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Sample records for abnormal eating behaviour

  1. VBM signatures of abnormal eating behaviours in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Loy, Clement T; Warren, Jane E; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Warren, Jason D

    2007-03-01

    The brain bases of specific human behaviours in health and disease are not well established. In this voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study we demonstrate neuroanatomical signatures of different abnormalities of eating behaviour (pathological sweet tooth and increased food consumption, or hyperphagia) in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Sixteen male patients with FTLD were assessed using the Manchester and Oxford Universities Scale for the Psychopathological Assessment of Dementia and classified according to the presence or absence of abnormal eating behaviours. Volumetric brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients and in a group of nine healthy age-matched male controls and grey matter changes were assessed using an optimised VBM protocol. Compared with healthy controls, the FTLD group had a typical pattern of extensive bilateral grey matter loss predominantly involving the frontal and temporal lobes. Within the FTLD group, grey matter changes associated with different abnormal behaviours were assessed independently using a covariate-only model. The development of pathological sweet tooth was associated with grey matter loss in a distributed brain network including bilateral posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 12/47) and right anterior insula. Hyperphagia was associated with more focal grey matter loss in anterolateral OFC bilaterally (Brodmann area 11). In accord with emerging evidence in humans and other species, our findings implicate distinct components of a multi-component brain network in the control of specific aspects of eating behaviour. PMID:17240166

  2. Weight-related teasing and internalized weight stigma predict abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours in Emirati female university students.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Lily; Tahboub-Schulte, Sabrina; Thomas, Justin

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between abnormal eating attitudes, weight teasing, internalized weight stigma and self-esteem in the United Arab Emirates in a sample of 420 female Emirati undergraduate students (mean age = 23.12 years). Participants completed an online survey including validated and reliable measures. Regression and mediation analyses were used to test for relationships between the factors. Thirty percent of respondents had eating disorder symptomatology, and 44% of respondents reported being frequently teased about their weight. Eating disorder symptomatology was positively correlated with being bothered by teasing from family, friends and others, and internalized weight stigma. Weight- and body-related shame and guilt was the strongest predictor of eating disorder symptomatology. Public health authorities should consider these issues as priorities for action in order to improve the health and wellbeing of young women in the UAE. In addition, it is vital that public health and medical services do not inadvertently condone weight-based teasing or enhance weight stigma and shame. PMID:26774444

  3. [Abnormal eating behaviours are not associated with micronutrient deficiencies among women of childbearing age from Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Bojórquez-Chapela, Ietza; Mendoza-Flores, María Eugenia; Tolentino, Maricruz; Morales, Rosa Maria; De-Regil, Luz María

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the risk of abnormal eating behaviors (AEB) and vitamin and mineral deficiencies among women. Women of childbearing age (n = 282) were systematically sampled with a random start (21.9% adolescents) in 6 suburbs in the west side of Mexico City, they were non pregnant or breastfeeding. Vitamin A, C, E, B12, folic acid, hemoglobin, ferritin, cupper, iron and zinc concentrations were measured. A questionnaire validated in the Mexican population was used for screening AEB. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and by using Fisher's test. Approximately 68% of the sample belonged to a mid-low or lower socioeconomic status. 14% had risk of AEB, without statistical differences between adults and teenagers. 10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. There was no association between the AEB and micronutrient deficiencies neither when AEB were analyzed globally nor individually. Considering these results and the high prevalence of the AEB and overweight in this population, it is important to promote the adoption or healthy behaviors to achieve an adequate weight. PMID:21090277

  4. Unhealthy eating behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martn, A R; Nieto, J M; Jimnez, M A; Ruiz, J P; Vzquez, M C; Fernndez, Y C; Gmez, M A; Fernndez, C C

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, eating disorders (Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa) have increased and are appearing at increasingly younger ages. They affect predominantly adolescent females 12 to 25 years of age. The objective of this study of adolescents is to detect and discuss unhealthy eating behaviour, defined by either of two factors: (1) following a slimming diet not advised or supervised by any person trained in health care; or (2) eating very large quantities at irregular times, not related to anxiety or stress. A transversal study has been undertaken of 630 school children of 14-18 years of age (average: 15.9 years) in Cdiz (Andalucia, Spain), using an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire to collect data on personal and educational situation, on eating habits, on nutritive intake and knowledge of nutrition, and on dieting and physical exercise. The study has considered averages, ratios, statistical significance (chi2) and, as a measure of risk, the Disequality Ratio of Prevalence (DRP). Anomalous eating behaviour was detected in 46.3% (292), with females predominant by a ratio of 2:1. Comparing groups with anomalous and with normal eating habits, significant differences were detected in respect of: perception of body image (p < 0.001), frequency of weighing oneself (p < 0.05), periods of abstinence from eating (DRP 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-2.37), provocation of vomiting (DRP 2.02; 95% CI: 1.13-3.65), use of laxatives (DRP 4.25: 95% CI: 1.08-9.63), and the exclusion of certain meals and types of food, mainly bread and cereals, fats and sugars. Conclusions are drawn on the substantial scale of unhealthy eating behaviour among adolescents in Cadiz. More adequate education on personal health and related social issues should be provided. PMID:10543354

  5. Abnormal Eating Attitudes: Prevalance at a Canadian University

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, D.A.; McSherry, J.A.; Kraus, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors conducted a survey of the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among all women undergraduates living in on-campus residences at Queen's University and systematic samples of men and women undergraduates living in off-campus residences, using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) as the study instrument. The results, although comparable to those of similar studies at other universities and colleges, are unusual in that they identify a group of high scoring respondents who did not return to Queen's University the year following the study. Of 1,982 students surveyed, 1,082 were women living in on-campus residences, 450 were women living in off-campus accommodation and 450 were men also living off-campus. The off-campus groups were matched with the on-campus groups for program and year. The response rate was 50.6%. Of these respondents, 14.7% had scores of 20 or more on the EAT-26; scores typical of those reached by persons sufferering from eating disorders. Both groups of women had the same prevalence of high scorers (16.8%), while the prevalence of high scores in male students was 2.7%. Of 16 high scorers clinically interviewed, 13 (81.3%) fulfilled diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. PMID:21264022

  6. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)

  7. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

  8. Menstrual cycle abnormalities and subclinical eating disorders: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kreipe, R E; Strauss, J; Hodgman, C H; Ryan, R M

    1989-01-01

    Menstrual dysfunction is a common concomitant of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Initial investigations emphasized the role of weight loss and lean/fat ratio in amenorrhea. Subsequent studies suggest a more complex interaction between eating disorders and menstrual status. However, in past investigations, menstrual abnormalities have been confounded with low weight. We conducted two studies to ascertain the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in a group of women with subclinical eating pathology versus an age-, education-, and weight-matched group of normal controls. In Study I, 93.4% of the subclinical subjects reported a history of menstrual abnormality as compared to 11.7% of the normal controls. In Study II, 100% of the subclinical subjects, versus 15.0% of the controls, reported an abnormal menstrual history. These data suggest that menstrual dysfunction often occurs in women with abnormal eating attitudes but without weight loss or diagnosable eating pathology. Several hypotheses for this finding are proposed. PMID:2928463

  9. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  10. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  11. Eating Behaviour and Weight in Children

    PubMed Central

    Webber, L; Hill, C; Saxton, J; Van Jaarsveld, CHM; Wardle, J

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that quantitative variation in eating behaviour traits shows a graded association with weight in children. Design: Cross-sectional design in a community setting. Subjects: Data were from 406 families participating in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in CHildren Study (PEACHES) or the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Children were aged 7 to 9 years (PEACHES) and 9 to 12 years old (TEDS). Measurements: Weights and heights were measured by researchers. BMI SD-scores were used to categorise participants into healthy-weight, overweight and obese groups, with an additional division of the healthy-weight group into higher- and lower-healthy-weight at the 50th centile. Eating behaviour traits were assessed with the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), completed by the parent on behalf of their child. Linear trend analyses compared CEBQ sub-scale scores across the five weight groups. Results: Satiety Responsiveness/Slowness in Eating and Food Fussiness showed a graded negative association with weight, while Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating and Desire to Drink were positively associated. All effects were maintained after controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and sample. There was no systematic association with weight for Emotional Undereating. Conclusion: These results support the idea that approach-related and avoidance-related appetitive traits are systematically (and oppositely) related to adiposity, and not exclusively associated with obesity. Early assessment of these traits could be used as indicators of susceptibility to weight gain. PMID:19002146

  12. [An Autopsy Case of Abnormal Behaviour Induced by Zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Kudo, Keiko; Sameshima, Naomi; Sato, Kazuo; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Zolpidem is a widely used ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine in clinical practice; compared with benzodiazepines, it does not have side effects such as daytime hangover, rebound insomnia, and development of tolerance. We report an autopsy case of abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. A man in his 60's had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia about 2 months ago and had been prescribed zolpidem for insomnia. According to his family, he had no memory of his actions such as striking a wall, taking his futon outside, and eating 5 times a day after he took zolpidem. Because his postherpetic neuralgia did not improve, he was hospitalized and treated with an epidural block. During hospitalization, he took off his clothes, removed the epidural block catheter by himself, and slept on others' beds. He disappeared from the hospital one day; the next day, he was found dead in a narrow water storage tank 10 km away from the hospital. He was thought to have driven a car by himself to reach the place. Forensic autopsy revealed that the cause of death was drowning. Zolpidem and several other drugs were detected by toxicological analysis of his blood; the concentrations of these drugs were within therapeutic range. There are several reports about somnambulism induced by zolpidem such as sleepwalking, sleep driving, and eating. Considering the strange episodes following zolpidem administration, his behaviour on the day of his death was considered abnormal behaviour induced by zolpidem. PMID:26306385

  13. Designing interventions to change eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Understanding and changing eating behaviours are central to the work of Nutrition Society members working in both research and applied settings. The present paper describes a recently published resource to guide the design of interventions to change behaviour, The Behaviour Change Wheel: A Guide to Designing Interventions (BCW Guide). This is a practical guide to intervention design that brings together recently-developed theory-based tools in behavioural science into a coherent step-by-step design process. It is based on the BCW, a synthesis of nineteen frameworks of behaviour change found in the research literature. The BCW has at its core a model of behaviour known as 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour'. The model recognises that behaviour is part of an interacting system involving all these components. The BCW identifies different intervention options that can be applied to changing each of the components and policies that can be adopted to deliver those intervention options. The book shows how the BCW links to theory-based frameworks to understand behaviour such as the Theoretical Domains Framework and the recently developed Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1 for specifying intervention content. In essence, it shows how to link what is understood about a given behaviour to types of intervention likely to be effective and then translate this into a locally relevant intervention. In addition, the present paper sets out some principles of intervention design. PMID:25998679

  14. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18

  15. Factors Associated with Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilali, Aggeliki; Galanis, Petros; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Katostaras, Theofanis

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Greek adolescents and identify possible risk factors associated with these attitudes. Design: Cross-sectional, school-based study. Setting: Six randomly selected schools in Patras, southern Greece. Participants: The study population consisted of 540 Greek students aged 13-18…

  16. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  17. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammed A.; Fagundo, Ana B.; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Menchón, José M.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior. PMID:26483708

  18. Parental modelling of eating behaviours: observational validation of the Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours scale (PARM).

    PubMed

    Palfreyman, Zoe; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Parents are important role models for their children's eating behaviours. This study aimed to further validate the recently developed Parental Modelling of Eating Behaviours Scale (PARM) by examining the relationships between maternal self-reports on the PARM with the modelling practices exhibited by these mothers during three family mealtime observations. Relationships between observed maternal modelling and maternal reports of children's eating behaviours were also explored. Seventeen mothers with children aged between 2 and 6 years were video recorded at home on three separate occasions whilst eating a meal with their child. Mothers also completed the PARM, the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and provided demographic information about themselves and their child. Findings provided validation for all three PARM subscales, which were positively associated with their observed counterparts on the observational coding scheme (PARM-O). The results also indicate that habituation to observations did not change the feeding behaviours displayed by mothers. In addition, observed maternal modelling was significantly related to children's food responsiveness (i.e., their interest in and desire for foods), enjoyment of food, and food fussiness. This study makes three important contributions to the literature. It provides construct validation for the PARM measure and provides further observational support for maternal modelling being related to lower levels of food fussiness and higher levels of food enjoyment in their children. These findings also suggest that maternal feeding behaviours remain consistent across repeated observations of family mealtimes, providing validation for previous research which has used single observations. PMID:25111293

  19. Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?

    PubMed

    Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalçın

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women. PMID:22576675

  20. Selected eating behaviours and excess body weight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mesas, A E; Muñoz-Pareja, M; López-García, E; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2012-02-01

    The relationship between obesity and the intake of macronutrients and specific foods is uncertain. Thus, there is growing interest in some eating behaviours because they may reflect the joint effect of several foods and nutrients and, thus, increase the likelihood of finding a link to obesity. This study examined the association between selected eating behaviours and excess weight in the general population throughout a systematic review of publications written in English, Spanish or Portuguese identified in a PubMed search up to 31 December 2010. We included 153 articles, 73 of which have been published since 2008. Only 30 studies had a prospective design; of these, 15 adjusted for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and energy or food intake. Moreover, definitions of eating behaviours varied substantially across studies. We found only small or inconsistent evidence of a relationship between excess weight and skipping breakfast, daily eating frequency, snacking, irregular meals, eating away from home, consumption of fast food, takeaway food intake, consumption of large food portions, eating until full and eating quickly. In conclusion, this review highlights the difficulty in measuring human behaviour, and suggests that a more systematic approach is needed for capturing the effects of eating behaviours on body weight. PMID:21955734

  1. Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of cannabis by western societies, its psychotropic effects overshadowed its medical benefits. However, investigation into the molecular action of the main constituents of cannabis has led to the discovery of an intercellular signalling system, called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS comprises a set of molecular components, including enzymes, signalling lipids and G-protein coupled receptors, which has an outstanding role in modulating eating behaviour and energy homeostasis. Interestingly, evidence has shown that the ECS is present at the central and peripheral nervous system, modulating the function of the hypothalamus, the brain reward system and the brainstem, and coordinating the crosstalk between these brain structures and peripheral organs. Indeed, the ECS is present and functional in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues, directly modulating their physiology. In the context of a global obesity pandemic, these discoveries are highly suggestive in order to design novel pharmaceutical tools to fight obesity and related morbidities. In fact, a cannabinoid-based first generation of drugs was developed and marketed. Their failure, due to central side-effects, is leading to a second generation of these drugs unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, as well as other ECS-focused strategies that are still in the pipeline. In the next few years we will hopefully know whether such an important player in energy homeostasis can be successfully targeted without significantly affecting other vital processes related to mood and sense of well-being. PMID:24375977

  2. Binge eating behaviours, depression and weight control strategies.

    PubMed

    Speranza, M; Corcos, M; Atger, F; Paterniti, S; Jeammet, P

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the relationships between depressive symptoms and weight control strategies in DSM-IV eating disordered patients with binge eating behaviours. We hypothesised that weight control strategies characterised by a loss of control, such as vomiting and purging, may be clinically associated with increased levels of depression. The study population consisted of 402 consecutive outpatients: 27 with binge eating/purging anorexia nervosa (AN-BN), 213 with purging bulimia nervosa (BN-P), 73 with non-purging bulimia nervosa (BN-NP), and 89 with binge eating disorder (BED). The severity of depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and binge eating behaviours were investigated using the self-report scale for bulimic behaviours. In the sample as a whole, the severity of depression significantly correlated with the severity of binge eating behaviours, but no significant differences were found in the severity of depression by diagnostic sub-types. In order to avoid the confounding erasing effect of time, a smaller sample of patients with a short history of binge eating behaviours was further explored. Furthermore, because weight control strategies and the eating disorder diagnostic sub-types overlapped imperfectly, the patients were compared on the basis of presence or absence of strategies reflecting an active attempt to master the weight gain due to bingeing behaviours. The patients adopting active control strategies (N = 14) had significantly less severe depressive symptoms than those adopting non-active weight control strategies (N = 39). Finally, the Authors discuss some hypotheses concerning the defensive role of weight control strategies and the impact of illness duration on the clinical expression of depression in eating disordered patients. PMID:14649783

  3. How to Improve Eating Behaviour during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M.; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E.; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727

  4. How to Improve Eating Behaviour during Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Green, Robin John; Samy, Gamal; Miqdady, Mohamad Saleh; Salah, Mohamed; Sleiman, Rola; Abdelrahman, Hatim Mohamed Ahmed; Al Haddad, Fatima; Reda, Mona M; Lewis, Humphrey; Ekanem, Emmanuel E; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-03-01

    Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. PMID:25866727

  5. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about

  6. Abnormal Repetitive Behaviours: Shared Phenomenology and Pathophysiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Lewis, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known about…

  7. Clinical abnormalities in working donkeys and their associations with behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Regan (nee Ashley), F. H.; Hockenhull, J.; Pritchard, J. C.; Waterman-Pearson, A. E.; Whay, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introductions Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. Aims and objectives The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty-three entire male adult working donkeys were observed for ten minutes before and after a one-hour rest period. Using an ethogram developed and refined in associated studies, posture and event behaviours were recorded by a single observer. The health of each donkey was then assessed by a veterinarian for specific clinical abnormalities. Results Working donkeys have a high prevalence of clinical abnormalities and a number of behaviours are associated with these. Significant associations were found between observed behaviours and systemic, ocular and limb-related clinical abnormalities. Cumulative clinical scores for limb-related problems were associated with a higher frequency of leg trembling, knuckling of the forelimb, leg-lifting and weight-shifting behaviours (all R≥0.4; P<0.001) and with a lower frequency of weight-bearing evenly on all four feet (R=-0.458; P<0.001). Conclusions The specific behaviour changes associated with clinical abnormalities identified in this study, together with general changes in demeanour identified in related studies, may be useful in assessing the presence and severity of pain in working donkeys and their response to medical and palliative interventions. PMID:26392903

  8. Examining the mediating roles of binge eating and emotional eating in the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana; Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin; Reuning-Scherer, Jonathan; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To test whether binge eating and emotional eating mediate the relationships between self-reported stress, morning cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference. We also explored the moderators of gender and age. Data were from 249 adults (mean BMI = 26.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2); mean age = 28.3 ± 8.3 years; 54.2 % male; 69.5 % white) recruited from the community who were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel of psychological and physiological assessments including a morning blood draw for plasma cortisol. We found negative relationships between stress and morning cortisol (r = -0.15 to -0.21; p < 0.05), and cortisol and the homeostatic model of insulin resistance and waist circumference (r = -0.16, -0.25, respectively; p < 0.05). There was not statistical support for binge eating or emotional eating as mediators and no support for moderated mediation for either gender or age; however, gender moderated several paths in the model. These include the paths between perceived stress and emotional eating (B = 0.009, p < 0.001), perceived stress and binge eating (B = 0.01, p = 0.003), and binge eating and increased HOMA-IR (B = 0.149, p = 0.018), which were higher among females. Among women, perceived stress may be an important target to decrease binge and emotional eating. It remains to be determined what physiological and psychological mechanisms underlie the relationships between stress and metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26686376

  9. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  10. Temperament Dispositions, Problematic Eating Behaviours and Overweight in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13 ± 0.61 years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26104832

  11. Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern.

    PubMed

    Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L

    2012-06-01

    This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. PMID:22265753

  12. Influence of age on mastication: effects on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mioche, Laurence; Bourdiol, Pierre; Peyron, Marie-Agnès

    2004-06-01

    The present review covers current knowledge about the ageing of oral physiology related to mastication and its effects on eating behaviour. Mastication is the first process undergone by a food during feeding. It has a key role in the maintenance of nutritional status in two respects. First, the perceptions of food's sensory properties elicited during chewing and swallowing are one of the major determinants of the pleasure which drives us to eat; second, the properties of the swallowed bolus are affected by oral conditions and this may modulate the subsequent phases of digestion. Ageing in healthy dentate subjects induces moderate changes in oral physiology. Changes in neuromuscular activity are partly compensated by changes in chewing behaviour. No clear age effect is seen in texture perception, although this does impact on food bolus properties. In contrast, great alterations in both chewing behaviour and food bolus properties are observed when ageing is associated with a compromised dentition, general health alterations and drug intake. Eating behaviour is far more complex than just chewing behaviour and the concerns of the elderly about food cannot be explained solely by oral physiology. Discrepancies are often noticed with older subjects between various objective measurements of oral performance and corresponding measures of self-perception. In addition, although more foods are recognised as hard to chew with increasing age, there is no clear shift in preference towards food that is easy to chew. Food choices and food consumption are also driven by memory, psychology and economic factors. Advances in the understanding of food choice in the elderly need a sustained collaborative research effort between sensory physiologists, nutritionists, and food scientists. PMID:19079914

  13. Anxiety and abnormal eating behaviors associated with cyclical readiness testing in a naval hospital active duty population.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Janis R; Manos, Gail H; Van Slyke, John A

    2005-08-01

    Studies of abnormal eating behaviors in active duty military personal have found rates similar to or higher than the general population. We have reviewed these studies and extended the research to examine abnormal eating behaviors in a heterogeneous population at a major military medical center. We found high rates of body dissatisfaction, abnormal eating behaviors, and worry about passing the semiannual personal fitness assessment in both men and women. Abnormal eating behaviors were associated with worrying about the personal fitness assessment, and these measures were associated with body mass index and gender. Our data extend previous research indicating that cyclic or external pressure to maintain body weight within specified standards can produce unsafe eating and dieting behaviors. We recommend changes to the current system to incorporate treatment programs aimed at recognizing and treating eating disorders with a goal of producing more fit and healthy service members. PMID:16173205

  14. Effects of restrained eating behaviour on insulin sensitivity in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Morgan, L M; Robertson, M D

    2009-03-23

    Restrained eating behaviour has been linked to abnormalities in metabolic and endocrine functions. However, the impact of restraint on fasting insulin and glucose plasma levels and insulin sensitivity remains controversial. Moreover, the few postprandial studies to date are limited by an inappropriate sampling time frame and a low "net" energy and carbohydrate load. The aims of this study are to assess the role of dietary restraint on fasting and postprandial plasma levels of insulin, glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG) and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in healthy volunteers with a normal and stable body weight and to determine whether the effect of restraint on the plasma levels of the previous hormones/metabolites is load dependent. Normal-weight participants (21 women and 12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained based on the restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint on the plasma levels of different hormones/metabolites was measured, in response to a 500 kcal and 1000 kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint was associated with lower fasting insulin plasma levels (P<0.05) and a lower insulin (P<0.015) and glucose (P<0.05) plasma levels in the postprandial state, but did not impact on TAG or NEFA. Moreover, restrained eaters showed a better fasting (P<0.05) and postprandial insulin sensitivity (P<0.01). Restrained eating behaviour has, therefore, a significant impact on both fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism, being associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These findings suggest the need for adjusting for restraint level in studies where glucose metabolism is a major outcome. PMID:19385024

  15. Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Alves, Diogo; Vieira, Elisée; Pinhão, Sílvia; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Our main aim was to compare eating behaviour between Portuguese undergraduate nutrition students and students attending other courses. Several eating behaviour dimensions were compared between 154 nutrition students and 263 students from other areas. Emotional and external eating were assessed by the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, dietary restraint was measured using the flexible and rigid control of eating behaviour subscales, binge eating was measured using the Binge Eating Scale, and eating self-efficacy using the General Eating Self-Efficacy Scale. Higher levels of flexible and rigid control were found in nutrition students from both sexes when compared to students from other courses. Female nutrition students also presented higher binge eating levels than their colleagues from other courses. To our knowledge no other work has previously assessed all eating behaviour dimensions considered in the current study among nutrition students. Besides the results by themselves, the data obtained from this study provide several clues to further studies to be developed regarding the still rarely approached issue of eating behaviour among nutrition students. PMID:25240638

  16. Weight stigma and eating behaviours in elementary school children: A prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jendrzyca, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-01

    The relevance of weight stigma as an important factor in disordered eating has been supported by research. However, because most of the studies were cross-sectional and focussed on older children, the causal relationships could not be fully determined in childhood. The current study explores the role of weight stigma in body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. The sample consisted of 773 girls and 713 boys, aged 6-11 years, who completed surveys assessing weight stigma experiences, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours at two points of measurement, approximately one year apart. The children's external and disordered eating was rated via parental questionnaires. As expected, the pattern of the associations between weight status, weight stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours differed by gender. Experience of weight stigma in girls led to external and restrained eating one year later, whereas in boys no such association was observed. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between weight stigma and restrained eating behaviours in girls, whereas in boys, body dissatisfaction directly influenced restrained eating behaviours. However, in both girls and boys weight status predicted body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, while weight stigma did not have a direct effect on disordered eating. Results suggest that interventions involving weight stigma should be a part of eating disorder prevention programmes, and gender-specific pathways should be considered. PMID:26851574

  17. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating behaviours. Obese adolescents were found to display a lack of dislike towards food. Future longitudinal and qualitative studies are warranted to further understand behavioural phenotypes of obesity to guide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24349385

  18. The association between emotions and eating behaviour in an obese population with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M

    2016-01-01

    There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity. PMID:26644173

  19. The eating-related behaviours, disorders and expectations of candidates for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Opolski, M; Chur-Hansen, A; Wittert, G

    2015-08-01

    It is important that clinicians and researchers understand the possible eating-related difficulties experienced by pre-bariatric surgery candidates, as well as their expectations of how their eating and hunger will change after surgery. This review examines English-language publications related to the eating-related behaviours, disorders and expectations of bariatric candidates. Seventy-five articles related to binge eating disorder, grazing, night eating syndrome, emotional eating, food cravings and addiction, and pre-surgical expectations of post-surgical eating in this population were critically reviewed. A variety of often problematic eating behaviours appear more common in bariatric candidates than in non-obese populations. The literature suggests that 4-45% of candidates may have binge eating disorder, 20-60% may graze, 2-42% may have night eating syndrome, 38-59% may engage in emotional eating and 17-54% may fit criteria for food addiction. Binge eating may also be more prevalent in bariatric candidates than in similarly obese non-surgical individuals. Expectations of surgery are high, with pre-surgical candidates believing their bariatric procedure will virtually guarantee significantly improved eating behaviours. Study replications are needed, and further investigation into prevalence, impacts and candidate characteristics related to disordered eating behaviours, as well as candidates' expectations of eating after surgery, will be important. Further comparisons of bariatric candidates to similarly obese non-bariatric populations will be important to understand eating-related characteristics of candidates beyond those related to their weight. Future research may be improved by the use of validated measures, replicable methodologies, minimization of data collected in circumstances where respondents may been motivated to 'fake good', use of prospective data and consistent definitions of key terminology. PMID:26173752

  20. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Conclusions Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometric instrument for assessing children's eating behaviours in Swedish children aged 1-6 years. Measuring obesity related eating behaviours in longitudinal and interventional studies would offer opportunities for studying causal effects of eating behaviours in the development of obesity in children. PMID:22152012

  1. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour

  2. The processing of food stimuli in abnormal eating: a systematic review of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. PMID:25982390

  3. Eating behaviours are different in youth with obesity and severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Gross, A C; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Foy, A M H; Kelly, A S

    2016-02-01

    The study purposes were to: (i) Investigate eating behaviours among patients in a paediatric weight management clinical practice and (ii) Compare eating behaviour phenotypes between children with severe obesity and obesity. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using data collected during clinical encounters. Participants were included if they were 2-12 years old, had a body mass index ≥95th percentile and if a parent or guardian completed the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Participants (n = 149) were children with severe obesity (n = 108) and obesity (n = 41). The mean Satiety Responsiveness score was significantly lower for children with severe obesity than for children with obesity. Girls with severe obesity had significantly higher Enjoyment of Food and significantly lower Satiety Responsiveness and Slowness in Eating than girls with obesity. The findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the CEBQ for informing tailored treatment strategies through identifying eating behaviour phenotypes. PMID:26639078

  4. Eating Disorders in Late-life

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra2, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to “Feeding and Eating Disorders” are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  5. Eating Disorders in Late-life.

    PubMed

    Luca, Antonina; Luca, Maria; Calandra, Carmela

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are a heterogeneous group of complex psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal eating behaviours that lead to a high rate of morbidity, or even death, if underestimated and untreated. The main disorders enlisted in the chapter of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders-5 dedicated to "Feeding and Eating Disorders" are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Even though these abnormal behaviours are mostly diagnosed during childhood, interesting cases of late-life eating disorders have been reported in literature. In this review, these eating disorders are discussed, with particular attention to the diagnosis and management of those cases occurring in late-life. PMID:25657852

  6. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

  7. Eating Behaviour and Body Satisfaction in Mediterranean Children: the Role of the Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, Valdo; Rotella, Francesco; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ravaldi, Claudia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lapi, Francesco; Cangioli, Linda; Martini, Paolo; Faravelli, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although the prevalence of fully expressed Eating Disorders is rare in young children, childhood eating disturbances are fairly common. Parents can play a facilitating role for the development of overweight and eating problems among their children. The aim of this study is to detect the possible relationships between children’s eating attitudes and behaviour and the parents’ beliefs about eating habits and body shape of their offspring. This survey was conducted in the area of Arezzo (Italy), on 900 children, aged 7-12, and on their parents/substitute caregivers. The Kids’ Eating Disorder Survey questionnaire, and the CIBUS questionnaire were administered. A fully expressed Eating Disorder was diagnosed in two kids only. KEDS total score and weight/dissatisfaction subscale score positively correlated with parents’ answers to the following CIBUS’ items (How do you consider the body shape of your son/daughter? How much does your son/daughter eats? Have you ever thought of putting your son/daughter on a diet?). Positive correlations between the children BMI, desired BMI and the aforementioned CIBUS’ items were found. The prevalence of formal Eating Disorders in children aged 7-12 is low. Children appear to be more preoccupied with their weight than with their body shape. Parents’ beliefs about the offspring’s body shape and eating habits have a relevant impact on children’s eating attitudes and behaviour. PMID:20835356

  8. Eating behaviour in obese patients with melanocortin-4 receptor mutations: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Valette, M; Bellisle, F; Carette, C; Poitou, C; Dubern, B; Paradis, G; Hercberg, S; Muzard, L; Clément, K; Czernichow, S

    2013-08-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are the most common known cause of monogenic obesity and an important contributor to polygenic obesity. MC4R mutations with partial or total loss of function, as well as the variant rs17782313 mapped near MC4R, are positively associated with obesity. MC4R is involved in the leptin-melanocortin signalling system, located in hypothalamic nuclei, that controls food intake via both anorexigenic or orexigenic signals. Impairment in this receptor might affect eating behaviours. Thus, in the case of MC4R mutation carriers, obesity could be related, at least partly, to inadequate control over eating behaviours. Many published studies address eating behaviours in MC4R mutation carriers. Most studies focus on binge eating disorder, whereas others examine various aspects of intake and motivation. Up to now, no evaluation of this literature has been performed. In this review, we examine the available literature on eating behaviours in carriers of MC4R mutations and variant rs17782313 near MC4R gene. We address binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, mealtime hyperphagia, snacking, psychological factors, satiety responsiveness and intake of energy and macro/micronutrient. In a small number of studies, MC4R mutations seem to impair eating behaviours or motivation, but no clear causal effects can be found in the balance of the evidence presented. Improvements in methodologies will be necessary to clarify the behavioural effects of MC4R mutations. PMID:23147118

  9. Children's Eating Attitudes and Behaviour: A Study of the Modelling and Control Theories of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachael; Ogden, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the modelling and control theories of parental influence on children's eating attitudes and behaviour with a focus on snack foods. Matched questionnaires describing reported snack intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfaction were completed by 112 parent/child pairs. Parents completed additional items relating to…

  10. Factors Influencing Adolescent Eating Behaviour: Application and Validation of a Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benarroch, Alicia; Perez, Silvia; Perales, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Variables that predict the eating behaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eating behaviour…

  11. Restoring normal eating behaviour in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A video analysis of nursing interventions.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Laura; Berends, Tamara; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; van Elburg, Annemarie A; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    An important part of inpatient treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa is to restore normal eating behaviour. Health-care professionals play a significant role in this process, but little is known about their interventions during patients' meals. The purpose of the present study was to describe nursing interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour in patients with anorexia nervosa. The main research question was: 'Which interventions aimed at restoring normal eating behaviour do health-care professionals in a specialist eating disorder centre use during meal times for adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa? The present study was a qualitative, descriptive study that used video recordings made during mealtimes. Thematic data analysis was applied. Four categories of interventions emerged from the data: (i) monitoring and instructing; (ii) encouraging and motivating; (iii) supporting and understanding; and (iv) educating. The data revealed a directive attitude aimed at promoting behavioural change, but always in combination with empathy and understanding. In the first stage of clinical treatment, health-care professionals focus primarily on changing patients' eating behaviour. However, they also address the psychosocial needs that become visible in patients as they struggle to restore normal eating behaviour. The findings of the present study can be used to assist health-care professionals, and improve multidisciplinary guidelines and health-care professionals' training programmes. PMID:26223764

  12. How Abnormal Is the Behaviour of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Lucy P.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-)natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. Methods We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. Results, Conclusion and Significance Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions). Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is ‘normal’ in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both scientific and welfare implications. PMID:21698219

  13. Mediators of longitudinal associations between television viewing and eating behaviours in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eating behaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eating behaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eating behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eating behaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eating behaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eating behaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:21450065

  14. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with eating behaviour patterns in European populations.

