a major problem for the institutionalized elderly. Few studies have examined the factors associated with loss of functional eating capacity. The authors cross-sectionally studied 240 residents of a skilled nursing facility, classified their functional eating status, identified correlated deficits, and followed these residents for six months. Information was gathered through questionnaires, chart review, and physical examinations. Residents were stratified into independent (68%, N = 164) and dependent (32%, N = 76) eating status groups according to the need for physical assistance during meals. Dependency status did not correlate with age (P = .88) or weight loss (P = .27). Loss of independence in eating was associated with impaired mobility (P = .0001), impaired cognition (P = .0001), modified consistency diets (P = .0001), upper extremity dysfunction (P = .0001), abnormal oral-motor examinations (P = .0002), absence of teeth and dentures (P = .002), behavioral indicators of abnormal oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing (P = .0001), and increased mortality within six months (P = .0001). Eating dependency is therefore associated with multiple impairments and early mortality. PMID:3950287

Siebens, H; Trupe, E; Siebens, A; Cook, F; Anshen, S; Hanauer, R; Oster, G

1986-03-01

126

Who Eats What?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is on page 10 (continued on the right side of page 11) of the pdf, part of the Forest Animals Discovery Box. In this game, learners act out the food web. They are introduced to the idea of the food chain in the "Who Eats What" book and then divide into two groups. Learners pretend to be either a bear, deer, or grass and play a game like "Rock, Paper, Scissor" to simulate how the bear eats the deer and the deer eats the grass. Learners compete to "win."

Omsi

2004-01-01

127

Personality characteristics predict outcome of eating disorders in adolescents: A 4-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of studies on predictive factors in eating disorders have not been very clear until now. Attention has focused primarily\\u000a on the predictive value of eating behaviour, duration of illness, comorbidity, and population characteristics for groups with\\u000a mixed eating disorders, but lately several studies have concentrated on the influence of psychological and personality characteristics.\\u000a In this 4-year prospective follow-up study

T. van der Ham; D. C. van Strien; H. van Engeland

1998-01-01

128

Eating Healthy Ethnic Food  

MedlinePLUS

... and terms to look for when making your selection: Chinese Zheng (steamed) Jum (poached) Kao (roasted) Shao ( ... Pocket Guide to Eating Healthy on the Go features tips on ordering at a variety of American ...

129

What Do Animals Eat?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some animals -- like some children -- are notoriously picky eaters. Others will eat whatever they can find. This video segment explores the diversity of feeding habits among some of the world's creatures.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

130

Mouth-Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... crevices in the tooth also can cause decay. Potato chips are a terrific example. Eat a handful ... Worst choices — Candy, cookies, cakes, crackers, breads, muffins, potato chips, french fries, pretzels, bananas, raisins and other ...

131

Food and drug abuse: the contrasts and comparisons of eating disorders and alcoholism.  

PubMed

The authors present a series of comparisons highlighting the similarities and differences between alcoholism and two eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They suggest that diagnostic, psychodynamic and therapeutic similarities are strong and may relate to a common lack of behavioral inhibition once abnormal drinking or eating patterns become set. They point to recent research suggesting that eating disorder patients are at greater risk for alcoholism later in life. They conclude that a scientific comparison of these disorders may yield new research findings that could advance treatment methods for both types of psychopathology and may prevent later morbidity for the eating disorder group. PMID:2813830

Beresford, T P; Hall, R C

1989-01-01

132

Evolution of feeding specialization in Tanganyikan scale-eating cichlids: a molecular phylogenetic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is still unknown. In the present study, we conducted

Rieko Takahashi; Katsutoshi Watanabe; Mutsumi Nishida; Michio Hori

2007-01-01

133

Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

2010-01-01

134

Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

2012-01-01

135

Appetite Sensations, Appetite Signaling Proteins, and Glucose in Obese Adolescents with Subclinical Binge Eating Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

Adamo, Kristi B.; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Éric; Goldfield, Gary S.

2014-01-01

136

Appetite sensations, appetite signaling proteins, and glucose in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulating ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose were measured after fasting and at multiple time points postprandially following a standardized breakfast meal. Energy and macronutrient intake were measured with an ad libitum lunch buffet. Results. Emotional eating scores were significantly higher in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Hunger levels rose and satiety levels fell significantly over the course of the monitoring period but there was no difference between the two groups. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder did not have significantly different levels of appetite signaling proteins or glucose. Obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder had a nonsignificantly higher energy and macronutrient intake. Conclusions. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of their emotional eating scores highlights the important role that psychological factors play in relation to eating behaviours. PMID:25006530

Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L; Ferraro, Zachary M; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Eric; Goldfield, Gary S

2014-01-01

137

Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

2009-01-01

138

Eating Well and Losing Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Stroke More Eating Well and Losing Weight Updated:May 20,2014 Eating the right foods ... risk of future heart problems. Good nutrition and weight control are a crucial part of your treatment ...

139

Relational Aggression and Disordered Eating  

E-print Network

Previous studies have investigated the link between aggression and disordered eating behavior. This study investigated the behavioral and psychological links between disordered eating and relational aggression in a female college-age population. I...

Prohaska, Jennifer A.

2012-05-31

140

Teasing and disordered eating behaviors in Spanish adolescents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between peer teasing and body dissatisfaction (BD), emotional symptoms, drive for thinness (DT), and abnormal eating behaviors, as well as to analyze the mediating role of gender and body mass index (BMI) in such disorders. We screened 57,997 school children between 13 and 16 years of age. Scores in weight-related teasing and competency-related teasing were higher among girls, as well as overweight or obese individuals. Weight-teasing correlated more strongly with abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors, whereas competency-teasing correlated with emotional symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that weight-teasing is significantly and independently associated with BD, especially in boys. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between weight-teasing and abnormal eating in girls, although its predictive value was very low (Exp(B) = 1.009). Mediation analysis and Path analysis showed the mediating role of DT in this association. Interventions on teasing do not seem to be a priority in eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:23241090

Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Rubio, Teresa; Plumed, Javier; Barberá, María; Serrano, Marisa; Gimeno, Natalia; Conesa, Llanos; Ruiz, Elías; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Beato, Luis; Livianos, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

141

Eat Well, Learn Well.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New research has found a clear connection between nutrition and learning. This document highlights the importance of good nutrition in preparing children to learn and identifies California schools' crucial role in building healthy eating habits. The role of nutrition services in a comprehensive school health system--including the development of a…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Child Nutrition and Food Distribution Div.

142

Be Active Eat Healthy  

E-print Network

WellOnYour Weigh! · Be Active · Eat Healthy · Lose Weight · Be Supported @UNLCampusRecUNL Campus for diversity. Have you tried every gimmick to lose weight, only to shed a few pounds that you end up gaining Rec A Safe and Fun Weight Loss Program Spring 2013 Program: January 21­April 26 Meets every day

Farritor, Shane

143

Electroencephalography in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

144

Comorbidity in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of review. To provide a review of the most recent research on the psychiatric comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs) reported during the years 2004-2005. Summary of recent findings. Current research provides further evidence to support the high rates of DSM axis I and axis II disorders in EDs. The literature indicates that anxiety and mood disorders are prevalent across

David B Herzog; Kamryn T Eddy

145

Healthy Eating After 50  

MedlinePLUS

... through your intestines. Should I Cut Back On Salt? The usual way people get sodium is by eating salt. The body needs sodium, but too much can ... contain some sodium, especially those high in protein. Salt is added to many canned and prepared foods. ...

146

Eat Your Weedies!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)

Duke, James

2001-01-01

147

Eating disorders and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of patients with eating disorders are female. Most of those seeking treatment for weight loss are also women. Our culture views slenderness as beautiful, creating pressure to be thin. For some, however, the pursuit of thinness may be a way to avoid difficult developmental tasks, increase self-acceptance or get approval from others. Whatever its purpose, seeking slimness can

Jill Bresler

1988-01-01

148

Animal models of eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

Kim, Sangwon F.

2012-01-01

149

Temperament and emotional eating: A crucial relationship in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Specific personality traits are related to Eating Disorders (EDs) specific and general psychopathology. Recent studies suggested that Emotional Eating (EE) is a common dimension in all EDs, irrespective of binge eating. The present study was aimed to explore the relationship of temperamental features with EE and eating symptomatology in a sample of EDs patients, adjusting for general psychopathology. One hundred and sixty six female patients were enrolled at the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic of the Careggi Teaching-Hospital of Florence. Participants completed the emotional eating scale, the temperament and character inventory, the eating disorder examination questionnaire and the symptom checklist 90-revised. Novelty seeking and self directedness showed significant correlations with EE after adjustment for general psychopathology. Patients with binge eating displayed significant associations between EE and novelty seeking and self directedness. Among patients without binge eating, no significant correlation between EE and temperamental features was observed. Specific temperamental features are associated to EE in EDs. A clear, different pattern of association in patients with different eating attitudes and behavior was found. Considering that treatments of EDs are largely based on psychotherapeutic interventions, focused on emotions and cognitions, the present data provide some hints which could be helpful for the development of more appropriate psychotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25537489

Rotella, Francesco; Fioravanti, Giulia; Godini, Lucia; Mannucci, Edoardo; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo

2015-02-28

150

Do Coping Strategies Discriminate Eating Disordered Individuals Better Than Eating Disorder Features? An Explorative Study on Female Inpatients with Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory),\\u000a an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire\\u000a for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients\\u000a with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A

Valentina Villa; Gian Mauro Manzoni; Francesco Pagnini; Gianluca Castelnuovo; Gian Luca Cesa; Enrico Molinari

2009-01-01

151

Eat Your Veggies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7- lesson unit students use tallies, pictographs, bar graphs, line plots, circle graphs, box-and-whisker plots, and glyphs to collect and display data about healthy eating. The unit includes lessons in which two sets of data are being compared and data sets are being analyzed for measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode). Learning objectives, materials, student questions, extensions, teacher reflections, and links to create graphs virtually are included.

Burton, Grace M.

2014-01-01

152

Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…

Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

2007-01-01

153

Restrained and External-Emotional Eating Patterns in Young Overweight Children–Results of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in Western countries. Abnormal eating behavior is thought to be a developmental trajectory to obesity. The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) has not been used for children as young as eight years, and possible associations with body weight have not yet been established. Five hundred and twenty-one children of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS; age eight) filled out the EPI-C and BMI was assessed. Adequacy of the scales was tested with confirmatory factor analysis and a MANOVA and cluster analysis established associations between eating patterns and BMI. The factor structure of the EPI-C was confirmed (GFI?=?.968) and abnormal eating behavior was associated with overweight (?2(8)?=?79.29, p<.001). The EPI-C is a valid assessment tool in this young age group. Overweight children consciously restrain their eating. PMID:25141134

Brandt, Stephanie; Moss, Anja; Weck, Melanie; Florath, Ines; Wabitsch, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Christiansen, Hanna

2014-01-01

154

Stealing in eating disordered patients.  

PubMed

Previous studies have noted high rates of stealing behavior in patients with eating disorders. To assess the significance of stealing in eating disordered patients, the authors compared the eating and purging behavior, levels of psychologic symptomatology, and alcohol use of 181 eating disordered patients with and without a history of stealing. Overall, the patients with a history of stealing had significantly more dysfunctional eating and purging behavior. Those patients with a history of stealing reported significantly more psychological distress including more depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive compulsive behavior, and hostility. The authors conclude that stealing behavior should be assessed in patients with eating disorders as a history of stealing may define a subgroup of more severely impaired patients. PMID:2005074

Krahn, D D; Nairn, K; Gosnell, B A; Drewnowski, A

1991-03-01

155

Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

2008-01-01

156

Childhood emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in a general adolescent population. Does emotion regulation play a mediating role?   

E-print Network

Objectives: To determine if emotion regulation mediates the link between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behaviour in a community sample of adolescents. Design and method: Participants were 222 secondary ...

Mills, Pamela Ann

2011-11-25

157

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

158

Ätstörningens ansikten; Eating Disorders faces.  

E-print Network

?? This is a qualitative study which purpose is to examine the experiences of the recovery process after a treatment for eating disorders.                                                          The questions… (more)

Gergelj, Viktoria

2013-01-01

159

Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?  

PubMed

Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

1997-01-01

160

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

161

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Cynthia M. Bulik

2007-01-01

162

Brain lesions and eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses.Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded.Results: Although simple

R Uher; J Treasure

2005-01-01

163

Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

2007-01-01

164

Healthy Eating in Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…

Robinson, Sally

2006-01-01

165

Assessing the prevalence of eating disorders in an Australian twin population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper examines the prevalence of disordered eating in a female Australian twin population aged between 28 and 90 years in 1993. Method: In two waves of data collection, the eating behaviour of 3869 female twins was first assessed in 1988-1989 by self-report questionnaire and then in 1992-1 993 with a telephone interview, using the Semi-structured Assessment for the

Tracey Wade; Andrew C. Heath; Suzanne Abraham; Susan A. Treloar; N. G. Martin; M. Tiggemann

1996-01-01

166

Obesity, overconsumption and self-regulation failure: the unsung role of eating appropriateness standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a tendency to blame the so-called ‘obesogenic’ environment, characterised by the abundant presence of high caloric, palatable foods, for the failure of self-regulation of eating behaviour and, consequently, the obesity epidemic. In the present article, it is argued that in addition to the omnipresence of food, self-regulation of eating is also compromised by a lack of clear, shared

Denise De Ridder; Emely De Vet; Marijn Stok; Marieke Adriaanse; John De Wit

2012-01-01

167

All You Can Eat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just what's on that apple, or in that salad or ice cream? Although they are unlikely to be happy with what they find, users can now discover which and how many pesticides are likely to be on the food they eat. Provided by the non-profit Environmental Working Group (EWG), this site allows users to match selections from hundreds of food items with more than 90,000 government lab tests. Visitors to the site have four sections to choose from: Daily Fare, which lets users select a full day's worth of meals and find out what pesticides they ate; Fruit Salad Roulette, which reveals the pesticides in a typical fruit salad or individual piece of fruit; the EWG Supermarket, which allows users to fill a cart and then picks random samples of each food chosen from government data and lists the pesticides; and a Kids Menu, which analyzes the pesticides that a child between the ages of one and five eats in a typical day. In addition, the site offers a selection of chemical and food FAQS and tips for reducing exposure.

1999-01-01

168

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a possible novel therapeutic approach to eating disorders.  

PubMed

The two most common eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are characterized by aberrant eating patterns and disturbances in body image. Treatment involves combining individual, behavioural, group, and family therapies, possibly with medications. Studies have found that medication, chiefly antidepressants, could be of help in bulimia nervosa but the evidence is weaker for use in anorexia nervosa. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that briefly stimulates or depresses cortical areas within the brain. It has been used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, especially major depression, which is a condition that patients with eating disorders often experience as a significant comorbidity. Given that both disorders may share a common pathogenesis, this report proposes that rTMS may represent an alternative strategy for the treatment of eating disorders. Other evidence that supports this notion comes from animal studies that show that rTMS can change feeding behaviours and central neurotransmitters related to the regulation of eating behaviours. Further investigation into the dose, duration and type of rTMS stimulus is needed to verify the efficacy of this intervention in eating disorders. PMID:16005573

Tsai, Shih-Jen

2005-01-01

169

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.  

PubMed

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

2013-05-01

170

Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

2014-11-01

171

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

172

Impact of antipsychotic treatments on the motivation to eat: preliminary results in 153 schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Many aspects of the motivation to eat are involved in the impairment of adequate food intake and body weight control. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by adopting widely used eating questionnaires, the Three Factors Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the associations of different antipsychotic medications with the food attitudes of 153 schizophrenic patients: we compared 93 individuals treated with atypical antipsychotics, 27 treated with conventional neuroleptics and 33 untreated patients. We did not find any difference according to sex, but the mean body mass index varied significantly among the three groups of patients. The DEBQ external eating factor was higher in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics than in patients who received conventional neuroleptics (P=0.035). The TFEQ disinhibition and DEBQ emotional eating scores tended to change among the three types of treatment. Patients with metabolic syndrome (19%) had lower DEBQ external eating scores (P=0.044) and a tendency of higher TFEQ disinhibition scores. The TFEQ disinhibition and hunger scores increased according to the body mass index (P=0.003; P=0.017). The main outcome of this study is that the patients treated with atypical antipsychotics were more reactive to external eating cues, which could partly explain the higher weight gain often reported in these patients. PMID:19606055

Sentissi, Othman; Viala, Annie; Bourdel, Marie C; Kaminski, Flaminia; Bellisle, France; Olié, Jean P; Poirier, Marie F

2009-09-01

173

Sudden death in eating disorders.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

174

Sudden death in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2012-01-01

175

Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?  

PubMed

Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

Elford, L; Brown, A

2014-04-01

176

Zolpidem-induced compulsive evening eating behavior.  

PubMed

Zolpidem is associated with an amnestic sleep-related eating disorder, but not with compulsive eating behaviors. A 57-year-old woman receiving zolpidem for insomnia showed compulsive evening eating behavior under a wakeful state. Her compulsive evening eating behavior disappeared when zolpidem treatment was halted. Here, we report her case. PMID:24045611

Kim, Hyung Ki; Kwon, Jun Tack; Baek, Jeehun; Park, Duck Su; Yang, Kwang Ik

2013-01-01

177

Disordered eating attitudes among elementary school population.  

PubMed

Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors among elementary school children were evaluated using the Children's Eating Attitude Test. Our findings demonstrate that students in early adolescence have disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors. We recommend screening for eating disorders in this group in order to provide primary and secondary prevention. PMID:16635782

Knez, Rajna; Munjas, Radenka; Petrovecki, Mladen; Pauci?-Kirinci?, Ela; Persi?, Mladen

2006-05-01

178

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN  

E-print Network

PUZZLING SYMPTOMS: EATING DISORDERS AND THE BRAIN A FAMILY GUIDE TO THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF EATING TO DO WITH THE BRAIN? Although people with eating disorders struggle to eat normally, this is only now believe that part of the problem has to do with how our brains process information about

Squire, Larry R.

