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The brain bases of specific human behaviours in health and disease are not well established. In this voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study we demonstrate neuroanatomical signatures of different abnormalities of eatingbehaviour (pathological sweet tooth and increased food consumption, or hyperphagia) in individuals with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Sixteen male patients with FTLD were assessed using the Manchester and Oxford Universities
Jennifer L. Whitwell; Elizabeth L. Sampson; Clement T. Loy; Jane E. Warren; Martin N. Rossor; Nick C. Fox; Jason D. Warren
Background: Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders\\u000a among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an\\u000a indication of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on\\u000a the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend
Background: This report outlines our strategy to examine the influence of workplace stress on eatingbehaviour, discussing the current literature which explores the relationship between stress and eatingbehaviour. This research aims to add to and develop the current understanding of the links between stress and eatingbehaviour. Specifically the aims are to examine the effect of workplace stress in
Orthorectic eatingbehaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eatingbehaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eatingbehaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eatingbehaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eatingbehaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108
Background: This report outlines our strategy to examine the influence of workplace stress on eatingbehaviour, discussing the current literature which explores the relationship between stress and eatingbehaviour. This research aims to add to and develop the current understanding of the links between stress and eatingbehaviour. Specifically the aims are to examine the effect of workplace stress in both day workers and shift workers and their subsequent eatingbehaviour. Methods: The effect of healthy working environment initiatives on stress and eatingbehaviour will also be examined by comparing a workplace with such an initiative to one with no such initiative. The role of personality on both eatingbehaviour and stress susceptibility will be examined. In order to achieve this, 450 individuals from 3 public sector workplaces will be recruited. Anthropometric measurements (waist-hip ratio, BMI, visceral fat percentage) will be assessed, as well as personality, eatingbehaviour profiles, food intake (7-day weighed intake food diary) and both individual daily stressors as well as workplace stress assessed using the demand/control model of job strain will be assessed. Conclusions: Implications for policy and future research are also discussed. PMID:22647308
A study was conducted to investigate associations between ethnicity and acculturation status and risk factors for eating disorders among young adult women. A community sample of 14,779 women aged 18–23 completed a comprehensive mail-out survey, which incorporated questions on country of birth, length of time spent in Australia, body weight, weight dissatisfaction, dieting, binge eating, and compensatory disordered eatingbehaviours.
The purpose of the study was to examine the abnormaleating attitudes in judoists and the possible relationships between eating attitudes, emotional intelligence, and body dissatisfaction. A total of 20 national judoists and 25 control participants were enrolled in the study. Subjects completed the following questionnaires: The Eating Attitudes Test, The Body Image Assessment Scale-Body Dimensions and the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. 30 % of the athletes (n=6) and 20% of the controls (n=5) presented disordered eating attitudes although these subjects were of normal weight. They also presented body dissatisfaction and had lower levels of emotional intelligence in comparison to the groups without disordered eating attitudes, particularly in factors such as intrapersonal (p<0.01), adaptability (p<0.05), stress tolerance (p<0.04) and general mood (p<0.04). The athletes reported using different weight loss methods such as self-induced vomiting (20%), fasting (40%), diuretics (15%), and laxatives (50%). Among disordered eating attitude groups (Controls+Judoists), Global EAT-26 was negatively correlated with stress tolerance (p<0.04: r=-0.64), emotional self-awareness (p<0.05: r=-0.70), general mood (p<0.01: r=-0.74), and positively correlated with body dissatisfaction (p<0.01: r=0.79). Results highlight the role of emotion in disordered eating attitudes, which is an important finding in terms of the prevention and management of disordered eating. PMID:21165809
Objective The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eatingbehaviour. Materials and Methods We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eatingbehaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Results Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P<0.05), although the correlations did not withstand further adjustments for age, gender and BMI (all P>0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eatingbehaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P?0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Conclusion Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eatingbehaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.
Objective:To test the hypothesis that quantitative variation in eatingbehaviour traits shows a graded association with weight in children.Design:Cross-sectional design in a community setting.Subjects:Data were from 406 families participating in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in CHildren Study (PEACHES) or the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Children were aged 7–9 years (PEACHES) and 9–12 years (TEDS).Measurements:Weights and heights were measured
L Webber; C Hill; J Saxton; C H M Van Jaarsveld; J Wardle
This study examined the utility of a transdiagnostic measure of safety behaviours [Brief Safety Behaviours Scale (BSBS)] in eating disorders. Prior to treatment, a group of 102 women with eating disorders completed the BSBS and well-validated measures of eating pathology, anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty. The BSBS had three factors, suggesting that avoidant, checking and social safety behaviours are distinct constructs in the eating disorders. This three-scale scoring system showed greater clinical precision in correlations with eating pathology than the original two-scale version. The pattern of safety behaviours in the eating disorders is more specific than had previously been shown in other clinical samples. While it is important to consider eating-related safety behaviours in the eating disorders (e.g. restriction, body checking), it is also necessary to consider the role of generic safety behaviours when assessing, formulating and treating eating disorders. PMID:23080085
The thrifty genotype and phenotype hypotheses were developed to explain the rapid increase in diabetes and obesity in developed countries around the world. Most subsequent "thrifty" research has focused on the early developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome and cardio-metabolic disease. The goal of this manuscript is to review an emerging line of research that uses a similar thrifty framework to understand the early developmental origins of eating-related phenotypes that have primary relevance to many psychiatric disorders. Given the important role of environmental adversity in various psychiatric disorders that involve overeating, and their early age of onset, it is likely that several thrifty mechanisms are relevant in this regard. Understanding the early origins of increased eatingbehaviour based on a thrifty model might point the way to highly targeted preventative interventions during critical periods of development, and provide a new way of addressing these common and difficult to treat disorders. PMID:24057159
This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet
Dissociative experiences and abnormaleating were examined in 92 non-eating-disordered women and 61 age- matched bulimic women. In the nonclinical sample of women, dissociative experiences were associated with abnor- mal eating attitudes and behavior, even after controlling for other forms of psychopathology; furthermore, dissociation mediated the relationships between abnormaleating and sexual abuse, abnormaleating and emotional distress, and abnormal
One hundred and twenty one participants reported sexual orientation, body mass index, body shape concerns, eating motives and eating styles. Measures of body dissatisfaction were greater in heterosexual women and homosexual men (ps <.05), while heterosexual women had smaller (ps <.001) ideal body shapes. Eating weight control motive was lower in heterosexual men compared to women (ps <.05). Restrained eating
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormaleating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormaleating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by
Larissa Da Cunha Feio Costa; Francisco De Assis Guedes De Vasconcelos; Karen Glazer Peres
Introduction: Eating disorders are common In developed countries. Its rising prevalence Is attributed to Western values that idealise slimness. There has been few local studies. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence and mean scores of abnormaleating attitudes among female undergraduates and the association between abnormaleating attitudes and various psychosocial factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among
Ballet dancers (n = 60) in full-time ballet training and school students (n = 216) completed questionnaires relating to body weight and eatingbehaviour. Dancers were at lower body weight and had less body fat. Dancers considered they were more preoccupied with thoughts of eating and body weight, felt they had greater difficulty controlling their body weight, used and abused
Background The role that healthy eating plays in good health is well documented. Government policy in Scotland recommends reducing salt, refined sugar and saturated fat in the diet and increasing the consumption of fruit and vege- tables, carbohydrates, fibre and oily fish. Methods Using data from the 1998 Scottish Health Survey a composite measure of healthy eatingbehaviour was derived
The Child EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; [Wardle, J., Guthrie, C.A., Sanderson, S., & Rapoport, L. (2001). Development of the children's eatingbehaviour questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 963–970]) is a parent-report questionnaire designed to assess eating styles related to obesity risk. It has been shown to have a robust factor structure and good internal reliability, but has
Objective:To discover whether eatingbehaviour traits show continuity and stability over childhood.Subjects\\/Methods:Mothers of 428 twin children from the Twins Early Development Study participated in a study of eating and weight in 1999 when the children were 4 years old. Families were contacted again in 2006 when the children were aged 10 years, with complete data on 322 children; a response
J Ashcroft; C Semmler; S Carnell; C H M van Jaarsveld; J Wardle
Sex hormones play essential roles in the regulation of appetite, eatingbehaviour and energy metabolism and have been implicated in several major clinical disorders in women. Estrogen inhibits food intake, whereas progesterone and testosterone may stimulate appetite. This review describes recent findings concerning interactions between sex hormones and neuroendocrinological mechanisms in the control of appetite and eating in women. Furthermore, we are gaining insights into the roles played by sex hormones in the development of eating disorders and obesity. For instance, androgens may promote bulimia by stimulating appetite and reducing impulse control, a proposal supported by the observation that antiandrogenic treatment attenuates bulimic behaviour. Androgens are also involved in the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity in women. On the other hand, hormone replacement therapy with estrogen counteracts the weight gain and accumulation of abdominal fat associated with the menopausal transition. In conclusion, sex hormones and/or agents that exhibit similar activities may provide novel strategies for the treatment of eating disorders and android obesity, two of the most serious health problems for women today. PMID:22281161
Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eatingbehaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eatingbehaviours is\\u000a most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours.\\u000a However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eatingbehaviours. The aim\\u000a of this study was to examine mediators of
We have recently described an association between abnormalbehaviour and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) deficiency in several males from a single large Dutch kindred. Affected males differed from unaffected males by borderline mental retardation and increased impulsive behaviour (aggressive behaviour, abnormal sexual behaviour and arson). Nevertheless, a specific psychiatric diagnosis was not made in four affected males who had psychiatric examination. Since MAOA deficiency raises 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels, it provides an interesting exception to the low 5-HT paradigm of impulsive aggression. Even if the possible relationship between MAOA deficiency and abnormalbehaviour is confirmed in other kindreds, the data do not support the hypothesis that MAOA constitutes an "aggression gene'. In fact, because genes are essentially simple and behaviour is by definition complex, a direct causal relationship between a single gene and a specific behaviour is highly unlikely. In the case of MAOA deficiency, some of the complexities are illustrated by the variability in the behavioural phenotype, as well as by the highly complex effects of MAOA deficiency on neurotransmitter function. Thus, the concept of a gene that directly encodes behaviour is unrealistic. PMID:8862875
|Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a devastating problem observed in individuals with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including specific genetic syndromes as well as idiopathic intellectual and developmental disability. Although an increased prevalence of SIB has been documented in specific genetic mutations, little is known…
BackgroundThis review synthesises evidence regarding associations between young people's social networks and their eatingbehaviours\\/bodyweight, and also explores how these vary according to the setting and sample characteristics.MethodsA systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies examining the association between measures of young people's social networks based on sociometric data and eatingbehaviours (including calorific intake) and\\/or bodyweight.ResultsThere is consistent
Summary Objectives: To determine the prevalence rates of abnormaleating attitudes and associated risk factors among female Japanese college\\u000a students.\\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods: The study population was 7812 female college students in Tokyo. They were asked to fill out the Japanese version of EAT-26\\u000a and lifestyle questionnaires.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: 5.1% of the subjects had a total EAT-26 score above the cutoff point
M. Makino; M. Hashizume; M. Yasushi; K. Tsuboi; L. Dennerstein
Disordered eating in athletes is an issue of concern given its prevalence and links with negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine female athletes’ perceived vulnerabilities to the development of disordered eating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 female, competitive athletes from a variety of sports who self-reported disordered eatingbehaviours. The results confirm previous research
Disordered eating in athletes is an issue of concern given its prevalence and links with negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine female athletes’ perceived vulnerabilities to the development of disordered eating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 female, competitive athletes from a variety of sports who self-reported disordered eatingbehaviours. The results confirm previous research
Background The Children's EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eatingbehaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eatingbehaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eatingbehaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eatingbehaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eatingbehaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eatingbehaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Conclusions Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometric instrument for assessing children's eatingbehaviours in Swedish children aged 1-6 years. Measuring obesity related eatingbehaviours in longitudinal and interventional studies would offer opportunities for studying causal effects of eatingbehaviours in the development of obesity in children.