    PubMed

    Stutzmann, F; Cauchi, S; Durand, E; Calvacanti-Proença, C; Pigeyre, M; Hartikainen, A-L; Sovio, U; Tichet, J; Marre, M; Weill, J; Balkau, B; Potoczna, N; Laitinen, J; Elliott, P; Järvelin, M-R; Horber, F; Meyre, D; Froguel, P

    2009-03-01

    Both rs17782313 (near MC4R) and rs1421085 (FTO) polymorphisms have been consistently associated with increased risk of obesity and with body mass index (BMI) variation. An effect of both polymorphisms on satiety has recently been suggested. We genotyped rs17782313 and rs1421085 in 5764 relatives from 1109 French pedigrees with familial obesity, 1274 Swiss class III obese adults as well as in 4877 French adults and 5612 Finnish teenagers from two randomly selected population cohorts. In all subjects, eating behaviour traits were documented through questionnaires. We first assessed the association of both single nucleotide polymorphisms with BMI and then studied eating behaviour. Under an additive model, the rs17782313-C MC4R allele showed a trend towards higher percentages of snacking in both French obese children (P=0.01) and Swiss obese adults (P=0.04) as well as in adolescents from the Finnish general population (P=0.04). In French adults with familial obesity, this allele tended to be also associated with a higher Stunkard hunger score (P=0.02) and in obese children with a higher prevalence of eating large amounts of food (P=0.04). However, no consistent association of the FTO rs1421085-C allele and available eating behaviour trait was found in our studied populations. The rs17782313-C allele nearby MC4R may modulate eating behaviour-related phenotypes in European obese and randomly selected populations, in both children and adults, supporting a regulatory role of this genetic variant on eating behaviour, as previously shown for MC4R non-synonymous loss-of-function mutations. The potential effect of the obesity-associated FTO gene on eating behaviour deserves additional investigation. PMID:19153581

  15. Mindfulness, Eating Behaviours, and Obesity: A Review and Reflection on Current Findings.

    PubMed

    Mantzios, Michail; Wilson, Janet Clare

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and mindful eating have become popular in recent years. In this review, we first explore what mindfulness is in the context of psychological research, and why it offers promise for eating behaviours and weight loss. Second, we review the main empirical findings for weight loss in mindfulness-based intervention programmes. Third, contradictions in the findings are explored in more depth, and suggestions are made regarding why they may be occurring. Fourth, the benefits of adding self-compassion (and compassion) training to mindfulness practise to assist weight loss is discussed. Finally, the limitations of the research literature (and possible solutions) are explored. Overall, it is concluded that while mindfulness meditations that specifically focus on eating may be extremely helpful in promoting better eating behaviours, and assist in weight regulation, work is still needed to make such interventions appeal to a wider audience. PMID:26627097

  16. Systematic review of the relationship between childcare educators' practices and preschoolers' physical activity and eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Ward, S; Bélanger, M; Donovan, D; Carrier, N

    2015-12-01

    The role of childcare educators is important given that 81% of preschoolers living in developed countries receive childcare outside their home. Since children learn by observing and imitating others, childcare educators may play a role in promoting healthy eating behaviours and physical activity in young children. Six databases were searched for quantitative peer-reviewed, English or French primary studies reporting the correlates, predictors or effectiveness of childcare educators' practices on preschoolers' healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Fifteen articles were included in this review: 10 measured physical activity levels and five assessed eating behaviours. The quality score was rated as low for eight of these articles, and as moderate for the remaining seven. Two of four cross-sectional studies reported a positive relationship between educators and children's behaviours. Eleven intervention studies reported significant favourable effects of interventions. Educators may play a positive role in promoting healthy behaviours in children, but this is mainly based on a small number of intervention type studies of low or moderate quality. The influence of specific components of educators' practices on children's healthy eating and physical activity behaviours remains inconclusive. PMID:26345462

  17. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Silvia; Salvioni, Michela; Galimberti, Cinzia

    2008-02-01

    The present paper is a review of available data on effects of parental feeding attitudes and styles on child nutritional behaviour. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. There is evidence for existence of some innate, automatic mechanism that regulate appetite. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience. There are mechanisms of taste development: mere exposure, medicine effect, flavour learning, flavour nutrient learning. Parents play a pivotal role in the development of their child's food preferences and energy intake, with research indicating that certain child feeding practices, such as exerting excessive control over what and how much children eat, may contribute to childhood overweight. Mothers are of particular interest on children's eating behaviour, as they have been shown to spend significantly more time than fathers in direct interactions with their children across several familial situations.A recent paper describes two primary aspects of control: restriction, which involves restricting children's access to junk foods and restricting the total amount of food, and pressure, which involves pressuring children to eat healthy foods (usually fruits and vegetables) and pressuring to eat more in general. The results showed significant correlations between parent and child for reported nutritional behaviour like food intake, eating motivations, and body dis- and satisfaction. Parents create environments for children that may foster the development of healthy eating behaviours and weight, or that may promote overweight and aspects of disordered eating. In conclusion positive parental role model may be a better method for improving a child's diet than attempts at dietary control. PMID:18257948

  18. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…

  19. Barney and Breakfast: Messages about Food and Eating in Preschool Television Shows and How They May Impact the Development of Eating Behaviours in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie Margaret; Anderson, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eating behaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that

  20. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  1. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products. Conclusions This is the first European study examining perceived determinants of eating behaviour in university students and collecting ideas and recommendations for healthy eating interventions in a university specific setting. University characteristics (residency, exams, etc.) influence the relationships between individual as well as social environmental determinants and university students’ eating behaviour, and should therefore be taken into account when designing effective and tailored multilevel intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. PMID:24438555

  2. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  3. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    PubMed

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  4. Transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Sartirana, Massimiliano; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment of adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) is a potential option as it is a treatment for adult patients with eating disorders of this type and it has been shown to be effective with adolescent patients who are underweight. The aim of the present cohort study was to evaluate the effects of CBT-E on non-underweight adolescents with an eating disorder. Sixty-eight adolescent patients with an eating disorder and a body mass index (BMI) centile corresponding to an adult BMI ≥18.5 were recruited from consecutive referrals to a community-based eating disorder clinic. Each was offered 20 sessions of CBT-E over 20 weeks. Three-quarters completed the full 20 sessions. There was a marked treatment response with two-thirds (67.6%, intent-to-treat) having minimal residual eating disorder psychopathology by the end of treatment. CBT-E therefore appears to be a promising treatment for those adolescents with an eating disorder who are not underweight. PMID:26275760

  5. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…

  6. Response Monitoring, Repetitive Behaviour and Anterior Cingulate Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing

  7. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships

  8. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  9. Obesity-related eating behaviours in the adult population of Spain, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Mesas, A E; León-Muñoz, L M; Guallar-Castillón, P; Graciani, A; Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L; López-García, E; Aguilera, M T; Banegas, J R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the socio-demographic distribution of eating behaviours can aid our understanding of their contribution to the obesity epidemic and help to address healthy eating interventions to those who can benefit most. This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of self-reported eating behaviours among 11,603 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years in the period 2008-2010. In the adult population of Spain, 24.3% had lunch and 18.2% had dinner away from home >3 times per month. About three-fourths of adults did not plan the amount of food to be eaten, and did not choose light foods and/or skim dairy products. Also, 26% did not trim visible fat from meat, and 74.7% usually ate while watching television. Compared with individuals with primary or less education, those with university studies were more likely to remove fat from meat (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.44), and to choose light food and/or skim dairy (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.30-1.77), and less likely to eat while watching television (aOR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.63). In conclusion, the prevalence of several obesity-related eating behaviours is high in Spain, which indicates a deficient implementation of dietary guidelines. Socioeconomic inequalities in eating behaviours should also be addressed. PMID:22577840

  10. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  11. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child's perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents' controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents' eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years) completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2). Preadolescents' perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours. PMID:27104552

  12. Telemetered EEG in schizophrenia: spectral analysis during abnormal behaviour episodes.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J R; Livermore, A

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to detect electroencephalographic (EEG) changes associated with characteristic clinical signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, power spectra were derived from scalp EEGs of schizophrenic patients recorded by telemetry during free behaviour on their psychiatric wards. Power spectra from EEG epochs coincident with psychomotor blocking, stereotyped automatism or hallucinations were compared with spectra derived during periods of relatively normal behaviour, during performance of specific tasks and spectra from control subjects. Ramp spectra, characterised by a smooth decline in power from lowest to highest frequencies, previously found in conjunction with subcortical spike activity of epilepsy were not found in any control subject, but appeared in spectra from schizophrenic patients during catatonic episodes, hallucinatory periods and visual checking. Schizophrenic patients also had more slow activity and less alpha activity in their EEGs than normal control subjects. Images PMID:7086451

  13. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders - Results of the CCC2000 study.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Jeppesen, Pia; Micali, Nadia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-06-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11-12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk. PMID:26896837

  14. The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in Family Functioning in Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Depestele, Lies; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Lemmens, Gilbert M D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate family functioning of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered adolescents with or without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as perceived by the patients and their parents (mothers and fathers). In total, 123 patients (between 14 and 24 years), 98 mothers and 79 fathers completed the Family Assessment Device. Patients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. No main effects were found of restrictive versus binge-eating/purging behaviour nor of presence/absence of NSSI. For the parents, a significant interaction between binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI emerged: Mothers and fathers reported worse family functioning in the binge-eating/purging group in presence of NSSI, whereas mothers reported worse family functioning in the restrictive group without NSSI. Parental perception of family functioning is affected by the combined presence of binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI. This finding should be taken into account when treating families living with eating disorders. PMID:26084562

  15. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. PMID:26334452

  16. Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

    2013-01-01

    The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ⩾30 kg m−2 and binge eating scale scores ⩾19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day−1 GSK1521498, 5 mg day−1 GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day−1 caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day−1 on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384

  17. Effects of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour: a proof of mechanism study in binge-eating obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Ziauddeen, H; Chamberlain, S R; Nathan, P J; Koch, A; Maltby, K; Bush, M; Tao, W X; Napolitano, A; Skeggs, A L; Brooke, A C; Cheke, L; Clayton, N S; Sadaf Farooqi, I; O'Rahilly, S; Waterworth, D; Song, K; Hosking, L; Richards, D B; Fletcher, P C; Bullmore, E T

    2013-12-01

    The opioid system is implicated in the hedonic and motivational processing of food, and in binge eating, a behaviour strongly linked to obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with the mu-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 on eating behaviour in binge-eating obese subjects. Adults with body mass index ≥ 30 kg m(-2) and binge eating scale scores ≥ 19 received 1-week single-blind placebo run-in, and were then randomized to 28 days with either 2 mg day(-1) GSK1521498, 5 mg day(-1) GSK1521498 or placebo (N=21 per arm) in a double-blind parallel group design. The outcome measures were body weight, fat mass, hedonic and consummatory eating behaviour during inpatient food challenges, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary analysis was the comparison of change scores in the higher-dose treatment group versus placebo using analysis of covariance at each relevant time point. GSK1521498 (2 mg and 5 mg) was not different from placebo in its effects on weight, fat mass and binge eating scores. However, compared with placebo, GSK1521498 5 mg day(-1) caused a significant reduction in hedonic responses to sweetened dairy products and reduced calorific intake, particularly of high-fat foods during ad libitum buffet meals, with some of these effects correlating with systemic exposure of GSK1521498. There were no significant effects of GSK1521498 2 mg day(-1) on eating behaviour, indicating dose dependency of pharmacodynamics. GSK1521498 was generally well tolerated and no previously unidentified safety signals were detected. The potential for these findings to translate into clinically significant effects in the context of binge eating and weight regain prevention requires further investigation. PMID:23147384

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: distinct and overlapping changes in eating behaviour and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Irish, Muireann; Piguet, Olivier; Halliday, Glenda M; Ittner, Lars M; Farooqi, Sadaf; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic changes incorporating fluctuations in weight, insulin resistance, and cholesterol concentrations have been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. Whether these changes result from the neurodegenerative process affecting brain regions necessary for metabolic regulation or whether they drive the degenerative process is unknown. Emerging evidence from epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and experimental studies emphasises a range of changes in eating behaviours and metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In ALS, metabolic changes have been linked to disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, changes in eating behaviour that affect metabolism have been incorporated into the diagnostic criteria for FTD, which has some clinical and pathological overlap with ALS. Whether the distinct and shared metabolic and eating changes represent a component of the proposed spectrum of the two diseases is an intriguing possibility. Moreover, future research should aim to unravel the complex connections between eating, metabolism, and neurodegeneration in ALS and FTD, and aim to understand the potential for targeting modifiable risk factors in disease development and progression. PMID:26822748

  19. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. PMID:25974271

  20. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating. PMID:27149410

  1. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time; students with similar eating behaviours tend to form groups, represented by distinct clusters. Transition of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviour is non-linear and a sharp change is observed around a critical point where positive and negative influences are equal. Conclusions Conceptualizing the social environment of individuals is a crucial step to increasing our understanding of obesogenic environments of high-school students, and moreover, the general population. Incorporating both contextual, and individual determinants found in real datasets, in our model will greatly enhance calibration of future models. Complex mathematical modelling has a potential to contribute to the way public health data is collected and analyzed. PMID:23046793

  2. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  3. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients. PMID:25802175

  4. Implication of corticotropic hormone axis in eating behaviour pattern in obese and type 2 diabetic participants.

    PubMed

    Benbaibeche, Hassiba; Haffaf, El Mahdi; Kacimi, Ghouti; Oudjit, Brahim; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Koceïr, Elhadj Ahmed

    2015-04-28

    In Algeria, eating behaviour has been increasingly deviated from its traditional Mediterranean diet to modern fast food style. The present study examines the interactions between eating behaviour pattern (EBP), corticotropic hormone axis and the metabolic syndrome. Our Algerian population cohort comprised of 410 participants (130 obese, 170 type 2 diabetics and 110 healthy participants). The EBP was evaluated by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire test. The anthropometric and metabolic parameters (glucose, TAG, HDL, LDL and cholesterol) and the concentrations of hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone) were determined by biometrics, spectrophotometry and RIA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed a high correlation between the EBP and the metabolic syndrome, particularly between insulin-resistant state and hypertrophy of visceral adipose tissue. Compared with healthy participants, obese ones showed the hyperphagic type of EBP, i.e. disinhibition and hunger disorders. Conversely, the diabetics showed both the hypophagic and hyperphagic type of EBP. In diabetic and obese participants, cortisol and ACTH secretions were significantly altered, leading to metabolic disorders. The present study confirms the role of EBP in obesity and diabetes. PMID:25782454

  5. The Role of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in the Caregiving Experience Among Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Depestele, Lies; Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the caregiving experiences of mothers and fathers of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered (ED) inpatients with and without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Sixty-five mothers and 65 fathers completed the Experience of Caregiving Inventory. All inpatients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related to assess NSSI and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale to assess eating disorder symptoms. Mothers reported significant more negative and more positive caregiving experiences compared with fathers. Mothers (but not fathers) of restrictive ED patients reported more positive caregiving experiences compared with mothers of binge-eating/purging patients. The presence of NSSI in ED patients was associated with more negative caregiving experiences of both parents. Mothers and fathers of ED inpatients differ in caregiving experiences, and both binge-eating behaviours and NSSI negatively affect their caregiving experience. Therefore, supportive interventions for parents of ED patients are necessary, especially of those patients who engage in NSSI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26640156

  6. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  7. Correlates of parental feeding practices with pre-schoolers: Parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-06-01

    Parental feeding practices have been linked to eating and weight status in young children; however, more research is needed to understand what influences these feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine how parental feeding practices that are linked to unhealthy eating patterns in young children, are related to parental body image and eating knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours . Participants were 330 mothers of a 2- to 6-year-old child. Mothers completed measures of knowledge of child body image and eating patterns, overvaluation of weight and shape, internalization of general media and athletic ideals, dieting, and parental feeding practices. Higher maternal knowledge of strategies to promote positive child body image and eating patterns predicted lower weight restriction, instrumental, emotional, and pushing to eat feeding practices. Overvaluation of weight and shape predicted use of fat restriction. Maternal internalization of the athletic ideal predicted instrumental and pushing to eat feeding practices. As these feeding practices have been associated with long-term risk of children's weight gain and/or disordered eating, these findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to target knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents of pre-schoolers. PMID:26952561

  8. Pharmacological modulation of the endocannabinoid signalling alters binge-type eating behaviour in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Scherma, M; Fattore, L; Satta, V; Businco, F; Pigliacampo, B; Goldberg, SR; Dessi, C; Fratta, W; Fadda, P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by excessive food intake during short periods of time. Recent evidence suggests that alterations in the endocannabinoid signalling could be involved in the pathophysiology of BED. In this study, we investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of endocannabinoid transmission may be effective in modulating the aberrant eating behaviour present in a validated rat model of BED. Experimental Approach Binge-type eating was induced in female rats by providing limited access to an optional source of dietary fat (margarine). Rats were divided into three groups, all with ad libitum access to chow and water: control (C), with no access to margarine; low restriction (LR), with 2 h margarine access 7 days a week; high restriction (HR), with 2 h margarine access 3 days a week. Key Results Compared with the LR group, the HR group consumed more margarine and this was accompanied by an increase in body weight. The cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol significantly increased margarine intake selectively in LR rats, while the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 showed no effect. The CB1 receptor inverse agonist/antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently reduced margarine intake in HR rats. Notably, in HR rats, chronic treatment with a low dose of rimonabant induced a selective long-lasting reduction in margarine intake that did not develop tolerance, and a significant and persistent reduction in body weight. Conclusions and Implications Chronic pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors reduces binge eating behaviour in female rats and may prove effective in treating BED, with an associated significant reduction in body weight. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8 PMID:23072421

  9. Development of the eating behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding.

    PubMed

    McAllister, C J; Whittington, J E; Holland, A J

    2011-02-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of severe obesity is primarily through strict control of access to food and it is this aspect that most limits the independence of those with PWS. This review considers the eating disorder in PWS, specifically how the as yet uncertain genetics of the syndrome and the transition from the early to the later phenotype might account for the later hyperphagia. On the basis of behavioural and imaging studies, a failure of satiety and excessive activation of neural reward pathways have both been suggested. We speculate that the overeating behaviour, consequent upon one or other of the above, could either be due to a direct effect of the PWS genotype on the feeding pathways of the hypothalamus or a consequence of prenatal changes in the regulation of genes responsible for energy balance that sets a high satiation threshold. Understanding the overeating in PWS will lead to more focused and successful management and ultimately, treatment of this life-threatening behaviour. PMID:20680019

  10. Evaluation of eating and rumination behaviour in cows using a noseband pressure sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An automated technique for recording eating and rumination behaviour was evaluated in ten lactating Brown Swiss cows by comparing data obtained from a pressure sensor with data obtained via direct observation over a 24-hour period. The recording device involved a pressure sensor integrated in the noseband of a halter. The analysed variables included number and duration of individual rumination, eating and resting phases, total daily length of these phases and number of cuds chewed per day. Results Eating and rumination phases were readily differentiated based on characteristic pressure profiles. Chewing movements during rumination were regular and generated regular waveforms with uniform amplitudes, whereas eating generated irregular waveforms with variable amplitudes. There was complete or almost complete agreement and no significant differences between data obtained via direct observation and pressure sensor technique. Both methods yielded an average of 16 daily eating phases with a mean duration of 28.3 minutes. Total time spent eating was 445.0 minutes for direct observation and 445.4 minutes for the pressure sensor technique. Both techniques recorded an average of 13.3 rumination phases with a mean duration of 30.3 (direct observation) and of 30.2 (pressure sensor) minutes. Total time spent ruminating per day, number of cuds per day and chewing cycles per cud were 389.3 and 388.3 minutes, 410.1 and 410.0 and 60.0 and 60.3 for direct observation and pressure sensor technique, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two methods with respect to mean number of chewing cycles per day (24′669, direct observation vs. 24′751, pressure sensor, P < 0.05, paired t-test). There were strong correlations between the two recording methods with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 1.00. Conclusions The results confirmed that measurements of eating and rumination variables obtained via the pressure sensor technique are in excellent agreement with data obtained via direct observation. PMID:23941142

  11. Food for thought: a pilot study of the pros and cons of changing eating patterns within cognitive-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Evans, Jane; Pugh, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders has an early focus on behavioural changes around food intake. However, patients' anxiety around such change might account for why they often seem unmotivated in treatment. In order to determine the impact of changing intake, this pilot study of patients with bulimic disorders (N = 19) or anorexia nervosa (N = 9) used a mixed quantitative and qualitative design to retrospectively examine their perspectives of the short- and long-term pros and cons of such change. As expected, change was seen negatively in the short-term (with particularly high numbers reporting anxiety), but there were few reports of long-term negative outcomes. In contrast, there were both short- and long-term benefits of changing eating. The patients described what was helpful in making changes and what they had learned as a result. In both cases, their descriptions mapped closely onto the content and process of evidence-based CBT for the eating disorders. Although there is a need for more extensive research, these findings suggest that patients (and therapists) might benefit from being aware of the contrast between the short- and the long-term pros and cons of changing eating within CBT for the eating disorders. PMID:23820156

  12. Stress-related eating, obesity and associated behavioural traits in adolescents: a prospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress-related eating is associated with unhealthy eating and drinking habits and an increased risk of obesity among adults, but less is known about factors related to stress-driven eating behaviour among children and adolescents. We studied the prevalence of stress-related eating and its association with overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, dietary and other health behaviours at the age of 16. Furthermore, we examined whether stress-related eating is predicted by early-life factors including birth size and maternal gestational health. Methods The study population comprised 3598 girls and 3347 boys from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986). Followed up since their antenatal period, adolescents underwent a clinical examination, and their stress-related eating behaviour, dietary habits and other health behaviours were assessed using a postal questionnaire. We examined associations using cross-tabulations followed by latent class analysis and logistic regression to profile the adolescents and explain the risk of obesity with behavioural traits. Results Stress-related eating behaviour was more common among girls (43%) than among boys (15%). Compared with non-stress-driven eaters, stress-driven eaters had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity. We found no significant associations between stress-eating and early-life factors. Among girls, tobacco use, shorter sleep, infrequent family meals and frequent consumption of chocolate, sweets, light sodas and alcohol were more prevalent among stress-driven eaters. Among boys, the proportions of those with frequent consumption of sausages, chocolate, sweets, hamburgers and pizza were greater among stress-driven eaters. For both genders, the proportions of those bingeing and using heavy exercise and strict diet for weight control were higher among stress-eaters. Besides a ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster, latent class analysis revealed two other patterns (‘adverse habits’, ‘unbalanced weight control’) that significantly explained the risk of overweight among boys and girls. Conclusions Stress-related eating is highly prevalent among 16-year-old girls and is associated with obesity as well as adverse dietary and other health behaviours among both genders, but intrauterine conditions are seemingly uninvolved. In terms of obesity prevention and future health, adolescents who use eating as a passive way of coping could benefit from learning healthier strategies for stress and weight management. PMID:24708823

  13. Maternal report of young children's eating styles. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in three ethnically diverse Australian samples.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Liu, Wei-Hong; Mehta, Rati Jani; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's α estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562

  14. Clinicians' concerns about delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Tatham, Madeleine; Lant, Marie; Mountford, Victoria A; Waller, Glenn

    2014-06-01

    Despite research supporting the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions in the treatment of eating disorders, those interventions are under-utilised in routine clinical practice, possibly due to clinicians' concerns about delivering the relevant techniques. This study examined what elements of therapy clinicians worry about when delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders, and what clinician variables are associated with such concerns. The participants were 113 clinicians who used individual CBT with eating disorder patients. They completed a novel measure of concerns about delivering elements of CBT, as well as demographic characteristics and a standardised measure of intolerance of uncertainty. Clinicians worried most about body image work and ending treatment, but least about delivering psychoeducation. Their concerns fell into four distinct factors. Older, more experienced clinicians worried less about delivering the CBT techniques, but those with greater levels of prospective and inhibitory anxiety worried more about specific factors in the CBT techniques. Clinicians' capacity to tolerate uncertainty might impair their delivery of evidence-based CBT, and merits consideration as a target in training and supervision of CBT clinicians. PMID:24793719

  15. The Association of Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Behavioural Difficulties with Pre-Adolescent Problematic Eating Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca C.; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Wade, Kaitlin H.; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Sergeichick, Natalia; Smith, George Davey; Oken, Emily; Martin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have prospectively investigated associations of child cognitive ability and behavioural difficulties with later eating attitudes. We investigated associations of intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance and behavioural difficulties at 6.5 years with eating attitudes five years later. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, Belarus. Of 17,046 infants enrolled at birth, 13,751 (80.7%) completed the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) at 11.5 years, most with information on IQ (n = 12,667), academic performance (n = 9,954) and behavioural difficulties (n = 11,098) at 6.5 years. The main outcome was a ChEAT score ≥85th percentile, indicative of problematic eating attitudes. Results Boys with higher IQ at 6.5 years reported fewer problematic eating attitudes, as assessed by ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile, at 11.5 years (OR per SD increase in full-scale IQ = 0.87; 0.79, 0.94). No such association was observed in girls (1.01; 0.93, 1.10) (p for sex-interaction = 0.016). In both boys and girls, teacher-assessed academic performance in non-verbal subjects was inversely associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per unit increase in mathematics ability = 0.88; 0.82, 0.94; and OR per unit increase in ability for other non-verbal subjects = 0.86; 0.79, 0.94). Behavioural difficulties were positively associated with high ChEAT scores five years later (OR per SD increase in teacher-assessed rating = 1.13; 1.07, 1.19). Conclusion Lower IQ, worse non-verbal academic performance and behavioural problems at early school age are positively associated with risk of problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence. PMID:25102171

  16. Growth and Development in Chinese Pre-Schoolers with Picky Eating Behaviour: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yong; Zhao, Ai; Cai, Li; Yang, Baoru; Szeto, Ignatius M. Y.; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations between picky eating behaviour and pre-schoolers’ growth and development. Corresponding potential mechanisms, such as nutrient and food subgroup intake, as well as micronutrients in the blood, will be considered. Methods Picky eating behaviour was present if it was reported by parents. From various areas of China, 937 healthy children of 3-7 years old were recruited using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Children and their mothers’ socio-demographic information and children’s anthropometry, intelligence, blood samples, one 24-hour dietary intake record and food frequency questionnaire were collected. Z-scores and intelligence tests were used to evaluate growth and development (cognitive development). Multilevel models were employed to verify the associations between picky eating behaviour and growth and development. Results The prevalence of picky eating as reported by parents was 54% in pre-schoolers. Compared with the non-picky eaters, weight for age in picky eaters was 0.14 z-score (95% CI: -0.25, -0.02; p = 0.017) lower while no significant difference was found in intelligence (p > 0.05). Picky eating behaviour lasting over two years was associated with lower weight for age, as was nit-picking meat (the prevalence from parents’ perception was 23% in picky eaters) (p < 0.05). Picky eaters consumed fewer cereals, vegetables, and fish (p < 0.05), and had a lower dietary intake of protein, dietary fibre, iron, and zinc (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the concentrations of essential minerals in whole blood (p > 0.05). Conclusions Picky eating behaviour is reported by parents in half of the Chinese pre-schoolers, which is negatively associated with growth (weight for age). Lower protein and dietary fibre as well as lower iron and zinc intakes were associated with picky eating as were lower intakes of vegetables, fish and cereals. PMID:25875004

  17. Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and b) reliability. We also considered the measures’ potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

  18. Neurobehavioural correlates of body mass index and eating behaviours in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Dagher, Alain; Dubé, Laurette; Fellows, Lesley K

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity has spurred numerous efforts to understand the regulation of eating behaviours and underlying brain mechanisms. These mechanisms can affordably be studied via neurobehavioural measures. Here, we systematically review these efforts, evaluating neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires based on: (a) consistent relationship with obesity and eating behaviour, and (b) reliability. We also considered the measures' potential to shed light on the brain mechanisms underlying these individual differences. Sixty-six neurocognitive tasks were examined. Less than 11%, mainly measures of executive functions and food motivation, yielded both replicated and reliable effects. Several different personality questionnaires were consistently related to BMI. However, further analysis found that many of these questionnaires relate closely to Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Neuroticism within the Five-Factor Model of personality. Both neurocognitive tests and personality questionnaires suggest that the critical neural systems related to individual differences in obesity are lateral prefrontal structures underpinning self-control and striatal regions implicated in food motivation. This review can guide selection of the highest yield neurobehavioural measures for future studies. PMID:23261403

  19. Are There Gender-Specific Pathways from Early Adolescence Psychological Distress Symptoms toward the Development of Substance Use and Abnormal Eating Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beato-Fernandez, Luis; Rodriguez-Cano, Teresa; Pelayo-Delgado, Esther; Calaf, Myralys

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormal eating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…

  20. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p < 0.05), and Y-BOCS-BE total, obsessive, and compulsive scales (all p ≤ 0.02) and on BIS-11 total score at 70 mg/d LDX (p = 0.015) and the TFEQ Cognitive Restraint subscale at 30 and 70 mg/d LDX (both p<0.05). These findings indicate that LDX decreased global binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26621156

  1. Impact of childhood experience and adult well-being on eating preferences and behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Simon J; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relative contribution of childhood experience, measured by childhood violence and childhood happiness, and adult well-being on adult eating preferences and behaviours, independent of proximal factors such as current deprivation. Design A cross-sectional, stratified, randomised sample survey using retrospective measures of childhood violence and happiness and self-reported measures of current well-being. Setting The North West Region of England between September 2012 and March 2013. Participants Individuals aged 18–95-year-olds from randomly selected households (participation was successful for 90% of eligible households and 78% of the total visited addresses; n=11 243). Outcomes Dichotomised measures for preference of healthy foods or ‘feel good’ foods and low or high daily fruit and vegetable consumption. Results After correcting for demographics, combined categories for childhood experience and dichotomised measures of adult well-being were found to be significantly related to adult food preferences and eating behaviours. Participants with unhappy and violent childhoods compared to those with happy and non-violent childhoods had adjusted ORs (95% CI, significance) of 2.67 (2.15 to 3.06, p<0.001) of having low daily fruit and vegetable intake (two or less portions) and 1.53 (1.29 to 1.81, p<0.001) of choosing ‘feel good’ foods over foods which were good for their long term health. Conclusions Daily intake of fruit and vegetables, linked to non-communicable diseases, and preference for ‘feel good’ foods, linked to obesity, are affected by childhood experience and adult well-being independent of demographic factors. Preventative interventions which support parent–child relationships and improve childhood experience are likely to reduce the development of poor dietary and other health-risk behaviours. PMID:26743696

  2. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  3. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: -0.01-0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders. PMID:25209691

  4. Abnormal magnetic behaviour of powder metallurgy austenitic stainless steels sintered in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, C.; Martin, F.; Blanco, Y.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic response of AISI 304L and AISI 316L obtained through powder metallurgy and sintered in nitrogen were studied. AISI 304L sintered in nitrogen showed a ferromagnetic behaviour in as-sintered state while AISI 316L was paramagnetic. After solution annealing both were paramagnetic. Magnetic behaviour was analysed by using a vibrating sample magnetometer, a magnetic ferritscope and magnetic etching. A microstructural characterization was performed by means of optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDS). Some samples when needed were submitted to aged heat treatments at 675 and 875 °C for 90 min, 4, 6, 8 or 48 h. The main microstructural feature found was the presence of a lamellar constituent formed by nitride precipitates and an interlamellar matrix of austenite and/or ferrite. The abnormal magnetic response was explained based on this.