179

The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders  

E-print Network

Review The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders Kent C circuits might contribute to the recent rise of obesity and eating disorders. Here we assess brain in obesity or in eating disorders. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Obesity Eating Food

Berridge, Kent

180

Investigational drugs for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are common, significant public health problems which are treated with nutritional, psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions. A number of drugs (mostly antidepressant drugs) are currently used in their treatment to some benefit, but there is substantial room for improvement. A wide variety of compounds are listed as under investigation for the treatment of eating disorders. They have a diverse variety of mechanisms of action, reflecting the complex nature of the control of food intake. While none of these compounds are close to release at present, the diversity of mechanisms under study lend some optimism that more effective approaches will be identified. PMID:12605570

Crow, Scott; Brown, Eric

2003-03-01

181

The impact of a rural or urban context in eating awareness and self-regulation strategies in children and adolescents from eight European countries.  

PubMed

Complex relationships exist between eating behaviour and personal and environmental factors. Rural and urban geographic contexts seem to play a role in eating behaviour, and therefore deserve a deeper study. A healthy eating behaviour and the conditions that promote it are a major issue in the promotion of adolescent health. The study aims to investigate the associations between the area of residence (urban vs. rural), self-regulation strategies (TESQ-E) and eating behaviours among children and adolescents. A total of 11,820 adolescents (50.6% girls) participated in the study, with a mean age of 13.30 years (SD= 2.13). Nine countries (The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Denmark, Romania, Germany, Finland and Belgium) completed a questionnaire in the school context, asking about the use of self-regulation strategies, eating behaviour awareness/care and sociodemographic questions such as age, gender and residential area. Both areas of residence (urban vs. rural) are associated with eating awareness/care in Romania and Portugal, controlling for age, gender and self-regulation strategies. In some European countries at least, and most probably around the world, health promotion should focus on an ecological approach that includes the understanding of the effect of both environmental factors and personal skills on eating behaviour/awareness. PMID:24821504

Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Baban, Adriana; Wit, John

2014-06-01

182

You Are What You Eat  

MedlinePLUS

... Chemist Molecule Gallery Games, Puzzles & Videos Teacher Resources Chemistry A-Z News Actions & Reactions You Are What You Eat! Cool Tools Nature's Products Chemistry for a Healthier World Chemistry Meets Medicine Order ...

183

Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

2003-01-01

184

Safe eating during cancer treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Stilton, Gorgonzola, and Bleu). Do not eat Mexican-style cheeses (such as queso blanco fresco and cojita). ... Bozetti F, Bozzetti V. Principles and management of nutritional ... eds. Palliative Medicine . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

185

Self-Regulatory Control and Habit Learning in the Development of Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical evidence suggests that initial attempts to regulate weight gain quickly become habit-like in individuals with eating disorders. These behaviors are controlled excessively in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and are controlled more intermittently, with periods of lost control, in patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). We suspect that abnormalities in frontostriatal systems that subserve self-regulatory control and habit learning may

Rachel Marsh; Joanna E. Steinglass; Kara Graziano; Bradley S. Peterson; B. Timothy Walsh

2007-01-01

186

Fat, Loathing and Public Health: The Complicity of Science in a Culture of Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinguishing pathology of eating disorders is obsessive concern with food, fat, and diet, yet these characteristics are not abnormal in our culture, particularly for women. We are inundated with entreaties to diet, to lose weight, and to keep weight off. Our media is saturated with images of the slender ideal, the fantastical promises of what rewards are bestowed on

S. Bryn Austin

1999-01-01

187

Dynamic simulation of variable capacity refrigeration systems under abnormal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are often abnormal working conditions at evaporator outlet of a refrigeration system, such as two-phase state in transient process, and it is essential to investigate such transient behaviours for system design and control strategy. In this paper, a dynamic lumped parameter model is developed to simulate the transient behaviours of refrigeration system with variable capacity in both normal and

Nan Liang; Shuangquan Shao; Changqing Tian; Yuying Yan

2010-01-01

188

Sexuality, Personality, and Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,

KAMRYN T. EDDY; CATHERINE M. NOVOTNY; DREW WESTEN

2004-01-01

189

Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments  

Cancer.gov

These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

190

Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT(2C/2A) receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive ?2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs. PMID:24866852

van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

2014-10-01

191

Stress and Eating Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

2014-01-01

192

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

193

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

2011-04-22

194

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

195

Paediatric nurses' attitudes towards the promotion of healthy eating.  

PubMed

This study assessed paediatric nurses' attitudes towards promoting healthy eating and their opinions regarding nurses as role models for health. In all, 67 nurses from 14 wards at an acute hospital trust completed questionnaires on weight, diet, physical activity, self-efficacy and attitudes towards nurses as role models for health. Forty-eight percent felt that they could incorporate health promotion into their patient care better, and 84% believed that nurses should present themselves as role models for health. Nurses felt that their own health behaviours influenced the quality of their care: 77% reported that patients and families would heed advice better from those who appeared to follow it themselves, and 48% reported difficulties in promoting health behaviours they did not adhere to themselves. These views were inconsistent with their own lifestyle choices, since one third of respondents did not meet physical-activity guidelines, almost half were an unhealthy weight, and the majority did not consume five portions of fruits/vegetables per day. Paediatric nurses identified barriers and facilitators to promoting healthy eating. Education, training and access to evidence-based resources may help to increase paediatric nurses' confidence to promote healthy eating to children and their families. Hospital workplaces should make provision to support nurses who seek to improve their own health. PMID:25615996

Blake, Holly; Patterson, Joanna

2015-01-22

196

[Affective disorders and eating disorders].  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. PMID:25550240

Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

2014-12-01

197

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

198

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

199

[Supporting carers of persons suffering from an eating disorder].  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe the background and procedure of a skills training program provided for carers of patients suffering from anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Caring for someone suffering from an eating disorder is associated with psychological distress and may lead to unhelpful interactive behaviours that maintain the illness. Recent investigations in supporting carers, especially skills sharing workshops that target interpersonal maintaining factors are described. A 5-session training concept in teaching basic skills and information about eating disorders to carers in order to improve caregiving burden and reduce interpersonal maintaining factors like expressed emotions (EE) is currently examined in our department. Design and content will be described in detail. Carers' and sufferers' perceptions of the impact of the sessions and acceptance of the provided skills training are reported. PMID:22814922

Zitarosa, Dino; de Zwaan, Martina; Pfeffer, Meike; Graap, Holmer

2012-01-01

200

Tips to Help You Eat Whole Grains  

MedlinePLUS

Tips to Help You Eat Whole Grains At Meals: To eat more whole grains, substitute a whole-grain product for a ... on the front of the food label can help you identify foods that contain less salt (or ...

201

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine  

E-print Network

PhD/PsyD EATING DISORDERS CLINICAL POSITION: N-W Eating Disorders & Behavioral Medicine NEWTON-WELLESLEY EATING DISORDERS & BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (www.nwedbmed.com) seeks a Massachusetts licensed Psychologist. Massachusetts licensure required and supervised training in eating disorders treatment, CBT, Cognitive Therapy

Patel, Aniruddh D.

202

Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

Spearing, Melissa

203

Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

204

Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered. PMID:23291285

Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

2013-04-01

205

Ecophysiology of Aufwuchs-eating cichlids in Lake Tanganyika: niche separation by trophic specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The Aufwuchs-eating cichlids of Lake Tanganyika show clear trophic differences that are correlated to their morphology, physiology and foraging behaviour. The species are grouped into three categories of relative intestinal length according to their feeding habits. A correlation between the intestinal length and the diet could be demonstrated, ranging from around 2.5 for species ingesting more animal food, to

Christian Sturmbauer; Wolfgang Mark; Reinhard Dallinger

1992-01-01

206

Eating and weight related cognitions in people with Schizophrenia : A case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain (WG) regularly report on unsuccessful dietary trials, which suggests strong biological weight gain drive that is extremely hard to overcome with thoughts, such that behaviour doesn't change despite some intent to change. The purpose of the present study was to assess cognitions specifically related to restrained eating in severely overweight patients with schizophrenia treated

Yasser Khazaal; Emmanuelle Frésard; Grégoire Zimmermann; Nathalie Trombert; Valentino Pomini; François Grasset; François Borgeat; Daniele Zullino

2006-01-01

207

Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…

Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

2012-01-01

208

Could your patient have an eating disorder?  

PubMed

Eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, affect approximately 14 million people in the U.S., three-fourths of whom are female. Contrary to popular belief, eating disorders affect people of all ages. Women's health nurses can play a vital role in identifying adolescents and women who may be suffering from an eating disorder and referring them for specialized treatment. PMID:23957797

Cooper, Rebecca

2013-01-01

209

Exploring the concept of eating dyscontrol in severely obese patients candidate to bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Eating dyscontrol constitutes a potential negative predictor for the outcome of treatment strategies for obese patients. The aim of this study was to examine the qualitative characteristics of eating dyscontrol in obese patients who engage in binge eating (BE) compared with those who do not (NBE), and to analyse the relationship between eating dyscontrol and axis-I, axis-II, spectrum psychopathology using instruments that explore mood, panic-agoraphobic, social-phobic, obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders spectrum psychopathology (SCI-MOODS-SR, SCI-PAS-SR, SCI-SHY-SR, SCI-OBS-SR, SCI-ABS-SR). This was a cross-sectional study involving a clinical sample of adult obese patients with severe obesity (average body mass index?=?45?±?8?kg?m(-2) ) and candidate to bariatric surgery who were recruited between November 2001 and November 2010 at the Obesity Center of the Endocrinology Unit, University Hospital of Pisa. All participants completed a face-to-face interview, including a diagnostic assessment of axes-I and II mental disorders (using the Structured Clinical Interview for Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition [SCID]-I and SCID-II) and filled out self-report spectrum instruments. Among obese patients not affected by BE, eating dyscontrol was highly represented. Indeed, 39.7% (N?=?177) of subjects endorsed six or more items of the Anorexia-Bulimia Spectrum Self-Report, lifetime version domain exploring this behaviour. The cumulative probability of having axis-I, axis-II and a spectrum condition disorder increased significantly with the number of eating dyscontrol items endorsed. In both BE and NBE obese subjects, eating dyscontrol may represent an independent dimension strongly related to the spectrum psychopathology and axes I/II disorders. A systematic screening for eating dyscontrol symptoms by means of self-report spectrum instruments may be valuable to assign specific treatment strategies. PMID:25611584

Calderone, A; Mauri, M; Calabrò, P F; Piaggi, P; Ceccarini, G; Lippi, C; Fierabracci, P; Landi, A; Vitti, P; Santini, F

2015-02-01

210

Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.  

PubMed

The objective was to review scientific evidence for efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy in adults or children with an eating disorder (ED). We conducted a computer search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1960 and May 2010 for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED). For drugs for which no RCT was found, open trials or case reports were retrieved. Clinically relevant RCTs in the treatment of AN have used atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and zinc supplementation. Olanzapine demonstrated an adjunctive effect for in-patient treatment of underweight AN patients, and fluoxetine helped prevent relapse in weight-restored AN patients in 1/2 studies. For treatment of BN, controlled studies have used SSRIs, other antidepressants, and mood stabilizers. In 9/11 studies, pharmacotherapy yielded a statistically significant although moderate reduction in binge/purge frequency, and some additional benefits. For BED, RCTs have been conducted using SSRIs and one serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), mood stabilizers, and anti-obesity medications. In 11/12 studies, there was a statistically significant albeit limited effect of medication. Meta-analyses on efficacy of pharmacotherapy for BN and BED support moderate effect sizes for medication, but generally low recovery rates. Treatment resistance is an inherent feature of AN, where treatment should focus on renourishment plus psychotherapy. For BN and BED, combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and cognitive behaviour therapy has been more effective than either alone. Data on the long-term efficacy of pharmacotherapy for EDs are scarce. Short- and long-term pharmacotherapy of EDs still remains a challenge for the clinician. PMID:21414249

Flament, Martine F; Bissada, Hany; Spettigue, Wendy

2012-03-01

211

Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

2007-01-01

212

Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

2004-01-01

213

Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

2000-01-01

214

Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

2007-01-01

215

Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

216

Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research. PMID:22654518

McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; O’Melia, Anne M

2012-01-01

217

ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology. PMID:23758944

2013-01-01

218

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

219

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

220

Eating Right for Kidney Health  

MedlinePLUS

... to your dietitian about how to choose the right combination for you. Animal-protein Foods l Chickenl Fishl Meatl EggslDairy Plant-protein Foods l BeanslNutslGrains Eating Right for Kidney Health 2 STEP 3 Choose foods ...

221

Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

Muuss, Rolf E.

1985-01-01

222

Eating at America's Table Study  

Cancer.gov

Data collection for EATS has been completed. Several analyses have been conducted and results published. Other analyses are ongoing, with investigators examining the validity of reports of foods, the contribution of portion size questions to overall questionnaire validity, and the effects of demographic and social factors on validity.

223

Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians involved in substance abuse treatment have been aware for some time that women with alcohol or other drug abuse problems also frequently suffer from eating di s- orders. Some of the similarities, such as feelings of shame, need to hide the behavior, and the compulsive quality have led to speculations of an underlying common dynamic, and possibly to common

Joan Ellen Zweben

1987-01-01

224

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

225

We Are Family - eating disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forty-third monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Eating disorders often begin in adolescence and can last a lifetime. They are psychiatric disorders and their treatment is very difficult. New clinical experience points to a crucial component - family.

2010-12-01

226

Eat for a Healthy Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... found in some types of fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Check product labels for foods high in potassium (unless you’ve been advised to restrict the amount of potassium you eat). ... beans, vegetables, and whole grains. Feel like getting creative in ...

227

First Aid for Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop first aid guidelines, based on expert consensus, that provide members of the community with information on how to assist someone who is thought to be developing or experiencing an eating disorder. An online Delphi study was carried out with expert panels consisting of 36 clinicians, 27 care-givers and 22 consumers. The panel

Laura M. Hart; Anthony F. Jorm; Susan J. Paxton; Claire M. Kelly; Betty A. Kitchener

2009-01-01

228

Psychological Factors Affecting Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders (EDs) are representative of the relationship between psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders and have complex interactions in the body, mind, and brain. The psychosomatic issues of EDs emerge in the alterations of the body and its functioning, in personality traits, in the difficulty of recognizing and coping with emotions, and in the management of anger and impulsiveness. The Diagnostic

S. Fassino; G. Daga; N. Delsedime

2007-01-01

229

Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

2005-01-01

230

Self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome in Japanese people: cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan. Participants A total of 56?865 participants (41?820 male and 15?045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke. Main outcome measure Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Results In multiple logistic regression models, eating rate was significantly and positively associated with metabolic syndrome. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for slow, normal and fast were 0.70 (0.62 to 0.79), 1.00 (reference) and 1.61 (1.53 to 1.70), respectively, in men (p for trend <0.001), and 0.74 (0.60 to 0.91), 1.00 (reference) and 1.27 (1.13 to 1.43), respectively, in women (p for trend <0.001). Of metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity showed the strongest association with eating rate. The associations of eating rate and metabolic syndrome and its components were largely attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index; however, the association of slow eating with lower odds of high blood pressure (men and women) and hyperglycaemia (men) and that of fast eating with higher odds of lipid abnormality (men) remained statistically significant. Conclusions Results suggest that eating rate is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome and that this association is largely accounted for by the difference in body mass according to eating rate. PMID:25192877

Nagahama, Satsue; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Dan, Masashi; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Mizoue, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

231

Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.  

PubMed

This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25645347

Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

2015-03-01

232

Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events, eating fruits, smoking and hashish or ecstasy use in a sample of Greek adolescents. Age and gender patterns are considered. Methods: Participants were 5991 Greek school pupils who responded to questionnaires assessing behaviour and attitudes towards

ATHANASIOS PAPAIOANNOU; CALLIOPE KARASTOGIANNIDOU; YANNIS THEODORAKIS

2004-01-01

233

Does anger mediate between personality and eating symptoms in bulimia nervosa?  

PubMed

The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. PMID:22944222

Amianto, Federico; Siccardi, Sara; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Fassino, Secondo

2012-12-30

234

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

235

Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Boutelle KN, Birkeland RW, Hannan PJ, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Associations between maternal concern for healthful eating and maternal eating behaviors, home food availability, and adolescent eating behaviors.

236

Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.  

PubMed

Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

2014-08-01

237

Classification of feeding and eating disorders: review of evidence and proposals for ICD-11  

PubMed Central

Current classification of eating disorders is failing to classify most clinical presentations; ignores continuities between child, adolescent and adult manifestations; and requires frequent changes of diagnosis to accommodate the natural course of these disorders. The classification is divorced from clinical practice, and investigators of clinical trials have felt compelled to introduce unsystematic modifications. Classification of feeding and eating disorders in ICD-11 requires substantial changes to remediate the shortcomings. We review evidence on the developmental and cross-cultural differences and continuities, course and distinctive features of feeding and eating disorders. We make the following recommendations: a) feeding and eating disorders should be merged into a single grouping with categories applicable across age groups; b) the category of anorexia nervosa should be broadened through dropping the requirement for amenorrhoea, extending the weight criterion to any significant underweight, and extending the cognitive criterion to include developmentally and culturally relevant presentations; c) a severity qualifier “with dangerously low body weight” should distinguish the severe cases of anorexia nervosa that carry the riskiest prognosis; d) bulimia nervosa should be extended to include subjective binge eating; e) binge eating disorder should be included as a specific category defined by subjective or objective binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behaviour; f) combined eating disorder should classify subjects who sequentially or concurrently fulfil criteria for both anorexia and bulimia nervosa; g) avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder should classify restricted food intake in children or adults that is not accompanied by body weight and shape related psychopathology; h) a uniform minimum duration criterion of four weeks should apply. PMID:22654933

UHER, RUDOLF; RUTTER, MICHAEL

2012-01-01

238

The History of Eating Utensils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the California Academy of Sciences, this online history of eating utensils is both stimulating and educational, with brief presentations on individual utensils and their evolution, as well as images of specimens from various cultures and periods. Learn, among other things, what Louis the XIV had to fear from the knife and what he did about it, and how it changed the shape of that instrument forever. Equally worth considering, chopsticks have also evolved over the course of five millennia. Called "kuai-zi" in Chinese, for quick little fellows, chopsticks were first joined together and only gradually came to be separated and made of less and less precious materials. Learn all about them and the rest of the instruments used by humans to eat gracefully in this brief online history. Better yet, if you are fortunate enough to be in the Bay area, visit the exhibit in person at the California Academy of Sciences.