Introduction: Variables that predict the eatingbehaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eatingbehaviour…
|Introduction: Variables that predict the eatingbehaviour of teenagers are a high-priority objective of nutritional educational programmes. This research work is designed to verify whether the "Food Consumption, Intentions and Preferences Assessment Test" (FCIPAT) is useful when investigating the factors influencing adolescent eatingbehaviour…
A study of deviant eatingbehaviour among mentally handicapped adults in community placements is reported. Those individuals with a psychiatric disorder showed more deviant eatingbehaviour. Depressed subjects, in particular, showed an excess of the amount eaten and time spent searching for food, as well as the tendency to eat all sweet food presented to them. Non-food pica was uncommon, even among the autistic subjects. PMID:2224381
Studies of abnormaleating behaviors in active duty military personal have found rates similar to or higher than the general population. We have reviewed these studies and extended the research to examine abnormaleating behaviors in a heterogeneous population at a major military medical center. We found high rates of body dissatisfaction, abnormaleating behaviors, and worry about passing the semiannual personal fitness assessment in both men and women. Abnormaleating behaviors were associated with worrying about the personal fitness assessment, and these measures were associated with body mass index and gender. Our data extend previous research indicating that cyclic or external pressure to maintain body weight within specified standards can produce unsafe eating and dieting behaviors. We recommend changes to the current system to incorporate treatment programs aimed at recognizing and treating eating disorders with a goal of producing more fit and healthy service members. PMID:16173205
Carlton, Janis R; Manos, Gail H; Van Slyke, John A
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eatingbehaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eatingbehaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eatingbehaviour. Males with disordered eatingbehaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479
Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V
Vitamin B12 deficiency is an uncommon disorder in a prosperous western country. In two children a nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency was observed. The first was a 2-year-old girl with neurodevelopmental regression and macrocytic anaemia, a result of a combination of a maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and inadequate feeding after birth. The second patient was a 14-year-old adipose girl with severe polyneuropathy and mild macrocytic anaemia as a result of a nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. In her case the deficiency resulted from a bizarre feeding pattern. She turned out to be the victim of child abuse. It is concluded that even in a prosperous western country like the Netherlands vitamin B12 deficiency in children can develop as a result of an inadequate feeding pattern. It can lead not only to macrocytic anaemia but also to severe neurological abnormalities. PMID:8133949
Prakken, A B; Veenhuizen, L; Bruin, M C; Waelkens, J J; van Dijken, P J
Although the prevalence of fully expressed Eating Disorders is rare in young children, childhood eating disturbances are fairly common. Parents can play a facilitating role for the development of overweight and eating problems among their children. The aim of this study is to detect the possible relationships between children’s eating attitudes and behaviour and the parents’ beliefs about eating habits and body shape of their offspring. This survey was conducted in the area of Arezzo (Italy), on 900 children, aged 7-12, and on their parents/substitute caregivers. The Kids’ Eating Disorder Survey questionnaire, and the CIBUS questionnaire were administered. A fully expressed Eating Disorder was diagnosed in two kids only. KEDS total score and weight/dissatisfaction subscale score positively correlated with parents’ answers to the following CIBUS’ items (How do you consider the body shape of your son/daughter? How much does your son/daughter eats? Have you ever thought of putting your son/daughter on a diet?). Positive correlations between the children BMI, desired BMI and the aforementioned CIBUS’ items were found. The prevalence of formal Eating Disorders in children aged 7-12 is low. Children appear to be more preoccupied with their weight than with their body shape. Parents’ beliefs about the offspring’s body shape and eating habits have a relevant impact on children’s eating attitudes and behaviour.
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) mutations are the most common known cause of monogenic obesity and an important contributor to polygenic obesity. MC4R mutations with partial or total loss of function, as well as the variant rs17782313 mapped near MC4R, are positively associated with obesity. MC4R is involved in the leptin-melanocortin signalling system, located in hypothalamic nuclei, that controls food intake via both anorexigenic or orexigenic signals. Impairment in this receptor might affect eatingbehaviours. Thus, in the case of MC4R mutation carriers, obesity could be related, at least partly, to inadequate control over eatingbehaviours. Many published studies address eatingbehaviours in MC4R mutation carriers. Most studies focus on binge eating disorder, whereas others examine various aspects of intake and motivation. Up to now, no evaluation of this literature has been performed. In this review, we examine the available literature on eatingbehaviours in carriers of MC4R mutations and variant rs17782313 near MC4R gene. We address binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, mealtime hyperphagia, snacking, psychological factors, satiety responsiveness and intake of energy and macro/micronutrient. In a small number of studies, MC4R mutations seem to impair eatingbehaviours or motivation, but no clear causal effects can be found in the balance of the evidence presented. Improvements in methodologies will be necessary to clarify the behavioural effects of MC4R mutations. PMID:23147118
Valette, M; Bellisle, F; Carette, C; Poitou, C; Dubern, B; Paradis, G; Hercberg, S; Muzard, L; Clément, K; Czernichow, S
The relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established and is of theoretical interest. This study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that manipulating personal standards, a central feature of perfectionism, would influence eating attitudes and behaviour. Forty-one healthy women were randomly assigned either to a high personal standards condition (n=18) or to a low personal standards condition for 24 h (n=23). Measures of personal standards, perfectionism, and eating attitudes and behaviour were taken before and after the experimental manipulation. The manipulation was successful. After the manipulation, participants in the high personal standards condition ate fewer high calorie foods, made more attempts to restrict the overall amount of food eaten, and had significantly more regret after eating than those in the low personal standards condition. Other variables remained unchanged. It is concluded that experimental analyses can be of value in elucidating causal connections between perfectionism and eating attitudes and behaviour.
Shafran, Roz; Lee, Michelle; Payne, Elizabeth; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Background Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are common in older teens and young women in Western countries. Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of these disorders is rising and that the age of onset has fallen. In the present study, disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours were evaluated in a large school-based population in Ontario in order to determine their prevalence and demographic distribution. Methods Females, aged 12–18 years, from schools in Toronto, Hamilton and Ottawa were invited to complete questionnaires, including 3 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, Bulimia), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Diagnostic Survey for Eating Disorders (DSED). Results Questionnaires were completed by 1739 (70%) of the 2483 adolescent females who were approached. The mean age of subjects in the sample was 14.6 (standard deviation 1.9) years. Thirteen percent of those aged 12–14 years and 16% of those aged 15–18 years had scores above the recommended cut-off (? 20) for disordered eating on the EAT-26. Current dieting to lose weight was reported by 23% of participants. Binge eating with associated loss of control was reported by 15% of participants, self-induced vomiting by 8.2% and the use of diet pills by 2.4%. Laxative and diuretic misuse were uncommon. Dieting was associated with an increased risk of binge-eating and purging behaviours. Older age and body mass index in the highest quartile were independently related to symptoms of eating disorders. Interpretation Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours were present in over 27% of girls aged 12–18 years and were seen to increase gradually throughout adolescence. Prevention programs to diminish the progression and impact of these disorders should be implemented and assessed.
Jones, Jennifer M.; Bennett, Susan; Olmsted, Marion P.; Lawson, Margaret L.; Rodin, Gary
Objective:To examine levels of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions of young women with obesity in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia and assess the impact upon psychological status.Design:General population cross-sectional survey.Subjects:A total of 4891 young women from the community aged 18–42 years, of which 630 were in the obese weight range.Measurements:Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder psychopathology (eating disorder examination questionnaire),
Objective:The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between eatingbehaviours (picky eating, irregular eating and overeating), and dietary adequacy in accordance with nutrition recommendations and body weight during the preschool years.Design and setting:Our analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998–2002), a population-based birth cohort.Subjects:The study followed a representative sample
This article is based on a qualitative study exploring parents' attitudes and perceptions of their role in their children's eating habits in schools in Angus, Scotland. Parents believed they had different degrees of influence on their children's eating habits. This article will examine these different perceptions of parental responsibility for children's eating habits to explore how parents viewed their influence
This paper investigates the possibility of intergenerational transmission of unhealthy eating habits from parents to adult children. It uses the 2003 Scottish Health Survey and estimates the association between the present healthy eatingbehaviour of adult children and the past parental death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). It uses parental CVD death as an adverse health signal which may cause a
This paper is concerned with the psychopathological processes that account for the persistence of severe eating disorders. Two separate but interrelated lines of argument are developed. One is that the leading evidence-based theory of the maintenance of eating disorders, the cognitive behavioural theory of bulimia nervosa, should be extended in its focus to embrace four additional maintaining mechanisms. Specifically, we
AimMaladaptive cognitions about food, weight and shape bias attention, memory and judgment and may be linked to disordered eatingbehaviour. This paper reviews information processing of food stimuli (words, pictures) in people with eating disorders (ED).
Samantha Brooks; Alexis Prince; Daniel Stahl; Iain C. Campbell; Janet Treasure
BACKGROUND: Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eatingbehaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating), child eatingbehaviour (food responsiveness, food
The objective of the study was to estimate abnormaleating attitudes influenced by associated factors among female students of the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Abnormaleating attitudes were investigated using the eating attitudes test (EAT-26), according to the presence (EAT+) and absence (EAT-) of symptoms in a sample of 220 students. The body-image was assessed by the body-shape questionnaire (BSQ-34). Body mass index, body-fat percentage, waist-circumference, food intake (24-hour food recall), and socioeconomic characteristics (monthly household income, monthly per-capita income, and parental schooling) were also investigated. Statistical associations were tested by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of EAT+ and dissatisfaction with the body-image were 8.3% [confidence interval (CI) 95% 4.6–12.0] and 20.0% (CI 95% 14.7–25.3) respectively. Dissatisfaction with the body-image maintained its independent association with abnormaleating attitudes, indicating symptoms of anorexia nervosa. The results of this work highlight the importance of the planning of nutrition-education programmes in universities, aiming at assisting in the choices of food that comprise a healthful diet in a period of life of so many changes and decisions.
Are there differences in eatingbehaviour between obese and non-obese children? Using the parent version of the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-parent version), the results of the present study suggest an affirmative answer to this question. The scores for obese children were significantly higher on the scales for emotional, external and restrained eatingbehaviour. Relationships were found between emotional eating
Background Television viewing has been associated with poor eatingbehaviours in adolescents. Changing unhealthy eatingbehaviours is most likely to be achieved by identifying and targeting factors shown to mediate the association between these behaviours. However, little is known about the mediators of the associations between television viewing and eatingbehaviours. The aim of this study was to examine mediators of the longitudinal associations between television viewing (TV) and eatingbehaviours among Australian adolescents. Method Eatingbehaviours were assessed using a web-based survey completed by a community-based sample of 1729 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline (2004-2005) and two years later. TV viewing and the potential mediators (snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing) were assessed via the web-based survey at baseline. Results Adolescents who watched more than two hours of TV/day had higher intakes of energy-dense snacks and beverages, and lower intakes of fruit two years later. Furthermore, the associations between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, energy-dense drinks and fruit were mediated by snacking while watching TV. Perceived value of TV viewing mediated the association between TV viewing and consumption of energy-dense snacks, beverages and fruit. Conclusion Snacking while watching TV and perceived value of TV viewing mediated the longitudinal association between TV viewing and eatingbehaviours among adolescents. The efficacy of methods to reduce TV viewing, change snacking habits while watching TV, and address the values that adolescents place on TV viewing should be examined in an effort to promote healthy eating among adolescents.