  5. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  6. The effects of GLP-1 analogues in obese, insulin-using type 2 diabetes in relation to eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Stefanie Amarens; Lefrandt, Joop Daniel; Petersen, Japke Frida; Boersma, Hendrikus Hessel; Mulder, Douwe Johannes; Hoogenberg, Klaas

    2016-02-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) added to insulin in type 2 diabetes patients have shown to lower body weight, improve glycaemic control and reduce total daily insulin dose in short term studies, although the individual response greatly varies. Objective To evaluate GLP-1 RA treatment on body weight, glycaemic control and total daily insulin dose in obese, insulin-using type 2 diabetes patients after 2 years follow-up in a real life setting and to explore a possible relation with eating behaviour. Setting The Martini Hospital and the University Medical Center in Groningen in the Netherlands. Methods Eligible patients were at least 18 years of age, were on insulin therapy and obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)), started GLP-1 RA treatment. At baseline eating behaviour was classified according to the validated Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. A 2 years follow-up was performed. Main outcome measures Body weight, HbA1c and total daily insulin dose. Results 151 Patients started with exenatide or liraglutide. 120 patients completed the 2 years follow-up. From baseline to 2 years, body weight (mean ± SD) changed from 117.9 ± 22.1 to 107.9 ± 22.9 kg (P < 0.0001), HbA1c (median, IQR) changed from 7.9 (7.2-8.9) to 7.6 (6.9-8.3) % [63 (55-74) to 60 (52-67) mmol/mol] (P < 0.0001), total daily insulin dose changed from 90 (56-150) to 60 (0-100) Units/day (P < 0.0001). Weight change differed between eating behaviour groups (P < 0.001) in which external eating behaviour (n = 17) resulted in the smallest decline (-3.1 %) and restrained (n = 41) in the greatest (-10.3 %) in comparison with emotional (n = 37, -8.5 %) and indifferent (n = 25, -9.6 %) eating behaviours. Conclusion Two year of GLP-1 RA treatment resulted in a sustained reduction of weight, HbA1c and total daily insulin dose in obese, insulin-using type 2 diabetes patients in a real life setting. Largest weight loss was achieved in patients with a predominant restraint eating pattern while a predominant external eating pattern resulted in the smallest weight reduction. PMID:26597956

  7. Can Social Cognitive Theory Constructs Explain Socio-Economic Variations in Adolescent Eating Behaviours? A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, K.; MacFarlane, A.; Crawford, D.; Savige, G.; Andrianopoulos, N.; Worsley, A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eating behaviours using a theoretically derived…

  8. Improving Children's Problem Eating and Mealtime Behaviours: An Evaluative Study of a Single Session Parent Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kim; Wallis, Marianne; St. John, Winsome

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a "single session" group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the "Fun not Fuss with Food" group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours. Design: A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before…

  9. Maternal Predictors of Preschool Child-Eating Behaviours, Food Intake and Body Mass Index: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eating behaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…

  10. Gender Differences in the Relationships between Bullying at School and Unhealthy Eating and Shape-Related Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Claire V.; Fox, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eating behaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for outpatients with eating disorders: effectiveness for a transdiagnostic group in a routine clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    Whilst there is a growing evidence to support the impact of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of adults with eating disorders, much of this evidence comes from tightly controlled efficacy trials. This study aimed to add to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of CBT when delivered in a routine clinical setting. The participants were 203 adults presenting with a range of eating disorder diagnoses, who were offered CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed measures of eating disorder pathology at the start of treatment, following the sixth session, and at the end of treatment. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychosocial functioning were measured pre- and post-treatment. Approximately 55% of patients completed treatment, and there were no factors that predicted attrition. There were significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology, anxiety, depression and general functioning, with particular changes in eating attitudes in the early part of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. These findings confirm that evidence-based forms of CBT can be delivered with strong outcomes in routine clinical settings. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver evidence-based treatments when working in these settings. PMID:25816766

  12. Chocolate cake. Guilt or celebration? Associations with healthy eating attitudes, perceived behavioural control, intentions and weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A

    2014-03-01

    Food and eating are often associated with ambivalent feelings: pleasure and enjoyment, but also worry and guilt. Guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, but may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. This study firstly examined whether a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake) was related to differences in attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and intentions in relation to healthy eating, and secondly whether the default association was related to weight change over an 18month period (and short term weight-loss in a subsample of participants with a weight-loss goal). This study did not find any evidence for adaptive or motivational properties of guilt. Participants associating chocolate cake with guilt did not report more positive attitudes or stronger intentions to eat healthy than did those associating chocolate cake with celebration. Instead, they reported lower levels of perceived behavioural control over eating and were less successful at maintaining their weight over an 18month period. Participants with a weight-loss goal who associated chocolate cake with guilt were less successful at losing weight over a 3month period compared to those associating chocolate cake with celebration. PMID:24275670

  13. Weighing patients within cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders: How, when and why.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Mountford, Victoria A

    2015-07-01

    While weight, beliefs about weight and weight changes are key issues in the pathology and treatment of eating disorders, there is substantial variation in whether and how psychological therapists weigh their patients. This review considers the reasons for that variability, highlighting the differences that exist in clinical protocols between therapies, as well as levels of reluctance on the part of some therapists and patients. It is noted that there have been substantial changes over time in the recommendations made within therapies, including cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). The review then makes the case for all CBT therapists needing to weigh their patients in session and for the patient to be aware of their weight, in order to give the best chance of cognitive, emotional and behavioural progress. Specific guidance is given as to how to weigh, stressing the importance of preparation of the patient and presentation, timing and execution of the task. Consideration is given to reasons that clinicians commonly report for not weighing patients routinely, and counter-arguments and solutions are presented. Finally, there is consideration of procedures to follow with some special groups of patients. PMID:25938186

  14. Influence of dietary macronutrient composition on eating behaviour and self-perception in young women undergoing weight management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hoi Lun; Griffin, Hayley; Claes, Bri-Ellen; Petocz, Peter; Steinbeck, Katharine; Rooney, Kieron; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-06-01

    The control of eating behaviours such as hunger and disinhibition is problematic for women during weight management. Higher-protein (HP) diets have been shown to promote greater weight reduction than higher-carbohydrate (HC) diets, but their impact on eating behaviours is relatively unexplored. This study compared two iso-energetically restricted (5,600 kJ/day) diets differing in protein (HP: 32%, HC: 20%) and carbohydrate (HP: 41%, HC: 58%) on appetite ratings, restraint, disinhibition, perceived hunger and binge eating in 36 (HP: n = 21, HC: n = 15) young (18-25 years), healthy women with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2) who completed a 12-month clinical weight management trial. Dietary compliance and self-worth were also assessed. Results showed that both diets induced improvements in restraint and disinhibition from baseline (p < 0.01), with HP participants losing a non-significantly greater amount of weight than HC participants (HP: 9.6 ± 2.6, HC: 4.1 ± 1.4 kg, p = 0.07). Despite reasonable compliance, no significant appetite and eating behaviour differences were observed between the diets. Reduction in disinhibition (regardless of diet) significantly predicted weight loss (β = 0.574, p < 0.001) and self-worth improvement (β = -0.463, p = 0.002), while HP intake predicted greater self-worth change (β = -0.371, p = 0.011). This study demonstrates that young women can improve restraint and disinhibition on a weight management programme, with the reduction in disinhibition shown to be a key predictor of weight loss. HP intake may offer some advantage for increasing self-worth but not eating behaviours. As HP diets are popular, these findings warrant confirmation in a larger sample. PMID:24609724

  15. Skin rash, headache and abnormal behaviour: unusual presentation of intracranial haemorrhage in dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abdul Majid; Mejally, Mousa Ali Al; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Maimani, Wail Al; Hanif, Sadia; Khoujah, Amer Mohd; Siddiqi, Ahmad; Akhtar, Mubeena; Bafaraj, Mazen G; Fareed, Khurram

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. The dengue virus is a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are four serotypes (DEN 1–4) classified according to biological and immunological criteria. Patients may be asymptomatic or their condition may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide and 2.5 billion people are at risk. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment are vital if disease related morbidity and mortality are to be limited. We present an interesting case of dengue fever with headache, skin rash and abnormal behaviour who had a massive intracranial haemorrhage with fatal outcome. PMID:22242067

  16. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26606864

  17. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). Conclusions There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers. PMID:23391296

  18. The Interplay between Sensory Processing Abnormalities, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; Rodgers, Jacqui; South, Mikle; McConachie, Helen; Freeston, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRBs) frequently co-occur in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Though the relationship between these phenomena is not well understood, emerging evidence indicates intolerance of uncertainty (IU) may play an important role. This study aimed to determine pathways…

  19. Eating Behaviour in the General Population: An Analysis of the Factor Structure of the German Version of the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Its Association with the Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Lffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S.; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Bttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Tnjes, Anke; Horstmann, Annette; Lffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2015-01-01

    The Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ) is an established instrument to assess eating behaviour. Analysis of the TFEQ-factor structure was based on selected, convenient and clinical samples so far. Aims of this study were (I) to analyse the factor structure of the German version of the TFEQ and (II)based on the refined factor structureto examine the association between eating behaviour and the body mass index (BMI) in a general population sample of 3,144 middle-aged and older participants (4079 years) of the ongoing population based cohort study of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE Health Study). The factor structure was examined in a split-half analysis with both explorative and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between TFEQ-scores and BMI values were tested with multiple regression analyses controlled for age, gender, and education. We found a three factor solution for the TFEQ with an uncontrolled eating, a cognitive restraint and an emotional eating domain including 29 of the original 51 TFEQ-items. Scores of the uncontrolled eating domain showed the strongest correlation with BMI values (partial r = 0.26). Subjects with scores above the median in both uncontrolled eating and emotional eating showed the highest BMI values (mean = 29.41 kg/m), subjects with scores below the median in all three domains showed the lowest BMI values (mean = 25.68 kg/m; F = 72.074, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that the TFEQ is suitable to identify subjects with specific patterns of eating behaviour that are associated with higher BMI values. Such information may help health care professionals to develop and implement more tailored interventions for overweight and obese individuals. PMID:26230264

  20. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Skov, L R; Lourenço, S; Hansen, G L; Mikkelsen, B E; Schofield, C

    2013-03-01

    The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. Twelve databases were searched systematically for experimental studies with predefined choice architecture interventions in the period of June 2011-March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. The evidence indicates that (i) health labelling at point of purchase is associated with healthier food choice, while (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. PMID:23164089

  1. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  2. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy. PMID:24933685

  3. The identification of abnormal behaviour and behavioural problems in stabled horses and their relationship to horse welfare: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Mason, G J

    1998-11-01

    Many behaviours in domestic animals, such as the 'stable vices' of horses, are treated because they are considered undesirable for economic or cultural reasons, and not because the activity affects the horse's quality of life. The impact of a behaviour on the human reporter is not a function of its impact on the animal performer, and an understanding of the causes and effects of the particular activity is necessary to assess the costs and benefits of treatment. Where the behaviour is a sign of poor welfare, such as an inadequate environment, treatment can best be achieved by removing these underlying causal factors. Pharmacological or physical prevention of a behaviour can be justified only if the behaviour causes harm to the performer or to others. In these cases, prevention of the behaviour without addressing its causes is no cure and may result in its perseverance in a modified form or the disruption of the animal's ability to adapt to its environment. Where the behavioural 'problem' causes no harm and is not related to poor housing, then the education of the reporter, rather than treatment of the performer, may be the best solution. PMID:10484995

  4. Eating As Treatment (EAT) study protocol: a stepped-wedge, randomised controlled trial of a health behaviour change intervention provided by dietitians to improve nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Ben; McCarter, Kristen; Baker, Amanda; Wolfenden, Luke; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Beck, Alison; McElduff, Patrick; Halpin, Sean; Carter, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintaining adequate nutrition for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients is challenging due to both the malignancy and the rigours of radiation treatment. As yet, health behaviour interventions designed to maintain or improve nutrition in patients with HNC have not been evaluated. The proposed trial builds on promising pilot data, and evaluates the effectiveness of a dietitian-delivered health behaviour intervention to reduce malnutrition in patients with HNC undergoing radiotherapy: Eating As Treatment (EAT). Methods and analysis A stepped-wedge cluster randomised design will be used. All recruitment hospitals begin in the control condition providing treatment as usual. In a randomly generated order, oncology staff at each hospital will receive 2 days of training in EAT before switching to the intervention condition. Training will be supplemented by ongoing supervision, coaching and a 2-month booster training provided by the research team. EAT is based on established behaviour change counselling methods, including motivational interviewing, cognitive–behavioural therapy, and incorporates clinical practice change theory. It is designed to improve motivation to eat despite a range of barriers (pain, mucositis, nausea, reduced or no saliva, taste changes and appetite loss), and to provide patients with practical behaviour change strategies. EAT will be delivered by dietitians during their usual consultations. 400 patients with HNC (nasopharynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity or larynx), aged 18+, undergoing radiotherapy (>60 Gy) with curative intent, will be recruited from radiotherapy departments at 5 Australian sites. Assessments will be conducted at 4 time points (first and final week of radiotherapy, 4 and 12 weeks postradiotherapy). The primary outcome will be a nutritional status assessment. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval from all relevant bodies has been granted. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number ACTRN12613000320752. PMID:26231757

  5. A transdiagnostic comparison of enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757

  6. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p = .018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042

  7. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  8. Testing the cognitive-behavioural maintenance models across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups: a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Gaudio, Santino; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    The original cognitive-behavioural (CB) model of bulimia nervosa, which provided the basis for the widely used CB therapy, proposed that specific dysfunctional cognitions and behaviours maintain the disorder. However, amongst treatment completers, only 40-50 % have a full and lasting response. The enhanced CB model (CB-E), upon which the enhanced version of the CB treatment was based, extended the original approach by including four additional maintenance factors. This study evaluated and compared both CB models in a large clinical treatment seeking sample (N = 679), applying both DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for bulimic-type eating disorders. Application of the DSM-5 criteria reduced the number of cases of DSM-IV bulimic-type eating disorders not otherwise specified to 29.6 %. Structural equation modelling analysis indicated that (a) although both models provided a good fit to the data, the CB-E model accounted for a greater proportion of variance in eating-disordered behaviours than the original one, (b) interpersonal problems, clinical perfectionism and low self-esteem were indirectly associated with dietary restraint through over-evaluation of shape and weight, (c) interpersonal problems and mood intolerance were directly linked to binge eating, whereas restraint only indirectly affected binge eating through mood intolerance, suggesting that factors other than restraint may play a more critical role in the maintenance of binge eating. In terms of strength of the associations, differences across DSM-5 bulimic-type eating disorder diagnostic groups were not observed. The results are discussed with reference to theory and research, including neurobiological findings and recent hypotheses. PMID:25416408

  9. Prevalence of picky eating behaviour in Chinese school-age children and associations with anthropometric parameters and intelligence quotient. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Lee, Eva; Ning, Ke; Zheng, Yingdong; Ma, Defu; Gao, Hongchong; Yang, Baoru; Bai, Ying; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eating behaviour regarding dietary variety and nutrient intake of children. However, the association between picky eating and growth of children is still a topic of debate. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of picky eating and to identify possible associations with the growth of school-age children in China. In this survey, 793 healthy children aged 7-12 years were recruited from nine cities and rural areas in China using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data collected included socio-demographic information and parents' perceptions of picky eating using a structured questionnaire, nutrient intake using 24-hour dietary recall, weight and height using body measurements, and intelligence using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Blood samples were collected and analysed for minerals. The prevalence of picky eating reported by parents was 59.3% in children. Compared with non-picky eaters, picky eaters had a lower dietary intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, most vitamins and minerals, and lower levels of magnesium, iron, and copper in the blood (p?eating behaviour towards meat, eggs and vegetables showed negative associations with growth. Picky eating behaviour is prevalent in school-age children in China and may have a negative effect on growth. PMID:25934087

  10. A lack of functional NK1 receptors explains most, but not all, abnormal behaviours of NK1R-/- mice1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A J; Pillidge, K; Tsai, Y C; Dudley, J A; Hunt, S P; Peirson, S N; Brown, L A; Stanford, S C

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display abnormal behaviours seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness). These abnormalities were evident when comparing the behaviour of separate (inbred: ‘Hom’) wildtype and NK1R-/- mouse strains. Here, we investigated whether the inbreeding protocol could influence their phenotype by comparing the behaviour of these mice with that of wildtype (NK1R+/+) and NK1R-/- progeny of heterozygous parents (‘Het’, derived from the same inbred strains). First, we recorded the spontaneous motor activity of the two colonies/genotypes, over 7 days. This continuous monitoring also enabled us to investigate whether the diurnal rhythm in motor activity differs in the two colonies/genotypes. NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were hyperactive compared with their wildtypes and their diurnal rhythm was also disrupted. Next, we evaluated the performance of the four groups of mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). During training, NK1R-/- mice from both colonies expressed more impulsive and perseverative behaviour than their wildtypes. During testing, only NK1R-/- mice from the Hom colony were more impulsive than their wildtypes, but NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were more perseverative. There were no colony differences in inattentiveness. Moreover, a genotype difference in this measure depended on time of day. We conclude that the hyperactivity, perseveration and, possibly, inattentiveness of NK1R-/- mice is a direct consequence of a lack of functional NK1R. However, the greater impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice depended on an interaction between a functional deficit of NK1R and other (possibly environmental and/or epigenetic) factors. PMID:25558794

  11. Effect of changes to the school food environment on eating behaviours and/or body weight in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Driessen, C E; Cameron, A J; Thornton, L E; Lai, S K; Barnett, L M

    2014-12-01

    Previous school obesity-prevention reviews have included multi-component interventions. Here, we aimed to review the evidence for the effect of isolated food environment interventions on both eating behaviours (including food purchasing) and/or body weight. Five electronic databases were searched (last updated 30 November 2013). Of the 1,002 unique papers identified, 55 reported on school food environment changes, based on a review of titles and abstracts. Thirty-seven further papers were excluded, for not meeting the inclusion criteria. The final selection consisted of 18 papers (14 United States, 4 United Kingdom). Two studies had a body mass index (BMI) outcome, 14 assessed purchasing or eating behaviours and two studies assessed both weight and behaviour. Seventeen of 18 papers reported a positive outcome on either BMI (or change in BMI) or the healthfulness of food sold or consumed. Two studies were rated as strong quality and 11 as weak. Only three studies included a control group. A school environment supportive of healthy eating is essential to combat heavy marketing of unhealthy food. Modification of the school food environment (including high-level policy changes at state or national level) can have a positive impact on eating behaviours. A need exists, however, for further high-quality studies. PMID:25266705

  12. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States.

    PubMed

    Domoff, Sarah E; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-12-01

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; Wardle, Guthrie, Sanderson, & Rapoport, 2001) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviors. Yet, only one study has examined the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income children. In the current study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the CEBQ among 1002 low-income preschool-age children recruited from Head Start locations in the United States. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated the CEBQ evidenced a reasonable fit to the data. Results also indicate that CEBQ subscales demonstrate good internal reliability (α's ≥ .70) and validity, with 7 of the 8 subscales associated with children's BMI z-scores in the expected directions. Equivalent factor loadings and indicator means across White and Black non-Hispanic participants were found, supporting measurement invariance between these two groups. In sum, our study supports the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States. PMID:26247701

  13. Allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci and abnormal chromosome behaviour caused pollen sterility in intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids

    PubMed Central

    He, J. H.; Shahid, M. Q.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, X. A.; Liu, X. D.; Lu, Y. G.

    2011-01-01

    The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F1 pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F1 sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids. PMID:21624978

  14. Psychopathy and personality: the dimensionality of self-report and behaviour rating data in abnormal offenders.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, R

    1979-02-01

    Factor analyses of personality test data in two samples of offenders admitted to psychiatric security hospitals yielded two higher order factors identified as psychopathy or antisocial aggression versus conformity, and social withdrawal versus sociability. One sample was also rated for ward behaviour by nursing staff, and similar factors emerged from the behaviour rating data. The self-report dimension of psychopathy correlated significantly with the corresponding rating dimension at the time of admission and, for medicated subjects only, with ratings obtained 2 years later. Cross-media convergence of the withdrawal dimension was not found at the time of admission, but for unmedicated subjects, initial self-reports correlated significantly with the equivalent rating dimension as assessed 2 years later. The two dimensions therefore appear to measure meaningful behavioural dispositions. While they define the same dimensional space as neuroticism and introversion--extraversion, they appear to provide a more appropriate framework for classification within this population of offenders. PMID:519129

  15. Associations between psychological stress, eating, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and body weight among women: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of obesity amongst socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and emerging evidence suggests that psychological stress may be a key factor in this relationship. This paper reports the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of relationships between perceived stress, weight and weight-related behaviours in a cohort of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Methods This study used baseline and follow-up self-report survey data from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, comprising a cohort of 1382 women aged 18 to 46 years from 80 of the most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Victoria, Australia. Women reported their height (baseline only), weight, sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, leisure-time physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviours at baseline and three-year follow-up. Linear and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between stress (predictor) and weight, and weight-related behaviours. Results Higher perceived stress in women was associated with a higher BMI, and to increased odds of being obese in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were found between stress and both less leisure-time physical activity, and more frequent fast food consumption. Longitudinal associations were also found between stress and increased television viewing time. Conclusion The present study contributes to the literature related to the effects of stress on weight and weight-related behaviours. The findings suggest that higher stress levels could contribute to obesity risk in women. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. However, interventions that incorporate stress management techniques might help to prevent rising obesity rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged women. PMID:24020677

  16. Effects of consuming mycoprotein, tofu or chicken upon subsequent eating behaviour, hunger and safety.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Geiselman, Paula J; Lovejoy, Jennifer; Greenway, Frank; Volaufova, Julia; Martin, Corby K; Arnett, Cheryl; Ortego, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    This study tested if: (1) a preload of mycoprotein and tofu consumed before a lunch meal have a greater effect on satiety when compared to a chicken preload, (2) the mycoprotein and tofu preloads, compared to chicken, are not associated with compensation or eating more food at a subsequent dinner meal. These hypotheses were tested in a controlled laboratory study using universal eating monitors to measure food intake and visual analogue scales to monitor hunger and satiety. Forty-two overweight adult females consumed three meals in the laboratory on 3 test days. At lunch, isocaloric pasta preloads, containing mycoprotein, tofu, or chicken, varied across the days in a balanced order. The findings of the study supported the two hypotheses. Mycoprotein and tofu preloads, in comparison to the chicken preload, were associated with lower food intake shortly after consuming the preload at lunch. Food intake following consumption of mycoprotein and tofu did not differ, and participants did not compensate for lower food intake at lunch by consuming more food at dinner. The findings suggest that mycoprotein and tofu have satiating properties that persist for several hours after a meal. These findings have significant implications for the development of foods that are low in kilojoules, but are also filling. PMID:16364496

  17. Dopamine-related frontostriatal abnormalities in obesity and binge-eating disorder: Emerging evidence for developmental psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Michael; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and binge-eating disorder (BED) frequently arise in adolescence, which is a critical developmental time period where self-regulatory processes are formed. Indeed, both obesity and BED are thought to arise partly due to deficits in self-regulatory processes (i.e. lack of inhibitory control to overeat or binge). Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated the frontal cortex, a brain region involved in regulating inhibitory-control, and the striatum, which is thought to be involved in food reward, satiety and pleasure, in mediating responses to food cues and feeding in normal-weight individuals as well as obese and BED subjects. Intriguingly, frontostriatal circuits have been observed to be preferentially modulated in obese adults and similar associations have been observed in obese/overweight adolescents. Furthermore, brain dopamine (DA) is selectively altered in striatum in obese relative to normal-weight individuals, and frontostriatal regions constitute a major component of DA circuitry. The aim of this review will be to present the main findings from neuroimaging studies in obese and BED adults and adolescents, as these relate to frontostriatal circuitry, and to emphasize the potential for using functional neuroimaging in both humans and animals with the scope of obtaining information on developmental and molecular contributions to obesity and BED. PMID:22724642

  18. Reproductive behaviour and consistent patterns of abnormality in offspring of Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed Central

    Field, B; Kerr, C

    1988-01-01

    In view of the persistent claim of Australian Vietnam veterans that their health and that of their children were adversely affected, aspects of reproductive behaviour and the distribution of disease and disability in family units were investigated in a sample of Tasmanian veterans and another group chosen for comparison of selected characteristics. One third of veterans reported serious health problems and their reproductive behaviour differed with more marital breakdowns, increased use of reproductive alternatives, and more complications of pregnancy. Patterns of malformation and disease among veterans' children involved predominantly the central nervous, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. A similar pattern was detected on review of the three other major investigations on veterans' offspring in the USA and Australia. Although plausible mechanisms remain unknown, the evidence from all available studies supports a causal contribution to defects in veterans' children from a paternally mediated genetic effect. PMID:3236363

  19. Peer clustering of exercise and eating behaviours among young adults in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of egocentric network data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eating behaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eating behaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours. PMID:23981951

  20. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, D R; Phillips, E L; Pratt, H D

    1998-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eating behaviour. Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries like India. As Western sociocultural ideals become more widespread one may expect to see an increase in number of cases of eating disorders in non-Western societies. Etiological theories suggest a complex interaction among psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Patients with anorexia nervosa manifest weight loss, fear of becoming fat, and disturbances in how they experience their body weight and shape. Patients with bulimia nervosa present with recurrent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate methods of weight control such as self-induced vomiting, and abuse of diuretics and laxatives. Major complications of eating disorders include severe fluid and electrolyte disturbances and cardiac arrhythmias. The most common cause of death in anorexia nervosa is suicide. Management requires a team approach in which different professionals work together. Individual and family psychotherapy are effective in patients with anorexia nervosa and cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in bulimia nervosa. Pharmacotherapy is not universally effective by itself. Patients with eating disorders suffer a chronic course of illness. The pediatrician plays important role in early diagnosis, management of medical complications, and psychological support to the patient and the family. PMID:10773895

  1. Psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical, and nutritional proposals about how to encourage eating a healthy breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Even if more and more evidences have highlighted the importance of breakfast in the growth and development of children, from 10 to 30% of US and European children and adolescents regularly skip breakfast. Thus, there is still a lot to be done before breakfast becomes a daily habit. The aim of this paper is to try and understand how it is possible to overcome the real or imaginary difficulties associated with skipping breakfast by psychosocial, behavioural, pedagogical and nutritional proposals. Discussion Schools are the best context where perform healthy interventions because it is here that children learn about the importance of good health at an age when the school still plays a major role in their education. Some school interventions, based on solid theories as the Self Determination Theory and the Behaviour Analysis, have been implemented in the last years to promote health behaviour such as intake of fruit and vegetables and physical activities. Cognitive behaviour therapy is the most closely monitored type of treatment/cure for obesity in randomised controlled trials. Moreover some associations such as the National Association of Food Science Specialists have drawn an own method to encourage food education at school and promote the importance of prevention. These projects could be used as starting point to perform interventions focus on breakfast. Summary Increase the consumption of breakfast between children is very important. Efforts should be done to drawn new school projects based on scientific-evidences. PMID:25125024

  2. Relationship between body mass index and women's body image, self-esteem and eating behaviours in pregnancy: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Shloim, Netalie; Hetherington, Marion M; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem, restrained eating, body image and body mass index during pregnancy. A total of 110 pregnant Israeli and UK women completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, scales to assess body image and demographics. Body mass index was calculated from antenatal records. Regression modelling determined the relationship between variables, countries and body mass index categories. High correlations were found between body image and body mass index with significantly higher body dissatisfaction for Israeli women. Self-esteem scores for pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant women. Poorer body image and higher prevalence of restrained eating were found in healthy weight Israeli women. PMID:24140617

  3. 3D culture model of fibroblast-mediated collagen creep to identify abnormal cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kureshi, A K; Afoke, A; Wohlert, S; Barker, S; Brown, R A

    2015-11-01

    Native collagen gels are important biomimetic cell support scaffolds, and a plastic compression process can now be used to rapidly remove fluid to any required collagen density, producing strong 3D tissue-like models. This study aimed to measure the mechanical creep properties of such scaffolds and to quantify any enhanced creep occurring in the presence of cells (cell-mediated creep). The test rig developed applies constant creep tension during culture and measures real-time extension due to cell action. This was used to model extracellular matrix creep, implicated in the transversalis fascia (TF) in inguinal hernia. Experiments showed that at an applied tension equivalent to 15% break strength, cell-mediated creep over 24-h culture periods was identified at creep rates of 0.46 and 0.38%/h for normal TF and human dermal fibroblasts, respectively. However, hernia TF fibroblasts produced negligible cell-mediated creep levels under the same conditions. Raising the cell culture temperature from 4 to 37 C was used to demonstrate live cell dependence of this creep. This represents the first in vitro demonstration of TF cell-mediated collagen creep and to our knowledge the first demonstration of a functional, hernia-related cell abnormality. PMID:25862069

  4. Pertussis toxin expression in Drosophila alters the visual response and blocks eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fitch, C L; de Sousa, S M; O'Day, P M; Neubert, T A; Plantilla, C M; Spencer, M; Yarfitz, S; Apte, D; Hurley, J B

    1993-03-01

    Pertussis toxin inactivates certain G-proteins by introducing an ADP-ribose group near the carboxyl-terminus of the alpha-subunit. The major pertussis toxin substrate in Drosophila tissues is Go alpha. We introduced a pertussis toxin gene under control of the hsp70 heat-shock promoter into the Drosophila genome. When heat-shocked, transformed flies produce active pertussis toxin which ADP-ribosylates endogenous Go alpha. Pertussis toxin is expressed in photoreceptors, in the lamina of the eye and in epithelial cells lining the gut. As expected from the absence of Go alpha in photoreceptors, pertussis toxin does not affect the photoreceptor component of the Drosophila visual response. However, it abolishes light on- and off-transients in the electroretinogram. These transients normally arise from the lamina, a tissue where Go alpha transcripts have been detected. Pertussis toxin expression also blocks embryonic development and shortens the lifetime of adult Drosophila. Following heat-shock, transformed adults are active, but they fail to take up nutrients because they stop eating. High energy metabolites are significantly depleted shortly after pertussis toxin expression is induced and the flies die within 48 h. PMID:8499226

  5. Obesity and eating behaviour in children and adolescents: contribution of common gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Joanne; Dalton, Michelle; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John; Hetherington, Marion; Palmer, Colin

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in many countries and confers risks for early type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the presence of potent 'obesogenic' environments not all children become obese, indicating the presence of susceptibility and resistance. Taking an energy balance approach, susceptibility could be mediated through a failure of appetite regulation leading to increased energy intake or via diminished energy expenditure. Evidence shows that heritability estimates for BMI and body fat are paralleled by similar coefficients for energy intake and preferences for dietary fat. Twin studies implicate weak satiety and enhanced food responsiveness as factors determining an increase in BMI. Single gene mutations, for example in the leptin receptor gene, that lead to extreme obesity appear to operate through appetite regulating mechanisms and the phenotypic response involves overconsumption and a failure to inhibit eating. Investigations of robustly characterized common gene variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) which contribute to variance in BMI also influence the variance in appetite factors such as measured energy intake, satiety responsiveness and the intake of palatable energy-dense food. A review of the evidence suggests that susceptibility to childhood obesity involving specific allelic variants of certain genes is mediated primarily through food consumption (appetite regulation) rather than through a decrease in activity-related energy expenditure. This conclusion has implications for early detection of susceptibility, and for prevention and management of childhood obesity. PMID:22724641