239

Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour. PMID:25533406

Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

2014-12-01

240

Eating Disorders and Substance Abuse  

E-print Network

Clinicians involved in substance abuse treatment have been aware for some time that women with alcohol or other drug abuse problems also frequently suffer from eating disorders. Some of the similarities, such as feelings of shame, need to hide the behavior, and the compulsive quality have led to speculations of an underlying common dynamic, and possibly to common organic predisposing factors. The treatment challenge is complex: One does not have the luxury of postponing the exploration of anxiety-producing issues until abstinence (sobriety) is well secured. Eating disorders are health threatening and some-times life threatening, and are frequently closely connected with the alcohol or other drug abuse pattern. This article focuses on bulimia and anorexia nervosa, omitting obesity because it is not characteristically associated with a distinct psychological or behavioral pattern (Norman 1984). It aims to clarify some of these issues and to provide recommendations to the treating clinician: guidelines on when to tackle the problem within the context of the substance abuse treatment and when to refer the clients elsewhere. It will also describe the major treatment approaches in the eating disorders field and offer criteria for selecting a program or therapist with whom to collaborate.

Joan Ellen Zweben, Ph.D.

241

'Abnormalization' of ethnic minorities in conversation.  

PubMed

Social psychologists studying intergroup relations have shown a renewed interest in social norms. In doing so, norms are treated typically as a non-problematic given and independent of the actual practices people are involved in. This study examines the discursive construction and representation of abnormality by analysing discussions held by some ethnically Dutch inhabitants of old inner-city quarters in Rotterdam. It is shown how these people in focus-group type talk construct the behaviour of ethnic minority residents as 'abnormal' in a recognizable number of ways. They set the ethnic minority residents in contrast with 'obviously normal' practices; they use extreme case formulations in describing their behaviour; and they draw upon 'unarguable' human values in explaining their judgments. Further, specific versions of reality were constructed in providing a justificatory account of their assessment, and undermining cultural interpretations were managed by criticizing ethnic minority culture, questioning particular behaviour as an instance of culture, and arguing for the need for adaptation. PMID:11446230

Verkuyten, M

2001-06-01

242

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

243

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

244

Disordered eating behaviors and sleep disturbances.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate if disordered eating behaviors predicted the development of sleep disturbances. A total of 870 students participated at baseline, 592 one year later (T1) and 305 two years later (T2). The Eating Attitudes Test-40 was used to assess global disordered eating behaviors, dietary concerns (DC), bulimic behaviors (BB) and social pressure to eat (SPE). Sleep disturbances were assessed by two items related to difficulties initiating sleep (DIS) and maintaining sleep (DMS). A sleep disturbance index (SDI) was calculated by summing DIS and DMS scores. Results revealed that global disordered eating behaviors at baseline predicted DIS, DMS and SDI at T1 and T2. Students with increased BB and SPE scores at baseline were more likely to experience sleep onset and sleep maintenance difficulties in the long term. These results suggest that assessment and correction of eating behaviors might prevent sleep disturbances. PMID:23557819

Bos, Sandra Carvalho; Soares, Maria João; Marques, Mariana; Maia, Berta; Pereira, Ana Telma; Nogueira, Vasco; Valente, José; Macedo, António

2013-04-01

245

Sexually inappropriate behaviour in demented elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the prevalence, aetiology, and treatment profile of abnormal sexual behaviour in subjects with dementia in psychogeriatric practices.Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in a long term care psychiatry consultation service, community based geriatric psychiatry service, and an inpatient dementia behavioural unit in Edmonton, Canada.Results: Forty one subjects (1.8%) had sexually inappropriate behaviour. Of those cognitively

K Alagiakrishnan; D Lim; A Brahim; A Wong; A Wood; A Senthilselvan; W T Chimich; L Kagan

2005-01-01

246

Tempting food words activate eating simulations  

PubMed Central

This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

Papies, Esther K.

2013-01-01

247

Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants  

PubMed Central

The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ? 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ? 43 inches for men and ? 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2015-01-01

248

The social facilitation of eating. A review.  

PubMed

The social facilitation of eating (i.e., people eating more in groups than when alone) has been studied for about three decades now. In this paper, we review the empirical research (diary studies, observational studies, and experimental studies) of social facilitation, attending to factors that increase or decrease socially facilitated eating. We also review the various explanations (e.g., "time extension") that have been offered for the effect and offer our own speculations as to the underlying mechanisms. Further, we discuss promising directions for future research on the social facilitation of eating. PMID:25265153

Herman, C Peter

2015-03-01

249

Eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q): norms for undergraduate Japanese women.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among undergraduate Japanese women and to compare these data to norms obtained from previous studies. Undergraduate Japanese women (n?=?289), aged 18-24?years, were administered the EDE-Q. The mean global score in the present study was 1.55 (SD?=?1.03). Japanese women reported significantly higher scores of shape concern and weight concern in spite of lower body mass index but a significantly lower score of restraint, compared with women in other normative studies. There were significant differences with respect to the occurrence of some specific eating disorder behaviours between Japanese women and women in the previous studies. Differences in normative data for the EDE-Q between young Japanese women and young women in the previous studies suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology. PMID:25257360

Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Fukushima, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Konoyu; Noma, Shunichi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Ataru; Wonderlich, Stephen

2014-11-01

250

Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

2009-01-01

251

Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

2007-01-01

252

Exercise, Eating Patterns, and Obesity: Evidence from the ATUS and Its Eating & Health Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time spent eating and exercising can impact quality of life measures such as general health and risk for obesity. This article links data from the American Time Use Study and the Eating and Health Module to explore exercise and eating patterns for varying age groups, over different times of day, and by self-reported health status. Younger…

Reifschneider, Marianne J.; Hamrick, Karen S.; Lacey, Jill N.

2011-01-01

253

A Mindful Eating Group as an Adjunct to Individual Treatment for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention

Natasha S. Hepworth

2010-01-01

254

eating at Warwick account (`eating at Warwick') 2012/2013 Conditions of issue and use  

E-print Network

.2. Use of the online payment system is governed by the applicable terms and conditions at the relevant to refuse acceptance onto the eating at Warwick scheme 4. Online Payments 4.1. Online payments into the eating at Warwick scheme can be made via the online payment form found at www.warwick.ac.uk/go/eating 4

Davies, Christopher

255

Orangutan fish eating, primate aquatic fauna eating, and their implications for the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating.  

PubMed

This paper presents new evidence of fish eating in rehabilitant orangutans living on two Bornean islands and explores its contributions to understanding nonhuman primates' aquatic fauna eating and the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating. We assessed the prevalence of orangutans' fish eating, their techniques for obtaining fish, and possible contributors (ecology, individual differences, humans). We identified 61 events in which orangutans tried to obtain fish, including 19 in which they ate fish. All the orangutans were juvenile-adolescent; all the fish were disabled catfish; and most were obtained and eaten in drier seasons in or near shallow, slow-moving water. Orangutans used several techniques to obtain fish (inadvertent, opportunistic and deliberate hand-catch, scrounge, tool-assisted catch) and probably learned them in that order. Probable contributing factors were orangutan traits (age, pre-existing water or tool skills), island features (social density, water accessibility), and local human fishing. Our review of primates' aquatic fauna eating showed orangutans to be one of 20 species that eat aquatic fauna, one of nine confirmed to eat fish, and one of three that use tools to obtain fish. Primate fish eating is also site-specific within species, partly as a function of habitat (e.g., marine-freshwater, seasonality) and human influence (possibly fostered eating fish or other aquatic fauna at most sites, clearly induced it at some). At tropical freshwater sites, fish eating occurred most often in drier seasons around shallow water. Orangutan and primate findings are generally consistent with Stewart's (2010) reconstruction of the origins of ancestral hominin fish eating, but suggest that it, and tool-assisted fish catching, were possible much earlier. PMID:25038033

Russon, Anne E; Compost, Alain; Kuncoro, Purwo; Ferisa, Agnes

2014-12-01

256

Healthy Eating at Family Gatherings and Special Events Video  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Eating at Family Gatherings and Special Events Video Family gatherings and special events can be hard ... Healthy Eating at Family Gatherings and Special Events Video (MP4) Keywords: healthy eating , behavior change , National Diabetes ...

257

Eating Pathology, Supplement Use, and Nutrition Knowledge in Collegiate Athletes.  

E-print Network

??Eating pathology (e.g., body dissatisfaction, binge eating, purging, restrictive eating) and substance use (e.g., dietary supplements, legal and illegal drugs) proliferate university settings in the… (more)

Lapota, Holly Beth

2013-01-01

258

Happy National Nutrition Month! Enjoy the Taste of Eating Right  

E-print Network

Happy National Nutrition Month! Enjoy the Taste of Eating Right By Sarah Goff, Student Nutritionist The theme of this year's National Nutrition Month is "Enjoy the Taste of Eating Right." Healthy eating

Milchberg, Howard

259

Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine

Lee Hogarth; Henry W. Chase; Kathleen Baess

2012-01-01

260

Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine

Lee Hogarth; Henry W. Chase; Kathleen Baess

2010-01-01

261

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

262

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

263

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

264

Pharmacologic treatment of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Increased research focusing on the eating disorders has put the clinician on firmer ground when choosing appropriate psychopharmacologic treatments. Recent studies of patients with bulimia demonstrate that treatment with antidepressant medications may substantially reduce symptoms of bingeing and vomiting. The efficacy of pharmacologic approaches to anorexia nervosa is more uncertain, in part because of the limited availability of long-term follow-up studies. The judicious use of appetite suppressant medications, as reviewed in the text, is helpful for mild to moderate obesity. In treating these disorders, the clinician needs to integrate medication treatment with psychotherapeutic and behavioral treatment approaches. PMID:6151652

Gwirtsman, H; Kaye, W; Weintraub, M; Jimerson, D C

1984-12-01

265

[Eating addiction - a behavioral addiction?].  

PubMed

With the introduction of the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in DSM-5 for the first time behavioral addictions have entered the medical classification system. Food Addiction can be diagnosed with a 25-item questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. Food Addiction centers between substance-based addiction and non-substance-based behavioral addiction. To date, there is no evidence for a food component displaying addictive properties similar to psychotropic substances, such as cocaine or heroin. There is a lack of valid and reliable psychiatric-diagnostic criteria that aim to characterize Eating-Addiction as a behavioral addiction. PMID:25594277

Albayrak, Özgür; Hebebrand, Johannes

2015-01-01

266

Get Healthy, Eat The Pyramid!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The kind of food you eat makes a difference in how you feel and even how you are able to think in school. This activity will give you the chance to learn how to keep your body happy and healthy! Introduction Just like cars need gasoline to run, our bodies need food to give us energy to learn in school, run at recess and play our favorite games. You get the chance to learn all about the Pyramid, which helps us better design our diets, play fun games and eventually ...

Malan, Miss

2009-04-24

267

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

268

Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible mediating factor for this relationship. CONCLUSION: The data supported a mediation model where cortisol levels mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology (concern about body shape) and REE. PMID:25032200

Castellini, Giovanni; Castellani, Walter; Lelli, Lorenzo; Sauro, Carolina Lo; Dini, Carla; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Bencini, Lorenza; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ricca, Valdo

2014-01-01

269

Quality of life in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to assess differences in Quality of Life (QoL) across eating disorder (ED) diagnoses, and to examine the relationship of QoL to specific clinical features. Results 199 patients with a diagnosed ED completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) [Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders, 315–318, 2008] and the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) [Int J Eat Disord 6:1–8]. Differences between diagnostic groups were examined, as were differences between restrictive and binge-purge subtypes. CIA scores and EDE scores were positively correlated and higher in groups with binge-purge behaviours. CIA scores were not correlated with BMI, illness duration or frequency of bingeing/purging behaviours, except in the binge-purge AN group, where CIA scores negatively correlated with BMI. Conclusions Patients with EDs have poor QoL and impairment increases with illness severity. Patients with binge/purge diagnoses are particularly impaired. It remains unclear which clinical features best predict the degree of impairment experienced by patients with EDs. PMID:24999421

2013-01-01

270

[What will the Future of Psychobiological Research in Eating Disorders Look Like?].  

PubMed

The technical progress of brain imaging methods in recent years have decisively contributed to a better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of eating disorders. However, the identification and detection of underlying neurocircuits is complicated by the aetiological heterogeneity of clinically and psychopathologically defined eating disorder phenotypes. It is against this background that renowned scientists advocate that neurocircuit function should be the starting point for the upward investigation of behavioural responses and the downward research of constitutional genetic and molecular biological factors. According to this theory, psychobiological research of disturbed eating behaviour will follow to a greater extent a transdiagnostic and dimensional approach, and will be based on well characterized neurocircuits in the future. Furthermore, the latest findings in brain research will allow to investigate directly the interaction between neurocircuit function and energy metabolism in eating disorders. The typical onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in puberty suggest that age related biological and psychosocial alterations in this phase of life serve as a trigger for the beginning of the disease. Therefore, a greater integration of the developmental perspective as well as (epi-) genetic aspects in psychobiological research will be of great scientific interest in the future. PMID:25594268

Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2015-01-01

271

Proper meals in transition: young married couples on the nature of eating together.  

PubMed

Most people get married or spend time living with a partner at some stage in their lives. But what effect does this change have, if any, on their eating habits? The transition from bachelor or spinster to young couple represents a major lifecourse change and this paper looks at the role that eating together plays in the lives of a group of young Scottish couples recently married or cohabiting with their partner. The key question here is what role do meals play in all of this and how are eating activities arranged in these households. In an attempt to move the debate on meals beyond the "traditional family unit" it considers what eating "properly" meant for these couples. The paper looks at the importance of the evening meal as a site for sociability in married and cohabiting couples and examines the process of social interaction, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of eating together as a couple. It reports on what men and women said in individual interviews and recorded in personal food diaries, contrasting this with their behaviour when they were living separately from their partners. PMID:12495693

Marshall, D W; Anderson, A S

2002-12-01

272

Eating disorders in hospitalized substance abusers.  

PubMed

Among 386 consecutive patients hospitalized for substance abuse, 15% of 143 women had a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa, compared to only 1% of 243 men. Women with eating disorders had significantly higher rates of stimulant abuse and lower rates of opioid abuse than women without eating disorders. PMID:1562008

Hudson, J I; Weiss, R D; Pope, H G; McElroy, S K; Mirin, S M

1992-01-01

273

Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Vyvanse Approved for Binge-Eating Disorder Characterized by compulsive overeating (*this news item will ... Roberts Monday, February 2, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Eating Disorders Medicines MONDAY, Feb. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Vyvanse ( ...

274

Eating Disorders and Spirituality in College Students.  

PubMed

Associations were examined between eating disorder symptoms and spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of college students. Undergraduate nursing students at a university in a Mid-Atlantic coastal beach community were recruited for the study. A total of 115 students completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food (SCOFF) screening questionnaire, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Approximately one quarter of students had positive screens for an eating disorder, and 40% admitted to binging/purging. SWBS scores reflected low life satisfaction and a lack of clarity and purpose among students. A significant association was found between EAT-26 scores and SWBS Existential Well-Being (EWB) subscale scores (p = 0.014). SCOFF scores were significantly associated with SWBS EWB scores (p = 0.001). Symptoms of eating disorders were pervasive. Future research that assesses the impact of spiritual factors on eating disorders may help health care providers better understand the unique contributions to the development of eating diorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. PMID:25490775

Phillips, Lauren; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Mechling, Brandy M; MacKain, Sally; Kim-Godwin, Yeounsoo; Leopard, Louisa

2014-12-10

275

Lesbian Body Image and Eating Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on body-image dissatisfaction and eating issues has emphasized the impact of culture's obsession on women's appearance. This paper reviews a study that examined body image issues, eating behavior, and identification with sexual identity in a sexually diverse sample that included lesbians (n = 47), heterosexual women (n = 47), and gay men (n = 51). The degree to which

Paula Wagenbach

2004-01-01

276

Dietary correlates of emotional eating in adolescence.  

PubMed

To better understand the relation between emotional eating and dietary choices, dietary correlates of emotional eating were investigated in an adolescent sample. Participants were 617 predominantly Latino middle school students from seven schools in Los Angeles County. Analyses of cross-sectional data revealed that emotional eating was associated with increased frequency of intake of sweet high energy-dense foods, such as cake and ice cream, salty high energy-dense foods like chips, and soda. Gender stratified analyses revealed an association between emotional eating and more frequent fruit and vegetable intake in boys only, and a positive association between emotional eating and salty high energy-dense intake in both boys and girls. These data support previous literature that reports a preference for high energy-dense food in emotional eating, and shows that this association may be generalizable to Latino youth. Considering that emotional eating may lead to overeating because it often takes place in the absence of hunger, it may be appropriate to develop interventions to teach youth healthier substitutions and regulate mood by means other than eating in order to reduce risk for obesity, especially in high risk populations, such as Latinos. PMID:17466408

Nguyen-Michel, Selena T; Unger, Jennifer B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

2007-09-01

277

Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

2014-01-01

278

Determining the eating habits of UAPB students  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The UAPB Delta Obesity Research Project is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excessive weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of healthy weight during college years. Adjusting to college life can lead to poor eating and no physical activity for c...

279

Effects of Eating on Depressed Moods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has found that depressed moods increase eating among persons who are dieting and among those characterized by high levels of weight fluctuation. To determine whether eating improves depressed moods among persons who score high on the weight fluctuation factor on the Restraint Scale (Herman, et al, 1978), 72 college women consumed either a…

Grenier, Victoria; And Others

280

Eating-Disordered Behavior of Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined variables associated with eating-disordered adults to determine whether they correlate with scores on Adapted Eating Attitudes Test (AEAT). Results from fourth, sixth, and eighth grade girls (N=144) revealed no significant difference in AEAT scores across grades. Only two of seven independent variables, Test of Cognitive Skills scores and…

Winkler, Martha C. Rhyne; Vacc, Nicholas A.

1989-01-01

281

Eating disorders among professional fashion models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds.

Antonio Preti; Ambra Usai; Paola Miotto; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala

2008-01-01

282

Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

283

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

284

Binge Eating Proneness Emerges During Puberty in Female Rats: A Longitudinal Study  

E-print Network

eating risk across adolescence. Keywords: binge eating, puberty, animal models, bulimia nervosa, eating development of eating disorders character- ized by binge eating [e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN)] (American

Sisk, Cheryl

285

[Neuropsychological and behavioural assessment in Alzheimer's disease].  