To assess children's food-related behaviours and their relationships with eating while watching television (TV), data were collected from 534 ten-year-old French-Canadian children. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Almost 18% of girls and over 25% of boys reported eating in front of the TV every day. Although, overall, the boys' eating pattern was less healthy than the girls', all of the children's food choices deteriorated with increased frequency of eating in front of the TV. Compared with girls, boys gave more importance to coloured and attractive foods, and to selecting foods similar to those eaten by others. Over 50% of children reported always receiving negative weight-related comments from family members. For boys, significant correlations were found between the frequency of eating in front of the TV, the importance given to a food's appearance, and their requests to parents for advertised foods. Significance was at the p<0.05 level for all findings. These results suggest that gender should be considered in attempts to understand children's food motivations and behaviours. The findings also indicate the need to document children's eating environments, and to inform children and their families about eatingbehaviours that may be associated with a given environment. PMID:15780151
|Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eatingbehaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…
Television viewing has been linked to the increasing problem of obesity in young children, as well as to the development of inappropriate eatingbehaviours, yet the mechanism behind this link remains unclear. This study investigated the messages about food and eating that appear in a sample of preschool children's television shows and found that…
Abstract Purpose: Obesity is a major risk factor for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, a condition known causing lack of sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness. Weight loss interventions are recommended, however knowledge on what facilitate and impede eatingbehaviour change is lacking for this particular population. The aim of this study was to identify personal conceptions of prerequisites for eatingbehaviour change. Method: A qualitative study on 15 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS; apnoea-hypopnoea index >15) and obesity (Mean body mass index 38.2). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis with researcher triangulation for trustworthiness. Results: Data were organised according to barriers and facilitators for changing eatingbehaviour. Identified barriers were desire and reward, cravings and emotional control, low self-confidence, insufficient support, taxing behaviours, cost, lack of knowledge about healthy eating strategies, perceived helplessness and low susceptibility. Identified facilitators were positive expectations, fear of negative consequences, experience of success, support and follow-up, accessibility, applied skills for healthy eating, personal involvement and challenged self-image. Conclusion: This study adds knowledge on important barriers and facilitators of eatingbehaviour change according to individuals with obesity and OSAS. Information used to inform a tailored behavioural medicine intervention targeting eatingbehaviours. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) benefit from weight loss and eatingbehaviour changes are recommended. Patients' views on prerequisites for eatingbehaviour change are important to plan, conduct and tailor behaviour change interventions. These aspects have hitherto not been elaborated in patients with OSAS. Considerations on patient's self-image and perceived susceptibility along with providing strategies for controlling the desire and rewarding feeling associated with eating are emphasised. PMID:23651128
ObjectiveThe cognitive behavioural model of bulimia nervosa [Fairburn, C.G., Cooper, Z., & Cooper, P.J. (1986). The clinical features and maintenance of bulimia nervosa. In K.D. Brownell, and J.P. Foreyt (Eds.), Handbook of eating disorders: physiology, psychology and treatment of obesity, anorexia and bulimia (pp. 389–404). New York: Basic Books.] provides the theoretical framework for cognitive behaviour therapy of Bulimia Nervosa.
|Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eatingbehaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine…
Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.
This study examined the trends in snacking behaviou rs and eating food-prepared-outside- the-home (FPOH) by Chinese children and adolescents using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The sample consisted of 3223 subjects aged 6-18 in 1991 and 2836 in 1997. Three days of 24hr recall dietary data and per capita income (deflated to 1989) was used. The percentage
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling
We have previously shown that a missense mutation (p.P73T) located in the neuromedin-? gene, a satiety peptide, was associated with higher levels of disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and body weight gain over time. In this study we compare caloric compensation, eatingbehaviour traits, food intake and adiposity between premenopausal women with (T73T) and without (P73P) mutation. Subjects (N=153) were screened to find homozygous women (T73T) that were matched for age, BMI and use of oral contraceptives with 7 women (P73P) not carrying the mutation. Eatingbehaviour traits were assessed with the Three-Factors Eating Questionnaire and habitual dietary intakes with a 3-day dietary record. A randomized single-blind cross-over design was used to test the effect of p.P73T on caloric compensation. We measured appetite sensations and ad libitum dietary intake following two different energy preloads. We found no difference in eatingbehaviour traits, adiposity, appetite sensations, ad libitum dietary intake and caloric compensation. However, T73T women had lower habitual energy and carbohydrate intakes than P73P. Differences in carbohydrate intakes disappeared when expressed in percentage of energy. These results suggest that the neuromedin-? p.P73T mutation modulates energy intake without effects on macronutrient. A lack of power resulting from our difficulty to recruit enough T73T women precludes any definitive conclusion regarding the impact of this mutation on caloric compensation. PMID:21527296
The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113
Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz
This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eatingbehaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study.International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, Early Online, 1–5.] McPhie et al. (2011)’s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and mother–child interactions as predictors of child-eatingbehaviours, food habits and weight. A sample of 117 mothers of
Skye McPhie; Helen Skouteris; Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; Marita McCabe; Lina A. Ricciardelli; Jeannette Milgrom; Louise A. Baur; Daniela DellAquila
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between binge eating, behavioural problems and family-meal patterns in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a public secondary school completed the Bulimic Investigatory test, Edinburgh (BITE) [Henderson, M., & Freeman, C. P. (1987). A self-rating scale for bulimia. The “BITE”. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18–24.
Behavioural and psychological factors related to eating have been associated with obesity, although their relationship to anthropometric measures, more specifically fat mass, has not been fully examined. This study examined the relationship between fat mass (n=98; 75M, 23 F) and behavioural measures of eating and obesity related psychological traits (n=337; 226M, 111 F) in overweight and obese individuals (Mean BMI 30.5±4.0; BMI range 25-46kg/m(2)). Two sets of principal component analyses (PCA) were performed: one on validated questionnaires of eatingbehaviour and psychological traits and a second on fat mass and body weight related anthropometric measures (BMI, weight) and the aforementioned questionnaire measures. From the initial PCA (n=337), the primary principal component, P1 (R(2) value of 0.33), represented a latent variable associated with overeating or binge eatingbehaviour. In a second PCA (questionnaire measures augmented by anthropometric variables, n=98), a single component was identified, P1(+) (R(2) of 0.28), similar to that identified as P1 in the previous analysis and this component was highly correlated with fat mass (?=0.68). These findings suggest that levels of body fat and eatingbehaviour (namely, binging or overeating) are strongly related and, at least in a subgroup of individuals, obesity may be driven by behavioural factors associated with eating in combination with pre-existing environmental and genetic factors. PMID:22898608
O'Neill, Barry V; Bullmore, Edward T; Miller, Sam; McHugh, Simon; Simons, David; Dodds, Chris M; Koch, Annelize; Napolitano, Antonella; Nathan, Pradeep J
\\u000a While people have many ideas about how a smart home should react to particular behaviours from their inhabitant, there seems\\u000a to have been relatively little attempt to organise this systematically. In this paper, we attempt to rectify this in consideration\\u000a of context awareness and novelty detection for a smart home that monitors its inhabitant for illness and unexpected behaviour.\\u000a We
An C. Tran; Stephen Marsland; Jens Dietrich; Hans W. Guesgen; Paul Lyons
|Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing…
Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J. S.; Manoach, Dara S.
The aim of the study was to identify early behaviouralabnormalities in children later diagnosed with autistic disorder. Accurate identification of such deficits has implications for early diagnosis, intervention and prognosis. The parents of 153 children with autistic disorder completed a questionnaire asking them to describe early childhood behaviours of concern and to recall the age of onset. Core deficit-linked
Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eatingbehaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eatingbehaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eatingbehaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of changes across time; students with similar eatingbehaviours tend to form groups, represented by distinct clusters. Transition of healthy and unhealthy eatingbehaviour is non-linear and a sharp change is observed around a critical point where positive and negative influences are equal. Conclusions Conceptualizing the social environment of individuals is a crucial step to increasing our understanding of obesogenic environments of high-school students, and moreover, the general population. Incorporating both contextual, and individual determinants found in real datasets, in our model will greatly enhance calibration of future models. Complex mathematical modelling has a potential to contribute to the way public health data is collected and analyzed.
Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants. PMID:17181904
In an attempt to detect electroencephalographic (EEG) changes associated with characteristic clinical signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, power spectra were derived from scalp EEGs of schizophrenic patients recorded by telemetry during free behaviour on their psychiatric wards. Power spectra from EEG epochs coincident with psychomotor blocking, stereotyped automatism or hallucinations were compared with spectra derived during periods of relatively normal
In an attempt to detect electroencephalographic (EEG) changes associated with characteristic clinical signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, power spectra were derived from scalp EEGs of schizophrenic patients recorded by telemetry during free behaviour on their psychiatric wards. Power spectra from EEG epochs coincident with psychomotor blocking, stereotyped automatism or hallucinations were compared with spectra derived during periods of relatively normal behaviour, during performance of specific tasks and spectra from control subjects. Ramp spectra, characterised by a smooth decline in power from lowest to highest frequencies, previously found in conjunction with subcortical spike activity of epilepsy were not found in any control subject, but appeared in spectra from schizophrenic patients during catatonic episodes, hallucinatory periods and visual checking. Schizophrenic patients also had more slow activity and less alpha activity in their EEGs than normal control subjects. Images
The behaviour of horses competing in different disciplines was studied and the relationship between the time they spent out of the stable and the prevalence of abnormalbehaviour was examined. The owners of dressage, eventing and endurance horses were sent a questionnaire and a total of 1101 responses were received, giving data on 1750 horses. The behaviours studied were wood-chewing, weaving, crib-biting/wind-sucking and box-walking. The reported percentage prevalences of abnormalbehaviour for the dressage, eventing and endurance horses were 32.5, 30.8 and 19.5, respectively. The relationship between the time spent in the stable and the prevalence of abnormalbehaviour was examined by chi 2 tests which showed that there were significant linear trends for the eventing group (P < 0.001) and the dressage group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the time a horse spends out of the stable is related to the discipline for which it is being trained and in dressage and eventing horses the time spent in a stable is correlated with an increased risk of abnormalbehaviour. PMID:8525580
The aim of this study was to validate the Children's EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's ? estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562
Research evidence has been accumulating for the efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) for binge eating. However, support for its effectiveness and transportability beyond efficacy trials is lacking. The current study evaluated the feasibility of group-based DBT for binge eating within the context of an operating community clinic. Women ages 24-49 (M?=?39.60, SD?=?9.53) with either subthreshold and full-threshold binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa formed the group and comprised the sample (n?=?5 treatment completers). Positive outcomes included significant improvement in both binge eating and secondary outcomes with the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales of Bulimia, Ineffectiveness, Perfectionism and Interpersonal Distrust. Attrition was elevated compared with previous efficacy trials, suggesting the need for increased attention to how to improve retention within routine practice settings. Given our limited sample size, these findings are viewed as promising but preliminary. PMID:22367862
Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M
BACKGROUND: The Children's EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass
Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eatingbehaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eatingbehaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9?kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eatingbehaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7?kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1?kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eatingbehaviour traits.