  6. Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

  7. To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

  8. Cognitive behaviour therapy response and dropout rate across purging and nonpurging bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: DSM-5 implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the imminent publication of the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there has been a growing interest in the study of the boundaries across the three bulimic spectrum syndromes [bulimia nervosa-purging type (BN-P), bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP) and binge eating disorder (BED)]. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine differences in treatment response and dropout rates following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) across the three bulimic-spectrum syndromes. Method The sample comprised of 454 females (87 BED, 327 BN-P and 40 BN-NP) diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who were treated with 22 weekly outpatient sessions of group CBT therapy. Patients were assessed before and after treatment using a food and binging/purging diary and some clinical questionnaires in the field of ED. “Full remission” was defined as total absence of binging and purging (laxatives and/or vomiting) behaviors and psychological improvement for at least 4 (consecutive). Results Full remission rate was found to be significantly higher in BED (69.5%) than in both BN-P (p < 0.005) and BN-NP (p < 0.001), which presented no significant differences between them (30.9% and 35.5%). The rate of dropout from group CBT was also higher in BED (33.7%) than in BN-P (p < 0.001) and BN-NP (p < 0.05), which were similar (15.4% and 12.8%, respectively). Conclusions Results suggest that purging and non-purging BN have similar treatment response and dropping out rates, whereas BED appears as a separate diagnosis with better outcome for those who complete treatment. The results support the proposed new DSM-5 classification PMID:24200085

  9. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  11. Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent’s eating behaviours: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary inequality, via socio-economic inequality, may involve several mechanisms. Different aspects of adolescents’ socio-economic circumstances should therefore be considered in order to make effective interventions to promote healthy eating in the young population. Indicators designed to tap socio-economic status among adolescents in particular will facilitate a better understanding of the concept of socio-economic status and how it influences health behaviour among young people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contribute to the prediction of eating habits in the Norwegian adolescent population. Methods The analysis is based on survey data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. The Family Affluence Scale (number of cars, holidays, PC and bedrooms) and number of books in the household were used as indicators of socio-economic status, respectively measuring material capital and cultural capital. Their influence on adolescent’s consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, soft drinks, and consumption of breakfast and dinner was evaluated. Pearson’s correlation, logistic regression and ridit transformation analysis were used to analyse the data. Results Higher family affluence was shown to predict consumption of more fruit (OR 1.52) and vegetables (OR 1.39) and consumption of breakfast (OR 1.61) and dinner (1.35). Cultural capital was significantly associated to consumption of fruit (OR 1.85), vegetables (OR 2.38) sweets (OR .45), sugary soft drinks (OR .26), breakfast (OR 2.13) and dinner (OR 1.54). Cultural capital was the strongest predictor to healthy eating among adolescents in Norway. Conclusions Material capital and cultural capital individually and independently contributed to the prediction of healthy eating patterns among adolescents in Norway. Cultural capital is an understudied dimension of the socio-economic status concept and the influence on health behaviour needs to be explored in future studies. Initiatives to promote healthy eating should focus on education, habits and consciousness of a healthy diet, but also at reducing the high cost of fruit and vegetables. There is further a need for developing appropriate indicators for adolescent socio-economic status. PMID:23190697

  12. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  13. Determinants of Information Behaviour and Information Literacy Related to Healthy Eating among Internet Users in Five European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Gennaro, Laura; Verbeke, Wim; Traill, W. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method: A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents were grouped by age and sex (n = 3003, age +16) in Belgium,…

  14. Biological correlates of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Eating disorders are associated with numerous biological perturbations; however, sorting out cause from effect is difficult. Neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities are seen in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but they have not been described in binge eating disorder, in which neither starvation nor compensatory behaviors are present. Although these findings may reflect biologic differences among subgroups of binge eaters, an alternative explanation is that many of the biological correlates of binge eating are the result of metabolic derangement secondary to starvation and/or purging. The identification of binge eating disorder provides an opportunity to study the causes and concomitants of binge eating in the absence of compensatory behaviors. PMID:8820523

  15. Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Eleanor R; Dombrowski, Stephan U; McCleary, Nicola; Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults. Design Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995–2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes. Main outcome measures Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours. Results 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17 000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34). Conclusions Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations. PMID:25432903

  16. Early Eating Behaviours and Food Acceptance Revisited: Breastfeeding and Introduction of Complementary Foods as Predictive of Food Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Harris, Gillian; Coulthard, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Current dietary advice for children is that they should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day (Department of Health. National Diet and Nutrition Survey, 2014). However, many parents report that children are reluctant to eat vegetables and often fail to comply with the five-a-day rule. In fact, in surveys carried out in areas in the UK, the number of children eating according to the five-a-day rule has been found to be as low as 16 % (Cockroft et al. Public Health Nutr 8(7):861-69, 2005). This narrative review looks at those factors which contribute to food acceptance, especially fruit and vegetables, and how acceptance might be enhanced to contribute to a wider dietary range in infancy and later childhood. The questions we address are whether the range of foods accepted is determined by the following: innate predispositions interacting with early experience with taste and textures, sensitive periods in infancy for introduction, breastfeeding and the pattern of introduction of complementary foods. Our conclusions are that all of these factors affect dietary range, and that both breastfeeding and the timely introduction of complementary foods predict subsequent food acceptance. PMID:26956951

  17. Associations of Television Viewing With Eating Behaviors in the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Leah M.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of television viewing with eating behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Public and private schools in the United States during the 2009–2010 school year. Participants A total of 12 642 students in grades 5 to 10 (mean [SD] age, 13.4[0.09] years; 86.5% participation). Main Exposures Television viewing (hours per day) and snacking while watching television (days per week). Main Outcome Measures Eating (≥1 instance per day) fruit, vegetables, sweets, and sugary soft drinks; eating at a fast food restaurant (≥1 d/wk); and skipping breakfast (≥1 d/wk). Results Television viewing was inversely related to intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88–0.96) and vegetables (0.95; 0.91–1.00) and positively related to intake of candy (1.18; 1.14–1.23) and fast food (1.14; 1.09–1.19) and skipping breakfast (1.06; 1.02–1.10) after adjustment for socioeconomic factors, computer use, and physical activity. Television snacking was related to increased intake of fruit (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10), candy (1.20; 1.16–1.24), soda (1.15; 1.11–1.18), and fast food (1.09; 1.06–1.13), independent of television viewing. The relationships of television viewing with fruit and vegetable intake and with skipping breakfast were essentially unchanged after adjustment for television snacking; the relationships with intake of candy, soda, and fast food were moderately attenuated. Age and race/ethnicity modified relationships of television viewing with soda and fast food intake and with skipping breakfast. Conclusion Television viewing was associated with a cluster of unhealthy eating behaviors in US adolescents after adjustment for socioeconomic and behavioral covariates. PMID:22566548

  18. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and/or maintain an imaginary appearance. Related information Anorexia nervosa fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet ... your area. Eating disorders are serious medical problems. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder are ...

  19. Changing eating behaviours to treat childhood obesity in the community using Mandolean: the Community Mandolean randomised controlled trial (ComMando)--a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Shield, Julian; Goodred, Joanna; Powell, Lesley; Thorn, Joanna; Banks, Jon; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Montgomery, Alan; Turner, Katrina; Sharp, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around one in five children in England is obese when they leave primary school. Thus far, it has not been demonstrated that primary care interventions to manage childhood obesity can achieve significant weight reduction. Training obese children to eat more slowly as an adjunct to other healthy lifestyle behaviour change has been shown to increase weight reduction in a hospital setting. OBJECTIVES This pilot study aimed to test recruitment strategies, treatment adherence, clinic attendance and participants' experiences of using a device [Mandolean® (previously Mandometer®, Mikrodidakt AB, Lund, Sweden)] to slow down speed of eating as an adjunct to dietary and activity advice in treating obesity in primary school-aged children. DESIGN A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial with a qualitative study embedded within the pilot. Randomisation occurred after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Participants were randomised by the Bristol Randomised Trials Collaboration randomisation service with allocation stratified by hub and minimised by age of the child, gender, and baseline body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (BMI z-value) of the child, and by BMI of the study parent (obese/not obese). SETTING General practices across Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire primary care trusts. PARTICIPANTS Children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) aged 5-11 years and their families. INTERVENTION Standard care comprised dietary and activity advice by trained practice nurses. Adjunctive Mandolean training (the intervention) educated participants to eat meals more slowly and to rate levels of fullness (satiety). Mandolean is a small computer device attached to a weighing scale that provides visual and oral feedback during meals while generating a visual representation of levels of satiety during the meal. Participants were encouraged to eat their main meal each day from the Mandolean. One parent was also given a Mandolean to use when eating with the child. OUTCOME MEASURES Outcomes for the pilot were recruitment of 36 families to the trial in the 9-month pilot phase, that meals would be eaten at least five times a week off a Mandolean by 90% of patients randomised to the intervention arm, that 80% of patients in both arms would attend the weight management clinic appointment 3 months post randomisation and that > 60% of children using Mandolean would demonstrate a reduction in speed of eating from baseline within 3 months of randomisation. RESULTS None of the criteria for progression to the main trial were reached. Despite numerous pathways being available for referral, only 21 (13 to standard care, eight to intervention arm; 58%) of the target 36 families were recruited in the pilot phase. Less than 20% of those randomised to Mandolean used the device at least five times a week. The > 60% target for slowing down of eating speed by 3 months was unmet. Attendance at the weight management clinic in general practice hubs for both arms of the study at 3 months was 44% against a target of 80%. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial failed to meet its objectives in terms of recruitment, treatment adherence, demonstration of a reduction in speed of eating in sufficient numbers of children, and attendance at follow-up appointments. Despite a high prevalence of childhood obesity in the geographical area and practices signing up for the trial, this study, like many others, demonstrates a failure of families to engage with and respond to primary care weight management interventions. We need to understand why the target population seems inured to the health message that childhood obesity is a significant health-care issue and identify the barriers to seeking help and then acting on positive health behaviour retraining. Only when we have fully understood the general public's perceptions of childhood obesity and have identified ways of engaging target populations can we hope to develop interventions that can work in a primary or community-based setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN90561114. FUNDING This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 18, No. 47. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:25043221

  20. Altered Striatal Synaptic Function and Abnormal Behaviour in Shank3 Exon4-9 Deletion Mouse Model of Autism.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Thomas C; Speed, Haley E; Xuan, Zhong; Reimers, Jeremy M; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M

    2016-03-01

    Shank3 is a multi-domain, synaptic scaffolding protein that organizes proteins in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Clinical studies suggest that ∼0.5% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases may involve SHANK3 mutation/deletion. Patients with SHANK3 mutations exhibit deficits in cognition along with delayed/impaired speech/language and repetitive and obsessive/compulsive-like (OCD-like) behaviors. To examine how mutation/deletion of SHANK3 might alter brain function leading to ASD, we have independently created mice with deletion of Shank3 exons 4-9, a region implicated in ASD patients. We find that homozygous deletion of exons 4-9 (Shank3(e4-9) KO) results in loss of the two highest molecular weight isoforms of Shank3 and a significant reduction in other isoforms. Behaviorally, both Shank3(e4-9) heterozygous (HET) and Shank3(e4-9) KO mice display increased repetitive grooming, deficits in novel and spatial object recognition learning and memory, and abnormal ultrasonic vocalizations. Shank3(e4-9) KO mice also display abnormal social interaction when paired with one another. Analysis of synaptosome fractions from striata of Shank3(e4-9) KO mice reveals decreased Homer1b/c, GluA2, and GluA3 expression. Both Shank3(e4-9) HET and KO demonstrated a significant reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio at excitatory synapses onto striatal medium spiny neurons. Furthermore, Shank3(e4-9) KO mice displayed reduced hippocampal LTP despite normal baseline synaptic transmission. Collectively these behavioral, biochemical and physiological changes suggest Shank3 isoforms have region-specific roles in regulation of AMPAR subunit localization and NMDAR function in the Shank3(e4-9) mutant mouse model of autism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 350-375. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26559786

  1. Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

    2009-05-01

    The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

  2. Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests and comorbid psychiatric disorders among patients with anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified in the anorexia nervosa DSM-IV criteria

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kye Hock Robin; Lee, Ee Lian

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are on the rise in Singapore. Abnormal liver function tests have been reported for up to 12.2% of patients with AN. These patients are also known to present with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the severity of abnormal liver function tests, and between BMI and the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of 373 patients diagnosed with AN or EDNOS at a tertiary hospital was performed. The clinical course of transaminitis and comorbid psychiatric disorders was correlated with the patient’s BMI. RESULTS Patients with a BMI of ≥ 16.6 kg/m2 at their first consult had a significantly lower risk of having comorbid psychiatric disorders (χ2 = 32.08, p < 0.001). These patients were five times less likely to have comorbid psychiatric disorders as compared to patients from the other BMI groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.21). On the other hand, patients with a BMI of < 14.6 kg/m2 had a significantly higher risk of having transaminitis (χ2 = 72.5, p < 0.001). They were 11.1 times more likely to develop transaminitis as compared to patients with a BMI of ≥ 14.6 kg/m2 (OR 11.05). CONCLUSION Severity of BMI can be used by clinicians as an indicator to assess for secondary psychiatric comorbidities and/or transaminitis during the first consultation. This could help reduce the morbidity and mortality rates in patients with AN or EDNOS. PMID:26451050

  3. Dysfunctional eating behaviour, psychological well-being and adaptation to pregnancy: A study with women in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Freitas, Flávia; Freitas-Rosa, Marta Alexandre; Machado, Bárbara César

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of dysfunctional eating. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy participated in this study (N = 105). Dysfunctional eating was associated with a higher body mass index, enhanced negative body image, more somatic symptoms, poorer marital relationships, more negative attitudes regarding pregnancy and the baby and more emotional problems. A higher body mass index prior to the pregnancy, higher weight gain during pregnancy and a more negative perception of body image predicted dysfunctional eating. Clinicians must be aware of the presence of dysfunctional eating during pregnancy to prevent relevant physiological and psychosocial consequences during this stage. PMID:25903241

  4. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  5. Eating Well While Eating Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... energy strength weight future health Eating on the Go It's easier than you think to make good ... help you make wise choices when eating out: Go for balance. Choose meals that contain a balance ...

  6. The non-advertising effects of screen-based sedentary activities on acute eating behaviours in children, adolescents, and young adults. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samantha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Maddison, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary screen time may be an important determinant of childhood obesity. A number of potential mechanisms to explain the link between screen time and increased bodyweight have been proposed; however, the relationship appears to be best explained by the effects on dietary intake, which is attributed to either food advertising or effects independent of food advertising. Technological advances have allowed for greater accessibility and exposure to advertisement-free screen-based media. This review was conducted to systematically synthesise the evidence from laboratory based studies which have investigated the non-advertising effects of screen time (TV viewing, sedentary video games, and computer use) on dietary intake in children, adolescents, and young adults. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Embase were searched from inception through 5 July 2013. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Risk of study bias was judged to range from low to high. Screen time in the absence of food advertising was consistently found to be associated with increased dietary intake compared with non-screen behaviours. Suggested explanations for this relationship included: distraction, interruption of physiologic food regulation, screen time as a conditioned cue to eat, disruption of memory formation, and the effects of the stress-induced reward system. Due to the limited number of high-quality studies available for this review, our findings are preliminary. More work is required to better establish the link between dietary intake and advertisement-free screen time and assess whether differences exist between the different screen-based activities. PMID:24001394

  7. An animal model of compulsive food-taking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Heyne, Andrea; Kiesselbach, Christoph; Sahún, Ignasi; McDonald, Jerome; Gaiffi, Monica; Dierssen, Mara; Wolffgramm, Jochen

    2009-09-01

    The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has promoted research aimed at understanding the aetiology of abnormal eating behaviours. Apart from metabolic factors, obesity is caused by overeating. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviours when consuming palatable foods, and compulsive eating plays a similar dominant role in obesity as compulsive drug taking does in drug addiction. The progress made in the development of treatment strategies for obesity is limited, in part, because the physiological and neurological causes and consequences of compulsive eating behaviour are not clearly understood and cannot readily be studied in human subjects. We have developed experimental approaches that reflect the functioning of the components of eating control, including compulsive food taking in rats. Rats that are given free choice between standard chow and a palatable, chocolate-containing 'Cafeteria Diet' (CD) develop distinct signs of compulsive food taking that appear at an early stage. These include the inability to adapt intake behaviour in periods of limited or bitter-tasting CD access, continued food intake during resting phases and changes in fine structure of feeding (duration, distribution and recurrence of feeding bouts). The model will help examine the neurobiological underpinnings of compulsive food seeking and food taking and provides a possibility to study the effects of novel anti-obesity compounds on compulsive eating and other components of food-taking behaviour in detail. For future use of genetic models, the possibility of a transfer to a mouse was discussed. PMID:19740365

  8. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  9. Habitual sleep duration and eating disorders in college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Rozette, E

    1986-02-01

    To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group. PMID:3457356

  10. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... binge eating problem. Signs of a Binge Eating Problem People with a binge eating problem might: binge eat at least once a week ... be hard for many people with binge eating problems to reach out for help because of how ...

  11. Four simple questions can help screen for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Mary-Anne; Ball, Christopher; Robinson, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Current screening instruments for eating disorders are cumbersome to administer and have not been validated in primary care populations. We compared the performance characteristics of 2 screening tools, the SCOFF clinical prediction guide, and a new set of questions, the Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP), using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis as the independent standard, in 104 consecutive patients from a primary care practice and 129 university students. Twelve percent of the combined population had an eating disorder. One or no abnormal responses to the ESP ruled out an eating disorder (likelihood ratio [LR] 0.0), whereas 3 or more abnormal responses ruled one in (LR 11). The SCOFF questions were less sensitive than predicted (1 or no abnormal responses, LR 0.25), but were as effective at ruling in an eating disorder (3 or more abnormal responses, LR 11). PMID:12534764

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  13. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and

  14. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  15. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ain Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  16. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  17. Adolescents' views of food and eating: identifying barriers to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T; Trew, Karen

    2007-06-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or girls ranging from early to-mid adolescence (N=73) were employed to identify key perceptions of, and influences upon, healthy eating behaviour. Thematic analysis identified four key factors as barriers to healthy eating. These factors were: physical and psychological reinforcement of eating behaviour; perceptions of food and eating behaviour; perceptions of contradictory food-related social pressures; and perceptions of the concept of healthy eating itself. Overall, healthy eating as a goal in its own right is notably absent from the data and would appear to be elided by competing pressures to eat unhealthily and to lose weight. This insight should inform the development of future food-related communications to adolescents. PMID:16730371

  18. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  19. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... binge eating of calorie-dense foods. People with anorexia nervosa may excessively exercise or excessively stand, pace ... a medical condition can be the gateway to anorexia nervosa or bulimia. For those who are genetically ...

  20. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature. PMID:26941955

  1. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Coop, Nicola; Cousins, Charlotte; Crump, Rebecca; Field, Laura; Hughes, Sarah; Woodger, Nigel

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (i.e. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating. PMID:23219989

  3. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that…

  4. Functional Assessment and Behavioural Intervention for Eating Difficulties in Children with Autism: A Study Conducted in the Natural Environment Using Parents and ABA Tutors as Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein; Rudrud, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two functional assessments (interview and direct observation) were used with three children with autism to identify the functions maintaining mealtime behaviour including acceptance, mouth clean, refusal, and other disruptive behaviours such as crying and pushing the spoon. Based on results of the functional assessments it was hypothesized that

  5. Gastrointestinal and nutritional aspects of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    McClain, C J; Humphries, L L; Hill, K K; Nickl, N J

    1993-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are potentially fatal eating disorders which primarily affect adolescent females. Differentiating eating disorders from primary gastrointestinal (GI) disease may be difficult. GI disorders are common in eating disorder patients, symptomatic complaints being seen in over half. Moreover, many GI diseases sometimes resemble eating disorders. Inflammatory bowel disease, acid peptic diseases, and intestinal motility disorders such as achalasia may mimic eating disorders. However, it is usually possible to distinguish these by applying the diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and by obtaining common biochemical tests. The primary features of AN are profound weight loss due to self starvation and body image distortion; BN is characterized by binge eating and self purging of ingested food by vomiting or laxative abuse. GI complications in eating disorders are common. Recurrent emesis in BN is associated with dental abnormalities, parotid enlargement, and electrolyte disturbances including metabolic alkalosis. Hyperamylasemia of salivary origin is regularly seen, but may lead do an erroneous diagnosis of pancreatitis. Despite the weight loss often seen in eating disorders, serum albumin, cholesterol, and carotene are usually normal. However, serum levels of trace metals such as zinc and copper often are depressed, and hypophosphatemia can occur during refeeding. Patients with eating disorders frequently have gastric emptying abnormalities, causing bloating, postprandial fullness, and vomiting. This usually improves with refeeding, but sometimes treatment with pro-motility agents such as metoclopromide is necessary. Knowledge of the GI manifestations of eating disorders, and a high index of suspicion for one condition masquerading as the other, are required for the correct diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:8409109

  6. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative symptoms and symptoms of an Eating Disorder. PMID:26417791

  7. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a condition caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is marked by mental retardation, learning difficulties, ... muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than ...

  8. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  9. Reproductive functions in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D E

    1992-08-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about the effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes on ovulation, menstruation, sexuality, fertility, pregnancy and fetal-infant health. Eating disorders may result in failure to ovulate, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, reduced sex drive, infertility, hyperemesis gravidarum, low maternal weight gain in pregnancy, small babies for gestational date, low birth weight infants, increased neonatal morbidity and problems in infant feeding. The available information suggests that clinicians should inquire about nutritional intake, a history of eating disorders and weight reducing behaviours as part of the routine assessment of patients with the disorders of reproductive function listed above. If an eating disorder is discovered before conception, the woman should be encouraged to delay pregnancy until the eating disorder is treated and effectively under control. If the woman is pregnant, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce maternal and fetal complications. The infants of eating-disordered women should be carefully followed to ensure adequate nutritional intake. Problems in reproductive function related to eating disorders offer rich opportunities for multispecialty collaboration in primary and secondary prevention programmes directed toward both mother and infant. PMID:1389091

  10. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  11. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical examination, conduct an interview and order lab tests. These will help form the diagnosis and check for related medical issues and complications. In addition, a mental health professional will conduct a psychological evaluation. She may ask questions about eating habits, ...

  12. Comparisons of the effects on satiety and eating behaviour of infusion of lipid into the different regions of the small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, I M; Sepple, C P; Read, N W

    1988-01-01

    Food intake and feelings of hunger and fullness were monitored in paired studies carried out in two groups of six healthy non-obese male volunteers during infusion of isotonic solutions of either a 50% corn oil emulsion or saline into the jejunum or into the ileum. Infusion of the lipid emulsion at a rate of 1.2 ml/min (4.9 kcal/min) into either the ileum or the jejunum significantly reduced the period of eating (p less than 0.01) and the quantity of food consumed (p less than 0.01), but neither affected the rates of drinking or the amount of fluid consumed. Infusion of the lipid emulsion into the jejunum also significantly reduced the sensations of hunger before the meal (p less than 0.05), and the rate of ingestion (p less than 0.01). Ileal infusion did not influence these indices. The results suggest that jejunal and ileal infusion of lipid reduces the size of the meal that could be consumed possibly by inhibiting gastric emptying. The alleviation of hunger before ingestion and the slower rate of eating, however, suggests that jejunal lipid activates an additional mechanism that influences the appetite centre in the hypothalamus directly. PMID:3356362

  13. Eating the elephant whole or in slices: views of participants in a smoking cessation intervention trial on multiple behaviour changes as sequential or concurrent tasks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper explores smoking cessation participants’ perceptions of attempting weight management alongside smoking cessation within the context of a health improvement intervention implemented in Glasgow, Scotland. Methods One hundred and thirty-eight participants were recruited from smoking cessation classes in areas of multiple deprivation in Glasgow and randomised to intervention, receiving dietary advice, or to control groups. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the % change in body weight. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 intervention and 15 control participants at weeks 6 (during the intervention) and 24 (at the end of the intervention). The current paper, though predominantly qualitative, links perceptions of behaviour modification to % weight change and cessation rates at week 24 thereby enabling a better understanding of the mediators influencing multiple behaviour change. Results Our findings suggest that participants who perceive separate behaviour changes as part of a broader approach to a healthier lifestyle, and hence attempt behaviour changes concurrently, may be at comparative advantage in positively achieving dual outcomes. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to assess participants’ preference for attempting multiple behaviour changes sequentially or simultaneously in addition to assessing their readiness to change. Further testing of this hypothesis is warranted. Trial Registration ISRCTN94961361 PMID:22759785

  14. [Cognitive behavior therapy in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Tölgyes, Tamás; Unoka, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Author's aim is to give a comprehensive review of the behavioural and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapeutic development in the treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the base of the literature as well as on own clinical experiences. Behavioural therapies, currently applied as part of integrative therapies mainly, will be shown, and theoretical background and techniques of classical cognitive behavioural therapy of anorexia and bulimia nervosa will be shortly summarized. Theory and therapeutic techniques of the schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, applied in the treatment of eating disorders more frequently in the last few years, will be made acquainted in details. Indications and contraindications of classic cognitive behavioural therapy and schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy in eating disorders will be discussed. Stress will be laid on the fact, that schema-focused cognitive behaviour therapy is to be chosen mostly in the cases where comorbid dissociation, personality disorder, very low self-esteem or traumatic history diminishes the applicability of traditional cognitive behavioural therapy. Authors emphasize the importance of further controlled efficacy studies in the field of schema-focused cognitive behavioural therapy, to define the indication fields regarding different subgroups of eating disorders. PMID:20450144

  15. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression fact sheet Mental health What is binge eating disorder? What causes binge eating disorder? What are the health consequences ... than men. Return to top What causes binge eating disorder? Researchers are unsure of the causes and nature of binge eating and other eating ...

  16. Eating traits questionnaires as a continuum of a single concept. Uncontrolled eating.

    PubMed

    Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n = 740) and Canada (n = 456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. PMID:25769975

  17. [Eating disorders in children and adolescents. First results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Hölling, H; Schlack, R

    2007-01-01

    Eating disorders are included in the category of mental and behavioural disorders (ICD 10). They are among the most common chronic health problems encountered in children and adolescents. A total of 7,498 children and adolescents (weighted) aged 11 to 17 years answered the SCOFF questionnaire, a screening instrument to identify cases of suspected eating disorder. Parallel to the SCOFF questionnaire, further factors for possible eating disorders, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI), information on abnormal behaviour (using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) smoking, sexual and body self-image assessment, were gathered to substantiate the results. In total, 21.9 % of the children and adolescents in Germany aged 11 to 17 years showed symptoms of eating disorders. With 28.9%, girls are more frequently affected than boys (15.2 %); this difference is highly significant. In the presence of almost identical initial values, the rate of subjects with abnormal SCOFF scores increases, starting from age 11 years, in girls as they age, while it drops in boys. Children and adolescents with low socioeconomic status (SES) are, with 27.6 %, almost twice as often affected than those with high SES (15.6 %). Migrants have an approx. 50 % higher rate compared to non-migrants. A 2.5-fold increase in the percentage of individuals with normal weight who perceive themselves as too fat is found among those with abnormal SCOFF scores. Individuals with abnormal SCOFF scores smoke more and report more frequently about sexual harassment. Because of the severity, the tendency to chronification and the protracted therapy of the clinically apparent disorders, effective concepts for prevention should be developed. PMID:17514465

  18. Appropriate care for children with eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Eating disorders are essentially psychological diseases that are characterised by abnormal eating habits. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are the most common forms of eating disorders. There is an increased recognition of eating disorders among both men and women, and growing numbers of children and teenagers seeking help for eating disorders. Fear of body-weight gain is central to both anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Before the diagnosis of an eating disorder is made, it is essential to exclude organic diseases that may present with similar symptoms to eating disorders. Management initially should focus on correcting the nutritional deficiencies and dehydration at a paediatric or paediatric gastroenterology department, followed by a multidisciplinary approach. At the other extreme, the prevalence of obesity in children is increasing at an alarming rate, and presents a serious public health challenge. PMID:26018017

  19. Hepatic glycogen deposition in a patient with anorexia nervosa and persistently abnormal transaminase levels.

    PubMed

    Kransdorf, Lisa N; Millstine, Denise; Smith, Maxwell L; Aqel, Bashar A

    2016-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders characterized by calorie restriction have been associated with a variety of hepatic abnormalities. Fatty steatosis has been described in eating disorder patients. We report the rare finding of glycogen accumulation in the liver in a patient with anorexia nervosa, which to our knowledge is only the second such case reported in the literature. This case highlights the importance of monitoring for liver abnormalities in patients with restrictive eating disorders. PMID:26066296

  20. Is overweight at 12 months associated with differences in eating behaviour or dietary intake among children selected for inappropriate bottle use?

    PubMed

    Bonuck, Karen; Avraham, Sivan Ben; Hearst, Mary; Kahn, Richard; Hyden, Christel

    2014-04-01

    Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24 h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (≥85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ≥2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3 kcal day(-1) (standard deviation = 346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. PMID:23556429

  1. Thyroid abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Weetman, Anthony P

    2014-09-01

    Thyroid abnormalities and nonthyroidal illness complicate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Among the effects that result from HIV and other opportunistic infections, distinctive features of HIV infection include early lowering of reverse tri-iodothyromine (T3) levels, with normal free T3 levels. Later, some patients develop an isolated low free thyroxine level. After highly active antiretroviral therapy, the immune system reconstitutes in a way that leads to dysregulation of the autoimmune response and the appearance of Graves disease in 1% to 2% of patients. Opportunistic thyroid infections with unusual organisms are most commonly asymptomatic, but can lead to acute or subacute thyroiditis. PMID:25169567

  2. Eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vyver, Ellie; Steinegger, Cathleen; Katzman, Debra K

    2008-01-01

    Menstrual dysfunction is a common feature of all eating disorders and results in significant medical complications. The etiology of menstrual dysfunction is multifaceted and the result of a complex interplay of many factors including weight loss, decreased body fat, hypoleptinemia, abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors, exercise, and psychological stressors. This chapter will review the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction in adolescents with eating disorders, its multifactorial etiology, the evidence-based pathophysiology, and the resulting complications to linear growth, pubertal development, bone mineral accretion, and cognitive function. Future research directions are identified that suggest opportunities to gain new insights into our understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of menstrual dysfunction in adolescents with eating disorders. PMID:18574232

  3. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  4. Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified. PMID:16042160

  5. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. Methods A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Results Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment. PMID:26633707

  6. Does maternal history of eating disorders predict mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating?

    PubMed

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Tharner, Anne; Micali, Nadia; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Jansen, Pauline W

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine whether a maternal history of eating disorders predicted mothers' feeding practices and preschoolers' emotional eating patterns. Data were available from 4851 mothers and their children, who participated in a Dutch population-based cohort study (the Generation R Study). Maternal history of lifetime eating disorders was assessed during pregnancy using a self-report questionnaire. Mothers filled out the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire when children were four years old. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for potential confounders. Of all mothers, 8.6% had a history of an eating disorder (2.5% anorexia nervosa (AN); 3.9% bulimia nervosa (BN); 2.2% both AN and BN). Compared to mothers without a history of eating disorders, mothers with a history of eating disorders, in particular AN, used less pressuring feeding strategies (standardized B = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.11). Children of mothers with a history of AN had relatively high levels of emotional overeating (standardized B = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.39). Maternal history of BN was not related to mothers' feeding practices or children's emotional eating. Overall, the levels of emotional overeating among children of mothers with a history of eating disorders are noteworthy, particularly considering the young age (4 years) of participating children. This finding may reflect an effect of maternal eating disorders on the development of disordered eating patterns, but could also be subject to mothers' perception. PMID:25450896

  7. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  8. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  9. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The exact cause of binge eating is unknown. Things that may lead to this disorder include: Genes, such as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression ...

  10. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... may promote weight loss.​ [ Top ] What are the health risks of binge eating disorder? People with binge eating ... to health problems related to obesity.​ [ Top ] What health risks are linked to excess weight? Excess weight may ...