PubMed

To assess the onset and subsequent course of cognitive, behavioural and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) we considered the clinical course of these groups of symptoms in 100 patients with NINCDS-ADRDA AD, > 65 years from onset to exitus during the phases t0 (early), t1 (state), t2 (neurological) and t3 (medical). Memory, depressive (40%), anxious (30%), sexual (15%) disturbances are frequent during t0. During t1, memory disturbances worsen in 90% of patients, and attention deficit (46%) and difficulty in abstract thinking appear. During t2, eating disorders (80%), stereotypy (38%), and delusions (23%) appear; anxiety and attention deficit (74%) worsen. During t3, eating disorders (95%) and delusions (46%) increase; higher brain functions can no more be assessed through neuropsychological tests. We showed progressive deterioration of cognitive function and behaviour, and abrupt onset and rapid progress of neuropsychiatric and medical disturbances during AD. PMID:15815116

Accorrà, Domenico; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Girardi, Paolo; Ruberto, Amedeo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Tatarelli, Roberto

2004-01-01

286

Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.  

PubMed

Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

2012-01-01

287

Pharmacotherapy for eating disorders and obesity.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are significant mental health problems in the adolescent population; however, there are no medications approved by the FDA for the treatment of adolescents with either of these disorders. Many medications are used off label for both the symptoms of eating disorders and their co-morbid conditions, particularly SSRIs and atypical anti-psychotics. The dosing, side effect profile, and long term effects of these medications in children and adolescents is unclear. Binge eating disorder, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder often are associated with over-weight in adolescents. There are various pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity in the adolescent population some of which have FDA approval. In the article the authors discuss pharmacological approaches to guide the treatment of eating disorders and obesity in the pediatric population, including risks of treatment, monitoring of potential side effects, and recent outcomes in the literature. PMID:19014865

Powers, Pauline S; Bruty, Heidi

2009-01-01

288

Personality disorder cognitions in the eating disorders.  

PubMed

Patients with eating disorder have relatively high rates of comorbid personality disorder diagnoses, including both anxiety-based personality disorders (obsessive-compulsive and avoidant) and borderline personality disorder. However, there is preliminary evidence that the core cognitions underlying personality pathology in the eating disorders are those related specifically to anxiety. This article builds on that evidence, replicating and extending the findings with a large sample of patients with eating disorder (N = 374). There were no differences in personality disorder cognitions between eating disorder diagnoses. This study also examines the possibility that there are clusters of patients, differentiated by patterns of personality disorder cognition. Affect-related personality disorder cognitions were key to understanding the role of personality pathology in the eating disorders. It is suggested that those cognitions should be considered when planning psychological treatments. PMID:24469531

Gabriel, Chloe; Waller, Glenn

2014-02-01

289

Does disgust enhance eating disorder symptoms?  

PubMed

In the present study, the hypothesized causal relationship between disgust and eating pathology was investigated. Female undergraduates were either assigned to an experimental condition in which feelings of disgust were induced by means of a bad smelling odorant, or to a control condition in which no such disgust manipulation was carried out. Both groups completed questionnaires for measuring various eating disorder-related concepts (i.e., body esteem, restraint eating, and body change strategies). In addition, explicit and implicit preferences for high-caloric food were measured. Results demonstrated that women in the experimental condition did not report lower levels of body esteem, and neither showed higher levels of restraint eating or other body change strategies. Furthermore, they did not display a decreased explicit or implicit preference for high-caloric food. Thus, in the present study no indication for a causal relation between disgust and eating disorder symptoms in young females was found. PMID:18167331

Mayer, Birgit; Bos, Arjan E R; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Vlielander, Martha

2008-01-01

290

Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching. PMID:23580091

Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

2013-01-01

291

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

292

Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.  

PubMed

This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

Andrist, Linda C

2003-01-01

293

Clinical aspects of impulsive compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulsive–compulsive behaviours (ICBs) are an increasingly well-recognised adverse-effect of dopaminergic medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. ICBs include pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour, compulsive buying, and binge eating, together with punding and the addiction-like compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy, or dopamine dysregulation syndrome. The prevalence of ICBs was approximately 14% in a large study undertaken in specialist movement disorder

Atbin Djamshidian; Bruno B. Averbeck; Andrew J. Lees; Sean S. O'Sullivan

2011-01-01

294

Emmanuel Levinas and the ontology of eating.  

PubMed

This essay examines the existential philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas in relation to issues of food and eating. I argue that for Levinas, the act of eating is central to founding the ethical self, and that any understanding of Levinas's approach to embodiment must begin with what it means for us to ingest the outside world. Even in Levinas's earliest work, food is already a freighted ontological category. As his ideas mature, eating is transformed from the grounding for an ethical system to the system itself. The act of giving bread to another person takes its place as the ethical gesture par excellence. The story is not that we eat. The story is that we eat and develop a relationship to eating, and that relationship in turn helps determine our sense of ourselves in the world. Eating is the ethical event. The essay ends by asking how Levinas can help us answer the question, what would it mean to imagine every bite I take, or give to another, as a direct engagement with my own and my neighbor's existence? PMID:21542212

Goldstein, David

2010-01-01

295

Behavioural Processes 71 (2006) 815 Hair barbering in mice: Implications for neurobehavioural research  

E-print Network

September 2005 Abstract Barbering (fur/whisker trimming, the Dalila effect) is a behaviour-associated hair. Introduction Behaviour-associated hair loss has been observed in many species including dogs, cats, horses in the literature as barbering, overgrooming, whisker/hair or fur trimming, nibbling, eating (trichophagia

Kalueff, Allan V.

296

Sex differences in the physiology of eating  

PubMed Central

Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-? (ER?) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

Asarian, Lori

2013-01-01

297

Healthy Eating During Pregnancy: Determinants and Supportive Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of the determinants of healthy eating in pregnancy by synthesizing current research findings and offers strategies to promote healthy eating during pregnancy. This article is guided by the ecological model for health promotion that suggests the determinants of healthy eating as intrapersonal or collective determinants of food choices and public policies that support healthy eating

Eileen R. Fowles; Sarah L. Fowles

2008-01-01

298

Longitudinal Relationships Between Childhood, Adolescent, and Adult Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study investigates the longitudinal course of eating problems from childhood though adulthood. The following questions are answered: (1) How stable are eating disorder symptoms and diagnoses over a 17-year interval from childhood to adulthood? (2) Do early childhood eating problems predict the occurrence of eating disorders in adulthood?

LISA A. KOTLER; PATRICIA COHEN; MARK DAVIES; DANIEL S. PINE; B. TIMOTHY WALSH

2001-01-01

299

Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

2007-01-01

300

Factors Related to Eating Attitudes of Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered attitudes toward eating held by pregnant women can affect the nutritional status of the mother and fetus. This retrospective study consisted of 264 pregnant women who attended an obstetrics clinic during their first prenatal visit. Data from their medical records and nutritional evaluations including the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26) were used to pursue the objective. Mean EAT-26

C. M. Bowen; E. S. Parham; E. Applegate

1999-01-01

301

Eating Competence of College Students in an Introductory Nutrition Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Describe eating competence, a positive and flexible way of conceptualizing eating attitudes and behaviors, in students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course. Methods: Online completion of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI) and self-assessment of eating disorder status by 557 students (343 ages 18-20 years and 180 ages…

Brown, Lora Beth; Larsen, Katrina J.; Nyland, Nora K.; Eggett, Dennis L.

2013-01-01

302

[Advances in the treatment of eating disorders].  

PubMed

The consideration of existing literature, especially in light of new knowledge of eating disorders and new diagnostic categories, highlights the necessity to increase the efficacy of current forms of therapy, and to develop novel therapies for eating disorders. This pertains, in particular, to bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. A considerable gain in knowledge is to be expected from a systematic analysis of the therapeutic process as well as the moderators and mediators. Furthermore, dissemination of evidence-based treatment methods in practical settings and an examination of stepped care models are important avenues of future research. PMID:25594273

Hilbert, Anja

2015-01-01

303

Mapping the evidence for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people  

PubMed Central

Abstract Eating disorders often develop during adolescence and young adulthood, and are associated with significant psychological and physical burden. Identifying evidence-based interventions is critical and there is need to take stock of the extant literature, to inform clinical practice regarding well-researched interventions and to direct future research agendas by identifying gaps in the evidence base. Aim To investigate and quantify the nature and distribution of existing high-quality research on the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people using evidence mapping methodology. Method A systematic search for prevention and treatment intervention studies in adolescents and young adults (12–25 years) was conducted using EMBASE, PSYCINFO and MEDLINE. Studies were screened and mapped according to disorder, intervention modality, stage of eating disorder and study design. Included studies were restricted to controlled trials and systematic reviews published since 1980. Results The eating disorders evidence map included 197 trials and 22 systematic reviews. Prevention research was dominated by trials of psychoeducation (PE). Bulimia nervosa (BN) received the most attention in the treatment literature, with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and antidepressants the most common interventions. For anorexia nervosa (AN), family based therapy (FBT) was the most studied. Lacking were trials exploring treatments for binge eating disorder (BED) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Relapse prevention strategies were notably absent across the eating disorders. Conclusions Despite substantial literature devoted to the prevention and treatment of eating disorders in young people, the evidence base is not well established and significant gaps remain. For those identified as being at-risk, there is need for prevention research exploring strategies other than passive PE. Treatment interventions targeting BED and EDNOS are required, as are systematic reviews synthesising BN treatment trials (e.g., CBT, antidepressants). FBTs for AN require investigation against other validated psychological interventions, and the development of relapse prevention strategies is urgently required. By systematically identifying existing interventions for young people with eating disorders and exposing gaps in the current literature, the evidence map can inform researchers, funding bodies and policy makers as to the opportunities for future research. PMID:24999427

2014-01-01

304

Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

2012-06-01

305

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

306

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

307

Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients. PMID:15571940

Cartwright, Martina M

2004-12-01

308

Disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in type 1 diabetes: Clinical significance and treatment recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls and women with type 1 diabetes have increased rates of disturbed eating behaviors and clinically significant eating\\u000a disorders than their nondiabetic peers. Type 1 diabetes is strongly associated with several empirically supported eating disorder\\u000a risk factors (eg, higher body mass index, increased body weight and shape dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression,\\u000a and dietary restraint). It may be that specific

Ann E. Goebel-Fabbri

2009-01-01

309

Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others.  

PubMed

Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers. PMID:16757007

Hetherington, Marion M; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine N M; Newson, Lisa

2006-07-30

310

Behavioral abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which, classically, patients present with postural instability and falls, parkinsonism, and slowing of vertical saccades. PSP patients typically have deficits in cognitive functioning, difficulties with most daily activities, and present with notable behavioral disturbances-particularly apathy, impulsivity, and irritability. Using data from 154 patients meeting criteria for clinically probable PSP, domain and total scores of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were examined and compared to demographics, disease severity, cognition, and motor features. Behavioral abnormalities were common in this cohort of PSP patients, with more than half experiencing apathy, depression, and sleeping problems, and approximately one third displaying agitation, irritability, disinhibition, and eating problems. Few clinical correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms were observed in this cohort. Given the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in PSP, these patients are expected to be frequently seen by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals for symptom management and increased quality of life. Clinical trials are clearly needed to address the neuropsychiatric morbidity in these patients. PMID:24035530

Gerstenecker, Adam; Duff, Kevin; Mast, Benjamin; Litvan, Irene

2013-12-30

311

Learning from Collegiate Athletes who have Recovered from Eating Disorders: Advice to Coaches, Parents, and Other Athletes with Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to elicit advice from female collegiate athletes who achieved recovery from an eating disorder for coaches, parents, and other athletes with eating disorders. Participants were 16 female collegiate athletes who had experienced eating disorders. Data was obtained through structured interview questions. Advice for coaches included confronting athletes with a suspected eating disorder and receiving

Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle; Amy Baltzell

2012-01-01

312

Childhood Eating and Weight in Eating Disorders: A Multi-Centre European Study of Affected Women and Their Unaffected Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies have suggested that childhood eating and weight problems may be risk factors for eating disorders. Robust evidence is still lacking. Aims: To investigate whether childhood eating and weight problems increase the risk of eating disorders in affected women compared to their unaffected sisters. Methods: Women (150) with anorexia (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from clinical and

N. Micali; J. Holliday; A. Karwautz; M. Haidvogl; G. Wagner; F. Fernandez-Aranda; A. Badia; L. Gimenez; R. Solano; M. Brecelj-Anderluh; R. Mohan; D. Collier; J. L. Treasure

2007-01-01

313

Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). Findings The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. Conclusions This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts. PMID:23173954

2012-01-01

314

When Teens' Eating Habits Become Unhealthy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders than may beset teenagers and seriously affect their health are discussed. Facts about causes, symptoms, and treatments for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, a disorder which involves overeating, followed by self-induced vomiting or purging, are presented. (PP)

Lucas, Alexander R.

1984-01-01

315

Space Place: Make Asteroids You Can Eat!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about asteroids. Learners will shape mashed potatoes into their own odd-shaped asteroids. They can then bake them in the oven to turn them (more or less) asteroid color, and eat them for dinner.

316

Prejudgments of Those Who Eat a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general public has acquired the belief that some foods promote healthfulness while others cause disease and death. Do these beliefs about foods influence our perceptions of those who routinely eat a \\

MICHAEL E. OAKES; CAROLE S. SLOTTERBACK

2004-01-01

317

Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)  

MedlinePLUS

... types, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. If a person is struggling with eating disorder thoughts, feelings or behaviors, but does not have all the symptoms of anorexia or bulimia, that person may be diagnosed ...

318

Guys with eating disorders: how to help.  

PubMed

It is possible that 1 to 3 million males in the United States have anorexia and bulimia; thousands more have other forms of disordered eating. Physical complaints of ten are the first admission of a problem, but symptoms can be misinterpreted resulting in misdiagnosis and ineffective treatment. This article discusses clinical sequelae of eating disorders, specific symptoms and issues in males, and important components of effective treatment. PMID:20632481

Lample, Samuel S; Gillum, Jan

2010-01-01

319

Anger and personality in eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to examine how anger, temperament and character profiles differ across subtypes of eating disorders (EDs) in comparison to healthy controls and to analyze the relationship between anger expression, eating attitudes and personality dimensions. Method: One hundred and thirty-five outpatients (50 of whom suffered from anorexia nervosa restrictor type [AN-R], 40 from anorexia nervosa binge\\/purging [AN-BP

Secondo Fassino; Giovanni Abbate Daga; Andrea Pierò; Paolo Leombruni; Giovanni Giacomo Rovera

2001-01-01

320

EAT-2, a SAP-like adaptor, controls NK cell activation through phospholipase C?, Ca++, and Erk, leading to granule polarization  

PubMed Central

Ewing’s sarcoma-associated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is an Src homology 2 domain-containing intracellular adaptor related to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP), the X-linked lymphoproliferative gene product. Both EAT-2 and SAP are expressed in natural killer (NK) cells, and their combined expression is essential for NK cells to kill abnormal hematopoietic cells. SAP mediates this function by coupling SLAM family receptors to the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and the exchange factor Vav, thereby promoting conjugate formation between NK cells and target cells. We used a variety of genetic, biochemical, and imaging approaches to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which EAT-2 controls NK cell activation. We found that EAT-2 mediates its effects in NK cells by linking SLAM family receptors to phospholipase C?, calcium fluxes, and Erk kinase. These signals are triggered by one or two tyrosines located in the carboxyl-terminal tail of EAT-2 but not found in SAP. Unlike SAP, EAT-2 does not enhance conjugate formation. Rather, it accelerates polarization and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules toward hematopoietic target cells. Hence, EAT-2 promotes NK cell activation by molecular and cellular mechanisms distinct from those of SAP. These findings explain the cooperative and essential function of these two adaptors in NK cell activation. PMID:24687958

Pérez-Quintero, Luis-Alberto; Roncagalli, Romain; Guo, Huaijian; Latour, Sylvain; Davidson, Dominique

2014-01-01

321

[Cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The former is characterized by failure to maintain a minimum normal body weight, while the latter is typified by recurrent binge eating followed by inappropriate compensating behavior, which may include self-inducing vomiting; abuse of laxatives, diuretics or other medications; fasting; and over-exercise. Because eating disorders are difficult to detect in the early stages and patients frequently try to hide their condition and avoid seeking medical help, medical treatment is sometimes sought only once a patient's condition poses an immediate threat to his/her health, or even life. Some patients suffer from chronic and treatment-refractory disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy, administered through partially-structured guidance and education, has been shown to treat eating disorders effectively by correcting associated maladaptive and distorted cognitions and behaviors. A review of articles published in the domestic and international literature over the past five years show that cognitive behavioral therapy is more effective in treating eating disorders than other traditional approaches. Therefore, we chose to focus this study on the cognitive behavioral therapy model. Nurses can employ cognitive behavioral therapy to help eating disordered patients address and overcome the core beliefs that underpin their disorder (e.g., compulsive concern about body weight or figure) and recover health. PMID:16874604

Yeh, Hui-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lai, Tzu-Ju; Chou, Kuei-Ru

2006-08-01

322

Animal Models of Compulsive Eating Behavior  

PubMed Central

Eating disorders are multifactorial conditions that can involve a combination of genetic, metabolic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Studies in humans and laboratory animals show that eating can also be regulated by factors unrelated to metabolic control. Several studies suggest a link between stress, access to highly palatable food, and eating disorders. Eating “comfort foods” in response to a negative emotional state, for example, suggests that some individuals overeat to self-medicate. Clinical data suggest that some individuals may develop addiction-like behaviors from consuming palatable foods. Based on this observation, “food addiction” has emerged as an area of intense scientific research. A growing body of evidence suggests that some aspects of food addiction, such as compulsive eating behavior, can be modeled in animals. Moreover, several areas of the brain, including various neurotransmitter systems, are involved in the reinforcement effects of both food and drugs, suggesting that natural and pharmacological stimuli activate similar neural systems. In addition, several recent studies have identified a putative connection between neural circuits activated in the seeking and intake of both palatable food and drugs. The development of well-characterized animal models will increase our understanding of the etiological factors of food addiction and will help identify the neural substrates involved in eating disorders such as compulsive overeating. Such models will facilitate the development and validation of targeted pharmacological therapies. PMID:25340369

Di Segni, Matteo; Patrono, Enrico; Patella, Loris; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Ventura, Rossella

2014-01-01

323

The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5?m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600?m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600?m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare. PMID:24587940

Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola

2014-01-01

324

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

325

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

326

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

327

Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses  

PubMed Central

Objectives The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Results Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Conclusions Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology. PMID:24391457

Holland, Lauren A.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.