Given the suggestion that many potential anti-obesity drugs may enhance within-meal satiation, few studies have directly measured the effects of any drug on the microstructure of human eatingbehaviour. The effects of 7 days dosing with sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg a day on appetite and energy balance were determined in 30 obese women (BMI 34.6 +/- 3.3 kg/m2, age 46.0 +/- 12.9 years) using a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) and indirect calorimetry, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. At day 7, sibutramine 10 mg and 15 mg reduced food intake by 16.6% and 22.3%, respectively (p < 0.001), compared with placebo. Sibutramine reduced eating rate compared with placebo rather than meal length (10 mg p < 0.05; 15 mg p < 0.001). In addition, sibutramine 10 mg significantly reduced hunger later in the meal (p < 0.05) and sibutramine 15 mg increased fullness early in the meal (p < 0.01), both of which are consistent with enhanced within-meal satiation. Sibutramine had little effect on resting metabolic rate, although 15 mg did significantly reduce respiratory quotient at several time points during the test day. These results provide novel evidence that decreased consumption of a test meal induced by sibutramine is primarily because of reduced eating rate, enhancing the deceleration in cumulative food intake within a meal associated with the development of satiety. Changes in within-meal appetite ratings appear particularly sensitive to drug-induced enhancement of satiation, and may provide key indices for assessing the therapeutic potential of novel anti-obesity drugs. PMID:18755818
Halford, J C G; Boyland, E J; Cooper, S J; Dovey, T M; Huda, M S B; Dourish, C T; Dawson, G R; Wilding, J P H
Both the increasing prevalence of obesity in a society obsessed with trying to be thin, and the self-reported inability to control eating in many obese patients, point to the possibility that overeating may be prevalent despite attempts to control it. The apparent lack of control has led some to describe overeating as an addiction. This paper briefly reviews the problem
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by inflexible and repetitive behaviour. Response monitoring involves evaluating the consequences of behaviour and making adjustments to optimize outcomes. Deficiencies in this function, and abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on which it relies, have been reported as contributing factors to autistic disorders. We investigated whether ACC structure and function during response monitoring were associated with repetitive behaviour in ASD. We compared ACC activation to correct and erroneous antisaccades using rapid presentation event-related functional MRI in 14 control and ten ASD participants. Because response monitoring is the product of coordinated activity in ACC networks, we also examined the microstructural integrity of the white matter (WM) underlying this brain region using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) in 12 control and 12 adult ASD participants. ACC activation and FA were examined in relation to Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ratings of restricted and repetitive behaviour. Relative to controls, ASD participants: (i) made more antisaccade errors and responded more quickly on correct trials; (ii) showed reduced discrimination between error and correct responses in rostral ACC (rACC), which was primarily due to (iii) abnormally increased activation on correct trials and (iv) showed reduced FA in WM underlying ACC. Finally, in ASD (v) increased activation on correct trials and reduced FA in rACC WM were related to higher ratings of repetitive behaviour. These findings demonstrate functional and structural abnormalities of the ACC in ASD that may contribute to repetitive behaviour. rACC activity following errors is thought to reflect affective appraisal of the error. Thus, the hyperactive rACC response to correct trials can be interpreted as a misleading affective signal that something is awry, which may trigger repetitive attempts at correction. Another possible consequence of reduced affective discrimination between error and correct responses is that it might interfere with the reinforcement of responses that optimize outcomes. Furthermore, dysconnection of the ACC, as suggested by reduced FA, to regions involved in behavioural control might impair on-line modulations of response speed to optimize performance (i.e. speed-accuracy trade-off) and increase error likelihood. These findings suggest that in ASD, structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC compromise response monitoring and thereby contribute to behaviour that is rigid and repetitive rather than flexible and responsive to contingencies. Illuminating the mechanisms and clinical significance of abnormal response monitoring in ASD represents a fruitful avenue for further research.
Thakkar, Katharine N.; Polli, Frida E.; Joseph, Robert M.; Tuch, David S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Barton, Jason J.S.
|This study extends McPhie et al. (2011)'s [Maternal correlates of preschool child eatingbehaviours and body mass index: A cross-sectional study. "International Journal of Pediatric Obesity", Early Online, 1-5.] McPhie et al. (2011)'s cross-sectional research, by prospectively evaluating maternal child-feeding practices, parenting style and…
|Adolescents of low socio-economic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume diets in line with current dietary recommendations. The reasons for these SEP variations remain poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying socio-economic variations in adolescents' eatingbehaviours using a theoretically derived…
The present study investigated the efficacy of self-help based on cognitive behaviour therapy in combination with Internet support in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. After confirming the diagnosis with an in- person interview, 73 patients were randomly allocated to treatment or a waiting list control group. Treated individuals showed marked improvement after 12 weeks of self-help
B. Ljotssona; K. Mitsellb; P. Carlbring; A. Ghaderie
Background There remains controversy about the contribution of food advertising targeted at children to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the UK. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the ability to recognize brand logos featured in promotional campaigns of the food industry and eatingbehaviours, food knowledge and preferences in children aged 9-11 attending six
|Background: Previous research has found links between being a victim of bullying and reporting more unhealthy eatingbehaviours and cognitions, particularly in girls. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. Aim: The present study compared the relationships between bullying, emotional adjustment,…
OBJECTIVE: To measure the effects of cognitive–behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese patients, in relation to binge eating disorder.DESIGN: Longitudinal, clinical intervention study consisting of structured sessions of cognitive–behavioural therapy, preceded by sessions chaired by a psychologist in subjects with binge eating.SUBJECTS: Two groups of obese patients (92 treated by cognitive–behavioural therapy (77 females); 76 untreated
G Marchesini; S Natale; S Chierici; R Manini; L Besteghi; S Di Domizio; A Sartini; F Pasqui; L Baraldi; G Forlani; N Melchionda
The aim of the present longitudinal community study was to test whether psychological distress at 13 years of age predicted reported substance use problems in boys and abnormaleating behavior in girls 2 years later. The sample consisted of 500 male and 576 female students. The use of substances was evaluated using a semi-structured interview,…
Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along with six days of self-reported dietary intake and anthropometrics. Between March 2007 and May 2009, a total of 32 Canadian athletes with a SCI (n=24 men, n=8 women) completed the study. The TFEQ scales showed a cognitive dietary restraint score of 10.8±4.7, disinhibition score of 2.8±1.8 and hunger score of 3.1±2.2. When the group was split into high and low restraint groups using a median of 11.5, no differences were detected in any of the absolute parameters of reported dietary intake although the higher restraint group had protein intakes account for a greater proportion of total energy. Those with higher restraint scores also had a relatively higher disinhibition score. While the cognitive dietary restraint scores for the women were similar to other able-bodied populations, the scores for men were higher than population norms from other studies. The scores for disinhibition and hunger were lower than reported ranges from able-bodied subjects. These athletes may be actively monitoring or limiting dietary intake to avoid the high prevalence of obesity associated with a SCI or perhaps to maintain an ideal body composition for their sport performance. PMID:22177393
The purpose of the current study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the EatingBehaviours and Body Image Test for Preadolescent Girls (EBBIT), as well as its factor structure and internal consistency. A further objective was to determinate the convergent validity between measures of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Body Dissatisfaction (BD) subscale, taking into account a wider questionnaire, known as the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). Once the original scale was translated, 525 girls (age range 7-12 years) were assessed by the EBBIT, and the BD subscale. Students were weighed and measured, using calibrated electronic instruments to calculate BMI scores. Factor analysis suggested two primary factors which represent body image dissatisfaction/ restrictive eating (BIDRE) and binge eatingbehaviours (BEB). The internal consistency of the EBBIT was 0.904. A multiple regression analysis was performed using BMI, age and BD subscale data (independent variables). Results suggest that scores on the EBBIT factors are related to body size satisfaction. Higher BMI and higher BD scores were associated with higher scores on the BIDRE, and BD scores were associated with higher scores on the BEB factor. PMID:19367133
Jáuregui, I; Perez-Lancho, C; Gomez-Capitan, M J; Duran, E; Garrido, O
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a 'single session' group, early intervention, multidisciplinary, education programme (entitled the Fun not Fuss with Food group programme) designed to improve children's problem eating and mealtime behaviours.Design A quasi-experimental time-series design incorporating data collection, twice before and twice following the intervention.Setting A health district within the southeast region of Queensland, Australia.Method Data were collected
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess long-term changes in food consumption and eatingbehaviour during and 2 y after dietary counselling in weight-reduced obese men.DESIGN: Observational study from a randomised controlled trial.SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a research institute.SUBJECTS: A total of 36 subjects with complete data on food intake during the study. Subjects were obese (mean body mass index (BMI)
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are primarily psychiatric disorders characterized by severe disturbances of eatingbehaviour.\\u000a Anorexia nervosa has been well documented in pre-pubertal children. Eating disorders are most prevalent in the Western cultures\\u000a where food is in abundance and for females attractiveness is equated with thinness. Eating disorders are rare in countries\\u000a like India. As Western socioculturel ideals become
This study examined the efficacy of guided self-help based on dialectical behaviour therapy (DBTgsh) for binge eating disorder (BED). Individuals (88.3% female; mean 42.8 years) were randomized to DBTgsh (n = 30) or wait-list (WL; n = 30). DBTgsh participants received an orientation, DBT manual, and six 20-min support calls over 13 weeks. All participants were assessed pre- and post-treatment using interview and self-report; also, DBTgsh participants were re-assessed six months post-treatment. At treatment end, DBTgsh participants reported significantly fewer past-month binge eating episodes than WL participants (6.0 versus 14.4) and significantly greater rates of abstinence from binge eating (40.0% versus 3.3%). At six-month follow-up, DBTgsh participants reported significantly improved quality of life and reduced ED psychopathology compared to baseline scores. In addition, most improvements in the DBTgsh group were maintained, although binge eating abstinence rates decreased to 30%. These preliminary positive findings indicate that DBTgsh may offer an effective, low-intensity treatment option for BED. PMID:24029304
Masson, Philip C; von Ranson, Kristin M; Wallace, Laurel M; Safer, Debra L
Background Most results on the prevalence rates of eating disorders and related adverse dieting attitudes have been published in North America and Western Europe and there have been only a few pioneering surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe in this domain. The authors investigated the prevalence rates for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related adverse dieting attitudes and eating
Objective To identify disordered eatingbehaviour and attitudes in a large representative population in order to determine the relationship\\u000a with body weight status, and to assess associated psychopathology and health-related quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 11–17 year-old adolescents (n = 1,895) were randomly selected from the national representative sample of 17,641 families participating in the German Health\\u000a Interview and Examination Survey for Children
Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Nora Wille; Heike Hölling; Timo D. Vloet; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer
Objectives: African American women suffer disproportionately from many chronic diseases, and it is well acknowledged that eating patterns and habits are important contributory factors. Our goal was to describe and understand how personal and contextual factors among African American women contribute to food choices that increase the risk for chronic disease. Design: Focus groups were conducted with 40 African American
Margaret K. Hargreaves; David G. Schlundt; Maciej S. Buchowski
The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…
Women in prison have high levels of impulsive damaging behaviours, including disordered eating. In addition, they display pathological levels of the emotional precursors that have been associated with eating disorders, particularly anger. The present study examines levels of disordered eatingbehaviours in female prisoners, and whether those behaviours are associated with anger. The sample consisted of 91 sentenced women at