  11. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people)

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther MF; Skidmore, Paula ML; Mwanza, Kim; Jones, Andrew P; Callaghan, Alison M; Ekelund, Ulf; Harrison, Flo; Harvey, Ian; Panter, Jenna; Wareham, Nicolas J; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J

    2008-01-01

    Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls) in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000). Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days) was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD) activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p < 0.001). Boys spent an average of 84.1 ± 25.9 minutes in MVPA per day compared to 66.1 ± 20.8 among girls (p < 0.001), with an average of 69.1% of children accumulating 60 minutes each day. The proportion of children classified as overweight and obese was 15.0% and 4.1% for boys and 19.3% and 6.6% for girls, respectively (p = 0.001). Daily consumption of at least one portion of fruit and of vegetables was 56.8% and 49.9% respectively, with higher daily consumption in girls than boys and in children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is also warranted, possibly focussing on children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:19014571

  12. Diversion of carbon flux from gibberellin to steviol biosynthesis by over-expressing SrKA13H induced dwarfism and abnormality in pollen germination and seed set behaviour of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Praveen; Masand, Shikha; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This paper documents the engineering of Arabidopsis thaliana for the ectopic over-expression of SrKA13H (ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase) cDNA from Stevia rebaudiana. HPLC analysis revealed the significant accumulation of steviol (1-3 μg g(-1) DW) in two independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing SrKA13H compared with the control. Independent of the steviol concentrations detected, both transgenic lines showed similar reductions in endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GA1 and GA4). They possessed phenotypic similarity to gibberellin-deficient mutants. The reduction in endogenous gibberellin content was found to be responsible for dwarfism in the transgenics. The exogenous application of GA3 could rescue the transgenics from dwarfism. The hypocotyl, rosette area, and stem length were all considerably reduced in the transgenics. A noteworthy decrease in pollen viability was noticed and, similarly, a retardation of 60-80% in pollen germination rate was observed. The exogenous application of steviol (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 μg ml(-1)) did not influence pollen germination efficiency. This has suggested that in planta formation of steviol was not responsible for the observed changes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Further, the seed yield of the transgenics was reduced by 24-48%. Hence, this study reports for the first time that over-expression of SrKA13H cDNA in Arabidopsis has diverted the gibberellin biosynthetic route towards steviol biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis transgenics showed a significant reduction in endogenous gibberellins that might be responsible for the dwarfism, and the abnormal behaviour of pollen germination and seed set. PMID:25954046

  13. Eating disorders in India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, T N; Suresh, T R; Jayaram, V; Fernandez, M P

    1995-01-01

    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndrome are described in relation to the major eating disorders. PMID:21743711

  14. External eating mediates the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence from the eating domain shows a link between impulsivity and unhealthy food intake. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. One possibility is an external eating style, which has been linked to both impulsivity and food intake. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of external eating in the relationship between impulsivity and food intake. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who completed measures of impulsivity and external eating, and took part in a laboratory taste test as a behavioural index of unhealthy snack food intake. It was found that attentional and motor impulsivity interacted in predicting sweet food intake, but only motor impulsivity predicted both external eating and sweet food intake. Furthermore, the relationship between motor impulsivity and food intake was mediated by external eating. These findings support the development of interventions aimed at targeting specific aspects of impulsivity in order to reduce unhealthy eating behaviour. PMID:25911264

  15. Re-embodying Eating

    PubMed Central

    Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-01-01

    Health experts advise and expect patients to eat healthily after bariatric surgery. For patients, difficulties with eating might have been a long-standing, problematic part of life—a part that is not necessarily healed by surgery. Empirical research on patients’ experiences of eating practices after bariatric surgery is lacking. Aiming to contribute to the development of clinical practice, we explored meanings attached to eating in the long term and sought descriptions of change and bodily sensations. We interviewed 14 patients at least 5 years after bariatric surgery. The surgical restriction forced changes in the way patients sensed their own body in eating, but the uncertainty related to maintaining weight loss in the long term remained. Meanings attached to eating transcended food as choices situated in a nourishment and health perspective, and were not necessarily changed. Eating was an existential and embodied practice, which remained an ambiguous and sensitive matter after surgery. PMID:25156217

  16. Medical complications of eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Palla, B; Litt, I F

    1988-05-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are occurring with increased frequency among adolescents and preadolescents. To determine the range and severity of medical complications encountered in younger anorectic and bulimic patients, we reviewed the medical records of 65 adolescents and preadolescents, aged 10 to 20 years, who were observed in the Eating Disorders Clinic of the Children's Hospital at Stanford. Significant medical instability was present in the majority of our patients. A total of 55% of anorectic patients and 22% of bulimic patients required hospitalization for medical reasons during the study period. Cardiovascular abnormalities were frequent, including bradycardia, prolonged corrected QT intervals, dysrhythmias, and marked orthostatic pulse and BP instability. Hypothermia, with temperatures less than 35.5 degrees C, was common. Renal abnormalities included pyuria, hematuria, and proteinuria. Electrolyte derangements occurred in patients who vomited or purged. Hypokalemia was most common, but hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia were also noted. The majority of our pediatric patients with eating disorders had evidence of physiologic derangement requiring medical intervention. The need for adolescents and preadolescents with eating disorders to receive ongoing medical monitoring in concert with psychiatric treatment and the need for therapists and medical practitioners to become familiar with the potential medical sequelae of eating disorders are underscored by our data. PMID:3162764

  17. Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high-intensity sports.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, J; Torstveit, M K

    2010-10-01

    Dieting is an important risk factor for disordered eating and eating disorders. Disordered eating occurs on a continuum from dieting and restrictive eating, abnormal eating behavior, and finally clinical eating disorders. The prevalence of eating disorders is increased in elite athletes and for this group the cause of starting to diet is related to (a) perception of the paradigm of appearance in the specific sport, (b) perceived performance improvements, and (c) sociocultural pressures for thinness or an "ideal" body. Athletes most at risk for disordered eating are those involved in sports emphasizing a thin body size/shape, a high power-to-weight ratio, and/or sports utilizing weight categories, such as in some high-intensity sports. In addition to dieting, personality factors, pressure to lose weight, frequent weight cycling, early start of sport-specific training, overtraining, injuries, and unfortunate coaching behavior, are important risk factors. To prevent disordered eating and eating disorders, the athletes have to practice healthy eating, and the medical staff of teams and parents must be able to recognize symptoms indicating risk for eating disorders. Coaches and leaders must accept that disordered eating can be a problem in the athletic community and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:20840569

  18. Radiology of eating disorders: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Bowden, David J; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Scoffings, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a major challenge for health professionals, with many patients receiving ineffective care due to underdiagnosis or poor compliance with treatment. The incidence of eating disorders is increasing worldwide, producing an increasing burden on healthcare systems, and they most often affect young patients, with significant long-term complications. The effects of long-term malnutrition manifest in almost every organ system, and many can be detected radiologically, even without overt clinical findings. Musculoskeletal complications including osteoporosis result in a high incidence of insufficiency fractures, with long-term implications for bone health and growth, while respiratory complications are often recognized late due to disordered physiologic responses to infection. Gastrointestinal complications are numerous and in extreme cases may result in fatal outcomes after acute gastric dilatation and rupture subsequent to binge eating. In patients with severely disordered eating, in particular anorexia nervosa, marked derangement of electrolyte levels may result in refeeding syndrome, which requires emergent management. Recognition of such complications is critical to effective patient care and requires radiologists to be aware of the spectrum of imaging abnormalities that may be seen. Since many patients are reluctant to disclose their underlying condition, radiologists also play a critical role in identifying previously undiagnosed eating disorders. PMID:23842978

  19. Pro-eating disorder websites: users' opinions.

    PubMed

    Csipke, Emese; Horne, Outi

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of 'pro-eating disorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689

  20. Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

  1. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several

  2. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  3. Stress, shift duty, and eating behavior among nurses in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almajwal, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire also contained items pertaining to socio-demographic data, body mass index, shift work, and hours worked per week. Results: For all eating styles, stress, and shift duty influenced the amount of food nurses consumed, but was more significant under a restrained eating style. Under this eating style, a significantly higher percentage of nurses reported eating more fast food, snacks, and binging, while fruits and vegetables were the least likely to be eaten under stress. High stressed nurses were more likely to present with abnormal restrained eating (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, p=0.004), emotional (OR=1.24; p=0.001), and external (OR=1.21; p=0.001) DEBQ scores. Working nighttime shift duty was positively associated with restrained eating (OR=1.53; p=0.029) and emotional eating (OR=1.24; p=0.001), but negatively associated with external eating (OR=0.45; p=0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that stress and shift duty were associated with eating habits. PMID:26837403

  4. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. PMID:26593103

  5. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived emotional over-eating in the child. PMID:26792767

  6. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude. PMID:26734482

  7. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…

  8. Beat (Beat Eating Disorders).

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    This charity website provides a comprehensive range of information on eating disorders. There is an overview section about different types of eating disorders, which is in clear and easily understood terms, giving readers the option to seek more detailed information. PMID:26419568

  9. Stress and eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Langemann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    How stress, the stress response, and the adaptation of the stress response influence our eating behavior is a central question in brain research and medicine. In this report, we highlight recent advances showing the close links between eating behavior, the stress system, and neurometabolism. PMID:20948819

  10. Eating Disturbances and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonderlich, Stephen; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…

  11. Menarche and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Martino, Sara; Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    160 undergraduate women (M age = 20.3, SD = 1.52) were assessed for depression, drug abuse, and eating disorders. The age of menarche was positively correlated with higher scores on a screening measure for eating disorders, a finding opposite to past studies for adolescent girls. PMID:24340819

  12. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  13. Boys with Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatmaker, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a

  14. Wilderness Eating Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutrition and eating habits are critical components when facilitating safe, enjoyable expeditions. The author asserts that outdoor leaders must be diligent in overseeing the health of their participants through proper nutrition. Leaders in training with a history of eating issues face a special challenge. The author discusses how these…

  15. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  16. Optimising women's diets. An examination of factors that promote healthy eating and reduce the likelihood of unhealthy eating.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David

    2012-08-01

    The majority of nutrition promotion research that has examined the determinants of unhealthy or healthy dietary behaviours has focused on factors that promote consumption of these foods, rather than factors that may both promote healthy eating and buffer or protect consumption of unhealthy foods. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that both promote healthy eating and also reduce the likelihood of eating unhealthily amongst women. A community sample of 1013 Australian women participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey that assessed factors associated with diet and obesity. Multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between a range of individual, social and environmental factors and aspects of both healthy and unhealthy eating, whilst controlling for key covariates. Results indicated that women with high self efficacy for healthy eating, taste preferences for fruit and vegetables, family support for healthy eating and the absence of perceived barriers to healthy eating (time and cost) were more likely to consume components of a healthy diet and less likely to consume components of a unhealthy diet. Optimal benefits in overall diet quality amongst women may be achieved by targeting factors associated with both healthy and unhealthy eating in nutrition promotion efforts. PMID:22446723

  17. Eating Competence: Nutrition Education with the Satter Eating Competence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    2007-01-01

    The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…

  18. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... affect my chances of getting pregnant in the future? Source Abnormal Uterine Bleeding by KA Oriel, MD, ...

  20. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... The term skeletal limb abnormalities is most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are due to ...

  1. Report on a panel longitudinal study of college women's eating patterns and eating disorders: noncontinuum versus continuum measures.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Biber, S

    1992-01-01

    The self-reported frequencies (prevalence and incidence) of eating patterns and disorders in a matched longitudinal sample of college women (N = 141) interviewed during their sophomore year (Time 1) and senior year (Time 2) were compared. The rate of eating disorders was assessed using a noncontinuum measure, the Eating Attitudes Test (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982), as well as continuum measures based on criteria in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1980). The noncontinuum measure revealed a prevalence rate of eating disorders per 2-year period comparable to that found in other studies of college student populations. The incidence rate per 2-year period was not of epidemic proportions. A sizable percentage of women appeared to get better from Time 1 to Time 2; a small percentage of women remained abnormal eaters. The continuum measurement uncovered a large group of women whose eating patterns were chronic but not severe enough to classify them as "abnormal" eaters. The implications of using different measures for defining and treating college women's eating disorders are discussed. PMID:1478899

  2. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])

  3. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  4. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the

  5. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  6. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

  7. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was decreased by decreasing the FPL (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C (65:35) increased the DMI (p < 0.05). A positive interaction between FPL and F:C was found for (daily weight gain) DWG, weight gain (WG) and feed conversation ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). In case of feeding behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p < 0.05). Chopping of hay had decreased the chewing time (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C increased chewing time per kilogram DMI. High F:C decreased the lying time (p < 0.05) in FL and SL treatments (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C reduced the overall abnormal behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggested that animals performed better at higher F:C at SL diet. Intensity of sorting for short and fine particle and against long particle increased at higher F:C and SL diets. Eating time and eating time per kilogram DMI increased by increasing F:C level in both FL and SL treatments. Chewing time increased by increasing the FPL, while increasing the F:C enhanced the chewing time per kilogram DMI and reduced animal's abnormal behaviour. PMID:26010423

  8. How Does the Brain Implement Adaptive Decision Making to Eat?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Kaye, Walter; Geliebter, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive decision making to eat is crucial for survival, but in anorexia nervosa, the brain persistently supports reduced food intake despite a growing need for energy. How the brain persists in reducing food intake, sometimes even to the point of death and despite the evolution of multiple mechanisms to ensure survival by governing adaptive eating behaviors, remains mysterious. Neural substrates belong to the reward-habit system, which could differ among the eating disorders. The present review provides an overview of neural circuitry of restrictive food choice, binge eating, and the contribution of specific serotonin receptors. One possibility is that restrictive food intake critically engages goal-directed (decision making) systems and “habit,” supporting the view that persistent caloric restriction mimics some aspects of addiction to drugs of abuse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An improved understanding of the neural basis of eating disorders is a timely challenge because these disorders can be deadly. Up to 70 million of people in the world suffer from eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa affects 1–4% of women in United States and is the first cause of death among adolescents in Europe. Studies relying on animal models suggest that decision making to eat (or not) can prevail over actual energy requirements due to emotional disturbances resulting in abnormal habitual behavior, mimicking dependence. These recent studies provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective interventions for these disorders. PMID:26468187

  9. Eating disorders in college.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elaine L; Pratt, Helen D

    2005-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are serious chronic psychiatric disorders that can result in significant medical and psychologic outcomes. These multifaceted disorders affect the emotions, thinking, behavior, and physical health of afflicted individuals. Symptoms often peak during the years many youth are attending college. The intersection of issues of emancipation, individuation, intimacy, and eating disorders may be part of the reason that researchers report a high incidence of eating disorders in this specialized population. This article presents an overview of eating disorders in the college population and covers psychologic and psychopharmacologic treatment. PMID:15748926

  10. Specific eating and sleeping problems in Prader-Willi and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1996-05-01

    Eating and sleeping problems have a high prevalence in mental retardation in general, but are also discussed as characteristic in some genetically determined disorders. A comparative analysis of eating and sleeping behaviours in 28 Prader-Willi- and 32 Williams-Beuren syndrome children by psychometric instruments confirms excessive food-seeking behaviours in PWS and selective food refusal in WBS as specific problems. In both syndromes, however, there is considerable individual variability in these symptoms. PMID:8735669

  11. Heart Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Americans . You can use the SuperTracker tool to create a personal daily food plan based on your goals. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan (PDF file, 978 KB). The DASH diet is for ...

  12. Eating during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and other dairy products. However, if you have lactose intolerance or dislike milk and milk products, ask your doctor about a calcium supplement. (Signs of lactose intolerance include diarrhea, bloating, or gas after eating ...

  13. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... an equal opportunity provider and employer. Healthy Eating Daily Food Plan Use this Plan as a general guide. ... nickel. There are many ways to divide the Daily Food Plan into meals and snacks. View the Meal ...

  14. Eating habits and behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... events where food is served You stop at fast-food restaurants for breakfast and choose high fat, high ... buying unhealthy foods (impulse buying) or eating at fast-food restaurants. Plan your dinners at the beginning of ...

  15. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  16. Food and eating as social practice--understanding eating patterns as social phenomena and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Delormier, Treena; Frohlich, Katherine L; Potvin, Louise

    2009-03-01

    Globally, public health agencies recognise obesity trends among populations as a priority. Explanations for population obesity patterns are linked to obesogenic environments and societal trends which encourage patterns of overeating and little physical activity. However, obesity prevention and nutrition intervention focus predominantly on changing individual level eating behaviours. Disappointingly, behaviour-based nutrition education approaches to changing population eating patterns have met with limited success. Sociological perspectives propose that underlying social relations can help explain collective food and eating patterns, and suggest an analysis of the sociocultural context for understanding population eating patterns. We propose a theoretical framework for the examination of eating patterns as social phenomena. Giddens' structuration theory, in particular his concept of social practices understood as an interplay of 'agency' and 'social structure' (rules and resources), is used to study food choice patterns. We discuss the application of these concepts for understanding routine food choice practices of families, elaborating how rules and resources configure the enabling or constraining conditions under which actors make food choices. The framework assists in characterising how social structural properties are integral to food choice practices, and could direct attention to these when considering nutrition interventions aimed at changing population eating patterns. PMID:19220802

  17. Eating disorders and bone.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Dale; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and often-overlooked consequence of eating disorders, in particular anorexia nervosa and eating disorders associated with the female athlete triad. The causes of low BMD are multifactorial and include low peak bone mass accrual, accelerated bone resorption, and changes in bone microarchitecture. Early diagnosis and interventions focused on nutritional rehabilitation and weight gain reduce the risk of further BMD deficits and fractures. PMID:24094471

  18. [Nighttime eating disorders--clinical symptoms and treatment].

    PubMed

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics. PMID:21387771

  19. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  20. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  1. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  2. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Takakazu; Ueda, Hirotaka; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders. PMID:23016127

  3. Couple dissatisfaction and eating profile: a mediation effect of coping style.

    PubMed

    Gagnon-Girouard, M-P; Gagnon, C; Bégin, C; Provencher, V; Tremblay, A; Boivin, S; Lemieux, S

    2010-12-01

    Individuals' ways of coping with psychological stress have often been associated with body weight regulation through their impact on eating behaviours. In particular, emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping styles have been steadily related to disordered eating. Couple dissatisfaction may be experienced as an important psychological stressor and could therefore affect eating behaviours through the use of inadequate coping strategies. The study proposes 1) to compare women reporting a low vs a high level of couple satisfaction, and 2) to test mediational models including couple satisfaction, coping styles, and eating variables. Analyses were performed among 65 overweight/obese premenopausal women who reported being weight-preoccupied. Women exhibiting couple dissatisfaction (34.8%) showed a higher level of EDE-Q restraint, more intense concerns about eating and shape, a higher level of disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger and endorsed more often a distraction-oriented coping style, independently of their body weight. Furthermore, distraction- oriented coping style seemed to be a valid mediator of the relation between couple dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. Since non-normative eating behaviours, namely disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, have been particularly linked to a higher body weight status, it is relevant to extend the scope of interest to more distal contributing factors, such as couple dissatisfaction. PMID:21406947

  4. Restaurant eating in nonpurge binge-eating women.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Gayle M

    2006-11-01

    This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption. PMID:17056775

  5. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  6. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Asko M.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications on the effects of eating habits are lacking. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive women underwent aesthetic liposuction. Three outcome measures were applied at baseline and at follow-up: the eating disorder inventory, Raitasalo's modification of the Beck depression inventory, and the 15-dimensional general quality of life questionnaire. Results: The mean age at baseline was 44 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.0. Thirty-six (59%) women completed all outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 7 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's body satisfaction, and their overall risk for developing an eating disorder decreased significantly. Conclusion: Aesthetic liposuction results in a significantly reduced overall risk for an eating disorder in combination with improved body satisfaction. PMID:26301150

  8. Eating disorders in women

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  9. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  12. Eat Healthier | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    */ 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions

  13. Restrained and unrestrained eating.

    PubMed

    Herman, C P; Mack, D

    1975-12-01

    Nisbett's (1972) model of obesity implies that individual differences in relative deprivation (relative to set-point weight) within obese and normal weight groups should produce corresponding within-group differences in eating behavior. Normal weight subjects were separated into hypothetically deprived (high restraint) and non-deprived (low restraint) groups. The expectation that high restraint subjects' intake would vary directly with preload size while low restraint subjects would eat in inverse proportion to preload size, was confirmed. It was concluded that relative deprivation rather than obesity per se may be the cirtical determinant of individual differences in eating behavior. Consideration was given to the concept of "restraint" as an important behavioral mechanism affecting the expression of physiologically-based hungar. PMID:1206453

  14. Interpersonal psychotherapy for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. PMID:22362599

  15. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  16. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  17. Eating Disorders among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Schneck, Renae

    In the past 10 years, eating disorders among adolescent females have become of increasing concern. To assess the prevalence of eating disorders, unusual eating-related behaviors and attitudes, and psychological states among college women, 677 women, from three private northeastern United States colleges, completed a questionnaire assessing…

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for

  19. Exposure therapy in eating disorders revisited.

    PubMed

    Koskina, Antonia; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Exposure therapy is a widely used and effective form of treatment in anxiety disorders and addictions but evidence for its usefulness in eating disorders (ED) is inconsistent. This paper systematically reviews the literature on the use of exposure therapy in ED, the theory underpinning its use, and the deficits in current knowledge. Databases were searched to 2012. In addition, potential improvements in the use of exposure techniques in ED are considered by drawing upon theory and research involving neuropharmacology, basic and clinical neuroscience, contemporary behavioural and neurobiological research, and technologies such as virtual reality (VR). PMID:23201859

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Associations of eating a late-evening meal before bedtime with low serum amylase and unhealthy conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the associations of eating a late-evening meal (ELM), a putative unhealthy eating behavior, with low serum amylase, other eating behaviors, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, we investigated whether ELM before bedtime was associated with low serum amylase or other clinical factors in 2,426 asymptomatic adults aged 20–80 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ELM was significantly associated with low serum amylase (<60 IU/l), overweight, smoking, daily alcohol consumption, skipping breakfast, and rapid eating, but not with abnormal glucose metabolism. In conclusion, ELM may be independently associated with low serum amylase and common unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24354901

  3. Comparative Study of Eating-Related Attitudes and Psychological Traits between Israeli-Arab and -Jewish Schoolgirls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…

  4. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  5. Electroencephalography in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images). PMID:22275841

  6. Eat Your Weedies!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, James

    2001-01-01

    Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)

  7. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is

  8. Binge Eating in Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Barbara

    The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…

  9. Eating disorders & breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Carwell, Micaela L; Spatz, Diane L

    2011-01-01

    Disordered eating is a concern for clinicians providing care to adolescent female patients, yet the concern seems to drift from the forefront as the patient matures toward motherhood. As women become pregnant, they may adopt a negative body image that persists throughout the postnatal period with pregnancy-related weight gain. For women with a history of an eating disorder (ED), these physical changes may reactivate past coping strategies such as food restriction, binge eating, or induced vomiting to maintain prepregnancy weight. There is evidence that long-term breastfeeding fosters a positive maternal-child bond, aids in postpartum weight loss, and provides the mother with an opportunity to reestablish healthy eating habits for her infant. Because clinicians providing care for pregnant and postpartum women develop trusting relationships through frequent and prolonged contact with their patients, nurses can provide screening for ED symptoms and educate their patients about the positive effects of breastfeeding as it applies to her recovery from pregnancy and ED. This article discusses how breastfeeding can positively influence complications present in pregnant mothers with EDs and provides nurses with tools to cultivate the mother's positive self-image. PMID:21150473

  10. Eating for Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneakers for basketball. You couldn't play the game very well without this gear. But how do you help your game from the inside out? You shouldn't go ... meals when you're at practice or a game. When you can, try to eat dinners at ...

  11. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  12. A Pilot Study of Obesogenic Eating Behaviors in Children With Migraine.

    PubMed

    Ray, Stephen; Singh, Shashi Bhushan; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A; Kumar, Ram

    2016-06-01

    We studied associations between migraine severity and obesogenic eating behaviors in children with a prospective cross-sectional, clinic-based study. Migraine severity was quantified using the PedMIDAS tool and attack frequency. Eating behaviors were assessed using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Food intake was assessed using a Food Intake Questionnaire. Statistical tests of association between eating behavior, food intake, and adiposity with migraine severity were performed. Sixty children (mean age = 10.9 years, standard deviation = 3.1; 26 males) were recruited. There was a positive correlation between the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire desire to drink subscale and PedMIDAS scores (r = 0.41, P = .01). Attack frequency was associated with higher intake of high fat or sugar content food and drink (r = 0.27, P = .04). No association between migraine severity and adiposity was found. Suggestion that migraine severity in children is associated with certain obesogenic eating behaviors requires further large study investigation. PMID:26863998

  13. Animal models of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwon F.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding is a fundamental process for basic survival, and is influenced by genetics and environmental stressors. Recent advances in our understanding of behavioral genetics have provided a profound insight on several components regulating eating patterns. However, our understanding of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating is still poor. The animal model is an essential tool in the investigation of eating behaviors and their pathological forms, yet development of an appropriate animal model for eating disorders still remains challenging due to our limited knowledge and some of the more ambiguous clinical diagnostic measures. Therefore, this review will serve to focus on the basic clinical features of eating disorders and the current advances in animal models of eating disorders. PMID:22465439

  14. Maladaptive eating patterns in children.

    PubMed

    Wildermuth, Sarah A; Mesman, Glenn R; Ward, Wendy L

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing frequency of obesity and related maladaptive eating patterns in pediatric populations, health care professionals in a variety of settings must find ways to treat persons who are obese and have maladaptive eating patterns. The authors summarized literature related to binge eating disorder, boredom eating, emotional eating, and night eating syndrome and developed educational handouts designed for children/adolescents and their families who present with these eating problems. These educational handouts may be used by primary care physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, nurses, and other specialists in medical settings. They are free for use in educational purposes, with permission from the authors, but are not intended to replace appropriate health care and follow-up. PMID:23414976

  15. The role of reproductive hormones in the development and maintenance of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jessica H; Girdler, Susan S; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-01-01

    Much remains to be understood about the etiology of eating disorders. There is substantial evidence that reproductive hormones, specifically estrogens, play a direct role in normal food intake. Evidence is increasing that the reproductive hormones play a role in the abnormal food intake associated with eating disorders. For example, there is an inverse association between estradiol and eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary studies also suggest that hormone augmentation may be a beneficial adjunct to the standard treatment of choice for eating disorders. However, research is limited, so definitive conclusions about the benefit of hormone augmentation in treatment cannot be drawn. Future research, with a focus on translational studies, should continue to explore the role of reproductive hormones in the vulnerability to and maintenance of eating disorders. PMID:23585773

  16. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  17. Vegetarianism and eating disorders: association between eating attitudes and other psychological factors among Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gül

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in eating attitudes, self-esteem, social trait anxiety and social physique anxiety of self-reported vegetarian and nonvegetarian Turkish adolescents. The sample for the Turkish University' students is designed to provide the estimates of vegetarian indicators and prevalence. The participants were 608 females and 597 males, in total 1205 adolescents aged between 17 and 21 years. Disturbed eating behaviors (EAT-26> or =20) was found in 45.2% (14 of vegetarian) of the total vegetarian sample; which included two of the male vegetarians and 12 of the female vegetarians. The mean BMI was 19.78+/-1.49 kg/m(2) for female vegetarians and 20.78+/-2.46 kg/m(2) for female nonvegetarians (p<0.05). Male vegetarians had significantly higher score than male nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (17.25+/-11.18 for male vegetarians and 9.38+/-6.60 for male nonvegetarians), dieting (6.50+/-7.65 for male vegetarians and 2.55+/-3.87 for male nonvegetarians) and oral control (6.13+/-4.67 for male vegetarians and 3.20+/-3.19 for male nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). Besides, female vegetarians had significantly higher score than female nonvegetarians on EAT-26 (22.04+/-13.62 for female vegetarians and 11.38+/-8.28 for female nonvegetarians), dieting (10.35+/-9.58 for female vegetarians and 4.41+/-5.30 for female nonvegetarians), oral control (7.78+/-5.13 for female vegetarians and 3.33+/-3.51 for female nonvegetarians) and STAI (51.39+/-7.28 for female vegetarians and 47.29+/-5.13 for female nonvegetarians) scores (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the present study indicated abnormal eating attitudes, low self-esteem, high social physique anxiety, and high trait anxiety in Turkish vegetarian adolescents. The vegetarian adolescents may be more likely to display disordered eating attitudes and behaviors than nonvegetarians. PMID:15927731

  18. Eating style in seasonal affective disorder: who will gain weight in winter?

    PubMed

    Kräuchi, K; Reich, S; Wirz-Justice, A

    1997-01-01

    Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125

  19. Picky/fussy eating in children: Review of definitions, assessment, prevalence and dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Wernimont, Susan M; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M

    2015-12-01

    Picky eating (also known as fussy, faddy or choosy eating) is usually classified as part of a spectrum of feeding difficulties. It is characterised by an unwillingness to eat familiar foods or to try new foods, as well as strong food preferences. The consequences may include poor dietary variety during early childhood. This, in turn, can lead to concern about the nutrient composition of the diet and thus possible adverse health-related outcomes. There is no single widely accepted definition of picky eating, and therefore there is little consensus on an appropriate assessment measure and a wide range of estimates of prevalence. In this review we first examine common definitions of picky eating used in research studies, and identify the methods that have been used to assess picky eating. These methods include the use of subscales in validated questionnaires, such as the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and the Child Feeding Questionnaire as well as study-specific question(s). Second, we review data on the prevalence of picky eating in published studies. For comparison we present prevalence data from the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in children at four time points (24, 38, 54 and 65 months of age) using a study-specific question. Finally, published data on the effects of picky eating on dietary intakes (both variety and nutrient composition) are reviewed, and the need for more health-related data and longitudinal data is discussed. PMID:26232139

  20. Does severe dietary energy restriction increase binge eating in overweight or obese individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    da Luz, F Q; Hay, P; Gibson, A A; Touyz, S W; Swinbourne, J M; Roekenes, J A; Sainsbury, A

    2015-08-01

    Severe dietary energy restriction is often used for overweight or obese individuals to achieve rapid weight loss and related health improvements. However, the extent of putative adverse effects on eating behaviour is unknown. We thus systematically searched seven databases for studies that assessed binge eating before and after severe dietary energy restriction (low or very low energy diets) in overweight or obese individuals. Fifteen clinically supervised interventions from 10 publications (nine of which involved only women) were included. Among individuals with clinically relevant pre-treatment binge eating disorder, severe dietary energy restriction significantly decreased binge eating in all four interventions involving this population, at least during the weight loss programme. In contrast, no consistent association between severe dietary energy restriction and the onset of bingeing was found in 11 interventions involving individuals without pre-treatment binge eating disorder, with four such interventions showing significant increases, two showing no change, and five showing significant decreases in binge eating. We conclude that clinically supervised severe dietary energy restriction appears safe and beneficial for overweight or obese individuals with pre-treatment binge eating disorder, and does not necessarily trigger binge eating in those without binge eating disorder. PMID:26094791

  1. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. PMID:25770914

  2. Sleep-related eating disorder and its associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of eating at the transition from night-time sleep to arousal. SRED patients describe eating in an out-of-control manner with preference for high-caloric foods and sometimes with inedible or toxic items. Level of consciousness during SRED episodes ranges from partial consciousness to dense unawareness typical of somnambulistic episodes. SRED is sometimes associated with psychotropic medication, in particular sedative hypnotics, and other sleep disorders, including parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Night eating syndrome (NES) is another important condition in the disordered night-time eating spectrum showing hyperphagia episodes at full arousal from nocturnal sleep without accompanying amnesia. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. The two conditions often overlap and possibly share a common pathophysiology. Studies have suggested that central nervous system serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES, while the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective SRED treatment. PMID:25495278

  3. Restless Eating, Restless Legs, and Sleep Related Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) often presents with a primary complaint of sleep initiation difficulty with only ambiguous allusions to motor symptoms. This may result in the condition being misdiagnosed as a psychophysiological insomnia. Further, nocturnal eating is common in RLS and like the classic motor symptoms, patients will describe an inability to initiate sleep until their urge (to eat) is addressed. Restless nocturnal eating arises, intensifies, and subsides in parallel to motor symptoms. Once misdiagnosed as psychophysiological insomnia, RLS patients are frequently treated with benzodiazepine receptor agonists. The CNS actions of these sedating agents, suppression of memory and executive function, unleash predisposed amnestic behaviors. In the case of RLS this would be expected to include the inappropriate ambulatory and eating behaviors of sleep related eating disorder (SRED). The evidence and implications of a link between the restless eating of RLS and SRED is presented here. PMID:26626472

  4. Eating Disorders in Athletes: Weighing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Defines different eating disorders, discusses athlete eating problems, and presents the signs physicians should look for that signal the presence of an eating disorder. The article also discusses the tailoring of treatment programs, questions to ask athletes about eating habits, and society's influence on an athlete's eating behavior. (GLR)

  5. Models of Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

  6. Preventing Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews eating disorder (ED) prevention programs, highlighting features that define successful programs and particularly promising interventions, and how they might be further refined. The field of ED prevention has advanced considerably both theoretically and methodologically, as the early ED prevention programs were largely psychoeducational and met with limited success. Recent meta-analytic findings show that over half (51%) of ED prevention interventions reduced ED risk factors and over a quarter (29%) reduced current or future eating pathology (EP). A couple of very brief programs have been shown to reduce risk for future onset of EP, and obesity onset. Selected, interactive, multi-session programs offered to participants over 15 years of age, delivered by professional interventionists and including body acceptance or dissonance-induction content produced larger effects. Understanding and applying these results can help inform the design of more effective prevention programs in the future. PMID:19014867

  7. Eating disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burns, James J; Stanton, Bonita; Perkins, Kathaleen; Pack, Rob; Hobby-Burns, L

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorders including anorexia nervosa and bulimia are commonly seen in adolescent patients. There are many medical complications including disturbances in cardiac, endocrine, bone, gastrointestinal, hematological, neurological, metabolic, and renal function. There are characteristic dermatological and dental findings. Attention to key elements of the history and characteristic findings on physical exam can help the primary care provider in timely diagnosis. Although there is a wide differential diagnosis for these patients, the presence of alteration in body image and fear of being overweight are key features that help distinguish eating disorders from other disease states. Management requires a multi-disciplinary team that can provide psychological, nutritional and medical services. Adequate nutritional rehabilitation is critical and should occur concurrently with the mental health interventions. With early detection and adequate treatment, prognosis for recovery can be quite good, although mortality rates in long-term studies are surprisingly high. PMID:12874915

  8. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders

  9. Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courbasson, Christine Marie; Rizea, Christian; Weiskopf, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…

  10. Nutria, Eating Louisiana's Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    'Eating-out' might be a term you associate with a pleasant experience, especially in south Louisiana where the food is good and the atmosphere is casual. Another kind of 'eat-out' in Louisiana that is not so pleasant, though, is where nutria, large semiaquatic rodents introduced from South America, have literally eaten up the coastline. Nutria live in fresh, intermediate, and brackish marshes and wetlands and feed on vegetation (herbivory) that is vital to sustaining the Louisiana coastline. Their 'eat-outs' create openings in the marsh vegetation, and they are currently affecting an estimated 100,000 acres of coastal wetlands. With Louisiana's coastal wetlands converting to open water at a rate of 25-35 square miles (65-91 square kilometers) each year, nutria are an additional burden to an already stressed ecosystem. The nutria, or coypu (Myocastor coypus), was introduced into the United States in 1899 in California for the fur-farming industry. Since then, they have been introduced to many states and currently have viable populations in 15. Like many introductions of nonnative plants and animals, the introduction of nutria into the United States was intentional and originally viewed as a way to provide economic benefit.