2013-01-01

328

Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

2008-01-01

329

Eating Motives and the Controversy over Dieting: Eating Less Than Needed versus Less Than Wanted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-dieting sentiment has grown in recent years. Critics of restrained eating suggest that it evokes counter-regulatory responses that render it ineffective or even iatrogenic. However, restrained eaters are not in negative energy balance and overweight individuals show reduced eating problems when losing weight by dieting. A distinction is often drawn between physiological and psychological hunger, and neuroscience research has shown

Michael R. Lowe; Allen S. Levine

2005-01-01

330

Behavioral and Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Binge Eating in Bulimic and Binge Eating College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…

Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

331

Eating Competence: Definition and Evidence for the Satter Eating Competence Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence- and practice-based Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) outlines an inclusive definition of the interrelated spectrum of eating attitudes and behaviors. The model is predicated on the utility and effectiveness of biopsychosocial processes: hunger and the drive to survive, appetite and the need for subjective reward and the…

Satter, Ellyn

2007-01-01

332

Measuring the effect of a hygiene behaviour intervention by indicators of behaviour and diarrhoeal disease.  

PubMed

A social marketing approach used both qualitative and quantitative methods to develop a hygiene behaviour intervention in rural north-east Thailand. Behaviours were preselected from a previous study and the intervention was designed to promote hand washing, especially before feeding a baby, cooking, eating, and after defaecation or cleaning a baby's bottom, and dish washing immediately after eating. A bacteriological indicator (enumerating faecal streptococci using a finger impression technique) was developed to measure changes in hand washing behaviour and observation (spot checks) of dirty dishes to indicate dish washing practice. There was a significant improvement in both behaviours and a significant reduction in diarrhoeal disease as a result of the intervention. Furthermore, both indicators were retrospectively found to be positively related to diarrhoeal disease incidence. However, receiving and being able to recall the intervention messages was not necessarily sufficient to ensure behaviour change, as some adults found it difficult to change old habits. Villages showing the greatest improvement tended to have a stronger sense of community than others and to have more people actively involved in the intervention. PMID:8882177

Pinfold, J V; Horan, N J

1996-01-01

333

The value of unhealthy eating and the ethics of healthy eating policies.  

PubMed

Unhealthy eating can have value for individuals and groups, even while it has disvalue in virtue of being unhealthy. In this paper, we discuss some ways in which unhealthy eating has value and draw out implications for the ethics of policies limiting access to unhealthy food. Discussing the value and disvalue of unhealthy eating helps identify opportunities for reducing unhealthy eating that has little value, and helps identify opportunities for eliminating trade-offs between health and other values by making unhealthy food experiences healthier without eliminating their value. It also helps us think through when it is ethically acceptable, and when it might be ethically unacceptable, to limit valuable experience in order to promote health. Our discussion of the value and disvalue of eating is offered here as a necessary supplement to the familiar discussion of paternalism, autonomous choice, and public policy. PMID:25423848

Barnhill, Anne; King, Katherine F; Kass, Nancy; Faden, Ruth

2014-09-01

334

Review article: recognition and treatment of eating disorders in primary and secondary care.  

PubMed

Eating disorders are serious illnesses affecting 1-2% of young women. Patients may present to any doctor, sometimes atypically (e.g. unexplained weight loss, food allergy, infertility, diarrhoea), delaying diagnosis and leading to needless investigation. The cardinal signs are weight loss, amenorrhoea, bingeing with vomiting and other compensatory behaviours, and disturbances in body image with an exaggeration of the importance of slimness. When other causes have been excluded, useful investigations are serum potassium, bone mineral density scanning and pelvic ultrasound. In emaciated patients multiple systems may fail with pancytopaenia, neuromyopathy and heart failure. Clinical assessment of muscle power is used to monitor physical risk. Treatment may involve individual, group or family sessions, using cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and family approaches. More severe or intractable illness is treated with day care, with in-patient care in a medical or specialist psychiatric unit reserved for the most severely ill patients. Antidepressants have a place in the treatment of bulimia nervosa unresponsive to psychological approaches, and when severe depressive symptoms develop. The children of people with eating disorders may have an increased risk of difficulties. Support for the patient and family, and effective liaison between professionals, are essential in the treatment of severe eating disorders. PMID:10759615

Robinson, P H

2000-04-01

335

Emerging drugs for eating disorder treatment.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) comprise the currently recognised eating disorders. Although distinct diagnostic entities, they share certain forms of comorbid psychopathology, particularly anxiety and mood disorders. BN and BED have been studied most intensively as targets for pharmacotherapy. The list of drugs tested in eating disorders is substantial; however, the number of therapeutic classes of medications tested in these conditions is relatively modest. Antidepressant medications, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, as well as some of the novel antidepressants, have shown evidence of some therapeutic value in both BN and BED. Their efficacy in AN, however, has been disappointing. The pharmacological options for AN are very limited. The number of controlled trials that have been conducted is small, and the research that has been successfully completed has generally failed to demonstrate medication efficacy. Patients with BN typically show reduced binge eating and purging frequency in medication trials, but rarely attain abstinence. In BED, patients often measure the value of their medication therapy by its ability to stimulate weight loss, which is another area on which future pharmacotherapy may improve. Novel pharmacological interventions are needed for each of these conditions. Peptide hormones are increasingly being evaluated for eating disorder treatment, including ghrelin agonists, neuropeptide Y1 and -5 antagonists, orexin receptor antagonists, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 antagonists, histamine 3 antagonists, melanocortin 4 receptor antagonists, beta3-adrenoceptor agonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A antagonists and growth hormone agonists. Although these compounds are in early phases of clinical testing for eating disorder treatments, data from these studies will be instructive in the quest for effective pharmacotherapy for these conditions. An overview of the current pharmacotherapy options for eating disorders is presented with a discussion of the emerging potential treatments. PMID:16634704

Steffen, Kristine J; Roerig, James L; Mitchell, James E; Uppala, Saritha

2006-05-01

336

Intuitive eating in young adults: Who is doing it, and how is it related to disordered eating behaviors?  

PubMed Central

Intuitive eating (i.e., reliance on physiologic hunger and satiety cues to guide eating) has been proposed as a healthier, more effective, and more innate alternative to current strategies of weight management. The current study explored intuitive eating among young adults according to socio-demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI), and examined associations between intuitive and disordered eating behaviors. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III, a population-based study of 2,287 young adults (mean age: 25.3 years). More males reported trusting their bodies to tell them how much to eat than did females. Intuitive eating was inversely associated with BMI in both genders. Males and females who reported trusting their body to tell them how much to eat had lower odds of utilizing disordered eating behaviors compared to those that did not have this trust. Females who reported that they stop eating when they are full had lower odds of chronic dieting and binge eating than those who do not stop eating when full. Overall, this study found that intuitive eating practices are inversely associated with a number of harmful outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the concept of intuitive eating with their young adult patients to promote healthier weight-related outcomes. PMID:23063606

Denny, Kara N.; Loth, Katie; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

337

The Value of Indirect Measures for Assessing Food Preferences in Abnormal Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Indirect measures have been used for the assessment of food preferences. These measures are indirect in the sense that the\\u000a researcher does not ask a participant directly for his food preference, but derives his preference from a behavior. Typically,\\u000a the affective priming paradigm and the Implicit Association Test have been used. The relevant processes in these paradigms\\u000a are relatively automatic.

A. Roefs; M. Q. Werrij; F. T. Y. Smulders; A. Jansen

2006-01-01

338

Evaluate, assess, treat: development and evaluation of the EAT framework to increase effective communication regarding sensitive oral-systemic health issues.  

PubMed

Oral healthcare providers are likely to encounter a number of sensitive oral/systemic health issues whilst interacting with patients. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a framework aimed at oral healthcare providers to engage in active secondary prevention of eating disorders (i.e. early detection of oral manifestations of disordered eating behaviours, patient approach and communication, patient-specific oral treatment, and referral to care) for patients presenting with signs of disordered eating behaviours. The EAT Framework was developed based on the Brief Motivational Interviewing (B-MI) conceptual framework and comprises three continuous steps: Evaluating, Assessing, and Treating. Using a group-randomized control design, 11 dental hygiene (DH) and seven dental (D) classes from eight institutions were randomized to either the intervention or control conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Hierarchical linear models were conducted to measure the effects of the intervention whilst controlling for baseline levels. Statistically significant improvements from pre- to post-intervention were observed in the Intervention group compared with the Control group on knowledge of eating disorders and oral findings, skills-based knowledge, and self-efficacy (all P < 0.01). Effect sizes ranged from 0.57 to 0.95. No statistically significant differences in outcomes were observed by type of student. Although the EAT Framework was developed as part of a larger study on secondary prevention of eating disorders, the procedures and skills presented can be applied to other sensitive oral/systemic health issues. Because the EAT Framework was developed by translating B-MI principles and procedures, the framework can be easily adopted as a non-confrontational method for patient communication. PMID:23050505

DeBate, R D; Cragun, D; Gallentine, A A; Severson, H H; Shaw, T; Cantwell, C; Christiansen, S; Koerber, A; Hendricson, W; Tomar, S L; McCormack Brown, K; Tedesco, L A

2012-11-01

339

Behavioural Phenotype in Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLs) is an X-linked inherited disorder characterised by unusual facial features, abnormal fat distribution and intellectual disability. As many genetically determined disorders are characterised not only by physical features but also by specific behaviour, we studied whether a specific behavioural

de Winter, C. F.; van Dijk, F.; Stolker, J. J.; Hennekam, R. C. M.

2009-01-01

340

Neither restrained eating nor tendency toward overeating predict food consumption after tension induction.  

PubMed

The present study investigates whether the so-called disinhibition effect is better accounted for by tendency toward overeating than by restraint. The rationale was that in mood-induction studies, so far, the disinhibition effect has only been found in studies that applied the Restraint Scale and hardly ever in studies that used other restraint scales. Tension was induced by the public-speaking method in half of 86 female college students before they participated in an alleged taste test. The Restraint Scale (RS), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) were used to measure restraint and tendency toward overeating. No differences were found between the tension and the control condition as to the amounts of food the participants ate. Also no proof of the disinhibition effect was obtained and, remarkably, tendency toward overeating did not predict the amount of food eaten. Possible explanations for these results are offered in the discussion. PMID:17984631

Ouwens, M A; van Strien, T; van der Staak, C P

2007-09-01

341

[Factoranalytic Structure of a Short Version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-13) and Prevalences of Disordered Eating in a Representative German Sample.  

PubMed

Early detection of disordered eating behavior is a first hint to prevent clinically relevant eating disorders. Screening instruments are aimed at detecting disordered eating behavior at an early stage, to identify risk groups and as necessary initiate treatment. The EAT-13 is an economic screening instrument (13 items), that allows identification of risk groups in big unselected samples with help of determination of sum score. Factorial validity of the EAT-13 and the suitability for different ages were determined in a representative sample of the German population (N=2?508). Furthermore prevalence of disordered eating behavior was assessed in the sample. Results show that the EAT-13 is a reliable and economic screening instrument that is eligible to select risk groups. An inspection of criterion validity shall be conducted in further studies. PMID:25494187

Richter, Felicitas; Brähler, Elmar; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

2014-12-01

342

Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.  

PubMed

There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. PMID:24835403

Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

2014-07-01

343

Risk factors across the eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

2014-12-15

344

Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better Energize Yourself  

E-print Network

and eat better?............................................ 2 How much physical activity do I need? ................................. 3 How can I handle barriers to becoming more physically active know? Eating healthy foods and staying physically active can help you keep up with the demands of your

Rau, Don C.

345

Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... your food safer to eat. Salmonella is a bacteria and a common cause of foodborne illness, sometimes ... more common in the summer . Warmer weather gives bacteria more opportunity to contaminate food. When eating outdoors ...

346

I Have Braces: How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Food & Nutrition > I Have Braces. How Can I Eat Fruits and Veggies? Print ...

347

WellBee : mobile therapy for stress-related eating  

E-print Network

Stress has been shown to affect eating behavior which may lead to eating disorders. Stress may also affect health by causing the modification of behaviors such as physical exercise, smoking, or food choices. Thus, ...

Tam, Sharon W

2011-01-01

348

Noladin ether, a putative endocannabinoid, enhances motivation to eat after acute systemic administration in rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endocannabinoid systems are strongly implicated in the physiological control of appetite and eating behaviour, with cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists, respectively, increasing or decreasing food intake. This study examined the acute actions of the putative endocannabinoid noladin ether on food intake and eating motivation, assessing how it affects the amount of work expended by animals to obtain food. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Non-deprived male rats were injected systemically with noladin ether to assess its acute effects on ad libitum feeding of a standard laboratory diet. Additionally, the effects of noladin on lever pressing for palatable food were determined using a progressive ratio (PR) operant paradigm. KEY RESULTS Noladin dose dependently increased 2 h food intake, with a significant effect over 1 h after a dose of 0.5 mg·kg?1. In the PR test, this hyperphagic dose of noladin ether promoted sustained high rates of responding and significantly increased the total number of lever presses and break-point. These latter effects were prevented by pretreatment with 1.0 mg·kg?1 of the selective CB1 antagonist surinabant (SR147778), that alone had no effect on responding. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This is the first report of hyperphagia induced by acute noladin administration, and the first description of behavioural actions in rats. Consistent with prevailing notions about the role of endocannabinoids in appetite, a hyperphagic dose of noladin markedly increased efforts expended by animals to obtain food. Thus, noladin exerts a specific action on eating motivation; possibly promoting eating by increasing the incentive value of food. PMID:22309979

Jones, EK; Kirkham, TC

2012-01-01

349

Platelet serotonin transporter and 5-HT2A receptor binding in adolescents with eating disorders.  

PubMed

The pathogenetic involvement of the serotonergic system in eating disorders is an established finding. Conclusions from platelet studies are based on results from investigations of subjects with a mean age of 20 years or more. The aim was to investigate whether previous findings in adults are valid also for adolescents who are examined within a relatively short interval after the onset of the eating disorder. [(3)H]paroxetine binding to the platelet serotonin transporter and [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([(3)H]LSD) binding to the 5-HT2A receptor was studied in 15 female adolescents with eating disorders (11 with anorexia nervosa and 4 with clearly anorectic eating behaviour not fulfilling the criteria for anorexia nervosa) and 32 controls. The patients revealed a higher density of serotonin transporters and a lower density of 5-HT2A receptors compared with healthy controls of the same age (775 ± 165 vs. 614 ± 111 fmol/mg protein (p = 0.003) for [(3)H]paroxetine binding and 215 ± 59 vs. 314 ± 151 fmol/mg protein (p = 0.005) for [(3)H]LSD binding). The findings of increased density of platelet serotonin transporters and reduced density of 5-HT2A receptors differ from previous results in older patients. The lower patient age and the short duration of disease in the present study, possibly in conjunction with variations in stress-related psychological and biological factors, may have caused these differences. Although the present findings contradict prevailing evidence, they add further information concerning the nature of serotonergic involvement in eating disorders and indicate that demographic and course-related factors might influence the regulation of the serotonin system in these disorders. PMID:23360120

Sigurdh, Jeanette; Allard, Per; Spigset, Olav; Hägglöf, Bruno

2013-05-01

350

What Are New Zealand Children Eating at School? A Content Analysis of "Consumed versus Unconsumed" Food Groups in a Lunch-Box Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating patterns among school-aged children continue to be highly reliant on frequent consumption of food items that are perceived to have low or poor nutritional value. This has become a serious public health concern. In this New Zealand-based study, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was investigated via two sources: a…

Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Coad, Jane

2009-01-01

351

Evolution of a unique predatory feeding apparatus: functional anatomy, development and a genetic locus for jaw laterality in Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of behaviour or morphology. One striking example of an evolved asymmetry in vertebrates comes from a group of scale-eating cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika. Members of the Perissodini tribe of cichlid

Thomas A Stewart; R Craig Albertson

2010-01-01

352

A Multisite Investigation of Binge Eating Behaviors in Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenology of childhood and adolescent loss of control (LOC) eating is unknown. The authors interviewed 445 youths to assess aspects of aberrant eating. LOC was associated with eating forbidden food before the episode; eating when not hungry; eating alone; and experiencing secrecy, negative emotions, and a sense of "numbing" while eating

Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Goossens, Lien; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Ringham, Rebecca; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Braet, Caroline; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Olsen, Cara; Yanovski, Jack A.

2007-01-01

353

Eating Disorders Treatment Patterns by Age.  

PubMed

This longitudinal, retrospective study examines patterns in eating disorder outpatient mental health treatment by age. Participants (n = 5,445) included patients treated for an eating disorder, with claims for treatment from Cigna, a leading health care insurance provider in the United States. Treatments for individuals 55 and older were less expensive and shorter than for any other age group. Treatments for individuals 44-55 were less expensive than for 15-24. Individual therapy is the most common treatment modality, but younger individuals are likely to receive family therapy. Younger individuals have lower dropout and higher return to care rates. PMID:25412302

Ballard, Jaime; Crane, D Russell

2014-11-20

354

Partial eating disorders in newly drafted female recruits in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Eating-related behaviors and general psychopathology were assessed in 642 young Israeli women 10 to 14 days after being drafted\\u000a to the army. Weight and height were also recorded. Partial eating disorders were defined with the Eating Attitudes Test and\\u000a selected relevant criteria of the DSM-IV. Compared to subjects with no disturbed eating, individuals with partial anorexia\\u000a nervosa or partial

D. Stein; O. Luria; R. Tarrasch; N. Yoeli; D. Glick; A. Elizur; A. Weizman

1999-01-01

355

Eating Disorders in Men: Underdiagnosed, Undertreated, and Misunderstood  

PubMed Central

This article provides a survey of eating disorders in men, highlights the dramatic rise in eating disorders, identifies issues specific to males, and suggests areas for research and intervention. This survey concludes that men with eating disorders are currently under-diagnosed, undertreated, and misunderstood by many clinicians who encounter them. Ongoing research addressing these issues is expected to result in assessment tools and treatment interventions that will advance positive outcomes for men with eating disorders. PMID:22985232

Strother, Eric; Lemberg, Raymond; Stanford, Stevie Chariese; Turberville, Dayton

2012-01-01

356

Eating disorders today--not just a girl thing.  