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss\\/weight gain behaviour, internalization
Carmen Thompson; Shelly Russell-Mayhew; Reana Saraceni
Background: The treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) is still the object of debate. In the present study, the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs (fluoxetine – FLX – 60 mg\\/day, fluvoxamine – FLV –300 mg\\/day), cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and combined treatments (CBT + FLX, CBT + FLV) has been evaluated in a randomized, clinical trial. Results at the end of the
Valdo Ricca; Edoardo Mannucci; Barbara Mezzani; Sandra Moretti; Milena Di Bernardo; Marco Bertelli; Carlo M. Rotella; Carlo Faravelli
Prader–Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth and sex-hormone deficiencies and a propensity to overeat that leads to severe obesity. The PWS phenotype changes from an early disinterest in food to an increasing pre-occupation with eating and a failure of the normal satiety response to food intake. The prevention of
This study is part of the larger Christina Barz Study, and it compared consecutively admitted patients with purging disorder (PurD; N?=?225) with consecutively admitted patients with anorexia nervosa binge eating/purging subtype (AN-bp; N?=?503) and bulimia nervosa purging subtype (BN-p; N?=?756). Participants answered self-rating questionnaires on admission, at the end of inpatient treatment, and in a 5-year follow-up. Patients with PurD reported lower severity of general psychopathology than patients with AN-bp and lower severity of eating disorder symptoms than patients with AN-bp and BN-p on admission. Eating disorder symptoms of patients with PurD improved less during the course than of the comparison groups. Diagnostic perseverance was stronger in the PurD group than for patients with AN-bp; mortality was higher than for patients with BN-p. Predictors for better outcome differed for the groups. Our results provide new data about the long-term course of patients with PurD and indicate clinical relevance of the disorder. PMID:23629831
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormaleating behaviors that often result in dramatic physical consequences for the patients. The etiology of eating disorders (EDs) is currently unknown; however, a strong genetic contribution is likely involved. In the last 10 years, several polymorphic variants of genes coding substances involved in the
Background Research suggests that the growing prevalence of obesity may be related to the influence of the health behaviours of peers. We look at clustering of exercise and eatingbehaviours amongst a previously unstudied group, young adults in Sweden. Previous research has mainly been conducted in the United States and Britain, countries that have relatively high rates of obesity. Methods Using ego-alter dyads from the egocentric network data as the unit of analysis, we conduct logistic regressions to investigate the association between ego and alter exercise and eatingbehaviours. Results Respondents have a significantly greater probability of engaging in regular exercise and eating healthily if a nominated peer also does so. Furthermore, the degree to which this behavior is shared is modulated by the strength of the relationship between the two individuals, with a greater probability of engaging in these behaviours observed when the relationship with the nominated peer is strong relative to when the relationship is weak. However, we find that ego-alter homogeneity in terms of gender and migration status was not associated with a significantly greater probability of behaving in a similar manner to a nominated peer. Furthermore, the status of the nominated peer as a relative or not did not impact the probability that the ego would engage in similar health behaviours to that alter. Conclusions We observe strong associations between ego and alter health behaviours for young adults, consistent with previous research. Although we cannot draw causal inferences, these results suggest that the health behaviours of an individual’s peers may play a role in shaping their own health behaviours.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been considerably refined during the last 2 decades, and such a treatment is now extensively used. The present paper describes the treatment rationale and structure, and reviews the available evidence on its efficacy. Compared to any other psychological or pharmacological treatment for which controlled studies have been published, CBT is reported
Valdo Ricca; Edoardo Mannucci; Teresa Zucchi; Carlo M. Rotella; Carlo Faravelli
Many chemical pollutants have become ubiquitous in the environment, including some that interfere with hormones and other physiological mechanisms. These ‘endocrine-disrupting chemicals’ (EDCs) have harmful effects on development and physiology. We reviewed published evidence and found that EDCs also have adverse effects on a wide range of behaviours, including sexual and other reproductive behaviours, activity, motivation, communication, aggression, dominance and
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in many countries and confers risks for early type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the presence of potent 'obesogenic' environments not all children become obese, indicating the presence of susceptibility and resistance. Taking an energy balance approach, susceptibility could be mediated through a failure of appetite regulation leading to increased energy intake or via diminished energy expenditure. Evidence shows that heritability estimates for BMI and body fat are paralleled by similar coefficients for energy intake and preferences for dietary fat. Twin studies implicate weak satiety and enhanced food responsiveness as factors determining an increase in BMI. Single gene mutations, for example in the leptin receptor gene, that lead to extreme obesity appear to operate through appetite regulating mechanisms and the phenotypic response involves overconsumption and a failure to inhibit eating. Investigations of robustly characterized common gene variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) which contribute to variance in BMI also influence the variance in appetite factors such as measured energy intake, satiety responsiveness and the intake of palatable energy-dense food. A review of the evidence suggests that susceptibility to childhood obesity involving specific allelic variants of certain genes is mediated primarily through food consumption (appetite regulation) rather than through a decrease in activity-related energy expenditure. This conclusion has implications for early detection of susceptibility, and for prevention and management of childhood obesity. PMID:22724641
During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343
The intersubspecific hybrids of autotetraploid rice has many features that increase rice yield, but lower seed set is a major hindrance in its utilization. Pollen sterility is one of the most important factors which cause intersubspecific hybrid sterility. The hybrids with greater variation in seed set were used to study how the F1 pollen sterile loci (S-a, S-b, and S-c) interact with each other and how abnormal chromosome behaviour and allelic interaction of F1 sterility loci affect pollen fertility and seed set of intersubspecific autotetraploid rice hybrids. The results showed that interaction between pollen sterility loci have significant effects on the pollen fertility of autotetraploid hybrids, and pollen fertility further decreased with an increase in the allelic interaction of F1 pollen sterility loci. Abnormal ultra-structure and microtubule distribution patterns during pollen mother cell (PMC) meiosis were found in the hybrids with low pollen fertility in interphase and leptotene, suggesting that the effect-time of pollen sterility loci interaction was very early. There were highly significant differences in the number of quadrivalents and bivalents, and in chromosome configuration among all the hybrids, and quadrivalents decreased with an increase in the seed set of autotetraploid hybrids. Many different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities, such as chromosome straggling, chromosome lagging, asynchrony of chromosome disjunction, and tri-fission were found during the various developmental stages of PMC meiosis. All these abnormalities were significantly higher in sterile hybrids than in fertile hybrids, suggesting that pollen sterility gene interactions tend to increase the chromosomal abnormalities which cause the partial abortion of male gametes and leads to the decline in the seed set of the autotetraploid rice hybrids.
He, J. H.; Shahid, M. Q.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, X. A.; Liu, X. D.; Lu, Y. G.
Variations of the geomagnetic componenets at three equatorial stations Ascension Island(7.95S,14.38W),Ad (9.03N,38.77E)and Trivandrum (8.48N,76.94E) are studied using hourly mean values of geo-magnetic componenents.It is shown that the Sq current system have shown a new type of Sq current distribution dierent from those associated with normal or counter electrojet(EEJ) events on 30 July 1995.This abnormal feature described seems to be a rare phenomenon. Both the horizontal and the vertical componenets of the geomagnetic eld at Addis ababa showed ab-normal maximum when compared with neighbouring days. The daily range of EEJ is found to exist in Indian longitudes did not show any correlation with this event.This additional current system could be due to excitation of certain tidal modes.
What are Eating Disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... recruiting participants with eating disorders . Science News About Eating Disorders Biology, Not Just Society, May Increase Risk of ...
... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...
A case control study was conducted to examine the theorized differences for eating and exercise behaviour among the obese and non-obese women from an urban health center in Saudi Arabia. Perceptions regarding actual and ideal body size were also determined. The obese were significantly more likely to eat under emotional conditions of stress and anger, in secrecy, and indulge in binge eating (P < 0.05). Frequent snacking and drinking of regular soda drinks was also more common in this group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A weak association was observed for nibbling at food without being aware and preference of sweet foods compared to savoury ones by the obese (P < 0.1). A large group of the study population (75%) were either not exercising at all or doing so infrequently--a feature expected in the middle and lower social class group of women in this region. A sizable proportion of women either overestimated (28.6%) or underestimated (28.9%) their actual body weight with increasing education significantly related to overestimation of weight and vice versa (P < 0.05). A change in the concept of an ideal body image from the overweight female to that of the slim figure was also observed with advancing education. To control and prevent obesity in this region, it is suggested that health education related to an awareness of a healthy body size and appropriate eating and exercise behaviour should be given through primary health centers, other health facilities and schools. PMID:9883039
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is applicable to all eating disorders but has been most intensively studied in the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN). CBT is designed to alter abnormal attitudes about body shape and weight, replace dysfunctional dieting with normal eating habits, and develop coping skills for resisting binge eating and purging. CBT is effective in reducing all core features of
Anterior resection of the rectum is a frequent surgical procedure. However, abnormal bowel habits following this procedure are frequently reported. The functional evaluation of these patients is usually limited to the anorectal area. By means of colonic manometry, we have evaluated a patient with frequent urge for defecation and increased bowel frequency following anterior resection of the rectum with straight coloanal anastomosis and almost normal anorectal function. Analysis of the tracing revealed a reduction of contractile segmental activity and much more high-amplitude propagated contractions than which occur in healthy subjects. These high-amplitude propagated contractions, representing the manometric equivalent of mass movements, were always in association with urge for defecation and, sometimes, with loose stools. High-amplitude simultaneous contractions were also observed. We feel that the surgical resection of a potential physiological brake may be responsible for these observations. PMID:15733526
Bassotti, G; de Roberto, G; Chistolini, F; Morelli, A; Pucciani, F
What are eating disorders? An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely ... population. 5 What are the different types of eating disorders? Anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is characterized by: Extreme ...
... normal weight or can be overweight. Continue Binge Eating Disorder This eating disorder is similar to anorexia and ... and celebrations involving food Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? No one is really sure what causes eating ...
Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory cycle (3.5 days) prior to natural mating in female MF-1 mice. After mating, all females received NPD for the remainder of gestation and all offspring were litter size adjusted and fed standard chow. No difference in gestation length, litter size, sex ratio or postnatal growth was observed between treatments. Maternal LPD did, however, induce abnormal anxiety-related behaviour in open field activities in male and female offspring (P < 0.05). Maternal LPD offspring also exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in males at 9 and 15 weeks and in both sexes at 21 weeks (P < 0.05). Male LPD offspring hypertension was accompanied by attenuated arterial responsiveness in vitro to vasodilators acetylcholine and isoprenaline (P < 0.05). LPD female offspring adult kidneys were also smaller, but had increased nephron numbers (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relationship between SBP and kidney or heart size or nephron number was altered by diet treatment (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate the sensitivity of mouse maturing oocytes in vivo to maternal protein undernutrition and identify both behavioural and cardiovascular postnatal outcomes, indicative of adult disease. These outcomes probably derive from a direct effect of protein restriction, although indirect stress mechanisms may also be contributory. Similar and distinct postnatal outcomes were observed here compared with maternal LPD treatment during post-fertilization preimplantation development which may reflect the relative contribution of the paternal genome.