  11. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  12. EDdb: a web resource for eating disorder and its application to identify an extended adipocytokine signaling pathway related to eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Li, XiaoMo; Qu, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Eating disorder is a group of physiological and psychological disorders affecting approximately 1% of the female population worldwide. Although the genetic epidemiology of eating disorder is becoming increasingly clear with accumulated studies, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, integration of various high-throughput data expanded the range of candidate genes and started to generate hypotheses for understanding potential pathogenesis in complex diseases. This article presents EDdb (Eating Disorder database), the first evidence-based gene resource for eating disorder. Fifty-nine experimentally validated genes from the literature in relation to eating disorder were collected as the core dataset. Another four datasets with 2824 candidate genes across 601 genome regions were expanded based on the core dataset using different criteria (e.g., protein-protein interactions, shared cytobands, and related complex diseases). Based on human protein-protein interaction data, we reconstructed a potential molecular sub-network related to eating disorder. Furthermore, with an integrative pathway enrichment analysis of genes in EDdb, we identified an extended adipocytokine signaling pathway in eating disorder. Three genes in EDdb (ADIPO (adiponectin), TNF (tumor necrosis factor) and NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1)) link the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) "adipocytokine signaling pathway" with the BioCarta "visceral fat deposits and the metabolic syndrome" pathway to form a joint pathway. In total, the joint pathway contains 43 genes, among which 39 genes are related to eating disorder. As the first comprehensive gene resource for eating disorder, EDdb ( http://eddb.cbi.pku.edu.cn ) enables the exploration of gene-disease relationships and cross-talk mechanisms between related disorders. Through pathway statistical studies, we revealed that abnormal body weight caused by eating disorder and obesity may both be related to dysregulation of the novel joint pathway of adipocytokine signaling. In addition, this joint pathway may be the common pathway for body weight regulation in complex human diseases related to unhealthy lifestyle. PMID:24302289

  13. Management of eating disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with the treatment efficacy and with outcomes of these conditions, and whether treatment and outcomes for these conditions differ by sociodemographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), PSYCHINFO, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA), and Cochrane Collaboration libraries. REVIEW METHODS We reviewed each study against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. For included articles, a primary reviewer abstracted data directly into evidence tables; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We included studies published from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages. Studies had to involve populations diagnosed primarily with AN, BN, or BED and report on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. RESULTS We report on 30 treatment studies for AN, 47 for BN, 25 for BED, and 34 outcome studies for AN, 13 for BN, 7 addressing both AN and BN, and 3 for BED. The AN literature on medications was sparse and inconclusive. Some forms of family therapy are efficacious in treating adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce relapse risk for adults after weight restoration. For BN, fluoxetine (60 mg/day) reduces core bulimic symptoms (binge eating and purging) and associated psychological features in the short term. Individual or group CBT decreases core behavioral symptoms and psychological features in both the short and long term. How best to treat individuals who do not respond to CBT or fluoxetine remains unknown. In BED, individual or group CBT reduces binge eating and improves abstinence rates for up to 4 months after treatment; however, CBT is not associated with weight loss. Medications may play a role in treating BED patients. Further research addressing how best to achieve both abstinence from binge eating and weight loss in overweight patients is needed. Higher levels of depression and compulsivity were associated with poorer outcomes in AN; higher mortality was associated with concurrent alcohol and substance use disorders. Only depression was consistently associated with poorer outcomes in BN; BN was not associated with an increased risk of death. Because of sparse data, we could reach no conclusions concerning BED outcomes. No or only weak evidence addresses treatment or outcomes difference for these disorders. CONCLUSIONS The literature regarding treatment efficacy and outcomes for AN, BN, and BED is of highly variable quality. In future studies, researchers must attend to issues of statistical power, research design, standardized outcome measures, and sophistication and appropriateness of statistical methodology. PMID:17628126

  14. Emotional Processing, Recognition, Empathy and Evoked Facial Expression in Eating Disorders: An Experimental Study to Map Deficits in Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficulties in social cognition have been identified in eating disorders (EDs), but the exact profile of these abnormalities is unclear. The aim of this study is to examine distinct processes of social-cognition in this patient group, including attentional processing and recognition, empathic reaction and evoked facial expression in response to discrete vignettes of others displaying positive (i.e. happiness) or negative (i.e. sadness and anger) emotions. Method One hundred and thirty-eight female participants were included in the study: 73 healthy controls (HCs) and 65 individuals with an ED (49 with Anorexia Nervosa and 16 with Bulimia Nervosa). Self-report and behavioural measures were used. Results Participants with EDs did not display specific abnormalities in emotional processing, recognition and empathic response to others’ basic discrete emotions. However, they had poorer facial expressivity and a tendency to turn away from emotional displays. Conclusion Treatments focusing on the development of non-verbal emotional communication skills might be of benefit for patients with EDs. PMID:26252220

  15. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.

  16. Living with the DASH Eating Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating out. Tips for Lowering Sodium When Shopping, Cooking, and Eating Out Shopping Cooking Eating Out Read food labels, and choose items ... rice and pasta. Don’t add salt when cooking rice, pasta, and hot cereals. Flavor your foods ...

  17. Rats learn to eat more to avoid hunger.

    PubMed

    Jarvandi, Soghra; Thibault, Louise; Booth, David A

    2009-04-01

    Several recent experiments have provided evidence that the ingestion of a distinctive food by rats can be a learnt instrumental act as well as an associatively conditioned reaction. In the previous work, maintenance food was withheld for shorter and longer durations on different days following access to the training food. Extra eating before the longer fast was interpreted as avoidance of hunger. This interpretation was based on the evidence showing that extra eating as a result of classical conditioning comes from pairing food stimuli with the presence of little or no hunger because of repletion with energy nutrients. The theory that the extra eating arose from a response-depletion contingency was tested in the present experiment by training rats on only a long fast or only a short fast. Greater increase in intake was seen before the longer fast. The results also replicated previously seen cycles of increase, decrease, and renewed increase in putative deficit-avoidant eating over about three trials, indicating that the extra eating reduces the response-reinforcing hunger and that the consequent part-extinction restores reinforcement. The shape of the learning curve was consistent with these cycles occurring from the start of training, further supporting the view that the increase in food intake before a long delay in refeeding is hunger-reinforced instrumental behaviour. PMID:19048448

  18. Serum Leptin and Loss of Control Eating in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Rachel; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Hannallah, Louise; Reina, Samantha A.; Mooreville, Mira; Sedaka, Nicole; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both insufficiency and resistance to the actions of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin promote hunger, increased food intake, and greater body weight. Some studies suggest adults reporting binge eating have increased serum leptin compared to those without binge eating, even after adjusting for the greater adiposity that characterizes binge eaters. Pediatric binge or loss of control (LOC) eating are prospective risk factors for excessive weight gain and may predict development of metabolic abnormalities, but whether LOC eating is associated with higher leptin among children is unknown. We therefore examined leptin and LOC eating in a pediatric cohort. Methods A convenience sample of 506 lean and obese youth (7–18y) was recruited from Washington, DC and its suburbs. Serum leptin was collected after an overnight fast. Adiposity was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or air displacement plethysmography. LOC eating was assessed by interview methodology. Results Leptin was strongly associated with fat mass (r=.79, p<.001). However, even after adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates, youth with LOC eating had higher serum leptin compared to those without LOC episodes (15.42±1.05 vs. 12.36±1.04 ng/mL, p<.001). Neither reported amount of food consumed during a recent LOC episode nor number of LOC episodes in the previous month accounted for differences in leptin (ps>.05). The relationship between LOC eating and leptin appeared to be significant for females only (p=0.002). Conclusions Reports of LOC eating were associated with higher fasting leptin in youth, beyond the contributions of body weight. Prospective studies are required to elucidate if LOC eating promotes greater leptin or if greater leptin resistance may promote LOC eating. PMID:23835660

  19. Body checking in the eating disorders: association with narcissistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Sines, Jennie; Meyer, Caroline; Mountford, Victoria

    2008-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that body image is a clinically important element of eating pathology, and that patients' body checking cognitions and behaviours are key elements in the maintenance of that body image. However, there is little understanding of individual differences in body checking. This study considered the potential role of narcissism and narcissistic defences in driving body checking cognitions and behaviours. 68 eating-disordered and 70 non-clinical women completed well-validated measures of body checking and narcissism. There were specific patterns of association between different elements of narcissism and different aspects of body checking. These patterns are compatible with a model where body checking serves the defensive function of maintaining self-esteem, rather than promoting positive levels of narcissistic self-esteem. PMID:18329594

  20. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children.

    PubMed

    Kuźbicka, Karolina; Rachoń, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest medical problems of the 21st century. Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. 10% of world's school-aged children have an excess body weight and a quarter of these children are obese. In Europe every fifth school-aged child suffers from an excess body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish adolescents is about 14%. An excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure (caloric excess). Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity. The lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet are the main causes of an excess body fat accumulation. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. The examples of such bad eating habits are: snacking highly processed and calorie-rich foods between meals eating in front of the TV screen, skipping breakfasts, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, "eating out" frequently and "emotional eating". Bad eating behaviours are crucial factors for the development of obesity. Eating habits are usually formed in early childhood and parents play a very important role in their development. PMID:25577898

  1. Novel methods to help develop healthier eating habits for eating and weight disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turton, Robert; Bruidegom, Kiki; Cardi, Valentina; Hirsch, Colette R; Treasure, Janet

    2016-02-01

    This paper systematically reviews novel interventions developed and tested in healthy controls that may be able to change the over or under controlled eating behaviours in eating and weight disorders. Electronic databases were searched for interventions targeting habits related to eating behaviours (implementation intentions; food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification). These were assessed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In healthy controls the implementation intention approach produces a small increase in healthy food intake and reduction in unhealthy food intake post-intervention. The size of these effects decreases over time and no change in weight was found. Unhealthy food intake was moderately reduced by food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification post-intervention. This work may have important implications for the treatment of populations with eating and weight disorders. However, these findings are preliminary as there is a moderate to high level of heterogeneity in implementation intention studies and to date there are few food-specific inhibition training and attention bias modification studies. PMID:26695383

  2. Eating disorders in midlife women: A perimenopausal eating disorder?

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Runfola, Cristin D

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders afflict women across the lifespan with peak onset during critical or sensitive developmental periods of reproductive hormone change, such as puberty. A growing body of research supports the role of reproductive hormones, specifically estrogen, in the risk for eating disorders and related symptomatology in adolescence and young adulthood. Like puberty, perimenopause is characterized by estrogen change and may also present a window of vulnerability to eating disorder development. Here, we discuss the evidence that suggests perimenopause indeed may be a vulnerable period for the development or redevelopment of an eating disorder for midlife women. Drawing from what is known about the influence of estrogen on eating disorders at younger ages and from other psychiatric disorders with similar risk trajectories (i.e., perimenopausal depression), we describe a potential mechanism of risk for a perimenopausal eating disorder and how this can be explored in future research. Investigating vulnerability to perimenopausal eating disorders will clarify eating disorder etiology, identify reproductive stage-specific risk profiles, and guide future treatment directions. PMID:26857889

  3. Evolving eating disorder psychopathology: conceptualising muscularity-oriented disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott; Mond, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be largely confined to females, are increasingly common in males. However, the presentation of disordered eating among males is often distinct to that observed in females and this diversity is not accommodated in current classification schemes. Here, we consider the diagnostic and clinical challenges presented by these distinctive presentations. PMID:27143005

  4. The spectrum of eating disorders: prevalence in an area of Northeast Italy.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Paola; De Coppi, Monica; Frezza, Michela; Preti, Antonio

    2003-07-15

    This study aims at exploring the prevalence of eating disorders in a sample of adolescents living in a community in Northeast Italy. It takes into account age and gender differences in a mixed male-female sample of 1000 school-aged adolescents corresponding to 10% of the young population aged 15-19 years of the district. The study was based on self-reported questionnaires, including the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE), and the Body Attitudes Test (BAT). The cases at risk were identified on the basis of the suggested validated cutoff for a clinically relevant syndrome. Females scored higher than males at all ages, body mass index levels, and socio-economic status levels. We found 100 females (15.8%) and 8 males (2.8%) scoring higher than the suggested cutoff for caseness on the EAT (cutoff=30); 26 females (4.1%) and 1 male (0.3%) scoring higher than the suggested cutoff for caseness on the BITE (cutoff=20); 287 females (45.5%) and 24 males (8.6%) scoring higher than the suggested cutoff for caseness on the BAT (cutoff=36). We did not find any gradient between age and socioeconomic status and the scores on the eating disorder inventories. BAT scores predicted with sharp precision the presence of an abnormal psychometric pattern on the EAT and the BITE. The prevalence of psychometric patterns that indicate an eating disorder seems in our adolescent sample higher than those reported in previous similar studies carried out in the North of Italy. The use of self-report inventories is a limitation in drawing definitive conclusions on the rates of eating disorder in this area; however, bodily dissatisfaction seems to be psychologically linked to abnormal eating patterns. PMID:12860368

  5. Recent advances in psychological therapies for eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial consolidation and development of the evidence base for psychological therapies for eating disorders. This review summarises the key changes over that time period. Specific forms of cognitive behavioural therapy and family-based treatment have consolidated and extended their positions as treatments of choice despite the development of novel approaches. However, there is still a significant need for further development and testing to improve recovery rates, particularly in anorexia nervosa. PMID:27134740

  6. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. PMID:26841114

  7. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  8. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  9. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  10. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

  11. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…

  12. Binge eating and menstrual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ålgars, Monica; Huang, Lu; Von Holle, Ann F.; Peat, Christine M.; Thornton, Laura; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relation between eating disorders and menstrual function has been widely studied, but it is unknown whether the behavior of binge eating itself is related to menstrual dysfunction. Methods The 11,503 women included in this study were from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment. The associations between menstrual dysfunction and binge eating were analyzed using logistic regression or multiple linear regression models with generalized estimation equations. Results Women who reported lifetime binge eating were more likely to report either amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea than women who reported no binge eating. These results persisted when controlling for compensatory behaviors including self-induced vomiting, laxative use, and diuretic use. No differences between women with and without a history of binge eating were observed for age at menarche. Conclusion Even when controlling for the effect of compensatory behaviors, the behavior of binge eating is associated with menstrual dysfunction. Metabolic and endocrinological factors could underlie this association. Careful evaluation of menstrual status is warranted for women with all eating disorders, not just anorexia nervosa. PMID:24360136

  13. Healthy Eating in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…

  14. Healthy Eating in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally

    2006-01-01

    Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of

  15. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…

  16. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Opinion statement Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight effects are limited and not typically lasting. A number of psychotherapies have been shown to be beneficial, mostly for stopping binge eating, and tend to show little impact on weight loss. Numerous pharmacologic interventions have been developed, with the focus on antidepressants (used for their anti-binge eating effects) and weight loss drugs. Both have been shown to be helpful but again, for antidepressants, bringing about lasting weight loss appears to be difficult. The most effective approach to treating binge eating disorder (if available) is likely psychotherapy combined with medication management as indicated. PMID:26251823

  17. Attentional bias in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Cooper, Zafra; Palmer, Robert L; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between eating disorders and attentional biases. Method: The first study comprised 23 female patients with clinical eating disorders, women with high levels ofanxiety (n = 19), and three female normal control groups comprising low (n = 31), moderate (n = 21), or high levels of shape concern (n = 23). The second study comprised 82 women with clinical eating disorders and 44 healthy controls. All participants completed measures of eating disorder psychopathology and completed a modified pictorial dot-probe task. Results: In the first study, biases were found for negative eating and neutral weight pictures, and for positive eating pictures in women with eating disorders; these biases were greater than those found in anxious and normal controls. The second study replicated these findings and biases were also found for negative and neutral shape stimuli. Conclusion: It is concluded that future research should establish whether such biases warrant specific therapeutic interventions. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 PMID:17330290

  18. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  19. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  20. Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... on healthy eating, read What’s on Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging. Download the Tip Sheet Overcoming Roadblocks to Healthy Eating (PDF, 290.3 KB) You Might Also Like Monthly Progress Test Fall Proofing Your Home Exercise to Improve Your Balance STAY INFORMED Follow ...

  1. Hunger, Eating, and Ill Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary

  2. Psychological Treatment of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy

  3. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying

  4. Zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire to assess college women's eating habits.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Janet M; Zotter, Deanne U

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has been reported in individuals with eating disorders, the risks of which increase during the adolescent and early adult years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific for zinc-rich foods was tested for its usefulness in identifying problematic eating behaviour tendencies in college-age women. Ninety-two female students enrolled in a university introductory psychology course volunteered to complete demographic information, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a zinc-specific FFQ (ZnFFQ). Relationships among estimated zinc intakes, food/lifestyle habits, and eating attitude variables were examined. Twenty-five women had estimated intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc. Individuals in the highest zinc intake group (over twice the RDA) had a tendency to score higher on the EAT-26 and the bulimia subscale. Vegetarians also scored high on the EAT-26. Although our data are limited, the ZnFFQ should be studied further to determine whether it could play a useful role in identifying individuals at risk for bulimia. The ZnFFQ is a simple, non-confrontational assessment tool and may be a helpful starting point for identifying women with unhealthy eating habits. PMID:19958578

  5. Frequency of impulse control behaviours associated with dopaminergic therapy in restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low doses of dopamine agonists (DA) and levodopa are effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). A range of impulse control and compulsive behaviours (ICBs) have been reported following the use of DAs and levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease. With this study we sought to assess the cross-sectional prevalence of impulse control behaviours (ICBs) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and to determine factors associated with ICBs in a population cohort in Germany. Methods Several questionnaires based on validated and previously used instruments for assessment of ICBs were mailed out to patients being treated for RLS. Final diagnoses of ICBs were based on stringent diagnostic criteria after psychiatric interviews were performed. Results 10/140 RLS patients of a clinical cohort (7.1%) were finally diagnosed with ICBs, 8 of 10 on dopamine agonist (DA) therapy, 2 of 10 on levodopa. 8 of the 10 affected patients showed more than one type of abnormal behaviour. Among those who responded to the questionnaires 6/140 [4.3%] revealed binge eating, 5/140 [3.6%] compulsive shopping, 3/140 [2.1%] pathological gambling, 3/140 [2.1%] punding, and 2/140 [1.4%] hypersexuality in psychiatric assessments. Among those who did not respond to questionnaires, 32 were randomly selected and interviewed: only 1 patient showed positive criteria of ICBs with compulsive shopping and binge eating. ICBs were associated with higher DA dose (p = 0.001), younger RLS onset (p = 0.04), history of experimental drug use (p = 0.002), female gender (p = 0.04) and a family history of gambling disorders (p = 0.02), which accounted for 52% of the risk variance. Conclusion RLS patients treated with dopaminergic agents and dopamine agonists in particular, should be forewarned of potential side effects. A careful history of risk factors should be taken. PMID:21955669

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. Appetite-regulating hormones cortisol and peptide YY are associated with disordered eating psychopathology, independent of body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Eddy, Kamryn T; Donoho, Daniel; Misra, Madhusmita; Miller, Karen K; Meenaghan, Erinne; Lydecker, Janet; Herzog, David; Klibanski, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Disordered eating occurs in women at both weight extremes of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Cortisol, peptide YY (PYY), Ieptin, and ghrelin are hormones involved in appetite and feeding behavior that vary with weight and body fat. Abnormal levels of these hormones have been reported in women with AN, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), and obesity. The relationship between appetite-regulating hormones and disordered eating psychopathology is unknown. We therefore studied the relationship between orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones and disordered eating psychopathology in women across a range of weights. Design A cross-sectional study of 65 women, 18–45 years: 16 with AN, 12 normal-weight with HA, 17 overweight or obese, and 20 normal-weight in good health. Methods Two validated measures of disordered eating psychopathology, the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), were administered. Fasting PYY, Ieptin, and ghrelin levels were measured; Cortisol levels were pooled from serum samples obtained every 20 min from 2000 to 0800 h. Results Cortisol and PYY levels were positively associated with disordered eating psychopathology including restraint, eating concerns, and body image disturbance, independent of body mass index (BMI). Although Ieptin levels were negatively associated with disordered eating psychopathology, these relationships were not significant after controlling for BMI. Ghrelin levels were generally not associated with EDE-Q or EDI-2 scores. Conclusions Higher levels of Cortisol and PYY are associated with disordered eating psychopathology independent of BMI in women across the weight spectrum, suggesting that abnormalities in appetite regulation may be associated with specific eating disorder pathologies. PMID:21098684

  8. Biological Therapies for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapy and other biological treatments for eating disorders. Method Literature on this topic was systematically reviewed. Results The bulimia nervosa literature underscores the utility of antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, in improving the symptoms of the disorder. The literature on binge eating disorder supports efficacy on reduction in binge eating frequency for a variety of compounds. However, such compounds have only modest effects on weight. Certain antiepileptic agents such as topiramate, if tolerated, are probably more useful in terms of weight loss. The number of controlled trials in patients with anorexia nervosa in particular has been quite small, and recent meta-analyses show disappointing results using atypical antipsychotics in anorexia nervosa. Discussion The pharmacological treatment of eating disorders remains an underdeveloped field although drug therapy clearly plays a role in the treatment of those with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Other biological therapies have not been adequately studied. PMID:23658094

  9. [Eating disorders and mass media].

    PubMed

    Peroutsi, A; Gonidakis, F

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21971198

  10. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  11. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53)% in the girls and to 166 (47)% in the boys compared to the speed of eating in the unrestricted condition. These apparent changes in food intake during school lunches could be replicated by experimentally increasing the speed of eating when the children were eating individually. Conclusions If insufficient time is allocated for consuming school lunches, compensatory increased speed of eating puts children at risk of losing control over food intake and in many cases over-eating. Public health initiatives to increase the time available for school meals might prove a relatively easy way to reduce excess food intake at school and enable children to eat more healthily. PMID:22583917

  12. The role of serotonin in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, S F

    1990-01-01

    Recent pharmacological studies have more precisely characterised the nature of the inhibitory effect of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) on feeding behaviour. Thus, the brain sites and receptors involved have been identified, and a possible physiological role of endogenous serotonin in controlling natural patterns of eating and nutrient selection has been defined. The medial hypothalamus is believed to be a critical location in the mediation of serotonin's action. Specifically, the paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei are known to be involved in controlling energy balance, while the suprachiasmatic nucleus determines circadian patterns of eating. Serotonergic stimulation of these 3 nuclei with exogenous serotonin or drugs that release endogenous serotonin, preferentially reduces carbohydrate intake in naturally feeding animals through satiety mechanisms involved in the termination of feeding. This phenomenon is mediated by serotonin and possibly serotonin receptors, in contrast to serotonin autoreceptors which potentiate feeding possibly by inhibiting serotonin release. The activity of serotonergic function in the medial hypothalamus exhibits a circadian rhythm which is characterised by a peak at the beginning of the active cycle when the motivation to eat is strongest and is triggered by deficits in energy stores. At this time, carbohydrate is found to be the naturally preferred macronutrient, and it appears that serotonin becomes most activated under these conditions to terminate the carbohydrate-rich meal, possibly by activating satiety neurons localised in the medial hypothalamus. In this process, serotonin may interact antagonistically with noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and its alpha 2-noradrenergic receptors that normally function to enhance carbohydrate intake at the onset of the natural feeding cycle. Moreover, while inducing satiety for carbohydrate, serotonin may also play a role in switching the animal's preference towards protein. The regulation of this macronutrient is closely linked to that of carbohydrate, and it is normally preferred in the second meal of the natural feeding cycle. Most of the pharmacological evidence to date generally supports the hypothesis that disturbances in serotonin function occur in eating disorders. Decreases in plasma tryptophan, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), platelet serotonin binding and basal cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA in anorexia nervosa normalise upon weight restoration and appear to be starvation effects. These alterations in serotonergic function may however perpetuate the symptomatology of anorexia nervosa once the illness is set in motion. Some drugs which in part affect serotonergic function facilitate weight gain in conjunction with an integrated psychotherapeutic and behavioural programme. Patients with bulimia nervosa, regardless of the presence of anorexia nervosa or major depression, who have been relatively weight stable and free of binge/vomit episodes for at least 3 weeks, have significantly blunted prolactin responses to the serotonin agonists. These findings indicate that post-synaptic responsiveness in hypothalamic-pituitary serotonergic pathways is reduced in bulimia. Similar alterations in other serotonin pathways at or above the level of the hypothalamus may contribute to binge eating and other behavioural symptoms in bulimic patients. The clinical response to several psychotropic agents known to potentiate serotonergic transmission further substantiates a serotonin dysregulation hypothesis of bulimia nervosa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2197074

  13. Disordered eating among mothers of Polish patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Józefik, Barbara; Sałapa, Kinga

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eating disorders. PMID:23197240

  14. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case-control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  16. Yoga, bioenergetics and eating behaviors: A conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Corona-Hernández, Rocío I; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P

    2015-01-01

    Yoga is an ancient oriental discipline that emerged from mystical and philosophical concepts. Today it is practiced in the west, partly due to the promotion of its benefits to improve the lifestyle and overall health. As compared to non-Hatha Yoga (HY) practitioners, healthier and better-eating patterns have been observed in those who practice it. Agreement with the brought benefits, HY can be used as a therapeutic method to correct abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), obesity, and some metabolic diseases. However, the energy expenditure during traditional protocols of HY is not high; hence, it is not very effective for reducing or maintaining body weight or to improve cardiovascular conditioning. Even so, several observational studies suggest significant changes in eating behaviors, like a reduction in dietary fat intake and increments in that of fresh vegetables, whole grains and soy-based products, which in turn may reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Given the inconsistency of the results derived from cross-sectional studies, more case–control studies are needed to demonstrate the efficacy of HY as an alternative method in the clinical treatment of disordered eating and metabolic diseases. PMID:26170586

  17. Prevalence of Eating Disorders: A Comparison of Western and Non-Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Maria; Tsuboi, Koji; Dennerstein, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of eating disorders between Western and non-Western countries. Method Potential references were identified through an English-language literature search using Medline and Medscape articles. Results Prevalence rates in Western countries for anorexia nervosa ranged from 0.1% to 5.7% in female subjects. Prevalence rates for bulimia nervosa ranged from 0% to 2.1% in males and from 0.3% to 7.3% in female subjects in Western countries. Prevalence rates in non-Western countries for bulimia nervosa ranged from 0.46% to 3.2% in female subjects. Studies of eating attitudes indicate abnormal eating attitudes in non-Western countries have been gradually increasing. Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western countries is lower than that of the Western countries but appears to be increasing. PMID:15520673

  18. Sudden death in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients. PMID:22393299

  19. Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

  20. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  1. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  2. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Eating disorders are serious, even life-threatening, medical illnesses that have biological and psychological causes. They are treatable. Recovery is possible. "I tell ...

  3. Athletic identity and disordered eating in obligatory and non-obligatory runners.

    PubMed

    Gapin, Jennifer I; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong "running" role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery of questionnaires including the Eating Disorder Inventory, Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). OEQ scores ≥50 were indicative of obligatory exercise. The non-obligatory runners (n = 82) and obligatory runners (n = 91) were compared on the various measures. Obligatory runners scored significantly higher (P < 0.002) on all of the eating attitudes/disorder measures, and the AIMS (P ≤ 0.006). Scores on the AIMS were correlated with all disordered eating measures (P < 0.05). Exercising to maintain identification with the running role may be associated with pathological eating and training practices. PMID:21644168

  4. An observational study of adults with Down syndrome eating independently.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christina H; Teo, Yafen; Simpson, Sarah

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the oral feeding in a group of adults with Down syndrome. None of the 23 participants in the study had reported oral feeding difficulties, and all independently ate a full oral diet (food and liquids). Observations were made during the consumption of one meal and one drink. The eating and drinking behaviours observed included eating rate and ability to keep food in the mouth, and these were considered in conjunction with oral and pharyngeal phase skills and difficulties. Coughing, an overt sign of possible aspiration with its attendant risk of upper respiratory tract infection, was seen in 56.5 % of participants. In addition, several of the observed oral feeding behaviours of this group of individuals may be socially unacceptable and therefore likely to compromise quality of life. A number of behaviours with implications for both health and quality of life may be amenable to simple behaviour modification or to changes to the environment. Further study into the causes of these oral feeding difficulties, their implications for social integration, and their potential remediation is required. PMID:23860585

  5. How does infant behaviour relate to weight gain and adiposity?

    PubMed

    Wright, Charlotte M; Cox, Katherine Marie; Le Couteur, Ann

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of how infant eating behaviour relates to later obesity is required if interventions in infancy are to be attempted. The aim of this paper is to review findings from the Gateshead Millennium Study to describe (i) what we have already established about the relationship between infant feeding transitions, infancy weight gain and eating behaviour and (ii) describe new analyses that examine how infant eating behaviour and temperament relate to infancy weight gain and childhood adiposity. The Gateshead Millennium Study recruited 1029 infants at birth and parents completed questionnaires five times in the first year. We have already described how starting solids and ceasing breast-feeding seems to be a response to rapid early weight gain, rather than a cause, and that parents identify and respond to the individual appetite characteristics of their child. A number of questions about eating behaviour at 12 months were used to construct an infancy eating avidity score that was positively associated with height at age 7-8 years, but not with an adiposity index constructed using bioelectrical impedance, waist and skinfolds. Infancy eating avidity score was associated with greater fussiness and lower satiety responsivity on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire at age 6-8 years. Temperament measured at age 6 weeks and 8 months showed no consistent associations with either infancy weight gain or adiposity at 6-8 years. While infancy may seem a logical time to intervene with children at risk of future obesity, the collective findings from this substantial population-based study largely suggest otherwise. PMID:21861948

  6. Fruit & Vegetable Screeners in the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS): Instruments

    Cancer.gov

    These instruments are in the public domain and may be used by any investigator. However, because they were used in NCI's Eating at America's Table Study (EATS) project, investigators must remove the first page, which is the EATS identifier page.