PubMed

Most people envision eating disorders occurring in young women with anorexia or bulimia. Today, disordered eating is increasingly prevalent in males and in every age group, along with new terms: binge eating, bigorexia, orthorexia, and diabulimia. Healthcare providers aware of and knowledgeable about eating disorders, signs and symptoms, risk factors, and treatment are better able to screen patients, assist them in receiving help earlier, and increase the likelihood of successful outcomes. PMID:20632480

Hepworth, Kimberly

2010-01-01

357

Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample  

PubMed Central

Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18–24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:22888181

Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

2012-01-01

358

Confirmatory factor analysis of eating disorder symptoms in college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found that the eating disorders can best be conceptualized as multidimensional. Four factors have consistently emerged from factor analytic studies of eating disorder symptoms: dietary restraint, bulimic behaviors, neurotic personality characteristics, and body image\\/body dysphoria. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to determine if this four-factor structure of eating disorder symptoms would be found in a sample of

Paula J. Varnado; Donald A. Williamson; Richard Netemeyer

1995-01-01

359

Evaluation of Extinction as a Functional Treatment for Binge Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binge eating is a serious behavior problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating is thought to be maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotional responding. Current treatments produce only moderate abstinence, perhaps because they do not attempt…

Bosch, Amanda; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

2008-01-01

360

Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

2006-01-01

361

Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating  

E-print Network

Preliminary evidence that gonadal hormones organize and activate disordered eating KELLY L. KLUMP1, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA ABSTRACT Objective. Eating disorders are more common of studies examined these effects by investigating relationships between eating disorder symptoms, prenatal

Breedlove, Marc

362

Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

2010-01-01

363

Emotional Eating and Spiritual Well-Being: A Possible Connection?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationship between emotional eating and spiritual well-being. It was found that among college women lower levels of spiritual well-being correlated with higher levels of emotional eating (r = -0.22, p = 0.0015). In other studies emotional eating has been found to contribute to higher…

Hawks, Steven R.; Goudy, Marylynn B.; Gast, Julie A.

2003-01-01

364

Disordered Eating among Female Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disordered eating among American adolescent females represents a significant health issue in our current cultural climate. Disordered eating receives insufficient attention, however, due to the public's unfamiliarity with symptoms and consequences, absence of treatment options, and unreliable instrumentation to detect disordered eating. Disordered…

Bryla, Karen Y.

2003-01-01

365

Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

2001-01-01

366

African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

O'Neill, Shannon K.

2003-01-01

367

Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

Talleyrand, Regine M.

2010-01-01

368

Racial Differences in Eating Disorder Attitudes, Cigarette, and Alcohol Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed black and white college women regarding their eating disorder attitudes and use of cigarettes and alcohol. Black women used substances significantly less than whites. Substance use related to eating disorder symptoms. Women at highest risk of eating disorders reported highest levels of substance use. Negative affect reduction and weight…

Granner, Michelle L.; Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

2001-01-01

369

Observation of eating skills after stroke: dribbling food and chewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating difficulties after stroke are common. The mealtime care of patients is a nursing responsibility, but there are few tools to guide nurses in their assessment of patients' eating skills. In this paper the efficacy of observations of patients eating, as a means of identifying those who have difficulty with dribbling food and chewing, is considered. Twenty patients after a

EK Carr; PJ Hawthorn

1988-01-01

370

The Role of Relationship Attachment Styles in Disordered Eating Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined women's eating disorder symptoms and the quality of the attachment relationship with their mothers and romantic partners for a sample of 117 participants, ages 18 to 22. Seventeen of the participants were in treatment for an eating disorder and 100 were untreated college students, but engaging in binge eating. There were no significant differences between the groups

Erica Landrau; Jerome Short

2010-01-01

371

Changes in Television and Magazine Exposure and Eating Disorder Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between girls' media exposure and their development of eating disorder symptomatology was assessed. At Time 1 and Time 2 (16 months later), participants (N = 374; M age = 12.0) completed a questionnaire that assessed eating disorder sympto-matology and television and fashion magazine exposure. Girls were divided into 3 groups: increased, decreased, or no change in eating disorder

Kimberley K. Vaughan; Gregory T. Fouts

2003-01-01

372

Mindfulness and Acceptance in the Treatment of Disordered Eating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches to the treatment of clinical problems are accruing substantial empirical support. This article examines the application of these approaches to disordered eating. Theoretical bases for the importance of mindfulness and acceptance in the treatment of eating problems are reviewed, and interventions for eating problems that incorporate mindfulness and acceptance skills are briefly described. Empirical data are

Ruth A. Baer; Sarah Fischer; Debra B. Huss

2005-01-01

373

Eating Disorders and Social Support: Perspectives of Recovered Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorder researchers have focused more on the etiology and treatment and less on what happens for individuals during the recovery process from an eating disorder. For this qualitative study, we examined how social supports were helpful and hurtful during the eating disorder recovery process and learned about varying experiences with social supports from the perspectives of 22 recovered women.

Deanna Linville; Tiffany Brown; Katrina Sturm; Tori McDougal

2012-01-01

374

Effect of Binge Eating on Treatment Outcomes for Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of binge eating on smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: Participants (n = 186) reported binge eating status at baseline and at a 6-week postquit evaluation during a larger clinical trial for smoking cessation. Binge eating was defined with a single self-report questionnaire item from the Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale. Participant groups defined by binge eating status were compared on abstinence rates. Results: Among participants, 22% reported binge eating at baseline, 17% denied binge eating at baseline but endorsed binge eating by 6 weeks, and 61% denied binge eating at both timepoints. Participants who reported binge eating prior to or during treatment had lower quit rates at 6-week postquit and at the 24-week follow-up point than those without binge eating; the groups did not differ at the 12-week follow-up point. The group that experienced an emergence of binge eating reported significantly more weight gain than the other groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that treatments addressing problematic eating behaviors during smoking cessation are warranted. PMID:20889472

Peters, Erica N.; Toll, Benjamin A.

2010-01-01

375

Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

2001-01-01

376

Disordered Eating in Southwestern Pueblo Indians and Hispanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated incidence of eating disorders in Pueblo Indian and Hispanic high school students (N=95). Found no ethnic differences. Majority of girls reported wanting to lose weight, being worried about weight, and indulging in binge eating. Nine girls reported eating habits consistent with bulimia. Few boys indicated concerns about weight or…

Snow, Janeanne T.; Harris, Mary B.

1989-01-01

377

Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.  

PubMed

Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

2014-06-30

378

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Measure of Intuitive Eating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intuitive eating is characterized by eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues and is associated with psychological well-being. This study reports on the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) with data collected in 4 studies from 1,260 college…

Tylka, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

379

Using path analysis to understand parents’ perceptions of their children’s weight, physical activity and eating habits in the Champlain region of Ontario  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Parents have a fundamental role in promoting the healthy weight of their children. OBJECTIVES: To determine parental perceptions of their child’s body weight, eating and physical activity (PA) behaviours, and to test a predictive model of parental perceptions regarding their child’s PA and healthy eating behaviours. METHODS: A random-digit telephone survey was conducted among parents of children four to 12 years of age living in the Champlain region of Ontario. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the responses. Path analysis was used to identify predictors of parental perceptions of PA and healthy eating. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1940 parents/caregivers. Only 0.2% of parents reported their child as being obese; 8.6% reported their child as being overweight. Most parents perceived their child to be physically active and eating healthily. Approximately 25% of parents reported that their child spent 2 h/day or more in front of a screen, and that their child consumed less than three servings of fruits and vegetables daily, and regularly consumed fast food. Variables that correlated with PA perceptions included time spent reading/doing homework, interest in PA, perceived importance of PA, frequency of PA, level of parental PA, participation in organized sport, child weight and parental concern for weight. Variables that predicted perceptions regarding healthy eating were parental education, household income, preparation of home-cooked meals, fruit and vegetable intake, and concern for and influence on the child’s weight. CONCLUSIONS: Parents in the present study sample did not appear to understand, or had little knowledge of the recommendations for PA and healthy eating in children. Parents appeared to base their judgment of healthy levels of PA or healthy eating behaviours using minimal criteria; these criteria are inconsistent with those used by health professionals to define adequate PA and healthy eating. The present survey highlights an important knowledge gap between scientific opinion and parental perceptions of the criteria for healthy PA and eating behaviours. PMID:22043145

Adamo, Kristi B; Papadakis, Sophia; Dojeiji, Laurie; Turnau, Micheline; Simmons, Louise; Parameswaran, Meena; Cunningham, John; Pipe, Andrew L; Reid, Robert D

2010-01-01

380

Different Methods for Assessing the Features of Eating Disorders in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder: A Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare different methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 47 participants with BED were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Interview and completed the EDE-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at baseline. A total of 37 participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then

Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson

2001-01-01

381

A Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Features of Eating Disorders in Patients With Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared 3 methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and completed the EDE Questionnaire (EDE–Q) at baseline. Participants prospectively self-monitored their eating behaviors daily for 4 weeks and then completed another EDE–Q. The EDE and the EDE–Q were significantly correlated on

Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; G. Terence Wilson

2001-01-01

382

Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to describe weight concerns, dieting, and meal skipping of adolescents and to determine associations with the Healthy Eating Index-C (HEI-C). Data, that were collected using the Food Behaviour Questionnaire, revealed that participants (male=810, female=1016) in grades 9\\/10 reported weight concerns (n=518), dieting (n=364), and skipping breakfast (n=498), lunch (n=252), and\\/or dinner (n=129). Of those dieting or weight

Sarah J. Woodruff; Rhona M. Hanning; Irene Lambraki; Kate E. Storey; Linda McCargar

2008-01-01

383

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders., 5 Day Lesson Plan on Eating Disorders. Columbus, OH: National Eating Disorders Association, 1991

Jacobs, Lucia

384

Development and validation of an eating norms inventory. Americans' lay-beliefs about appropriate eating.  

PubMed

What do American adults believe about what, where, when, how much, and how often it is appropriate to eat? Such normative beliefs originate from family and friends through socialization processes, but they are also influenced by governments, educational institutions, and businesses. Norms therefore provide an important link between the social environment and individual attitudes and behaviors. This paper reports on five studies that identify, develop, and validate measures of normative beliefs about eating. In study 1 we use an inductive method to identify what American adults believe are appropriate or desirable eating behaviors. Studies 2 and 3 are used to purify and assess the discriminant and nomological validity of the proposed set of 18 unidimensional eating norms. Study 4 assesses predictive validity and finds that acting in a norm-consistent fashion is associated with lower Body Mass Index (BMI), and greater body satisfaction and subjective health. Study 5 assesses the underlying social desirability and perceived healthiness of the norms. PMID:21621572

Fisher, Robert J; Dubé, Laurette

2011-10-01

385

Emotional Processing of Infants Displays in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study is to examine emotional processing of infant displays in people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Background Social and emotional factors are implicated as causal and maintaining factors in EDs. Difficulties in emotional regulation have been mainly studied in relation to adult interactions, with less interest given to interactions with infants. Method A sample of 138 women were recruited, of which 49 suffered from Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 16 from Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and 73 were healthy controls (HCs). Attentional responses to happy and sad infant faces were tested with the visual probe detection task. Emotional identification of, and reactivity to, infant displays were measured using self-report measures. Facial expressions to video clips depicting sad, happy and frustrated infants were also recorded. Results No significant differences between groups were observed in the attentional response to infant photographs. However, there was a trend for patients to disengage from happy faces. People with EDs also reported lower positive ratings of happy infant displays and greater subjective negative reactions to sad infants. Finally, patients showed a significantly lower production of facial expressions, especially in response to the happy infant video clip. Insecure attachment was negatively correlated with positive facial expressions displayed in response to the happy infant and positively correlated with the intensity of negative emotions experienced in response to the sad infant video clip. Conclusion People with EDs do not have marked abnormalities in their attentional processing of infant emotional faces. However, they do have a reduction in facial affect particularly in response to happy infants. Also, they report greater negative reactions to sadness, and rate positive emotions less intensively than HCs. This pattern of emotional responsivity suggests abnormalities in social reward sensitivity and might indicate new treatment targets. PMID:25463051

Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

2014-01-01

386

Eating what you like induces a stronger decrease of ‘wanting’ to eat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human eating behavior may be influenced non-homeostatically by the rewarding value of foods, i.e. ‘liking’ (pleasure\\/palatability) and ‘wanting’ (incentive motivation). The objectives of this study were to validate a computer test for assessment of rewarding value of food, and to assess how rewarding value of food is affected by eating a dessert-specific (chocolate mousse, CM) vs. dessert non-specific, neutral food

Sofie G. T. Lemmens; Paul F. M. Schoffelen; Loek Wouters; Jurriaan M. Born; Mieke J. I. Martens; Femke Rutters; Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

2009-01-01

387

Sweet Eating: A Definition and the Development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight\\u000a and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding.\\u000a There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available.\\u000a Therefore, the aim

Margot van den Heuvel; Rogier Hörchner; Anneke Wijtsma; Noufissa Bourhim; Dascha Willemsen; Elisabeth M. H. Mathus-Vliegen

2011-01-01

388

The impact of eating methods on eating rate and glycemic response in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Singapore is an island state that is composed of three major ethnic groups, namely Chinese, Malay and Indian. Its inhabitants consume food either using chopsticks (Chinese), fingers (Malay and Indian) or spoon (Chinese, Malay and Indian). Previous work by our group showed that the degree of mastication significantly influenced the glycemic response. The degree of mastication in turn may depend on the eating method as the amount of food taken per mouthful and chewing time differs between eating methods. Eleven healthy volunteers came in on six non-consecutive days to the laboratory and evaluated three methods of eating white rice (spoon, chopsticks and fingers) once and the reference food (glucose solution) three times in a random order. Their glycemic response (GR) was measured for the subsequent 120 min. Mastication parameters were determined using surface electrode electromyography. The GR to white rice eating with chopsticks was significantly lower than spoon. The GI of eating rice with chopsticks was 68 which is significantly lower than eating with spoon (GI=81). However there were no differences between fingers and spoon, and between fingers and chopsticks either in GR 120 min or GI. The inter-individual number of mouthful, number of chews per mouthful, chewing time per mouthful and the total time taken to consume the whole portion of rice were significantly different between spoon and chopsticks groups. Significant correlations between the number of mouthful to take the entire portion of rice and amount of rice per mouthful during mastication and the GR were observed for eating rice with spoon and chopsticks, but not for fingers. The results suggest that individual differences in number of mouthful and amount of rice per mouthful may be two of the causes for inter-individual differences in the GR between spoon and chopsticks. The present study suggests that eating rice with different feeding tools has different chewing times and amount of food taken per mouthful and then alters the GI of the rice. PMID:25484351

Sun, Lijuan; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

2015-02-01

389

Pharmacotherapy of the eating disorders: A commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 10 yr, evidence has accummulated which indicates that the eating disorders of bulimia and anorexia nervosa (BN and AN) may be differentially affected by pharmacological treatment. Although the efficacy of drug treatment alone (relative to nonpharmacological approaches) has been debated, there is support for the generalization that all types of antidepressant medications have proven efficacious for bulimia

Claire Advokat; Vesna Kutlesic

1995-01-01

390

Organic Diseases Mimicking Atypical Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present three case studies of patients referred to Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, for evaluation of possible eating disorders. The atypical manifestations of the cases warranted further investigation, which revealed an organic basis for their weight loss. The authors summarize the typical findings of bulimia and anorexia nervosa and discuss the clues from the case studies

Kathryn Wright; Mark Scott Smith; Jeff Mitchell

1990-01-01

391

Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses.  

PubMed

Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

Seeman, Mary V

2014-12-22

392

Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

2013-01-01

393

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

394

Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

Halmi, Katherine A.

2009-01-01

395

Eating disorders and psychosis: Seven hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Psychotic disorders and eating disorders sometimes occur in the same person, and sometimes, but not always, at the same time. This can cause diagnostic confusion and uncertainty about treatment. This paper examines seven ways in which symptoms of both conditions can co-exist. The literature on this topic consists to a large extent of case reports, so that firm conclusions cannot be drawn from their examination. There is no consistent sequence in the co-occurrence of the two conditions-eating disorders sometimes precede, and sometimes follow the onset of psychosis. The advent of the psychosis, and sometimes the treatment of the psychosis can cure the eating disorder, but it can sometimes aggravate it. Psychosis is not necessarily a mark of severity in the course of an eating disorder, and food refusal can occur independent of severity in psychotic illness, but it can be a cause of death. There is some genetic association and some overlap of physiologic, cognitive and brain structure deficits in the two types of disorder. The connection between the two, however, remains speculative. The area of comorbidity and overlapping symptoms in psychiatry requires more research. Clinical recommendations include attention to the different individual ways in which these two disparate conditions often overlap. PMID:25540726

Seeman, Mary V

2014-01-01

396

Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

Hamilton, Kristin L.

397

SEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH EATING DISORDERS  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe sexual functioning in women with eating disorders. Method We assessed physical intimacy, libido, sexual anxiety, partner and sexual relationships in 242 women from the International Price Foundation Genetic Studies relative to normative data. Results Intercourse (55.3%), having a partner (52.7%), decreased sexual desire (66.9%), and increased sexual anxiety (59.2%) were common. Women with restricting and purging anorexia nervosa had a higher prevalence of loss of libido than women with bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified (75%, 74.6%, 39% and 45.4%, respectively). Absence of sexual relationships was associated with lower minimum lifetime body mass index (BMI) and earlier age of onset; loss of libido with lower lifetime BMI, higher interoceptive awareness and trait anxiety; and sexual anxiety with lower lifetime BMI, higher harm avoidance and ineffectiveness. Sexual dysfunction in eating disorders was higher than in the normative sample. Conclusion Sexual dysfunction is common across eating disorders subtypes. Low BMI is associated with loss of libido, sexual anxiety, and avoidance of sexual relationships. PMID:19260036

Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Raney, TJ; Thornton, Laura M.; Fichter, Manfred M.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A.; Kaplan, Allan S.; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2009-01-01

398

Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

1988-01-01

399

Pasteurization of Ready-to-Eat Meats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A microwave heating system was developed for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats. Frankfurters, inoculated and vacuum-sealed in plastic packages, were subjected to heating, with the package surface temperature increased to and maintained at three temperature set points for dif...

400

How UAPB students eat: Preliminary results  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The University of Arkansas – Pine Bluff Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project (DOPRP) is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excess weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of a healthy weight during the college years. Adjusting to college life ...

401

Let's Eat for the Health of It  

MedlinePLUS

... much sodium may increase your blood pressure. Choose foods and drinks with little or no added sugars. • • • Drink water instead of sugary drinks. There are about 10 packets of sugar in a 12-ounce can of soda. Select fruit for dessert. Eat sugary desserts less often. Choose 100% fruit ...

402

Preventing obesity: What should we eat?  

E-print Network

of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity. Lancet 357:total sugar intake is either not associated with obesity orsugars and fruit juice, as well as food variety, portion size, frequency of eating, and snacking were not consistently related to obesity.

Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Gerstein, Dana; Smith, Dorothy; Crawford, Pat B

2007-01-01

403

The Eating Paradox: How We Tolerate Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that food, which is certainly a necessary commodity with powerful positive reinforcing qualities, also provides a potential threat to organisms, including humans. The act of eating, although necessary for the provision of energy, is a particularly disruptive event in a homeostatic sense. Just as humans learn responses to help them tolerate the administration of dangerous drugs, so

Stephen C. Woods

1991-01-01

404

healthy eating for an active lifestyle  

E-print Network

-fat cuts of beef or pork, and skinless chicken or turkey. Get your protein from seafood twice a week Education Series Fruits Grains Vegetables Protein Dairy DG TipSheet No. 25 March 2013 Center for Nutrition-packed food, including whole grains, lean protein, fruits and vegetables, and low-fat or fat-free dairy. Eat

Milchberg, Howard

405

UF in Poland Learn, Eat, Teach (LET)  

E-print Network

UF in Poland Learn, Eat, Teach (LET) Summer A: June 7 - 20, 2015 Learn about the specificity of food in Poland Enjoy flavors of Polish and other regional cuisines Teach others about UF and the U of Life Sciences ALS 4404: Food Customs & Production in Poland (3 UF GPA credits) Total Number of Credits

Jawitz, James W.

406

The bright side of stress-induced eating: eating more when stressed but less when pleased.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that approximately 40% to 50% of the population increase food consumption under stressful conditions. The prevailing view is that eating in response to stress is a type of maladaptive self-regulation. Past research has concentrated mainly on the negative effects of social stress on eating. We propose that positive social experiences may also modulate eating behavior. In the present study, participants were assigned to social-exclusion, neutral, and social-inclusion conditions. In a subsequent bogus taste test, the amount of ice cream eaten and habitual stress-related eating were measured. After being socially excluded, people who habitually eat more in response to stress (stress hyperphagics) ate significantly more than people who habitually eat less in response to stress (stress hypophagics). Conversely, after being socially included, stress hyperphagics ate significantly less than stress hypophagics. The present findings provide the first evidence for complementary adjustments of food consumption across positive and negative situations. Implications of these findings for the relationship of stress and body weight are discussed. PMID:24166853

Sproesser, Gudrun; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

2014-01-01

407

Lesson of the month (1): cabergoline - 'i eat funny on that'.  

PubMed

We present the case of a patient treated for hyperprolactinaemia with weekly doses of cabergoline for 12 years. Over this time she had suffered from binge eating and compulsive shopping which impacted on her weight and made her finances precarious. We discuss the features of impulse control disorders and suggest that seeking out these side effects in patients taking such agents is important. The behaviours may be embarrassing and patients may not volunteer them, likewise if the doctor dismisses them they may continue unabated, causing significant social harm. PMID:24715137

Premaratne, Vidath Sasanka; Saeger, Ivan; Macdonald, Bridget K

2014-04-01

408

Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: Relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed. PMID:25186250

Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

2015-02-01

409

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

410

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-08-01

411

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

412

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

413

Plasma Ghrelin in Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating Disorder: Relations with Eating Patterns and Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol and Thyroid Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in

Alfonso Troisi; Giorgio Di Lorenzo; Ilaria Lega; Manfredi Tesauro; Aldo Bertoli; Roberto Leo; Micaela Iantorno; Chiara Pecchioli; Stefano Rizza; Mario Turriziani; Renato Lauro; Alberto Siracusano

2005-01-01

414

Eating disorder psychopathology, brain structure, neuropsychological correlates and risk mechanisms in very preterm young adults.  

PubMed

This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at <33?weeks of gestation. Structural brain correlates and risk factors at birth, in childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21?years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15?years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14?years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd. PMID:25645448

Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

2015-03-01

415

Self-objectification, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptoms in young Australian children.  

PubMed

Self-objectification has been examined extensively in adult populations. Despite theoretical evidence suggesting that children may also be vulnerable to experiencing self-objectification, whether children do self-objectify has not been determined. Accordingly, the present study examined the degree to which children self-objectify. The prevalence of body image and eating disturbances in this population, and the relationship between self-objectification and these disturbances, were also investigated. Results from over 250 boys and girls aged 6-11 years revealed that young girls report levels of self-objectification that are similar to those observed among older girls and women. Self-objectification was also found to be meaningfully related to body image and eating disturbances in children. A significant proportion of children reported body dissatisfaction and a minority engaged in disordered eating behaviours in the four weeks prior to the assessment. These results suggest that children may be at risk of experiencing the negative psychological outcomes associated with self-objectification. PMID:24958665

Jongenelis, Michelle I; Byrne, Susan M; Pettigrew, Simone

2014-06-01

416

Eating 'attentively' reduces later energy consumption in overweight and obese females.  

PubMed

Attentional and memory processes underpin appetite control, but whether encouraging overweight individuals to eat more 'attentively' can promote reductions in energy consumption is unclear. In the present study with a between-subjects design, a total of forty-eight overweight and obese females consumed a fixed lunchtime meal. Their ad libitum energy intake of high-energy snack food was observed during a second laboratory session that occurred later that day. In the focused-attention condition, participants ate their lunch while listening to audio instructions that encouraged them to pay attention to the food being eaten. In a control condition, participants ate while listening to an audio book with a neutral (non-food-related) content. To test whether focused attention influenced food intake via enhancing the memory of the earlier consumed meal, we measured the participants' memory of their lunchtime meal. Ad libitum snack intake was approximately 30 % lower for participants in the focused-attention condition than for those in the control condition, and this difference was statistically significant. There was limited evidence that attention decreased later food intake by enhancing memory representation of the earlier consumed meal. Eating attentively can lead to a substantial decrease in later energy intake in overweight and obese individuals. Behavioural strategies that encourage a more 'attentive' way of eating could promote sustained reductions in energy intake and weight loss. PMID:24933322

Robinson, Eric; Kersbergen, Inge; Higgs, Suzanne

2014-08-28

417

Well London Phase-1: results among adults of a cluster-randomised trial of a community engagement approach to improving health behaviours and mental well-being in deprived inner-city neighbourhoods  

PubMed Central

Background We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Methods Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 5×30?m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. Results There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: ?1.52, 95% CI ?3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: ?0.14, 95% CI ?0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). Conclusions The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings. There is a need for greater investment in refining such programmes before implementation; new methods to understand, longitudinally different pathways residents take through such interventions and their outcomes, and new theories of change that apply to each pathway. PMID:24489043

Phillips, Gemma; Bottomley, Christian; Schmidt, Elena; Tobi, Patrick; Lais, Shahana; Yu, Ge; Lynch, Rebecca; Lock, Karen; Draper, Alizon; Moore, Derek; Clow, Angela; Petticrew, Mark; Hayes, Richard; Renton, Adrian

2014-01-01

418

The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Methods: Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. Results: The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1?±?75.8?m versus 682.7?±?98.4, p?eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder. PMID:25030711

Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

2014-07-17

419

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

420

Risk of eating disorders among university students in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: As there is a lack of information on eating disorders in Bangladesh, the aim of this study was to explore the eating disorder attitudes and behaviors among undergraduate university students in the country. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurement were conducted with undergraduate students who were recruited randomly from classes. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes. The sample included 800 university students (56.6% men and 43.4% women), with a mean age of 21.0 years (SD=32.5). Results: Using the EAT-26, 37.6% of the students were classified as being at risk for an eating disorder. In multivariate analysis, being a late adolescent (17-19 years), high religious involvement, overweight body perception, low body appreciation, having had cosmetic surgery, and current binge drinking were found to be associated with an eating disorder risk. Discussion: Very high rates of eating disorder risk were found. This result calls for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders, and related risk factors and interventions in university students in Bangladesh. PMID:25153370

Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin

2014-08-12

421

Anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study investigates anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders. Seventy eating disorder (ED) patients and fifty-one female matched control subjects completed State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and 88-items Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). ED patients were more anxious in actual situations and more anxiety prone in general. They relied on maladaptive action and Image distorting defense style. Bulimic anorexic (BAN) patients and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients differed in defense styles from restrictive anorexic (RAN) patients who displayed no significant difference in either state and trait anxiety or in defense styles when compared to healthy patients. Different levels of anxiety and ego defense maturity are present in ED patients. The almost normal ego functioning of RAN patients could be explained by pseudomaturity, tendency to control external and internal environment and the unconscious efforts to imitate normality to avoid conflicts. PMID:12955902

Vidovi?, Vesna; Henigsberg, Neven; Juresa, Vesna

2003-01-01

422

Hyperamylasemia in patients with eating disorders.  

PubMed

Hyperamylasemia, which has been reported in patients with the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, generally has been thought to result from pancreatitis. To evaluate the mechanisms of hyperamylasemia, we measured amylase, lipase, and isoamylase activity in 17 consecutive patients admitted to the eating disorder unit. Six patients had elevated amylase activity, and 5 of these 6 had isolated increases in salivary isoamylase activity. Six other patients had normal serum total amylase activity but modest elevations in the salivary isoamylase fraction. No patient developed clinical evidence of pancreatitis during hospitalization. Thus, the hyperamylasemia in patients with anorexia and bulimia often is caused by increased salivary-type amylase activity. The appropriate diagnostic test for hyperamylasemia in patients with anorexia or bulimia is the simple measurement of serum lipase or pancreatic isoamylase activity. If these levels are found to be normal, further tests to exclude pancreatitis are unnecessary. PMID:2431640

Humphries, L L; Adams, L J; Eckfeldt, J H; Levitt, M D; McClain, C J

1987-01-01

423

To eat or not to eat. The effects of expectancy on reactivity to food cues.  

PubMed

Cue reactivity may be determined by the ability of cues to evoke expectations that a reward will be imminently received. To test this possibility, the current study examined the effects of manipulating expectations about the receipt of food (pizza) on self-reported and physiological responses to pizza cues, and attentional bias to pizza pictures. It was predicted that expecting to eat pizza would increase salivation, self-reported measures of motivation and attentional bias to pizza cues relative to conditions where there was no eating expectancy. In a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 42 hungry participants completed two pizza-cue exposures in a single experimental session during which their expectation of consuming the pizza was manipulated (i.e., expectancy of eating imminently vs. no eating expectancy). They also completed a computerised attentional bias task during which the probability of receiving pizza (0%, 50% or 100%) was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Participants showed reliable increases in hunger and salivation in response to the pizza cues, as well as a bias in attentional maintenance on pizza pictures. However, these responses were not influenced by eating expectancy. Contrastingly, expectancy did influence early attentional processing (initial orientation of attention) in that participants directed their first gaze towards pizza pictures more often on 100% and 50% probability trials relative to 0% trials. Overall, our findings indicate that exposure to food cues triggers appetitive responses regardless of explicit expectancy information. Methodological features of the study that may account for these findings are discussed. PMID:24530655

Hardman, Charlotte A; Scott, Jade; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew

2014-05-01

424

I Working with dissociative dynamics and the longing for excess in binge eating disorders.  

PubMed

In this paper the author describes her work with a woman who, in her mid 20s, sought analysis for her non-vomiting binge eating disorder. The paper explores how two aspects of Jung's view of the psyche as healthily dissociable were used to think about the potential for change contained within the explosive, aggressive energies in this patient's bingeing. The resultant approach takes the patient's splitting defences, dissociations and self-destructive behaviour as a point of access to her unconscious. Seen in this way, these behaviours contain the seeds of recovery and are the starting point for analysis rather than defences against it. The paper also brings a number of Jungian and post-Jungian ideas into conversation with aspects of contemporary thinking about subjectivity, identity and the longing for excess developed by Leo Bersani and Judith Butler. PMID:23750938

Austin, Sue

2013-06-01

425

Ant eating behavior of mountain gorillas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven cases of feeding on driver ants (Dorylus sp.) by mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) are described. Ant eating provides the gorillas with more animal protein and other nutrients per unit feeding time than\\u000a do other forms of insectivory that contribute to their diet, but it is so rare that it is unlikely to be of real nutritional\\u000a significance. Gorillas

David P. Watts

1989-01-01

426

ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON EATING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Obesity has increased dramatically over the past two decades and cur- rently about 50% of US adults and 25% of US children are overweight. The current epidemic,of obesity is caused largely by an environment,that promotes,excessive food intake and discourages,physical activity. This chapter reviews what is known,about environmental,influences on physical activity and eating behaviors. Recent trends in food supply,

Simone A French; Mary Story; Robert W Jeffery

2001-01-01

427

The Health, Eating, Activity, & Lifestyle (HEAL) Study  

Cancer.gov

The Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study began in 1996. It enrolled approximately 1,200 women with early stage breast cancer and has completed 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up. Follow-up has been both active (at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years for recurrences and updates of exposure variables) and passive (yearly through the respective SEER registries for vital status and second primaries).

428

Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

2012-02-01

429

New frontiers in endocrinology of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Alterations of both central and peripheral feeding regulatory substances occur in the acute phases of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and, generally, reverse after recovery. Some of these alterations are believed not only to sustain the altered eating behavior but also to contribute to certain psychopathological aspects and/or etiopathogenetic processes of eating disorders (EDs). It has been suggested that EDs are clinical conditions linked to reward-related mechanisms leading to a kind of addiction to self-starvation and/or overeating. Most of the feeding regulatory substances, which are dysregulated in EDs, are also implicated in the modulation of reward, emotional, and cognitive functions, thus representing possible links between altered nutritional regulation, motivated behaviors and reward processes. In this chapter, the ED literature dealing with ghrelin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, opioid peptides, and endocannabinoids, which have prominent effects on eating behavior, body weight, reward, emotional, and cognitive functions, is reviewed in view of the above suggested links. Moreover, the potential therapeutics of new medications developed on the basis of neuroendocrine aberrations found in EDs is also presented. PMID:21243477

Monteleone, Palmiero

2011-01-01

430

The Nutrition Source: Knowledge for Healthy Eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard School of Public Health set up this Web site to serve as a thorough source of scholarly material on the subjects of nutrition and healthy eating. As the site notes, "we explore the latest science about healthy eating for adults, answering key questions about what you should eat." The site is divided into sections such as Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fiber, each of which features an extended essay providing helpful information about each topic and debunking certain myths about different foodstuffs that are often perpetuated by the media or their mere ubiquity. Some of the subjects addressed by the different sections include the now-legendary butter versus margarine debate that began several decades ago and the contention that fiber may significantly reduce the risk of colon cancer. Perhaps the most helpful section on the site is titled Interpreting News on Diet, which is devoted to explaining the nature of the multitude of medical and scientific studies on nutrition and their subsequent coverage in the media.

2002-01-01

431

Anorexia and Eating Patterns in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the change in eating habits occurring in community- dwelling and institutionalized elderly subjects with senile anorexia. Design Cross- sectional, observational. Setting Community, nursing homes and rehabilitation or acute care facilities in four Italian regions. Participants A random sample of 526 subjects, aged 65 years and older (217 free living individuals, 213 residents in nursing homes, and 93 patients in rehabilitation and acute wards). Measurements All subjects underwent a multidimensional geriatric evaluation of: nutritional status, anthropometric parameters, health and cognitive status, depression, taste, chewing and swallowing function, and some hormones related to appetite. Diet variety was assessed, considering the frequency of consumption of different food groups (milk and dairy products; meat, fish, and eggs; cereals and derivatives; fruit and vegetables). Results In anorexic elderly subjects the global food intake was reduced, and the eating pattern was characterized by the reduced consumption of certain food groups (“meat, eggs and fish” and “fruit and vegetables”) whereas the frequency of consumption of milk and cereals remained almost unchanged. Nutritional parameters were significantly better in normal eating subjects and correlated with diet variety. Conclusion Because of the high prevalence of senile anorexia in the geriatric population and its impact on the nutritional status, further research should be prompted to establish an intervention. protocol allowing the early diagnosis of anorexia of aging, aimed at identifying its causes and at optimizing treatment of anorexic patients. PMID:23658838

Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Piredda, Maria; Pinto, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Mario; Cucinotta, Domenico; Sergi, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

432

Perspectives on Healthy Eating Among Appalachian Residents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. Methods During 8 focus groups (N=99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N=20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Findings Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extra-individual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents’ recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. Conclusions We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. PMID:23944277

Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Howell, Britteny M.; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

2013-01-01

433

A Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating  

E-print Network

, including helping a user with obesity, eating disorders or eating rate problems. Index Terms--Eating monitorA Device for Detecting and Counting Bites of Food Taken by a Person During Eating Yujie Dong1, Adam was recorded of subjects eating, and synchronized with our device, in order to evaluate its performance

Hoover, Adam

434

7 Mindful Eating Tips Contributed by Susan Albers, PsyD  

E-print Network

7 Mindful Eating Tips Contributed by Susan Albers, PsyD © 2004 National Eating Disorders Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders routine eating habits by examining the thoughts, feelings and internal pressures that affect how and why

Walker, Matthew P.

435

Effects of territorial intrusions, courtship feedings and mate fidelity on the copulation behaviour of the osprey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied copulation behaviour of the osprey, Pandion haliaetus, a semicolonial, fish-eating raptor, in Corsica (Mediterranean). Pairs copulated over a long period (45 days) and at a high rate, with, on average, 288 within-pair copulations (WPCs) for a clutch. Pairs breeding at higher density faced more frequent territorial intrusions than others and were potentially at an increased cuckoldry risk. However,

F. Mougeot; J.-C. Thibault; V. Bretagnolle

2002-01-01

436

Social and reproductive behaviour in the Madagascan poison frog, Mantella laevigata, with comparisons to the dendrobatids  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present the first behavioural study of natural populations of a Madagascan poison frog. Focal watches of marked individuals were conducted for 925h, in five populations, across two seasons. Like the New World dendrobatids, these diurnal anurans eat ants and are aposematically coloured. Data are presented that provide additional instances of convergence with the dendrobatids, including (1) extended male–male fights

Heather E. Heying

2001-01-01

437

More than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported to  

E-print Network

disorders (especially obsessive­compulsive disorder), suicide, eating disorders, substance-abuse disordersMore than twelve different human behavioural traits and whole-body medical disorders are reported, respectively) seem to have a role in neuropsychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety

Murphy, Dennis L.

438

Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. Method The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Results This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. Conclusion This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world. PMID:19030149

Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A.

2004-01-01

439

Eating pathology in female gymnasts: potential risk and protective factors.  