Watkins, Adam J; Wilkins, Adrian; Cunningham, Colm; Perry, V Hugh; Seet, Meei J; Osmond, Clive; Eckert, Judith J; Torrens, Christopher; Cagampang, Felino R A; Cleal, Jane; Gray, William P; Hanson, Mark A; Fleming, Tom P
Children with learning disabilities have increased risk of delayed development of oral-motor, feeding and social skills. Questionnaires on the eatingbehaviour of children 2 to 18 years of age with Down's syndrome, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and cri du chat syndrome and their siblings were completed by their parents. Most children including the preschool children were reported to have some
MARGARET S. R. COLLINS; ROSALIND KYLE; SUZANNE SMITH; ANNE LAVERTY; SYLVIA ROBERTS; JILL EATON-EVANS
The transition to University has been identified as a possible period for weight gain but few studies have addressed the extent of this experience in UK Universities. The present study was conducted in four Universities in England and Scotland to directly measure changes in body weight, waist circumference and body composition in students during their first year. Two hundred and fifty first-year students completed psychometric eatingbehaviour questionnaires and a validated physical activity survey before attending one of the laboratories for standardised assessments of height, body weight, waist circumference and body composition at 0, 3, and 12-months. Significant but small and transitory increases in all weight outcomes (e.g. body weight=0.83±2.1 kg) were observed except for fat-free mass. Weight-related measures at baseline predicted changes in weight over 12-months but not 3-months. Disinhibition, power of food and binge eating were associated with change in fat mass while physical activity, cognitive restraint and sensitivity to reward were associated with change in fat-free mass. Weight gain occurs in the first year of University in the UK, but appears to be small and transitory. Changes in fat mass were related to opportunistic eating and the tendency to overconsume, while change in fat-free mass related to physical activity and low dietary restraint in conjunction with drive to experience reward. Psychological markers underlying changes in body composition can inform strategies to promote self-regulation in young adults during a critical life period for weight gain. PMID:22407132
Finlayson, Graham; Cecil, Joanne; Higgs, Suzanne; Hill, Andrew; Hetherington, Marion
Attitudes towards healthy eating were explored according to dietary, lifestyle and socio-demographic correlates in a random sample of 1256 Irish adults. Data were obtained from an Irish cross-sectional survey (1997–1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain attitudinal information. Food consumption was estimated using a 7-d food diary. A majority of the sample had a positive attitude or motivation towards
Á. P. Hearty; S. N. McCarthy; J. M. Kearney; M. J. Gibney
Eating disorders are illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Those suffering from eating disorders typically become obsessed with food and their body ...
... may occur on its own or with another eating disorder, such as bulimia. People with bulimia typically eat ... Treasure J, Claudino AM, Zucker N. Eating disorders. Lancet . ... for bulimia nervosa and binging. Cochrane Database Syst ...
Eating disorders are associated with numerous biological perturbations; however, sorting out cause from effect is difficult. Neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities are seen in both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but they have not been described in binge eating disorder, in which neither starvation nor compensatory behaviors are present. Although these findings may reflect biologic differences among subgroups of binge eaters,
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a new proposed eating disorder in the DSM-IV. BED is not a formal diagnosis within the DSM-IV, but in day-to-day clinical practice the diagnosis seems to be generally accepted. People with the BED-syndrome have binge eating episodes as do subjects with bulimia nervosa, but unlike the latter they do not engage in compensatory behaviours. Although
A 6-week longitudinal study with N?=?126 overweight women participating in a weight-loss programme investigated the hypothesis that focusing on the process (dietary behaviours) rather than on the outcome of dieting (weight loss) is associated with more successful goal pursuit and achievement. As expected, process focus was related positively to subjective daily success in dieting as well as to actual weight
An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
The aim of the present study was to determine the factors controlling leptin secretion and to clarify the role of leptin in eating disorders. The subjects were 152 eating-disordered women with different fat mass, eating behavior, and endocrine abnormalities and 24 age-matched control subjects. The body fat mass, eating behavior score, and plasma leptin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
The goals of the study were to compare anger expressions in individuals with eating disorders and healthy controls, and to explore the relation among eating disorder symptoms, comorbid psychopathology, personality traits, and impulsive behaviours. Participants comprised 135 eating disorder patients consecutively admitted to our unit and 103 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2), Bulimic Investigatory
Isabel Krug; Cynthia M. Bulik; Olga Nebot Vall-Llovera; Roser Granero; Zaida Agüera; Cynthia Villarejo; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...
... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Eating disorders By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/eating-disorders/DS00294 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Preparing ...
\\u000a Emotional eating theory states that negative emotions can induce eating, because eating has the capacity to reduce their intensity.\\u000a This chapter summarizes the relevant research findings. It is demonstrated that emotional eating is fairly common, but that\\u000a individuals differ considerably in the quanty of food they consume in order to improve their mood. The causes of these differences\\u000a are unknown
This chapter focuses on the eating disorders that draw the attention of most clinicians and researchers: anorexia nervosa,\\u000a bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. For information about other, less well-known eating problems\\u000a in adolescents, and about the medical and nutritional effects of eating disorders in adolescents, see Lask and Bryant-Waugh\\u000a (2000) and Fisher et al. (1995).
A new spontaneous mouse mutation named fierce (frc) is deleted for the nuclear receptor Nr2e1 gene (also known as Tlx, mouse homolog of Drosophila tailless). The fierce mutation is genetically and phenotypically similar to Nr2e1 targeted mutations previously studied on segregating genetic backgrounds. However, we have characterized the fierce brain, eye, and behavioural phenotypes on three defined genetic backgrounds (C57BL\\/6J,
Kelly A Young; Melissa L Berry; Connie L Mahaffey; Jennifer R Saionz; Norman L Hawes; Bo Chang; Qing Yin Zheng; Richard S Smith; Roderick T Bronson; Randy J Nelson; Elizabeth M Simpson
Bulimia, an eating disorder, recently has emerged as a major mental health problem, especially among adolescent females. The bulimic experiences periods of compulsive binge eating followed by purges to rid the body of unwanted calories. Binges are triggered by intense emotional experiences, such as loneliness, anger, rejection, or stress. Associated features of bulimia are secretiveness, depression, drug abuse, preoccupation with body image and sexual attractiveness, and an awareness that the behavior is abnormal. The physical side effects include dental problems, inflamed esophagus, EEG abnormalities, abdominal or urinary disturbances, and changes in blood sugar level. Cognitive disturbances related to binging and purging are perfectionistic, egocentric, and distorted thinking, misconceptions about nutritional requirements, unreasonable goals and expectations, and disturbed affect. Bulimics resist treatment; however, such methods as cognitive, group, family, behavior, and drug therapy, and hospitalization appear promising. PMID:3461693
Mammalian, including human, neonates are considered to be obligate nose breathers. When constrained to breathe through their mouth in response to obstructed or closed nasal passages, the effects are pervasive and profound, and sometimes last into adulthood. The present paper briefly surveys neonates' and infants' responses to this atypical mobilisation of the mouth for breathing and focuses on comparisons between human newborns and infants and the neonatal rat model. We present the effects of forced oral breathing on neonatal rats induced by experimental nasal obstruction. We assessed the multilevel consequences on physiological, structural, and behavioural variables, both during and after the obstruction episode. The effects of the compensatory mobilisation of oral resources for breathing are discussed in the light of the adaptive development of oromotor functions.
\\u000a Eating disorders are serious mental health conditions that are more common among women and present with well-documented physical\\u000a manifestations and psychiatric comorbidities. An estimated 5–10 million females are affected with some form of eating disorder\\u000a (Gordon 1990; Crowther et al. 1992; Fairburn et al. 1995; Hoek 2002). The American College of Physicians lists eating disorders\\u000a as one of the nine
What do you know about healthy eating? Check out the sites below to learn what you should and should not be eating on a daily basis. Before we get started let's see what knowledge you have about healthy eating. What do you think are some of the most healthy foods for you? Do you like to eat these foods? Now look at the sites below and answer the following questions. Blast Off Dining Decisions Nutrients Your Body Neeeds What were some good food choices ...
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725
This study examined the prevalence of external, restrained and emotional eating and the relationship of these disturbed types of eatingbehaviours with perceived parental control of food intake (pressure to eat and restriction) in a group of 7- to 12-year-old boys and girls (n ¼ 596). External eating turned out to be the most prevalent disturbed eatingbehaviour for boys
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify psychopathological, social and family variables that, measured at the age of 13, might predict the development of eating disorders 2 years later, using a standardized interview and controlling the effect of initially abnormaleating behavior. Method: At age 13 and 15, 1076 adolescents completed questionnaires for the screening of psychiatric morbidity,
Luis Beato-Fernández; Teresa Rodríguez-Cano; Antonia Belmonte-Llario; Cristóbal Martínez-Delgado
We developed a survey to characterize dietitians’ involvement in the treatment of eating disorders and to determine the appropriateness of current training. The survey was mailed to 601 Florida Registered Dietitians. Completed surveys were returned by 170 dietitians. Respondents were asked to place themselves in one of three categories: Category A: participates in the identification\\/diagnosis of eating disorders (n=l 10);
A. P. Wittkowsky; R. E. Turner; L. B. Bobroff; G. D. Evans
Eating disorders are common problems affecting 5–10% of young people. The bulimic forms of eating disorders became dominant in the last half of the twentieth century and are caused in part by the tensions between the easy availability of high-palatability food and a culture that idealizes thinness. Genetic factors, high anxiety and environment stress also contribute. Anorexia nervosa is associated
HEALTH ISSUE: Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. KEY ISSUES: Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women.
Enza Gucciardi; Nalan Celasun; Farah Ahmad; Donna E Stewart
Current models of the nutrition transition focus on demographic changes and economic development. A further influence may be the adoption of western-based perceptions of beauty that lead to potentially harmful eatingbehaviours which contribute to overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. This paper proposes a comprehensive model of the nutrition transition that includes western influences on perceived attractiveness and subsequent eating
Steven R Hawks; Ray M Merrill; Hala N Madanat; Takeo Miyagawa BS; Jiraporn Suwanteerangkul
This article uses a population health perspective to examine the complex set of interactions among the determinants of healthy eating. An overview of current knowledge on determinants of healthy eating was organized as follows: 1) individual determinants of personal food choices and 2) collective determinants, including a) environmental determinants as the context for eatingbehaviours and b) public policies as
Objective: Male bodybuilders (MBB) exhibit more severe body dissatisfaction, bulimic eatingbehaviour, and negative psychological characteristics, compared with male athletic and nonathletic control subjects, but few studies have directly compared MBB and men with eating disorders. This study compared men with bulimia nervosa (MBN), competitive male bodybuilders (CMBB), and recreational male bodybuilders (RMBB) on a broad range of eating attitudes
Gary S Goldfield; Arthur G Blouin; D Blake Woodside
Current screening instruments for eating disorders are cumbersome to administer and have not been validated in primary care populations. We compared the performance characteristics of 2 screening tools, the SCOFF clinical prediction guide, and a new set of questions, the Eating disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP), using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis as the independent standard, in 104 consecutive patients from a primary care practice and 129 university students. Twelve percent of the combined population had an eating disorder. One or no abnormal responses to the ESP ruled out an eating disorder (likelihood ratio [LR] 0.0), whereas 3 or more abnormal responses ruled one in (LR 11). The SCOFF questions were less sensitive than predicted (1 or no abnormal responses, LR 0.25), but were as effective at ruling in an eating disorder (3 or more abnormal responses, LR 11).