  7. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  8. Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool children's eating and body mass index. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Horwood, Sharon; Hooley, Merrilyn; Richardson, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Research has previously identified relationships between child temperament and BMI during childhood. However, few studies have addressed the broader implications of child temperament on the development of obesogenic risk factors, such as maternal feeding, child eating and body mass index (BMI) of pre-schoolers. Hence, the current study evaluated cross-sectional and prospective associations between child temperament, maternal feeding, maternal parenting styles, mother-child interaction, preschoolers' eating behaviours and BMI. Child irritability, cooperation-manageability and easy-difficult temperaments, mother-child dysfunctional interaction, maternal pressure to eat and restriction were significantly cross-sectionally associated with child eating behaviours. Child enjoyment of food was significantly associated with child BMI. Child easy-difficult temperament and mother-child dysfunctional interaction predicted child eating behaviours longitudinally and baseline child BMI measures predicted child BMI longitudinally. Average maternal ratings of child temperament were relatively neutral, potentially explaining why most associations were not robust longitudinally. Future research should include a sample of greater socio-economic and BMI diversity as well as objective measures of child temperament, diet composition, maternal feeding practices, and mother-child interaction. PMID:24345325

  9. Psychobiological examination of liking and wanting for fat and sweet taste in trait binge eating females.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Michelle; Finlayson, Graham

    2014-09-01

    The hedonic value of food has been conceptualised as a combination of how much a food is liked and how much a food is wanted in a given moment. These psychobiological constructs help to explain choices about which foods to eat and have a primary role in how much energy is consumed. Moreover the processes of liking and wanting for food are not always equivalent and may differ by degree according to the food in question, state of satiety, body composition and individual differences in dispositional eating behaviour traits. Here we report progress on the behavioural quantification of food hedonics in the laboratory setting through assessment of 'explicit liking' and 'implicit wanting' according to perceived fat content and/or sweet taste of common foods. We review recent experimental evidence examining the role of liking and wanting as features of 'trait binge eating' (assessed using the Binge Eating Scale)-a non-clinical psychometric marker for susceptibility to overeating and increased risk of weight gain. Our data show that trait binge eating can be viewed as an ecologically valid, behavioural phenotype of obesity, characterised by reliable psychological and anthropometric characteristics. Enhanced implicit wanting for sweet foods with high fat content is a psychobiological feature of susceptibility to overeating and offers a potential target for improving appetite control. PMID:24662699

  10. Sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; O'Brien, Niamh; Lopez, Carolina; Treasure, Janet

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this review was to collate and summarise the self-report data regarding anomalies in sensitivity to reward and punishment in eating disorders (ED) with use of a meta-analysis where possible. Electronic databases were searched to December 2008. Studies were required to have a non-eating disorder healthy control group and include at least one self-report measure of sensitivity to reward or punishment in an eating disorder population. Findings were very heterogeneous and inconsistencies between studies and measures were highlighted. In general, patients with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were less sensitive to reward than healthy controls, whereas patients with bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa (binge/purge) type were more sensitive. All ED groups report higher sensitivity to punishment than healthy controls. Individuals with eating disorders differ from healthy controls in measures of reward and punishment sensitivity as measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and BIS/BAS scales, but further work is required as there is some heterogeneity in the data. Generating more research using behavioural measures may increase understanding of the findings. PMID:20381877

  11. Perception of picky eating among children in Singapore and its impact on caregivers: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Picky eating is relatively common among infants and children, often causing anxiety for parents and caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine the key aspects of picky eating and feeding difficulties among children aged 1 to 10 years in Singapore and the impact on their parents or caregivers. Methods In this survey, 407 parents or grandparents who are the primary caregivers of children aged 1 to 10 years in Singapore were interviewed via telephone using a structured questionnaire of 36 questions. Respondents were randomly selected from the Singapore Residential Telephone Directory to meet a pre-set interlocked quota of race, sex, and age to represent the population. Quantitative data collected included demographics, body weight and height, respondents’ perceptions of the duration of picky eating, the child’s eating habits and perceived health status, respondents’ attitudes towards picky eating, coping strategies and the impact on family relationships. Bonferroni z-test and t-test were used to indicate significance across groups or demographics, while Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of association between variables. Results One-half of the respondents reported that the child was ‘all the time’ (25.1%) or sometimes (24.1%) a picky eater. When aided with a list of typical behaviours, the respondent-reported prevalence of picky eating or feeding difficulties occurring ‘all the time’ increased to 49.6%. The highest number of respondents first noticed the child’s picky eating behaviours or feeding difficulties as early as 1 year (20.0%). Children 3 to 10 years [p = 0.022], children of professional respondents (p = 0.019), and children with a family history of picky eating (p = 0.03) were significantly more likely to be picky eaters. Overall, all ‘picky eating’ and all ‘feeding difficulty’ behaviours occurring ‘all the time’ were significantly associated with caregiver stress when feeding (p = 0.000026 and p = 0.000055, respectively) and with a negative impact on family relationships (p = 0.011 and p = 0.00000012, respectively). Conclusions The perceived prevalence and duration of picky eating behaviours and feeding difficulties are high. The impact on the respondent and family relationships appears to be significant in Singapore. Parental concerns about picky eating should be adequately assessed and managed in routine clinic consultations. PMID:22816553

  12. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  13. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  14. Eat for a Healthy Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Eat for a ... on all FDA-regulated products. Feb. 8, 2011 Consumer Updates on Nutrition and Healthy Diets Have Food ...

  15. Involuntary memories and restrained eating.

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher T

    2015-05-01

    Most involuntary memories are elicited by external cues (e.g., smells, sounds) that have unique associations with specific memories (Berntsen's cue-retrieval hypothesis), but involuntary memories can sometimes be elicited by weak, even imperceptible, cues that raise the activation level of an already primed memory (Berntsen's motivation-priming hypothesis) to also reach conscious awareness during times of low attentional focus. The current study examined the effects of a motivation bias (restrained eating) on the involuntary memories recorded in daily diaries for seven days by 56 female participants. A large proportion of the involuntary memories were elicited by food-related cues and occurred in food-related contexts. A significant correlation was found between the participants' scores on a restrained eating scale and the percentage of involuntary memories involving cooking and eating content. These results parallel previous research involving voluntary memory retrievals during restrained eating. PMID:25655207

  16. For Seniors, Eat with Caution

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Holiday For Seniors, Eat with Caution Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... reduce risks of illness from bacteria in food, seniors (and others who face special risks of illness) ...

  17. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined. PMID:11456424

  18. Hunger, eating, and ill health.

    PubMed

    Pinel, J P; Assanand, S; Lehman, D R

    2000-10-01

    Humans and other warm-blooded animals living with continuous access to a variety of good-tasting foods tend to eat too much and suffer ill health as a result--a finding that is incompatible with the widely held view that hunger and eating are compensatory processes that function to maintain the body's energy resources at a set point. The authors argue that because of the scarcity and unpredictability of food in nature, humans and other animals have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is readily available, so that excess energy can be stored in the body as a buffer against future food shortages. The discrepancy between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people now live has led to the current problem of overconsumption existing in many countries. This evolutionary perspective has implications for understanding the etiology of anorexia nervosa. PMID:11080830

  19. Escaping from body image shame and harsh self-criticism: exploration of underlying mechanisms of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self. Furthermore, results indicated that the path model explained 32% of binge eating behaviours and confirmed that body image shame has a significant direct effect on binge eating, and that this effect is partially mediated by increased hated self. These findings suggest that binge eating may emerge as a maladaptive way to cope with the threat of being negatively viewed by others because of one's physical appearance and the consequent engagement in a severe critical self-relating style marked by hatred, disgust and contempt towards the self. This study contributes therefore for the understanding of the processes underlying binge eating. Also, these findings have important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of developing eating disorder treatments that specifically target shame and self-criticism, through the development of self-compassionate skills. PMID:25248129

  20. The Genetics of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berrettini, Wade

    2004-01-01

    The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas for future research. PMID:21191522

  1. Eating Disorders and the Family

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sam; Sananes, Renee

    1991-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex, often chronic, biopsychosocial disorders characterized by a pursuit for control which, in interaction with familial factors, results in disturbed patterns of relating to food and its meaning. Overt and covert resistance to intervention at the family level can reflect family dynamics but can be mitigated by engaging families of adolescents with eating disorders, by using multidisciplinary teams, and by hospitalization. PMID:21228994

  2. The female football player, disordered eating, menstrual function and bone health

    PubMed Central

    Sundgot‐Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland

    2007-01-01

    Most female football players are healthy. However, recent findings from our studies on Norwegian female elite athletes also show that football players are dieting and experiencing eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction and stress fractures. Dieting behaviour and lack of knowledge of the energy needs of the athlete often leads to energy deficit, menstrual dysfunction and increased risk of bone mass loss. Although dieting, eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction are less common than in many other sports, it is important to be aware of the problem as eating disorders in female athletes can easily be missed. Therefore, individuals, including the players themselves, coaches, administrators and family members, who are involved in competitive football, should be educated about the three interrelated components of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mass), and strategies should be developed to prevent, recognise and treat the triad components. PMID:17609221

  3. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology. PMID:24462486

  4. Insula tuning towards external eating versus interoceptive input in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine if adolescent obesity is associated with alterations of insula function as indexed by differential correlations between insula activation and perception of interoceptive feedback versus external food cues. We hypothesized that, in healthy weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with interoceptive sensitivity, whereas in excess weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with sensitivity towards external cues. Fifty-four adolescents (age range 12-18), classified in two groups as a function of BMI, excess weight (n = 22) and healthy weight (n = 32), performed the Risky-Gains task (sensitive to insula function) inside an fMRI scanner, and completed the heartbeat perception task (measuring interoceptive sensitivity) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (measuring external eating as well as emotional eating and restraint) outside the scanner. We found that insula activation during the Risky-Gains task positively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity and negatively correlated with external eating in healthy weight adolescents. Conversely, in excess weight adolescents, insula activation positively correlated with external eating and negatively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity, arguably reflecting obesity related neurocognitive adaptations. In excess weight adolescents, external eating was also positively associated with caudate nucleus activation, and restrained eating was negatively associated with insula activation. Our findings suggest that adolescent obesity is associated with disrupted tuning of the insula system towards interoceptive input. PMID:25819606

  5. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fuglestad, Paul T; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  6. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  7. Mental health first aid for eating disorders: pilot evaluation of a training program for the public

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. Methods A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. Results 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. Conclusions This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating disorders to seek appropriate help. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001181998 PMID:22856517

  8. Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…

  9. Stress and Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsively behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:24126546

  10. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  11. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143

  12. Learning to Eat Vegetables in Early Life: The Role of Timing, Age and Individual Eating Traits

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Samantha J.; Blundell, Pam; Ahern, Sara M.; Nekitsing, Chandani; Olsen, Annemarie; Møller, Per; Hausner, Helene; Remy, Eloïse; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n = 332) aged 4–38 m (18.9±9.9 m) were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree) in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy). Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were “learners” (40%) who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled “plate-clearers”. 16% were considered “non-eaters” eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as “others” (23%) since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children. PMID:24878745

  13. Exploring the concept of eating dyscontrol in severely obese patients candidate to bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Calderone, A; Mauri, M; Calabrò, P F; Piaggi, P; Ceccarini, G; Lippi, C; Fierabracci, P; Landi, A; Vitti, P; Santini, F

    2015-02-01

    Eating dyscontrol constitutes a potential negative predictor for the outcome of treatment strategies for obese patients. The aim of this study was to examine the qualitative characteristics of eating dyscontrol in obese patients who engage in binge eating (BE) compared with those who do not (NBE), and to analyse the relationship between eating dyscontrol and axis-I, axis-II, spectrum psychopathology using instruments that explore mood, panic-agoraphobic, social-phobic, obsessive-compulsive and eating disorders spectrum psychopathology (SCI-MOODS-SR, SCI-PAS-SR, SCI-SHY-SR, SCI-OBS-SR, SCI-ABS-SR). This was a cross-sectional study involving a clinical sample of adult obese patients with severe obesity (average body mass index = 45 ± 8 kg m(-2) ) and candidate to bariatric surgery who were recruited between November 2001 and November 2010 at the Obesity Center of the Endocrinology Unit, University Hospital of Pisa. All participants completed a face-to-face interview, including a diagnostic assessment of axes-I and II mental disorders (using the Structured Clinical Interview for Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition [SCID]-I and SCID-II) and filled out self-report spectrum instruments. Among obese patients not affected by BE, eating dyscontrol was highly represented. Indeed, 39.7% (N = 177) of subjects endorsed six or more items of the Anorexia-Bulimia Spectrum Self-Report, lifetime version domain exploring this behaviour. The cumulative probability of having axis-I, axis-II and a spectrum condition disorder increased significantly with the number of eating dyscontrol items endorsed. In both BE and NBE obese subjects, eating dyscontrol may represent an independent dimension strongly related to the spectrum psychopathology and axes I/II disorders. A systematic screening for eating dyscontrol symptoms by means of self-report spectrum instruments may be valuable to assign specific treatment strategies. PMID:25611584

  14. [Etiology and treatment of eating disorders in adolescents: a report of 6 cases].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Pei-Rong; Xu, Ya-Zhen; Yin, Yong; Tang, Qing-Ya; Zhang, Yong-Hua

    2006-08-01

    The occurrence of eating disorders in Chinese adolescents is increasing. However the cause, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disorder are rarely reported by pediatricians. This paper investigated the cause and treatment of six cases of eating disorders in adolescent patients. The medical data of six cases of eating disorders in the Shanghai Children's Medical Center from January 2003 to September 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were 5 girls and 1 boy, whose onset ages ranged from 12.4 to 15.8 years. They were initially referred to the clinic between 12.9 to 16.7 years, with a course of disease varying from three to twelve months. The patients' body mass index (BMI) varied from 9.07 to 17.0. Four out of the six patients were hospitalized because of low temperature, low blood pressure, bradycardia, dehydration and multiple systems damages. The other two were treated in the out-patient clinic. Based on the medical history and physical examination as well as laboratory findings, five of them were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and the other one were bulimia nervosa. All of the patients were under the care of a team consisting of pediatricians, dietitians, psychiatrists and nurses. When the patients whose vital signs were unstable, medical treatment focused on life sustention and they were kept on beds compulsively and given nutrition transfusion. Meanwhile cognition and behavior therapy was administered to help the patients find out the internal and environmental factors related to the development of this disorder, establish a new conception of healthy weight, and correct their abnormal eating behaviors. The patients who had a severe distortion of body image and a big resistance to the treatment were additionally administered with psychiatry drugs. After treatment, three patients set up a healthy eating behavior, their body weights gradually recovered and they had no relapse during a 1-year follow-up. The other three patients retained some abnormal eating behaviors and their body weights were always below normal. It was found that eating disorders in adolescents may be triggered by some environmental factors, such as comments on body shape from their peers, fashion influence, academic pressures, and problems in communication. Since the patients' abnormal eating behaviors were masked or neglected by parents at the early stage of the disease and the clinical presentations were related to multiple systems, it is difficult to make an early diagnosis and treatment. It is important to improve the pediatricians' knowledge of eating disorders of adolescents and perform cooperation between a multidisciplinary team for the early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. PMID:16923356

  15. Abnormal Sexual Behavior During Sleep in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  16. Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Zerrin; Yazla, Ece

    2012-06-01

    Herein, we describe a case who presented with abnormal sexual behaviour during sleep. Video-electroencephalography monitoring during sleep revealed an abnormality suggesting an epileptic basis. The patient was successfully treated with carbamazepin. The psychiatric symptoms that were thought to be related to abnormal sexual behaviours were controlled with antipsychotic treatment. Our findings strongly emphasize the fact that efforts should be spent to increase awareness of seizure activity at night, which can be misinterpreted as benign parasomnias. Such a misinterpretation may have serious consequences, such as insufficient seizure control, progressive personality changes, and cognitive impairment. PMID:25206999

  17. Eating attitudes in a group of 11-year-old urban South African girls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carmen D; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; MacKeown, Jenny M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore and describe eating attitudes in early pubertal 11-year-old black and white South African girls in an urban environment undergoing transition. Design The study was designed as a cross-sectional baseline initiative within a longitudinal study. Subjects Two hundred and two subjects were randomly selected; 54 were white and 148 black. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Outcome measures Variables included body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes (EAT score), dietary intake, socio-economic status, pubertal status and level of physical activity. Results As expected, the prevalence rate of abnormal eating attitudes in this group of girls was low (1%). No significant ethnic differences were found in the total EAT scores. White participants displayed greater oral control, while their black peers displayed greater tendencies toward dieting (p = 0.05). Girls who scored higher on the dieting subscale had a larger body size and were more inactive than low dieting scorers (p = 0.05). A relationship between body size measurements and dietary intake was found only in black girls. Traditionally a larger figure is accepted in black culture. However our data suggest a move away from this, indicating acculturation, as awareness of increased body size significantly influenced dieting attitudes. However, scores were within the normal range. Conclusions There is early evidence suggesting the impact of societal transition on young black girls with regard to eating attitudes. Black girls in this age group are adopting Western ideals of beauty and thinness. PMID:20526468

  18. ADHD symptomatology in eating disorders: a secondary psychopathological measure of severity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has commonly been described in psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have found positive associations between abnormal eating patterns during childhood and ADHD, there is a lack of studies on ADHD and Eating Disorders (ED). The aims of this exploratory study were 1) to assess the ADHD symptoms level in ED and to ascertain whether there are differences among ED subtypes; 2) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms and greater general psychopathology; and 3) to assess whether the ADHD symptoms level is associated with specific temperament and character traits. Methods 191 female ED patients were included. Assessment was carried out with the EDI-2, ASRS-v1.1, the SCL-90-R and the TCI-R. Results The ADHD symptoms level was similar in bulimia, eating disorder not otherwise specified and binge eating subtypes, and lower in anorexic patients. Obsessiveness and Hostility were significantly positively associated with ADHD symptoms. A path model showed that ADHD was associated with high Novelty Seeking and low Self-Directedness, whereas ED severity was influenced by ADHD severity and low Self-Directedness. Conclusions Bingeing/purging ED subtypes have a high ADHD symptoms level, also related with more severe eating, general and personality psychopathology. PMID:23758944

  19. Eating disorders and the skin.

    PubMed

    Strumia, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978

  20. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence; Grilo, Carlos M; Vitousek, Kelly M

    2007-04-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the most effective interventions for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder fail to help a substantial number of patients. A priority must be the extension and adaptation of these treatments to a broader range of eating disorders (eating disorder not otherwise specified), to adolescents, who have been largely overlooked in clinical research, and to chronic, treatment-resistant cases of anorexia nervosa. The article highlights current conceptual and clinical innovations designed to improve on existing therapeutic efficacy. The problems of increasing the dissemination of evidence-based treatments that are unavailable in most clinical service settings are discussed. PMID:17469898

  1. Psychological treatment of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G Terence

    2005-01-01

    Manual-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presently the most effective treatment of bulimia nervosa. Its efficacy is limited, however. Different strategies for improving upon current manual-based CBT are discussed, including combining CBT with antidepressant medication, integrating CBT with alternative psychological therapies, and expanding the scope and flexibility of manual-based CBT. CBT is underutilized in clinical practice. Dissemination of evidence-based treatment is a priority. Research on anorexia nervosa is minimal. Effective treatments have yet to be developed, although the Maudsley method of family therapy has shown the most promise in the treatment of adolescents. The most commonly seen eating disorders in clinical practice are those classified as "eating disorder not otherwise specified." With the exception of binge eating disorder (BED), however, they have been neglected by researchers. Several psychological therapies have been shown to be effective in treating BED. Controversy exists over whether treatment-specific effects have been identified. Whereas treatments have proved effective in eliminating binge eating and associated eating disorder psychopathology, achieving clinically significant weight loss remains a challenge. PMID:17716095

  2. Eating fish for two.

    PubMed

    Strain, Jj

    2014-06-01

    This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation's Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (9-12 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child development and to encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:25132804

  3. Eating fish for two

    PubMed Central

    Strain, JJ

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article is based on the British Nutrition Foundation’s Annual Lecture, which focused on maternal fish consumption and the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on fetal development, with respect to current guidance and policy on fish consumption during pregnancy. Fish makes a valuable contribution to nutrient intakes across the globe and is the primary protein source for many individuals, particularly those in the developing world. Populations with a high fish consumption, such as in the Republic of the Seychelles, have a greater exposure to MeHg, which is present in varying amounts in all fish. Methylmercury is a toxic pollutant, which is known to impair neurodevelopment. The dose of MeHg from fish consumption, however, needed to impair neurodevelopment is unknown. Current UK and US guidance on fish consumption during pregnancy tend to focus more on avoiding risks rather than highlighting the benefits which can be obtained from eating fish. Such recommendations have been mainly based on data arising from epidemiological studies in the Faroe Islands, where methylmercury exposure was largely from pilot whale consumption. Although small adverse effects on child development have been reported in data from the Faroe Islands, data from the on-going Seychelles Child Development Studies have shown no adverse effects of prenatal methlymercury exposure from high maternal fish consumption (9–12 meals containing fish per week) on developmental outcomes. Instead these data suggest that nutrients, including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), provided by fish may offer a beneficial effect and attenuate or modify any effects of MeHg on developmental outcomes. Recent expert consultations have concluded that the health benefits of fish consumption outweigh the risks posed by MeHg exposure and have argued the need for improved education and guidance to highlight the importance of consuming nutrients, including LC-PUFAs, from fish for optimal child development and to encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. PMID:25132804

  4. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  5. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  6. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  7. Orthopaedic abnormalities in primary myopathies.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Strobl, Walter

    2011-10-01

    Orthopaedic abnormalities are frequently recognised in patients with myopathy but are hardly systematically reviewed with regard to type of myopathy, type of orthopaedic problem, and orthopaedic management. This review aims to summarize recent findings and current knowledge about orthopaedic abnormalities in these patients, their frequency, and possible therapeutic interventions. A MEDLINE search for the combination of specific terms was carried out and appropriate articles were reviewed for the type of myopathy, types of orthopaedic abnormalities, frequency of orthopaedic abnormalities, and possible therapeutic interventions. Orthopaedic abnormalities in myopathies can be most simply classified according to the anatomical location into those of: the spine, including dropped head, camptocormia, scoliosis, hyperlordosis, hyperkyphosis, or rigid spine; the thorax, including pectus excavatum (cobbler's chest), anterior/posterior flattening, or pectus carinatum (pigeon's chest); the limb girdles, including scapular winging and pelvic deformities; and the extremities, including contractures, hyperlaxity of joints, and hand or foot deformities. These orthopaedic abnormalities can be most frequently found in arthrogryposis, muscular dystrophies, congenital myopathies, myofibrillar myopathies, and myotonic dystrophies. Occasionally, they also occur in metabolic myopathies or other types of myopathy. Most of the orthopaedic abnormalities are sufficiently accessible to conservative or surgical orthopaedic treatment. Orthopaedic abnormalities have major implications in the management and outcome of myopathy patients; they should be closely monitored and treated on time. PMID:22187829

  8. Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…

  9. Eating and Exercise Disorders in Young College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,

  10. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  11. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered. PMID:23291285

  12. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  13. Eating Well As You Get Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... for people over age 50. Eating Well Promotes Energy Eating well helps keep up your energy level, too. By consuming enough calories -- a way to measure the energy you get from food --you give your body ...

  14. "Eat me" imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Bagalkot, Vaishali; Deiuliis, Jeffrey A; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Maiseyeu, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Clearance of apoptotic debris is a vital role of the innate immune system. Drawing upon principles of apoptotic clearance, convenient delivery vehicles including intrinsic anti-inflammatory characteristics and specificity to immune cells can be engineered to aid in drug delivery. In this article, we examine the use of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), the well-known "eat-me" signal, in nanoparticle-based therapeutics making them highly desirable "meals" for phagocytic immune cells. Use of PtdSer facilitates engulfment of nanoparticles allowing for imaging and therapy in various pathologies and may result in immunomodulation. Furthermore, we discuss the targeting of the macrophages and other cells at sites of inflammation in disease. A thorough understanding of the immunobiology of "eat-me" signals is requisite for the successful application of "eat-me"-bearing materials in biomedical applications. PMID:26826436

  15. Eating disorders in college students.

    PubMed

    Provost, J A

    1989-01-01

    Certainly eating disorders are a major threat to the physical and mental health of female college students today. Many students arrive at college with undiagnosed and untreated eating disorders, despite existing poor dental condition, amenorrhea, and a history of severe weight fluctuation. Bulimia and bulimarexia are more problematic in the 18-22 age group than is anorexia, with its earlier onset. The college years, especially for traditional age students, present pressures to complete certain developmental tasks. Some students arrive ill-equipped to complete these tasks and with family pathology as a backdrop. Eating disorders are one of the prevailing ways these young people try to cope; these disorders may be exacerbated by the college experience. PMID:2813831

  16. [Current Care Guideline: Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Suokas, Jaana; Alenius, Heidi; Ebeling, Hanna; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Järvi, Leea; Koskinen, Minna; Laukkanen, Eila; Meskanen, Katarina; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Ryöppönen, Anita; Salonen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Päivi; Vuorela, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis with intervention is linked to better outcome. In primary care patients in risk for eating disorder should be screened and actively asked about eating disorder symptoms. Treatment is mainly out-patient care and should first be focused on gaining a normal nutritional status. It is important to involve the patient's family in the treatment. A confidential relationship between health care professionals and the patient is important. The patient's own motivation and readiness for recuperation are essential. Different therapeutic and psychosocial approaches are central in the treatment, as the disorders are psychiatric. Medical treatment may bring additional help in treating binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, but it is seldom of help in treating anorexia nervosa. PMID:26245050

  17. A systematic review of the relationship between eating, weight and inhibitory control using the stop signal task.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Dalton, Bethan; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Altered inhibitory control (response inhibition, reward-based inhibition, cognitive inhibition, reversal learning) has been implicated in eating disorders (EDs) and obesity. It is unclear, however, how different types of inhibitory control contribute to eating and weight-control behaviours. This review evaluates the relationship between one aspect of inhibitory control (a reactive component of motor response inhibition measured by the stop signal task) and eating/weight in clinical and non-clinical populations. Sixty-two studies from 58 journal articles were included. Restrained eaters had diminished reactive inhibitory control compared to unrestrained eaters, and showed greatest benefit to their eating behaviour from manipulations of inhibitory control. Obese individuals may show less reactive inhibitory control but only in the context of food-specific inhibition or after executive resources are depleted. Of the limited studies in EDs, the majority found no impairment in reactive inhibitory control, although findings are inconsistent. Thus, altered reactive inhibitory control is related to some maladaptive eating behaviours, and hence may provide a therapeutic target for behavioural manipulations and/or neuromodulation. However, other types of inhibitory control may also contribute. Methodological and theoretical considerations are discussed. PMID:26900651

  18. Shame and guilt in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Frank, E S

    1991-04-01

    A study of 94 college students supported the hypothesis that women with eating disorders experience more shame and guilt in relation to eating than do either normal or depressed women, and that such shame and guilt differentiate the eating disorders from other psychopathology. Findings revealed an apparent difference in the nature of the depression experienced by eating disordered women and that of depressed women without such disorders. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:2048646

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Attitudes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),

  1. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories of Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…

  3. Food Reinforcement and Eating: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.

    2007-01-01

    Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special

  4. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.

  5. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... the side effects of treatment better. Change your eating habits to get more calories. Eat when you are hungry, not just at mealtimes. Eat 5 or 6 small meals a day instead of 3 large ones. Keep healthy snacks handy. Do not fill up on liquids ...

  6. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  7. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  8. C9orf72 expansion presenting as an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter; Ewing, Isobel; Ahmad, Kate

    2016-03-01

    This report describes a 64-year-old woman with a strong family history of motor neuron disease, whose diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was delayed due to her initial presentation with atypical manifestations, including restriction of oral intake resulting in low weight, disordered eating and anxiety. Upon investigation, she was found to be a carrier of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. Our case supports previous publications asserting that C9orf72 mutation carriers manifest with diverse clinical syndromes, and expands the phenotype to include anorexia and food refusal as potential features of the condition. PMID:26547294

  9. What is the Eating at America's Table Study (EATS)?

    Cancer.gov

    EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire, a new and improved food frequency questionnaire developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  11. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored by the Centre of Clinical Studies, University Hospital Tübingen. Trial registration number German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00007689, 14/01/2015, version from 11/06/2015, pre-results. PMID:26685032

  12. Behavioural inventory of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous factors like continuous habitat reduction or fragmentation for free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) as well as e.g. suboptimal housing conditions for animals in captivity might lead to behavioural alterations as part of the overall adaptation process to the changing living conditions. In order to facilitate current and future studies on giraffe behaviour, a comprehensive ethogram was compiled based on existing literature, as well as observations on giraffes in the wild (Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe; Entabeni Game Reserve, South Africa), and in captivity (National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria). Findings The resulting ethogram lists 65 different behavioural patterns, which were described and grouped into seven categories: General activities, Abnormal repetitive behaviours, General interactions, Bull-Cow behaviour, Bull-Bull behaviour, Cow-Bull behaviour, Maternal behaviours, and Interactions by calves. The behaviours were further described regarding a presumed purpose, particularly with respect to social interactions and sexual behaviour. Contradictory descriptions from previous studies were considered and discussed in comparison with our own observations. Conclusions This ethogram provides a basis for current and future studies by suggesting a terminology which can be used for harmonizing behavioural observations, thus helping to facilitate comparability of future results. Subsequently, a better understanding of the behavioural ecology of giraffes in the wild as well as in captivity could aid future conservation efforts. PMID:23173954

  13. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  14. [Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method "awareness through movement" in patients with eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Laumer, U; Bauer, M; Fichter, M; Milz, H

    1997-05-01

    Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Körpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitätsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program. PMID:9265198

  15. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  16. Does anger mediate between personality and eating symptoms in bulimia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Siccardi, Sara; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marech, Lucrezia; Barosio, Marta; Fassino, Secondo

    2012-12-30

    The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. PMID:22944222

  17. Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

    1985-04-01

    Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

  18. Effect of a prescriptive dietary intervention on psychological dimensions of eating behavior in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overweight adolescents are more likely to have dysfunctional eating behaviours compared to normal weight adolescents. Little is known about the effects of obesity treatment on the psychological dimensions of eating behavior in this population. Objective To examine the effects of a prescriptive dietary intervention on external eating (eating in response to food cues, regardless of hunger and satiety), emotional eating and dietary restraint and their relation to weight loss. Parental acceptability was also examined. Method This is a secondary study of a 12-month randomized trial, the RESIST study, which examined the effects of two diets on insulin sensitivity. Participants were 109 obese 10- to 17-year-olds with clinical features of insulin resistance. The program commenced with a 3-month dietary intervention using a structured meal plan, with the addition of an exercise intervention in the next 3 months and followed by a 6 month maintenance period.This paper presents changes in eating behaviors measured by the Eating Pattern Inventory for Children and parent rated diet acceptability during the first 6 months of the trial. As there was no difference between the diets on outcome of interest, both diet groups were combined for analyses. Results After 6 months, the proportion of participants who reported consuming more in response to external eating cues decreased from 17% to 5% (P = 0.003), whereas non- emotional eating increased from 48% to 65% (p = 0.014). Dietary restraint and parental pressure to eat remained unchanged. A reduction in external eating (rho = 0.36, P < 0.001) and a reduction in dietary restraint (r = 0.26, P = 0.013) were associated with greater weight loss at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Overall this approach was well accepted by parents with 72% of parents considered that their child would be able to follow the meal plan for the longer term. Conclusions In the short to medium term, a prescriptive dietary intervention approach is a well-accepted and suitable option for obese adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance. It may reduce external and emotional eating, led to modest weight loss and did not cause any adverse effect on dietary restraint. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number (ACTRN) 12608000416392 https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=83071 PMID:24156290

  19. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26841114

  20. Difficulty eating and significant weight loss in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Van den Bossche, Thomas; Grossin, Daniel; Hamonet, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Joint Hypermobility Syndrome, also known as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a heritable disorder of connective tissue, common but poorly known by the medical community. Although generalized joint hypermobility and fragility of tissues have been described as core features, recent research highlights the multisystemic nature of JHS/EDS-HT, which presents with a wide range of articular and extra-articular symptoms. Among these, gastrointestinal problems, temporomandibular disorders, and smell and taste abnormalities are common among those affected, having significant implications for eating. The present work reviews the literature linking JHS/EDS-HT and eating problems. Two illustrative case reports, in which JHS/EDS-HT manifestations contribute to developing and maintaining disturbed eating behaviors and significant weight loss, are presented. PMID:26506923

  1. [Correlation between eating disorders and sleep disturbances].