PubMed

Although participation in sports that emphasize aestheticism, such as women's gymnastics, are associated with higher rates of eating pathology, little is known about the risk and protective factors involved in this process. We established and tested a model proposing that body surveillance and body shame are processes by which pubertal development and training may uniquely contribute to pathological eating by sampling 100 competitive female gymnasts via questionnaires. We further tested whether self-esteem moderated several model relationships. Results demonstrated that pubertal development was associated with higher levels of body surveillance, body shame and disordered eating; whereas greater time spent training was associated with lower levels of body shame and disordered eating. Finally higher self-esteem was associated with lower levels of disordered eating, less body surveillance, and less body shame. Potential risk and protective factors for the development of eating pathology in female gymnasts are discussed. PMID:25173666

Harriger, Jennifer A; Witherington, David C; Bryan, Angela D

2014-09-01

440

Obsessive compulsive symptoms at initial presentation of adolescent eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders has often been reported in the literature. It has\\u000a been suggested that the association may be accounted for by depression, starvation or family factors but the literature remains\\u000a inconclusive. In this study self-report scales were used to measure eating attitudes, obsessional symptoms, depressive symptoms\\u000a and family functioning in an eating disordered

E. Cassidy; M. Allsopp; T. Williams

1999-01-01

441

Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

2013-01-01

442

Night eating syndrome: Evaluation of two screening instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether night eating syndrome was associated with treatment outcomes during a brief weight loss intervention for self-identified night snackers, and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a screening question and the Night Eating Syndrome Questionnaire (NESQ) for the detection of night eating syndrome.Participants enrolled in a 4-week randomized clinical trial for

Jillon S. Vander Wal; Sandia M. Waller; David M. Klurfeld; Michael I. McBurney; Nikhil V. Dhurandhar

2005-01-01

443

Normal and abnormal skin color.  

PubMed

The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. PMID:23522626

Ortonne, J P

2012-12-01

444

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide and requires lifelong therapy. Hyperfunction of the\\u000a dopaminergic system has long been hypothesized as the underlying cause of schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis explains\\u000a mostly the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence point to the glutamatergic system and\\u000a suggest that abnormalities in this system may play a crucial role

Yogesh Dwivedi; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

445

Eating disorders in the twenty-first century.  

PubMed

The first description of anorexia nervosa appeared in the literature over three hundred years ago. Since then, much has been learned about eating disorders, including the different presentations, medical complications, prognosis, and treatment strategies. In spite of this knowledge, the prevalence of eating disorders continues to grow. As well, eating disorders are seen in increasing frequency among males, children, and adults, and from all cultures and ethnicities. Of particular concern, is that patients with eating disorders often first present because of a complication such as amenorrhea, syncope, or abdominal pain, without disclosing the eating disorder. Therefore, all physicians should be aware of the various presentations of eating disorders, including the medical complications and risks, and be able to screen for a possible eating disorder. The major medical complications are due to the decreased caloric intake which leads to a hypometabolic state. While most complications are reversible with recovery, some, such as bone loss, may not be. Of particular concern during recovery is the possible development of a refeeding syndrome which occurs as the body goes from a catabolic to an anabolic state, causing hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, which can lead to delirium, coma and death. Of further concern is that eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders at 5.6% per decade. This article will review the changing demographics, medical complications, treatment options, and prognosis of eating disorders. PMID:22036757

Weiselberg, E C; Gonzalez, M; Fisher, M

2011-12-01

446

Eating problems and interpersonal functioning among several groups of women.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between eating disorders and problems in interpersonal functioning. Questionnaires that measure eating problems, interpersonal adjustment, and general neuroticism were completed by several groups of women: anorexic patients, persons whose interests or occupations involved a concern about bodily shape or condition (dancers, models, and athletes), and members of the general public. A substantial and significant relationship was found between eating symptomatology and interpersonal functioning in all groups. However, this association survived only in the anorexic patient group when general neuroticism was partialled out. We take this to imply that psychosocial difficulties are unlikely to play a strong role in the initial development of eating problems. PMID:7560134

O'Mahony, J F; Hollwey, S

1995-05-01

447

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES LILLIAN ROSE STEGNE MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP $5, pursuing studies related to Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences. Deadline Four copies of the completed: Psychiatry Education Office c/o Nancy Devlin Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences St. Joseph

Hitchcock, Adam P.

448

Eating habits and eating behaviors by family dinner frequency in the lower-grade elementary school students  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, there has been an increased interest in the importance of family meals on children's health and nutrition. This study aims to examine if the eating habits and eating behaviors of children are different according to the frequency of family dinners. SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were third-grade students from 70 elementary schools in 17 cities nationwide. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed. The survey questionnaire was composed of items that examined the general characteristics, family meals, eating habits, eating behaviors, and environmental influence on children's eating. The subjects responded to a self-reported questionnaire. Excluding the incomplete responses, the data (n = 3,435) were analyzed using ?2-test or t-test. RESULTS The group that had more frequent family dinners (? 5 days/week, 63.4%), compared to those that had less (? 4 days/week, 36.6%), showed better eating habits, such as eating meals regularly, performing desirable behaviors during meals, having breakfast frequently, having breakfast with family members (P < 0.001), and not eating only what he or she likes (P < 0.05). Those who had more frequent family dinners also consumed healthy foods with more frequency, including protein foods, dairy products, grains, vegetables, seaweeds (P < 0.001), and fruits (P < 0.01). However, unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g., eating fatty foods, salty foods, sweets, etc.) were not significantly different by the frequency of family dinners. CONCLUSIONS Having dinner frequently with family members was associated with more desirable eating habits and with healthy eating behaviors in young children. Thus nutrition education might be planned to promote family dinners, by emphasizing the benefits of having family meals on children's health and nutrition and making more opportunities for family meals. PMID:25489408

Lee, Seo Yeon; Ha, Seong Ah; Seo, Jung Sook; Sohn, Cheong Min; Park, Hae Ryun

2014-01-01

449

Behavioural aspects of cerebellar function in adults with Asperger EMMA GOWEN & R. CHRIS MIALL  

E-print Network

Behavioural aspects of cerebellar function in adults with Asperger syndrome EMMA GOWEN & R. CHRIS from social deficits, Asperger and autistic individuals also exhibit motor control abnormalities in Asperger individuals. Tests examining visually guided movement (rapid pointing), speeded complex movement

Miall, Chris

450

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

451

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders, and binge eating disorder. Genuine awareness will help you avoid judgmental or mistaken attitudes about food

Walker, Matthew P.

452

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders this instead of any diet, and you're likely to maintain a healthy weight and avoid eating disorders. Listen

Jacobs, Lucia

453

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders your physical body weight or shape. #12;© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission

Walker, Matthew P.

454

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders to solve problems, establishing goals, and contributing to life. View exercise and balanced eating

Walker, Matthew P.

455

2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed.  

E-print Network

© 2005 National Eating Disorders Association. Permission is granted to copy and reprint materials for educational purposes only. National Eating Disorders Association must be cited and web address listed. www.NationalEatingDisorders will avoid categorizing foods as either "good" or "bad." I will not associate guilt or shame with eating

Jacobs, Lucia

456

Discounting of Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards by Women with and without Binge Eating Disorder.  

E-print Network

??Obese individuals with binge eating disorder: BED) exhibit more general and eating-disordered psychopathology than obese individuals without BED. Binge eating also impedes weight-loss efforts, already… (more)

Manwaring, Jamie

2009-01-01

457

Female Collegiate Athletes: Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors assessed the prevalence of pathogenic eating and weight-control behaviors among female college athletes, using a psychometrically valid measure. Participants: Participants were 204 college athletes (M age = 20.16 years, SD = 1.31 years) from 17 sports at 3 universities. On average, they participated in their sport for 10.88…

Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Carter, Jennifer; Reel, Justine J.

2009-01-01

458

Mood, eating attitudes, and anger in obese women with and without Binge Eating Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anger levels and their management in obese patients. Methods: A total of 103 obese women [51 with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and 52 without BED] were included in the study and compared to 93 healthy controls. They were assessed with the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),

Secondo Fassino; Paolo Leombruni; Andrea Pierò; Giovanni Abbate-Daga; Giovanni Giacomo Rovera

2003-01-01

459

Intuitive Eating: Associations With Physical Activity Motivation and BMI.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To determine whether university women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating behavior may also be internally motivated to participate in regular physical activity (PA) and have a lower body mass index (BMI) when controlling for age. Traditional approaches for health promotion related to healthy weight include restrictive eating and exercise prescription. Examining motivation for eating and PA may prove an effective alternative for achieving or maintaining healthy weight for university women. Design . Design was a cross-sectional study. Setting . Study setting was a large, public university in the western United States. Subjects . Study subjects were 200 undergraduate women with a mean age of 19 years, mostly white (90%) and of healthy weight (69%, with a BMI range of 18.5-24.9). Measures . Study measures were the Intuitive Eating Scale and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Analysis . Correlations and regression models were used. Intuitive eating was examined in the sample as a whole and among subgroups of respondents grouped based on tertile rankings of intuitive eating scores. Results . There was evidence that women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating were also internally motivated to participate in regular PA. Women who reported being internally motivated to eat were significantly more likely to engage in PA for pleasure and to view PA as part of their self-concept. Women who reported high levels of intuitive eating had significantly lower BMI scores than those reporting medium or low levels when controlling for age. Conclusion . For women to achieve or maintain a healthy weight, it may be best for health professionals to examine motivation for eating and PA rather than the encouragement of restrictive eating and exercise prescriptions. PMID:24459999

Gast, Julie; Campbell Nielson, Amy; Hunt, Anne; Leiker, Jason J

2015-01-01

460

Differential strain vulnerability to binge eating behaviors in rats.  

PubMed

Binge eating is a significantly heritable phenotype, but efforts to detect specific risk genes have fallen short. Identification of animal strain differences in risk for binge eating could highlight genetic differences across individuals of the same species that can be exploited in future animal and molecular genetic research. The current study aimed to explore strain differences in risk for binge eating in Sprague-Dawley versus Wistar female rats using the Binge Eating Resistant/Binge Eating Prone model. A sample of male Sprague-Dawley rats, a known low-risk group for binge eating, was included as a comparison group. A total of 83 rats (23 Wistar females, 30 Sprague-Dawley females, 30 Sprague-Dawley males) completed a protocol of intermittently administered, palatable food. Binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats were identified using a tertile approach. Sprague-Dawley female rats consumed the highest amount of palatable food and were more likely to be classified as BEP compared to Wistar female and Sprague-Dawley male rats. Wistar female rats were not significantly different from Sprague-Dawley male rats in their palatable food intake and tendency to be classified as BER rather than BEP. Sprague-Dawley female rats appear to be a particularly vulnerable genotype for binge eating. Comparisons between this group and others could help identify specific genetic/biological factors that differentiate it from lower risk groups. The reward system, linked to binge eating in humans, is a possible candidate to explore. Strain differences in the reward system could help increase understanding of individual differences in risk for binge eating in humans. PMID:24480076

Hildebrandt, Britny A; Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Sisk, Cheryl L

2014-03-29

461

Order and disorder: Temporal organization of eating  

PubMed Central

Feeding behavior is described from an evolutionary perspective, and implications for modern neurobiological studies are suggested. In particular, it is argued that meals may have evolved more for sociocultural reasons than physiological imperatives, and that biological approaches to the study of feeding episodes should adopt a more flexible model that is founded in economic or cost-benefit considerations. Specific examples of flexibility in mouse feeding behavior are given. It is further argued that the modern human food environment is so immoderate that physiological manipulations designed to restrain eating have little hope of achieving this goal. PMID:22138508

Rowland, Neil E.

2012-01-01

462

Behavioural phenotyping assays for mouse models of autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology that affects 1 in 100–150 individuals. Diagnosis is based on three categories of behavioural criteria: abnormal social interactions, communication deficits and repetitive behaviours. Strong evidence for a genetic basis has prompted the development of mouse models with targeted mutations in candidate genes for autism. As the diagnostic criteria for autism are behavioural, phenotyping these mouse models requires behavioural assays with high relevance to each category of the diagnostic symptoms. Behavioural neuroscientists are generating a comprehensive set of assays for social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviours to test hypotheses about the causes of austism. Robust phenotypes in mouse models hold great promise as translational tools for discovering effective treatments for components of autism spectrum disorders. PMID:20559336

Silverman, Jill L.; Yang, Mu; Lord, Catherine; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

2011-01-01

463

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

464

The effects of ovariectomy on binge eating proneness in adult female rats Kelly L. Klump a,  

E-print Network

: Binge eating Bulimia nervosa Ovariectomy Animal models Ovarian hormones Ovarian hormones are associated Psychiatric Association, 2000). Binge eating is the cardinal symptom of bulimia nervosa (BN) and related

Sisk, Cheryl

465

Mood, food, traits, and restraint: an experimental investigation of negative affect, borderline personality, and disordered eating.  

E-print Network

??Eating disorders and borderline personality disorder involve several overlapping features, such as impulsivity, negative affectivity, and dissociation. However, few studies have specifically assessed how eating… (more)

Ambwani, Suman

2009-01-01

466

Use of a gyroscope/accelerometer data logger to identify alternative feeding behaviours in fish.  

PubMed

We examined whether we could identify the feeding behaviours of the trophic generalist fish Epinephelus ongus on different prey types (crabs and fish) using a data logger that incorporated a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis accelerometer. Feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours, including escape responses, intraspecific interactions and routine movements, were recorded from six E. ongus individuals using data loggers sampling at 200 Hz, and were validated by simultaneously recorded video images. For each data-logger record, we extracted 5 s of data when any of the three-axis accelerations exceeded absolute 2.0 g, to capture all feeding behaviours and other burst behaviours. Each feeding behaviour was then identified using a combination of parameters that were derived from the extracted data. Using decision trees with the parameters, high true identification rates (87.5% for both feeding behaviours) with low false identification rates (5% for crab-eating and 6.3% for fish-eating) were achieved for both feeding behaviours. PMID:25013109

Kawabata, Yuuki; Noda, Takuji; Nakashima, Yuuki; Nanami, Atsushi; Sato, Taku; Takebe, Takayuki; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Arai, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Soyano, Kiyoshi

2014-09-15

467

Psychometric Properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Norms for Rural and Urban Adolescent Males and Females in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Aims To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural). Methods A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males) aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054); measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (? ? .80) and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ? .84; ? ? .56), and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. Conclusions This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico. PMID:24367587

Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M.

2013-01-01

468

Substance dependence and eating disorders: impact of sequence on comorbidity.  

PubMed

There is a high comorbidity between eating disorders and substance dependence. The sequence of illness may indicate differences in the underlying pathology and could reflect different etiologies and treatment. The present study subjects were 218 inpatients and outpatients with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa binge-purge type (AN-BP), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder NOS (ED-NOS). Of these 218 patients, 38 had substance dependence predating the eating disorder (SDED), 71 had an eating disorder predating the substance dependence (EDSD), and 109 had only an eating disorder (ED-only). All subjects were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Patient Edition With Psychotic Screen (SCID-P). EDSD patients had an earlier onset of the eating disorder than SDED patients and had the greatest prevalence of comorbid pathology. SDED patients were dependent on more substances. We conclude that the sequence of development of the eating disorder and substance dependence in eating disorder patients influences the amount of comorbid psychopathology. Clinical implications and future research are discussed. PMID:10509613

Wiseman, C V; Sunday, S R; Halligan, P; Korn, S; Brown, C; Halmi, K A

1999-01-01

469

Endocrine controls of eating: CCK, leptin, and ghrelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral physiological and central nervous mechanisms contributing to the control of eating present formidable challenges to experimental analysis. One of the most productive approaches to these challenges has been endocrinological. This review introduces the endocrine control of eating by considering three hormonal signals that have been hypothesized to control hunger or satiation, cholecystokinin CCK, leptin, and ghrelin. The roles

Nori Geary

2004-01-01

470

Can't Make 'em Do It: Sleeping, Eating, Toileting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleeping, eating, and toileting battles frustrate most adults--mainly because they cannot make children do it. Falling asleep (or not) is within a child's control. The same is true for chewing and swallowing, or withholding and releasing urine and feces. Sleeping, Eating, and Toileting (S.E.T.) create lots of frustration. An exhausted adult wants…

Duffy, Roslyn

2008-01-01

471

Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

2001-01-01

472

Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

2006-01-01

473

Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

2004-01-01

474

Eating Disorders in Childhood: Prevention and Treatment Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eating disorders (EDs) are chronic clinical mental disorders that are disruptive to the psychological and social development of children and adolescents. They can be difficult to prevent and treat and are considered among the most chronic and medically lethal of mental disorders. Research suggests that the incidence and prevalence of eating

Cook-Cottone, Catherine

2009-01-01

475

Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders  

E-print Network

ProofCopy Modeling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyze Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse Amsterdam, The Netherlands To analyze the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get- namics. Using this language, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation

Bosse, Tibor

476

Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders  

E-print Network

Modelling Adaptive Dynamical Systems to Analyse Eating Regulation Disorders Tibor Bosse1 , Martine, an executable model has been developed of the dynamics of eating regulation disorders. Based on this model, The Netherlands Abstract. To analyse the disorders of their patients, psychotherapists often have to get insight

Treur, Jan

477

Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disordered Behaviors Among Undergraduate Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of eating disordered behaviors among college women. Measures of weight management habits, body image, self-esteem, and degree of endorsement of sociocultural norms regarding thinness were administered to a sample of 682 undergraduate women. The 643 nonanorexic, nonobese subjects were then classified into one of six categories representing severity along an eating-behaviors continuum. The

Laurie B. Mintz; Nancy E. Betz

1988-01-01

478

Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory with Eating Disorder Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was studied with a subsample of 93 bulimic women from a total sample of 110 women with eating disorders. Results suggested that the BDI appears to assess a unidimensional construct in patients with eating disorders. (SLD)

Pulos, Steven

1996-01-01

479

A Description of Disordered Eating Behaviors in Latino Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore disordered eating and eating disorders (EDs) in Latino males. Participants: Participants are 722 male college students from a larger prevalence study conducted in the University of Puerto Rico system. Methods: Participants were selected from a list of sections of required courses for first-year students on each campus.…

Reyes-Rodriguez, Mae Lynn; Sala, Margarita; Von Holle, Ann; Unikel, Claudia; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Camara-Fuentes, Luis; Suarez-Torres, Alba

2011-01-01

480

Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

1999-01-01

481

Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.  

PubMed

Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typic