Cotton, Mary-Anne; Ball, Christopher; Robinson, Paul
Contemporary Western society has encouraged an obesogenic culture of eating amongst youth. Multiple factors may influence an adolescent's susceptibility to this eating culture, and thus act as a barrier to healthy eating. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents, the need to reduce these barriers has become a necessity. Twelve focus group discussions of single-sex groups of boys or girls ranging from early to-mid adolescence (N=73) were employed to identify key perceptions of, and influences upon, healthy eatingbehaviour. Thematic analysis identified four key factors as barriers to healthy eating. These factors were: physical and psychological reinforcement of eatingbehaviour; perceptions of food and eatingbehaviour; perceptions of contradictory food-related social pressures; and perceptions of the concept of healthy eating itself. Overall, healthy eating as a goal in its own right is notably absent from the data and would appear to be elided by competing pressures to eat unhealthily and to lose weight. This insight should inform the development of future food-related communications to adolescents. PMID:16730371
BACKGROUND: Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. METHODS: A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormaleating behaviors and imbalance of energy homeostasis. Changes of both central and peripheral neuroendocrine substances involved in the modulation of food intake and energy expenditure have been described in acutely ill patients with eating disorders. This review selectively focuses on the most recent findings supporting abnormal changes
Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with profound changes in social and emotional function. The emergence of increasingly sophisticated methods for measuring brain volume has facilitated correlation of local changes in tissue content with cognitive and behavioural changes in neurodegenerative disease. The current study examined neuroanatomical correlates of behaviouralabnormalities, as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, in 148 patients with dementia using voxel-based morphometry. Of 12 behaviours examined, 4 correlated with tissue loss: apathy, disinhibition, eating disorders and aberrant motor behaviour. Increasing severity across these four behaviours was associated with tissue loss in the ventral portion of the right anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and adjacent ventromedial superior frontal gyrus (vmSFG), the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) more posteriorly, the right lateral middle frontal gyrus, the right caudate head, the right orbitofrontal cortex and the right anterior insula. In addition, apathy was independently associated with tissue loss in the right vmSFG, disinhibition with tissue loss in the right subgenual cingulate gyrus in the VMPC, and aberrant motor behaviour with tissue loss in the right dorsal ACC and left premotor cortex. These data strongly support the involvement of the right hemisphere in mediating social and emotional behaviour and highlight the importance of distinct regions on the medial wall of the right frontal lobe in regulating different behaviours. Furthermore, the findings underscore the utility of studying patients with dementia for understanding the neuroanatomical basis of social and emotional functions.
Rosen, Howard J.; Allison, Stephen C.; Schauer, Guido F.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.
|"Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…
Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.
\\u000a Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder (BED) all involve observable eating, and often purging, behaviors.\\u000a However, to develop a complete conceptual picture of each disorder, additional sociocultural, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional\\u000a processes must be considered. To complicate matters, altered physiological functioning may result from as well as cause emotional\\u000a and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, whereas interviewers will want to
Eating disorders and obesity are problems that dramatically impact psychological and medical well-being. These disorders carry some of the highest mortality rates in psychiatry. At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to 1. Describe the medical approach to a patient presenting with an eating disorder 2. Compare the epidemiology, pathophysiology, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, clinical course, treatment,
Eating disorders are among the most common psychiatric problems in the United States. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa\\u000a in particular are associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity, with a mortality rate of 10%, the highest\\u000a of all psychiatric disorders. Although primary care providers are often the first to identify patients with eating disorders,\\u000a more than half of all cases
This study investigates the underlying psychopathology of disordered eating and social phobia behaviours by examining the interrelationships between variables thought to be common to both. The participants were 252 female tertiary students. Each completed measures of eatingbehaviours, social phobia, body esteem, fear of negative evaluation, social support, self-acceptance, and general psychopathology. Structural equation modelling was used to determine if
Objective: To investigate the relationships between alexithymia and emotional eating in obese women with or without Binge Eating Disorder (BED).Research Methods and Procedures: One hundred sixty-nine obese women completed self-report questionnaires, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Stress Perceived Scale, the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The presence of BED, screened
Sandrine Pinaquy; Henri Chabrol; Chantal Simon; Jean-Pierre Louvet; Pierre Barbe
Previous research shows that leanness- and weight-dependent sports increase the risk of developing disturbed eatingbehaviour. This study investigated whether adolescent aesthetic athletes (n=68, M=14.6 years), particularly ballet dancers and figure skaters, exhibit more eating pathology compared to the general population. Furthermore, it was investigated whether sport-related factors have explanatory value for the dieting behaviour of aesthetic athletes. To asses eating pathology, reliable and valid self-report questionnaires were used including the Eating Disorder Inventory-II, the Children's Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire. Results show that female aesthetic athletes show more drive for thinness, features of bulimia, dieting behaviour and concerns about weight and shape compared to female adolescents from the general population. Concerning the explanation of dieting behaviour in aesthetic athletes, both sport-related factors (competition state anxiety) and general risk factors (eating concern) seem to be relevant. These results suggest that female aesthetic athletes show more disturbed eatingbehaviour and thoughts than female adolescents from the general population and therefore may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. PMID:22365793
The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term effects of two dietary approaches on changes in dietary intakes, eatingbehaviours and body weight: (1) approach using restrictive messages to limit high-fat foods (low-fat intake; LOFAT); (2) approach emphasising non-restrictive messages directed towards the inclusion of fruits and vegetables (high intake of fruits and vegetables; HIFV). A total of sixty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of the two dietary approaches. The 6-month dietary intervention included three group sessions and ten individual sessions with a dietitian. Dietary intakes, eatingbehaviours and anthropometrics were measured at baseline, at the end of the dietary intervention (T = 6) and 6 months and 12 months after the end of the intervention (T = 12 and T = 18). In the LOFAT group, energy and fat intakes were lower at T = 6 when compared with baseline and remained lower at T = 12 and T = 18. In the HIFV group, fruit and vegetable intakes increased significantly at T = 6 but were no longer significantly different from baseline at T = 12 and T = 18. Dietary restraint increased at T = 6 and remained higher than baseline at T = 18 in the LOFAT group while no significant change was observed in the HIFV group. At T = 6, body weight was significantly lower than baseline in both groups (LOFAT: - 3.7 (SD 2.8) kg; HIFV: - 1.8 (SD 3.0) kg) and no significant difference in body-weight change from baseline was found between groups at T = 18. We concluded that weight loss was similar at 1-year follow-up in both dietary approaches. Despite relatively good improvements in the short term, the adherence to a 6-month dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables was difficult to maintain. PMID:20482930
... Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Healthy Eating with Diabetes Video Making changes in the way you eat ... help you manage your weight. Healthy Eating with Diabetes Subtitle Healthy Eating with Diabetes Transcript Healthy Eating ...
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are complex disorders characterized by disordered eatingbehaviour. Attitudes towards weight and shape as well as the perception of body shape are disturbed. A substantial genetic influence on these disorders has been suggested by formal genetic studies. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour, perfectionism and anxious personality traits seem to occur premorbidly in several patients. Disturbances of neurotransmitter, neuropeptide
Anke Hinney; Helmut Remschmidt; Johannes Hebebrand
Diving behaviour of air-breathing vertebrates may be influenced by a variety of factors including age, body size, and changes in prey behaviour and (or) abundance over both short and long timescales. We studied the diving be- haviour of a highly sexually dimorphic odontocete cetacean, the killer whale, Orcinus orca (L., 1758), using suction- cup-attached time-depth recorders (TDRs). We tested the
Robin W. Baird; M. Bradley Hanson; Lawrence M. Dill
The gap between the awareness and understanding of healthful eating on the one hand and actual eating practices on the other has been addressed in several ways in the literature. In this paper, we consider it from an everyday life perspective. Using discourse analysis, we analyse how Dutch consumers account for their everyday food choices. We show how Dutch consumers use three interpretative repertoires to confirm the importance of health, while not portraying themselves as too self- and health-conscious eaters. The first repertoire associates healthful eating with common knowledge and 'scripted' actions, thereby suggesting that such eating is self-evident rather than difficult. The second repertoire constructs eating for health and pleasure as uncomplicated, by emphasizing consumers' relaxed way of dealing with both. The third repertoire constructs unhealthful eating practices as naturally requiring compensation in the form of certain products or pills. We discuss how the use of these repertoires may pose socio-interactional barriers to the pursuance of healthful eatingbehaviour. The depiction of one's eating habits as uncomplicated, self-evidently healthful and - when bad - easy to compensate for, does not seem to provide a basis for critical considerations about these eating habits. If structural change in eating practices is to be achieved, nutrition promotion must invest in creating a new social standard that both avoids 'overdoing' bio-medical health and challenges people's construction of their eating habits as naturally healthful. PMID:19698753
Bouwman, Laura I; te Molder, Hedwig; Koelen, Maria M; van Woerkum, Cees M J
Eating disorders are common chronic conditions in adolescent women. The causes remain uncertain, but probably arise as a consequence of psychosocial stress in those with an innate vulnerability (e.g. compulsive personality traits in anorexia nervosa, robust appetite in bulimia nervosa). A culture that both fosters obesity and stigmatizes it predisposes to bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa carries the highest mortality of
... dessert as the prize for eating the meal. Don't use food as a way of showing love. When you want to show love, give kids a hug, some of your time, or praise. Get Kids Involved Most kids will enjoy deciding what to make for ...
ome athletes spend hours of intense training for their sport while practicing dangerous eating pat- terns in an attempt to lose weight. This practice often leads to eating disorders among athletes. This fact sheet will give signs and symptoms of eating disorders. Parents, coaches, and trainers need to recognize ath- letes with disordered eating patterns and refer them to appropriate
Summary This research investigated the relationship between personality and the tendency towards developing eating disorders in adolescent\\u000a females Personality traits were assessed using the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ) and dysfunctional eating attitudes\\u000a and behaviours were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). The sample\\u000a consisted of 244 students from a high school in Johannesburg,
... a vegetarian), fruits and vegetables (fries and potato chips don't qualify as veggies!), and whole grains (like whole- ... energy drinks usually contain "empty" calories that you don't need — not to mention other stuff, like ... Tips for Eating at a Restaurant Most restaurant portions are way larger than the average ...
This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders—including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder—are challenging health issues. Each
\\u000a Eating disorders cause substantial morbidity and mortality in children, adolescents, and adults.\\u000a \\u000a Individuals with AN refuse to keep a minimally normal body weight. They fear gaining weight and have a severely disturbed\\u000a perception of their body shape or size. Postmenarcheal females with AN are amenorrheic. Persons with the disorder maintain\\u000a a body weight that is below minimally normal standards for
Background Eating disorders (EDs) are an important public health problem in developed countries. Despite the amount of epidemiological\\u000a studies and causal theories, there is a great disparity of estimates and many questions remain still unclear. The aim of this\\u000a study was to estimate the prevalence of the population at risk of developing EDs and describe the risk profiles among adolescents\\u000a and
Agustín Tomás Vega Alonso; María Ángeles Rasillo Rodríguez; José Eugenio Lozano Alonso; Gloria Rodríguez Carretero; Manuel Franco Martín
Objective Research was conducted to obtain a profile of nutrition therapy currently in practice for patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia\\/bulimia (mixed diagnosis) and to identify the areas of dietetics education and research regarding eating disorders that need more attention.Design A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted by mailing a questionnaire composed of open- and closed-ended questions to US
... Special Issues / Pregnancy and Eating Disorders Pregnancy and Eating Disorders Pregnancy and motherhood require a great deal of ... required for a healthy pregnancy, for women with eating disorders, having to gain this amount can be very ...