    PubMed

    Eiber, R; Friedman, S

    2001-01-01

    Anorectics and bulimics often complain sleep onset insomnia and disrupted sleep. During awakenings bulimics can have binges. Conversely, eating disorders can be a clinical expression of a concomitantly occurring sleep disorder. Two clinical entities have been recently described: the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and the Sleep Related Eating Disorders. The main goal of this literature review was to better characterize the relationships between eating disorders and sleep disturbances. No specific EEG sleep pattern emerges in anorectic and bulimic patients. However, all studies include several methodological limitations: a few number of patients, heterogeneous patient groups, various diagnostic criteria. The results of studies evaluating the impact of depression on sleep EEG in eating disorder patients are also subject to controversy. The only study examining the relationship between sleep EEG and morphological alterations in anorectics and normal weight bulimics shows that patients with enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces spent more time in slow wave sleep and that the duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was reduced. The ventricular brain ratio was negatively correlated with REM sleep. The Night Eating Syndrome consists in insomnia, binge eating and morning anorexia. Other criteria are proposed to characterize the NES: more than 50% of the daily energy intake is consumed after the last evening meal, awakenings at least once a night, repetition of the provisional criteria for more than 3 months, subjects do not meet criteria for bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Patients have no amnesia nor alteration of alertness, and no other sleep disorder. There is no modification of sleep EEG except sleep maintenance. The prevalence of the NES is 1.5% in the general population. Some neuroendocrine disturbances have been found in the NES. The delimitation with eating disorders is not yet clearly established. If it shares the compulsive features with eating disorders, particularly the "Binge Eating Disorder", and occurs during full awakenings, the night eating syndrome may be recognized as a specific eating disorder. The sleep related eating syndrome is also characterized by compulsive binge eating during awakenings. But in this case, night eating is linked with a reduced consciousness and sleep disorders, mainly somnambulism. Patients never experience hunger, abdominal pain, nausea or hypoglycemia. Night-eating takes place invariant across weekdays, weekend and vacations. Patients consumed high caloric foods and fluids but never alcohol and purging does not occur. Diurnal bulimia is frequently associated with the sleep-related eating disorder. In conclusion, the sleep related eating disorder seems rather be a clinical subtype of sleep disorders whereas the NES could be considered as an eating disorder. PMID:11760692

  2. Eating disorders in older women.

    PubMed

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. PMID:26261037

  3. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  4. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances

  5. Safe eating during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    When you have cancer, you need good nutrition to help keep your body strong. To do this you need to watch the foods you eat and how you prepare them. Some raw foods can contain germs that can hurt you when cancer ...

  6. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the

  7. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  8. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  9. Normal and Abnormal Sexual Differentiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Abnormal Sexual Differentiation The words, "It's a boy" and "It's a girl" can be heard every ... an appearance that is typical of neither a boy nor a girl. What causes ambiguous genitalia? The ...

  10. Interventions for the Carers of Patients With Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Janet; Nazar, Bruno Palazzo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the recent literature on carers/parenting interventions for people with eating disorders. Interesting and important new findings are highlighted as well as the implications that this may have for treatment. We have reviewed and critically analysed the recent literature. Close others often play an important role in recognising the early signs of eating disorders and accessing and implementing treatment. Their role in helping with recovery is to give support and hold a united front themselves and with the professional team to avoid those common interpersonal reactions that adversely impact on outcome such as accommodating to the illness and reacting with high expressed emotion (overprotection and hostility). Managing this role is difficult, and coping resources are often strained. Carers ask for and are now getting expert training in skills to manage this role. There is an overlap between carer/parenting interventions and family therapies. The interface with close others is critical both for early recognition and access and implementation of treatment. Interventions which equip families and close others with the skills to manage eating disorder behaviours are showing potential at improving outcomes. PMID:26781554

  11. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders. PMID:25652251

  12. Perception of adolescents on healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dayanne Caroline de Assis; Frazão, Iracema da Silva; Osório, Mônica Maria; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de

    2015-11-01

    The objective in this article is to analyze how adolescents at a school in the interior of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, perceive healthy eating. A descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken, based on the qualitative method. Forty adolescents between 10 and 14 years of age were investigated, using a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using the software Alceste, which evidenced two thematic axes: Eating practices, divided in two classes (routine eating diary and Eating at weekends); and Education practices, consisting of four classes (Factors interfering in and facilitating the maintenance of healthy eating, Role of the school in the education process for healthy eating, Knowledge on healthy eating, The family and the promotion of healthy eating). Although the interviewed adolescents are familiar with healthy eating, they do not always put it in practice, due to the multiple factors that interfere in their preferred diet. The school and the family play a fundamental role in encouraging healthy eating. The school needs to accomplish eating education practices that encourage the consumption of locally produced foods. PMID:26602708

  13. Classification of feeding and eating disorders: review of evidence and proposals for ICD-11

    PubMed Central

    UHER, RUDOLF; RUTTER, MICHAEL

    2012-01-01

    Current classification of eating disorders is failing to classify most clinical presentations; ignores continuities between child, adolescent and adult manifestations; and requires frequent changes of diagnosis to accommodate the natural course of these disorders. The classification is divorced from clinical practice, and investigators of clinical trials have felt compelled to introduce unsystematic modifications. Classification of feeding and eating disorders in ICD-11 requires substantial changes to remediate the shortcomings. We review evidence on the developmental and cross-cultural differences and continuities, course and distinctive features of feeding and eating disorders. We make the following recommendations: a) feeding and eating disorders should be merged into a single grouping with categories applicable across age groups; b) the category of anorexia nervosa should be broadened through dropping the requirement for amenorrhoea, extending the weight criterion to any significant underweight, and extending the cognitive criterion to include developmentally and culturally relevant presentations; c) a severity qualifier “with dangerously low body weight” should distinguish the severe cases of anorexia nervosa that carry the riskiest prognosis; d) bulimia nervosa should be extended to include subjective binge eating; e) binge eating disorder should be included as a specific category defined by subjective or objective binge eating in the absence of regular compensatory behaviour; f) combined eating disorder should classify subjects who sequentially or concurrently fulfil criteria for both anorexia and bulimia nervosa; g) avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder should classify restricted food intake in children or adults that is not accompanied by body weight and shape related psychopathology; h) a uniform minimum duration criterion of four weeks should apply. PMID:22654933

  14. Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based survey.

    PubMed

    de Morais Sato, Priscila; da Rocha Pereira, Patrícia; de Carvalho Stelmo, Isis; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Ulian, Mariana Dimitrov; Sabatini, Fernanda; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2014-11-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered 'nutritionally proper' to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus. PMID:25014744

  15. [Involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mari Hotta

    2015-04-01

    This article gives an outline about involvement of eating disorders in metabolic syndrome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa become common diseases in woman in Japan. Binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome are observed in men as well as women. Binge eating is characteristic of bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome. It should be noted that high energy availability observed in these diseases results in obesity and exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) can make patients to control symptoms and improve their QOL. Osteoporosis is one of chief complications and sequelae of anorexia nervosa. Low-birth weight babies born from emaciated patients with eating disorders are subject to metabolic syndrome in the future. PMID:25936153

  16. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  17. Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.

    PubMed

    Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

    2013-12-01

    Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity. PMID:23932947

  18. Identification of Psychological Dysfunctions and Eating Disorders in Obese Women Seeking Weight Loss: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Panchaud Cornut, Maude; Szymanski, Jennifer; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Giusti, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools. PMID:24737999

  19. Disorders of fuel metabolism: medical complications associated with starvation, eating disorders, dietary fads, and supplements.

    PubMed

    Judge, Bryan S; Eisenga, Bernard H

    2005-08-01

    Disorders of fuel metabolism as they relate to abnormal fuel intake,abnormal fuel expenditure, and dietary supplements are the focus of this article. The emergency physician should be aware of the medical complications that can occur as a result of starvation states,eating disorders, fad diets, hypermetabolic states, and ergogenic aids. Knowledge and understanding of the complications associated with these disorders will facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients who present to the emergency department with any of the disorders reviewed. PMID:15982546

  20. Health behaviours in a Canadian community college sample: prevalence of drug use and interrelationships among behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, C M; Faris, P D; Stam, H J; Egger, L A

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of drug use among a Canadian college sample and the covariation of drug taking and other health-related behaviours. A representative sample of students at a community college in Alberta were interviewed using telephone surveys, mail-in questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected on drug, alcohol and caffeine use, cigarette smoking, eating habits, sleep habits and exercise. While use of illicit drugs did not appear to be widespread, alcohol appeared to be a primary substance abuse problem for a minority of subjects. Factor analysis indicated that the various health habits did not form one dimension of health-related behaviours. Four separate factors emerged: abusive drinking, eating habits, a drug use factor (caffeine intake, smoking, cannabis and hallucinogen use), and exercise levels. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research, treatment and intervention. PMID:1423105

  1. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:24667155

  2. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Carrie J; Smith, Whitney

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. PMID:26767185

  3. Eating Behaviors, Mental Health, and Food Intake are Associated with Obesity in Older Congregate Meal Participants

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Fischer, Joan G.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American’s Act (OAA) congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food groups group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

  4. Eating behaviors, mental health, and food intake are associated with obesity in older congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between eating behaviors, food intake, and mental health and the occurrence of obesity in older adults has rarely been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish the associative links of these factors with two measures of obesity: class I obesity as indicated by body mass index (OB-BMI; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) and class I obesity as indicated by waist circumference (OB-WC; WC ≥ 43 inches for men and ≥ 42 inches for women). Older adults participating in the Older American's Act congregate meal program (N = 113, mean age = 74 years, 74% female, 45% African American) were assessed. Eating behaviors (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating), food group choices (sweets, salty snacks, and fruits), and mental health indices (depression, anxiety, and stress) were recorded by questionnaire and related to measured occurrence of OB-BMI and OB-WC. In a series of multivariate logistical regression models, we found cognitive restraint to be consistently and robustly associated with both measures of obesity. In the fully adjusted model, cognitive restraint, consumption of sweets, anxiety, and lack of depression were associated with OB-WC. In summary, we found an association of obesity with abnormal eating behaviors, certain food group intakes, and mental health symptoms in this population. These findings may guide the development of future weight management interventions in a congregate meal setting. PMID:25424510

  5. [Association between body mass index and risk feeding behaviors to develop eating disorders in Mexican adolescents].

    PubMed

    Sámano, Reyna; Zelonka, Rosa; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Ramírez, Cristina; Ovando, Georgina

    2012-06-01

    The body self-perception and its dissatisfaction are related with the risk for developing abnormal eating behaviors (AEB), especially in eating disorders (ED) in adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between dietary habits and the risk for AEB and their association with body mass index (BMI) in a group of adolescents in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 671 adolescents, both sex, between 12 and 15 years. A validated questionnaire was used to assess the risk for developing AEB. BMI was obtained, and information from the practice and knowledge of food consumption was available. The prevalence of the risk for developing AEB in this study was 12%. It showed that 48% of participants were overweight or obese, 20% did not eat breakfast, 16% took their food without doing other activity simultaneously (p = 0.012). The variables associated with the risk AEB, for developing of ED were doing any activity simultaneously with food intake (OR: 4.23 p = 0.006), overweight-obesity (OR: 2.59 p = 0001), eating without company (OR: 2.04 p = 0.005), not eating fruit (OR: 1.96 = 0.008) or milk (OR:1.79 p = 0.026), being female (OR: 1.74 p = 0.024) and skipping breakfast (OR: 1.57 p = 0,035). Food intake differed with what themselves recommended being healthy, which was lower in vegetables, fruits, leguminous and higher in sugars, fats and soda. We conclude there is a relationship between BMI and the risk for developing AEB. There was no consistency between what adolescents say they should eat to be healthy and what they eat. PMID:23610901

  6. Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT2C/2A receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive α2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24866852

  7. Social support influences on eating awareness in children and adolescents: the mediating effect of self-regulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Palmeira, Antonio L; Gaspar, Tania; De Wit, John B F; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    The impact of the social environment on healthy eating awareness results from complex interactions among physical, economic, cultural, interpersonal and individual characteristics. This study investigated the impact of social support and social influence on healthy eating awareness, controlling for socio-economic status, gender and age. Additionally, the mediating effect of self-regulation strategies was examined. A total of 2764 children and adolescents aged 10-17 from four European countries completed self-report measures on healthy eating awareness, social influence and the use of self-regulation strategies. Healthy eating awareness and the use of self-regulation strategies were more likely to occur among younger participants. An interaction between gender and age was related to the use of some self-regulation strategies; compared to girls, boys decreased the use of self-regulation strategies more from pre-adolescence to adolescence. Peer social influence was associated with more unhealthy eating in older participants. Results suggest a need to promote self-regulatory competences among young people in order to assist them with regulating their eating behaviours, especially in the presence of peers. Both school-based interventions and family-based interventions, focusing on self-regulation cognitions and social (peer) influence, could help children and adolescents to use self-regulatory strategies which are essential to eat healthier. PMID:26564992

  8. 2016 update on eating disorders in athletes: A comprehensive narrative review with a focus on clinical assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth; Kussman, Andrea; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2016-02-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, can have devastating effects on both the health and performance of athletes. Compared to non-athletes, both female and male athletes are at higher risk of developing an eating disorder. This is especially true for athletes participating in sports where low body weight or leanness confers a competitive advantage. Screening for disordered eating behaviours, eating disorders and for related health consequences should be a standard component of preparticipation examinations, and team physicians should be knowledgeable of the updated diagnostic criteria for eating disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-V. Athletes with eating disorders should undergo thorough evaluation and treatment by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Team physicians play a critical role in decision-making on clearance for participation and return to play. Using evidence-based guidelines for clearance and return to play encourages transparency and accountability between the sports medicine care team and the athlete. Efforts to prevent eating disorders should be aimed at athletes, coaches, parents and athletic administrators, and focused on expanding knowledge of healthy nutrition in support of sport performance and health. PMID:26782763

  9. Skeletal complications of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Abigail A; Gordon, Catherine M

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  10. Anatomical correlates of reward-seeking behaviours in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Perry, David C; Sturm, Virginia E; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H; Rosen, Howard J

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by abnormal responses to primary reward stimuli such as food, sex and intoxicants, suggesting abnormal functioning of brain circuitry mediating reward processing. The goal of this analysis was to determine whether abnormalities in reward-seeking behaviour in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia are correlated with atrophy in regions known to mediate reward processing. Review of case histories in 103 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia identified overeating or increased sweet food preference in 80 (78%), new or increased alcohol or drug use in 27 (26%), and hypersexuality in 17 (17%). For each patient, a primary reward-seeking score of 0-3 was created with 1 point given for each target behaviour (increased seeking of food, drugs, or sex). Voxel-based morphometry performed in 91 patients with available imaging revealed that right ventral putamen and pallidum atrophy correlated with higher reward-seeking scores. Each of the reward-related behaviours involved partially overlapping right hemisphere reward circuit regions including putamen, globus pallidus, insula and thalamus. These findings indicate that in some patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, low volume of subcortical reward-related structures is associated with increased pursuit of primary rewards, which may be a product of increased thalamocortical feedback. PMID:24740987

  11. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  12. The Effect of Different Types of Physical Exercise on the Behavioural and Physiological Parameters of Standardbred Horses Housed in Single Stalls

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Zaccagnino, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of three different physical exercises on the physiological and behavioural patterns of Standardbred trotters housed in single stalls. Twelve racing mares were observed twice during each different exercise: daily training (DT) consisted of forty minutes at slow trot (4-5 m/s) in a small track; maximal exercise (ME) consisted of 1600 m run at maximal velocity; race (R) was a real race of 1600 m. The mares were examined at rest in their stall (Time I), soon after the completion of the exercise (Time II), one hour (Time III), and two hours (Time IV) after the exercise. Their heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded and they were videotaped in order to complete a focal animal sampling ethogram. All physiological parameters increased after exercise, in accordance with its intensity. After R and ME horses spent more time drinking, eating, and standing. The incidence of abnormal behaviours was very low and it was not affected by the different types of exercise. Overall, the assessment of horse behaviour after physical exercise by means of a focal animal sampling ethogram represents a useful tool to monitor equine welfare. PMID:24587940

  13. Age- and gender-specific norms for the German version of the Three-Factor Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    PubMed

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-08-01

    The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p < 0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p < 0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. PMID:25889877

  14. Eating When There is Not Enough to Eat: Eating Behaviors and Perceptions of Food Among Food-Insecure Youths

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Haines, Jess; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, perceptions, and dietary intakes by food security status. Methods. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 primarily urban schools in the Minneapolis–St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998–1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression analysis to characterize associations between behaviors, perceptions, nutritional intake, and food security status. Results. Compared with food-secure youths, food-insecure youths were more likely to perceive that eating healthfully was inconvenient and that healthy food did not taste good. Additionally, food-insecure youths reported eating more fast food but fewer family meals and breakfasts per week than did youths who were food secure. Food-insecure and food-secure youths perceived similar benefits from eating healthfully (P = .75). Compared with those who were food secure, food-insecure youths had higher fat intakes (P < .01). Food-insecure youths were more likely to have a body mass index above the 95th percentile. Conclusions. The eating patterns of food-insecure adolescents differ in important ways from the eating patterns of those who are food secure. Policies and interventions focusing on improving the foods that these youths eat deserve further examination. PMID:19299675

  15. Psychological Treatments for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent evidence on psychological treatments for eating disorders (EDs). Recent findings EDs are serious psychiatric conditions requiring evidence-based intervention. Treatments have been evaluated within each ED diagnosis and across diagnoses. For adults with anorexia nervosa, no one specialist treatment has been shown to be superior. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) remain the most established treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, with stepped-care approaches showing promise and new behavioral treatments under study. Transdiagnostic enhanced CBT has improved symptoms in adults and youth. Maudsley family-based therapy is the most established treatment for youth with anorexia nervosa and may be efficacious for youth with bulimia nervosa. IPT for the prevention of excess weight gain may be efficacious for reducing loss of control eating and weight gain in overweight youth. Summary Significant advances in treatments have been made, including evaluation of long-term outcomes, novel approaches, and tailored extension for specific patient profiles. However, widespread access to effective ED treatments remains limited. Increasing the potency and expanding the implementation of psychological treatments beyond research settings into clinical practice has strong potential to increase access to care, thereby reducing the burden of EDs. PMID:24060917

  16. Personality and eating habit variables as predictors of severity of binge eating and weight.

    PubMed

    Wolf, E M; Crowther, J H

    1983-01-01

    The present study investigated several personality and eating habit variables as predictors of the severity of binge eating and weight deviation. Subjects were 120 normal weight and overweight undergraduate women selected to vary along predetermined dimensions of weight and severity of binge eating. After providing relevant demographic and life history data, they completed a series of self-report questionnaires. Results of a canonical analysis support the independence of binge eating and weight. Two stepwise multiple regressions indicated that anorexic-like eating attitudes, dissatisfaction with body image, and poor self-image were significant predictors of the severity of binge eating while none of the measures was a significant predictor of weight deviation. The amount of stress experienced in the past year was found to be the only significant demographic/historical predictor of binge eating. These findings are discussed with respect to their implications for current understanding of the binge eating phenomenon. PMID:6587760

  17. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347

  18. The Role and Impact of Student Leadership on Participants in a Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutuskey, Lila; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Centeio, Erin; Garn, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to…

  19. The Role and Impact of Student Leadership on Participants in a Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutuskey, Lila; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Centeio, Erin; Garn, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to

  20. [Genomic Advances in Eating Behavior Disorders].

    PubMed

    Genis-Mendoza, Alma D; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; Nicolini, Humberto

    2013-12-01

    Eating behavior disorders are a public health issue. The etiology of these types of disorders is unknown, and they may have psychiatric, chemical and biological origins. The aim of this review is to present evidence that shows the contribution of genomic research in the study of eating behavior disorders. It also shows the considerable research that has been undertaken to identify the genes that may participate in the etiology of eating behavior disorders. PMID:26573119

  1. Tempting food words activate eating simulations

    PubMed Central

    Papies, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that tempting food words activate simulations of eating the food, including simulations of the taste and texture of the food, simulations of eating situations, and simulations of hedonic enjoyment. In a feature listing task, participants generated features that are typically true of four tempting foods (e.g., chips) and four neutral foods (e.g., rice). The resulting features were coded as features of eating simulations if they referred to the taste, texture, and temperature of the food (e.g., “crunchy”; “sticky”), to situations of eating the food (e.g., “movie”; “good for Wok dishes”), and to the hedonic experience when eating the food (e.g., “tasty”). Based on the grounded cognition perspective, it was predicted that tempting foods are more likely to be represented in terms of actually eating them, so that participants would list more features referring to eating simulations for tempting than for neutral foods. Confirming this hypothesis, results showed that eating simulation features constituted 53% of the features for tempting food, and 26% of the features for neutral food. Visual features, in contrast, were mentioned more often for neutral foods (45%) than for tempting foods (19%). Exploratory analyses revealed that the proportion of eating simulation features for tempting foods was positively correlated with perceived attractiveness of the foods, and negatively with participants’ dieting concerns, suggesting that eating simulations may depend on individuals’ goals with regard to eating. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for understanding the processes guiding eating behavior, and for interventions designed to reduce the consumption of attractive, unhealthy food. PMID:24298263

  2. Disordered eating: a defense against psychosis?

    PubMed

    Hugo, P J; Lacey, J H

    1998-11-01

    The authors present four cases suffering with either bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa in conjunction with a psychotic illness. In all cases there appeared to be a reciprocal relationship between the eating disorder and psychosis such that improvement in eating precipitated or exacerbated the psychotic symptoms. We suggest that disordered eating serves as a defense against psychosis. Difficulties in treating such patients are discussed. PMID:9741045

  3. Eating disorders: assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Schlundt, D G

    1985-09-01

    Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders affecting a significant number of adolescent and young adult women. The core symptoms of both disorders are similar and include a fear of obesity, body image disturbance, erratic eating patterns, and purging. These symptoms produce significant physical and psychologic complications. Both anorexia and bulimia appear to have a common origin in a fear of obesity and dieting. Anorectics, being "successful" dieters, lose a significant amount of weight; whereas bulimics alternate between binges and purges. Treatment for the eating disorders is gradually evolving as clinical research experience accumulates. For anorexia, hospitalization is indicated when weight falls below 15% of ideal, and most investigators agree that therapy for the core symptoms cannot be undertaken until weight is restored. During the impatient stay, a behavior modification program can effectively organize medical, nutritional, and psychologic support, and offers the quickest and most direct route to weight restoration. The nasogastric tube and total parenteral nutrition are used primarily for those who are severely emaciated or who actively resist standard modes of therapy. Inpatient treatment is most effectively and efficiently rendered in a specialized eating disorder unit. Once weight restoration is progressing, behavior therapy for core symptoms is commenced and continued on an outpatient basis. A variety of behavioral techniques are employed, and they are designed primarily to influence anorectic assumptions and beliefs. Although there may be a brief inpatient stay for initiation of treatment, the bulk of therapy for bulimia occurs on an outpatient basis. The available literature indicates that behavioral techniques and antidepressant medication are effective for the symptoms of bulimia. Early identification of core symptoms of both disorders can lead to an initiation of treatment before the core symptoms become ingrained. A potentially more effective intervention lies in efforts to influence the media. As noted, standards for feminine beauty as portrayed in the media have changed significantly over the past 20 years. An attempt at the primary prevention of eating disorders would include efforts to convince the media to change their standards of femininity from cosmetic slimness to a focus on health and physical fitness. These efforts could stem from professional and lay organizations who have the interest and capability to influence policy. PMID:3863731

  4. Links between mothers' and children's disinhibited eating and children's adiposity.

    PubMed

    Zocca, Jaclyn M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Columbo, Kelli M; Raciti, Gina R; Brady, Sheila M; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem H; Matheson, Brittany E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have examined relationships between parents' and children's specific disinhibited eating behaviors. We investigated links among mothers' and children's binge/loss of control eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and children's adiposity in 305 non-treatment-seeking youth, aged 8-17 years (13.62±2.65 years; 49.8% female) and their mothers. Youths' loss of control eating and eating in the absence of hunger were assessed by interview and self-report questionnaire. Children's adiposity was assessed with BMI-z and air displacement plethysmography. Maternal binge eating, eating in the absence of hunger and highest, non-pregnant BMI were self-reported. In structural equation models controlling for mothers' BMI, mothers' binge eating related to children's loss of control eating, and mothers' eating in the absence of hunger related to children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers' binge eating and children's eating in the absence of hunger were unrelated, as were mothers' eating in the absence of hunger and children's loss of control. Further, mothers' binge eating was indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's loss of control eating. Likewise, mothers' eating in the absence of hunger indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers and children share similar, specific disinhibited eating styles. PMID:21182882

  5. A Primer on the Genetics of Comorbid Eating Disorders and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Baker, Jessica H

    2016-03-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) frequently co-occur; however, the reasons for this are unclear. We review the current literature on genetic risk for EDs and SUDs, as well as preliminary findings exploring whether these classes of disorders have overlapping genetic risk. Overall, genetic factors contribute to individual differences in liability to multiple EDs and SUDs. Although initial family studies concluded that no shared familial (which includes genetic) risk between EDs and SUDs exists, twin studies suggest a moderate proportion of shared variance is attributable to overlapping genetic factors, particularly for those EDs characterized by binge eating and/or inappropriate compensatory behaviours. No adoption or molecular genetic studies have examined shared genetic risk between these classes of disorders. Research investigating binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviours using emerging statistical genetic methods, as well as examining gene-environment interplay, will provide important clues into the aetiology of comorbid EDs and SUDs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26663753

  6. Can the impact of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating be weakened by one's decentering abilities?

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-08-01

    Decentering has been defined as the ability to deal with thoughts and emotions as subjective and ephemeral inner events. Since it implies a non-judging and present focused attitude towards thoughts and emotions, decentering has been considered as an important protective process against psychopathology, as it has been empirically shown to decrease depressive relapse rates. Nevertheless, its role in eating disordered attitudes and behaviours has not been fully uncovered. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the moderator effect of decentering on the relationship between eating psychopathology and one of its main risk factors, body image dissatisfaction. The sample comprised 279 female students, aged between 14 and 21 years-old. Results revealed that decentering abilities were negatively linked to body image dissatisfaction and to the global score of eating psychopathology. Through a path analysis, the buffer effect of decentering was confirmed. The findings suggest that the ability to take a non-judgmental and accepting stance towards internal experiences diminishes the impact of one's body dissatisfaction on disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. This study seems especially pertinent since it uncovers a mechanism to lessen the pervasive impact of body image dissatisfaction, which is highly prevalent in women from Western societies. PMID:25064288

  7. Quality of life in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not-otherwise-specified

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess differences in Quality of Life (QoL) across eating disorder (ED) diagnoses, and to examine the relationship of QoL to specific clinical features. Results 199 patients with a diagnosed ED completed the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) [Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders, 315–318, 2008] and the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) [Int J Eat Disord 6:1–8]. Differences between diagnostic groups were examined, as were differences between restrictive and binge-purge subtypes. CIA scores and EDE scores were positively correlated and higher in groups with binge-purge behaviours. CIA scores were not correlated with BMI, illness duration or frequency of bingeing/purging behaviours, except in the binge-purge AN group, where CIA scores negatively correlated with BMI. Conclusions Patients with EDs have poor QoL and impairment increases with illness severity. Patients with binge/purge diagnoses are particularly impaired. It remains unclear which clinical features best predict the degree of impairment experienced by patients with EDs. PMID:24999421

  8. Adolescents' Views of Food and Eating: Identifying Barriers to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Clifford; Doherty, Glenda; Barnett, Julie; Muldoon, Orla T.; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity.…

  9. Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower…

  10. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body

  11. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did

  12. Impact of an Intuitive Eating Education Program on High School Students' Eating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Nicole; Joram, Elana; Matvienko, Oksana; Woolf, Suzanne; Knesting, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for school-based nutritional educational programs that promote healthy eating attitudes without increasing an unhealthy focus on restrictive eating or promoting a poor body image. Research suggests that "intuitive eating" ("IE") approaches, which encourage individuals to focus on internal body…

  13. Are Intuitive Eating and Eating Disorder Symptomatology Opposite Poles of the Same Construct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Wilcox, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower

  14. Exercise, Eating Patterns, and Obesity: Evidence from the ATUS and Its Eating & Health Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifschneider, Marianne J.; Hamrick, Karen S.; Lacey, Jill N.

    2011-01-01

    Time spent eating and exercising can impact quality of life measures such as general health and risk for obesity. This article links data from the American Time Use Study and the Eating and Health Module to explore exercise and eating patterns for varying age groups, over different times of day, and by self-reported health status. Younger…

  15. Women with Bulimic Eating Disorders: When Do They Receive Treatment for an Eating Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mond, J. M.; Hay, P. J.; Darby, A.; Paxton, S. J.; Quirk, F.; Buttner, P.; Owen, C.; Rodgers, B.

    2009-01-01

    Variables associated with the use of health services were examined in a prospective, community-based study of women with bulimic-type eating disorders who did (n = 33) or did not (n = 58) receive treatment for an eating problem during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants who received treatment for an eating problem differed from those who did…

  16. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  17. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

  18. Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Giovanni; Castellani, Walter; Lelli, Lorenzo; Sauro, Carolina Lo; Dini, Carla; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Bencini, Lorenza; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible mediating factor for this relationship. CONCLUSION: The data supported a mediation model where cortisol levels mediated the relationship between eating psychopathology (concern about body shape) and REE. PMID:25032200

  19. Proper meals in transition: young married couples on the nature of eating together.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D W; Anderson, A S

    2002-12-01

    Most people get married or spend time living with a partner at some stage in their lives. But what effect does this change have, if any, on their eating habits? The transition from bachelor or spinster to young couple represents a major lifecourse change and this paper looks at the role that eating together plays in the lives of a group of young Scottish couples recently married or cohabiting with their partner. The key question here is what role do meals play in all of this and how are eating activities arranged in these households. In an attempt to move the debate on meals beyond the "traditional family unit" it considers what eating "properly" meant for these couples. The paper looks at the importance of the evening meal as a site for sociability in married and cohabiting couples and examines the process of social interaction, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of eating together as a couple. It reports on what men and women said in individual interviews and recorded in personal food diaries, contrasting this with their behaviour when they were living separately from their partners. PMID:12495693

  20. Association of biological, psychological and lifestyle risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Teresa; Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; González, Marcela L; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association of several risk factors for eating disturbances in adolescents. Participants were 448 girls and boys aged 12-15 years. Being female, higher body mass index, internalisation of standard of appearance, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, number of lifetime addictive behaviours and lower self-esteem were associated with higher eating disturbance scores, whereas frequency of sedentary behaviours and physical activity were not (R(2) ⩾ 41%). Findings suggest the need to guide prevention efforts towards the broad spectrum of individual potentially modifiable factors. A non-specific comprehensive perspective may be adequate to prevent problems related to weight, body image and drug use. PMID:26032800