... here Home / Contributing Factors & Prevention / Eating Disorder Prevention Eating Disorder Prevention Prevention is any systematic attempt to change ... that promote, initiate, sustain, or intensify problems like eating disorders. This may involve reducing negative risk factors (such ...
... withdrawing from social activities Back Continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ... own appearance or body. Can Somebody Catch an Eating Disorder? You can't catch an eating disorder from ...
... files require the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Binge Eating Disorder How common is binge eating disorder? How do ... how to get help. How common is binge eating disorder? What is obesity? Obesity is usually defined as ...
Although previous research showed that the thin ideal provided by the media affects body image and eatingbehaviour in young children, less is known about specific media contents that are related to body image and eatingbehaviour. This study tested the associations between watching soaps and music television and body dissatisfaction and restrained eating directly, and indirectly through thin ideal
Doeschka Anschutz; Rutger Engels; J. F. J. van Leeuwe; Tatjana van Strien
Background Thin children are less muscular, weaker, less active, and have lower performance in measures of physical fitness than their\\u000a normal weight peers. Thin children are also more frequently subjected to teasing and stigmatization. Little is known about\\u000a thin children's weight perceptions, desired weight and attitudes and behaviours towards food and exercise. The study aimed\\u000a to compare perceived weight status, desired
People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...
Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...
It's important to eat the right things to keep our bodies happy and healthy. As you explore these sites, look for ways you can better give your body what it needs. There's still an hour until lunch, and you're hungry. You do have a candy bar that you got for your birthday. It looks really tasty, but is that really what your body needs. Your mom always says they're bad for you, and they'll make you sick. Is that ...
ObjectiveTo describe the incidence of hypoglycaemia, and variables associated with hypoglycaemia, in eating disorder patients following a mixed meal stimulus.MethodsPostprandial blood glucose values of patients admitted to a specialist eating disorder hospital for treatment of an eating disorder between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed and compared to body mass index (BMI), electrolytes, and weight losing behaviours. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Susan Hart; Suzanne Abraham; Richard C Franklin; Stephen M Twigg; Janice Russell
Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24?h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (?85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ?2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3?kcal day(-1) (standard deviation?=?346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk. PMID:23556429
OBJECTIVETo test predictions that frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia give rise to distinct patterns of behavioural change.METHODSAn informant based semistructured behavioural interview, covering the domains of basic and social emotions, social and personal behaviour, sensory behaviour, eating and oral behaviour, repetitive behaviours, rituals, and compulsions, was administered to carers of 41 patients with semantic dementia and with apathetic (FTD-A) and
J S Snowden; D Bathgate; A Varma; A Blackshaw; Z C Gibbons; D Neary
Beliefs about foods and binge eating may influence the development and maintenance of eating disorders and the likelihood that people will seek treatment. We found that the majority of a random sample of members of a large health maintenance organization considered binge eating a problem for which there are effective treatments. Self-reported binge eaters, however, were significantly less likely to
G. Terence Wilson; Nancy A. Perrin; Francine Rosselli; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Lynn L. DeBar; Helena C. Kraemer
Despite the importance of affective processes in eatingbehaviour, it remains difficult to predict how emotions affect eating. Emphasizing individual differences, previous research did not pay full attention to the twofold variability of emotion-induced changes of eating (variability across both individuals and emotions). By contrast, the present paper takes into account both individual characteristics and emotion features, and specifies five classes of emotion-induced changes of eating: (1) emotional control of food choice, (2) emotional suppression of food intake, (3) impairment of cognitive eating controls, (4) eating to regulate emotions, and (5) emotion-congruent modulation of eating. These classes are distinguished by antecedent conditions, eating responses and mediating mechanisms. They point to basic functional principles underlying the relations between emotions and biologically based motives: interference, concomitance and regulation. Thus, emotion-induced changes of eating can be a result of interference of eating by emotions, a by-product of emotions, and a consequence of regulatory processes (i.e., emotions may regulate eating, and eating may regulate emotions). PMID:17707947
The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has encouraged research efforts aimed at understanding the etiology of abnormaleating behaviors. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviors when consuming palatable foods. Binge eating is a behavioral component of bulimia and obesity and has also become increasingly common in nonclinical populations
|Objectives: To estimate the eating attitudes in Israeli Jewish female adolescents. Methods: A representative sample of 1270 females in grades 7-12 from five different Israeli schools from five different residential areas were assessed by EAT-26. Results: Of the total sample, 19.5% were identified as having abnormaleating attitudes. In terms of…
Background: Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. However, its in vivo function has not been clarified. Results: Knockout mice lacking the MK gene (Mdk) showed no gross abnormalities. We closely analysed postnatal brain development in Mdk(-\\/-) mice using calcium binding proteins as markers to distinguish neuronal subpopulations. Intense
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eatingbehaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present
The eating disorders anorexia and bulimia nervosa have traditionally been regarded as entirely separate from obesi- ty. Eating disorders have been regarded as Western culture-bound syndromes, arising in societies with excessive emphasis on weight, shape and appearance, and best treated by psychological therapies, in particular cognitive behavioural therapy or family- based interventions. In contrast, obesity has been considered a medical
This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eatingbehaviours are identified. PMID:16042160
Individual differences in sensitivity of neural reward systems to external appetitive cues may determine normal and pathological eatingbehaviour. In the current study we investigated the relationship between cognitive biases for food cues and the trait predisposition of external eating (eating in response to external food cues). Biases in attention, approach and subjective evaluation of food cues were assessed on
Catherine Brignell; Tanya Griffiths; Brendan P. Bradley; Karin Mogg
This study aimed to describe the course of early onset eating disorders in a population-based sample followed from 14 to 20 years; identify variables that could account for the persistence of eating disorders from 14 to 20 years; and describe outcome of early onset eating disorders with reference to general and psychological functioning at age 20. Participants (N?=?1,383; 49 % male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to young adulthood. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed using an adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, at ages 14, 17 and 20. At age 14, 70 participants met DSM-IV criteria for a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Nearly half (44 %) of these adolescents ceased to meet criteria for an eating disorders at ages 17 and 20, whilst one-quarter still met criteria for an eating disorder at age 20 and one-fifth met criteria for an eating disorder at all three time points. Purging at age 17 and externalising behaviour problems at age 14 were the strongest predictors of eating disorder persistence to age 20. Participants who experienced a persistent eating disorder were less likely to complete high school than other participants, and reported pronounced depressive and anxiety symptoms at age 20. This study provides new data the course and outcome of early onset eating disorders at a population level. Behavioural difficulties in early adolescence and purging in middle adolescence may predict persistent eating pathology to young adulthood. PMID:23605960
Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Oddy, Wendy H; Crosby, Ross D
A social marketing approach used both qualitative and quantitative methods to develop a hygiene behaviour intervention in rural north-east Thailand. Behaviours were preselected from a previous study and the intervention was designed to promote hand washing, especially before feeding a baby, cooking, eating, and after defaecation or cleaning a baby's bottom, and dish washing immediately after eating. A bacteriological indicator
Summary Recent research on Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) has shown an increasing understanding of the biological and physiological abnormalities that underlie the development of an eating disorder. Cultural pressures, individual and family experiences, along with physiological and genetic systems all appear to contribute to the onset of these disorders. There is significant evidence for genetic factors in
Background Deletion and the reciprocal duplication in 16p11.2 were recently associated with autism and developmental delay. Method We indentified 27 deletions and 18 duplications of 16p11.2 were identified in 0.6% of all samples submitted for clinical array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridisation) analysis. Detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisations were performed on 17 deletion subjects and ten subjects with the duplication. Results The most common clinical manifestations in 17 deletion and 10 duplication subjects were speech/language delay and cognitive impairment. Other phenotypes in the deletion patients included motor delay (50%), seizures (~40%), behavioural problems (~40%), congenital anomalies (~30%), and autism (~20%). The phenotypes among duplication patients included motor delay (6/10), behavioural problems (especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) (6/10), congenital anomalies (5/10), and seizures (3/10). Patients with the 16p11.2 deletion had statistically significant macrocephaly (p<0.0017) and 6 of the 10 patients with the duplication had microcephaly. One subject with the deletion was asymptomatic and another with the duplication had a normal cognitive and behavioural phenotype. Genomic analyses revealed additional complexity to the 16p11.2 region with mechanistic implications. The chromosomal rearrangement was de novo in all but 2 of the 10 deletion cases in which parental studies were available. Additionally, 2 de novo cases were apparently mosaic for the deletion in the analysed blood sample. Three de novo and 2 inherited cases were observed in the 5 of 10 duplication patients where data were available. Conclusions Recurrent reciprocal 16p11.2 deletion and duplication are characterised by a spectrum of primarily neurocognitive phenotypes that are subject to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. The autism and macrocephaly observed with deletion and ADHD and microcephaly seen in duplication patients support a diametric model of autism spectrum and psychotic spectrum behavioural phenotypes in genomic sister disorders.
Shinawi, Marwan; Liu, Pengfei; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Shen, Joseph; Belmont, John W; Scott, Daryl A; Probst, Frank J; Craigen, William J; Graham, Brett H; Pursley, Amber; Clark, Gary; Lee, Jennifer; Proud, Monica; Stocco, Amber; Rodriguez, Diana L; Kozel, Beth A; Sparagana, Steven; Roeder, Elizabeth R; McGrew, Susan G; Kurczynski, Thaddeus W; Allison, Leslie J; Amato, Stephen; Savage, Sarah; Patel, Ankita; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Beaudet, Arthur L; Cheung, Sau Wai; Lupski, James R
This research aimed to characterize eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their gender and body mass index and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormaleating behaviors. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in the eating behavior of normal-weight and overweight people, and also between men and women. Further, we hypothesized that overweight participants would show more abnormaleating behaviors than their normal-weight counterparts. Two hundred ninety-two participants (205 women and 87 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean body mass index was 26.58 kg/m(2) (women 26.22 kg/m(2), men 27.41 kg/m(2)), that is, within the overweight range. Participants with overweight (BMI ?25 kg/m(2)) tended to eat faster and in greater quantities, selected more hyper-calorie foods, and engaged in a greater number of abnormaleating behaviors of various kinds. The results suggest that, in addition to what people eat, the question of how people eat may also contribute to the rapid increase in the levels of overweight and obesity in the Chilean population. PMID:24074737
Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés, Ana
Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals. PMID:21596715
King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E
This article examines the link between loneliness and eating disorders. This concept is evaluated through a systematic review of the literature that links loneliness and eating disorders and through a survey of themes connecting the 2 conditions. Eating disorders-including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders that are not otherwise specified, which include binge eating disorder-are challenging health issues. Each of these diagnoses specifically relates to loneliness. This negative emotion contributes to and fuels eating disorder symptoms. Negative interpersonal relationships, both real experiences and individuals' skewed perceptions, exacerbate eating disorders and feelings of loneliness. Characteristics that have been associated with loneliness clearly relate to eating disorders. Understanding this relationship is vital, so that we can appreciate our patients' struggles and work to target these intense emotions within the treatment setting. We need to be aware of the power of loneliness as it applies to individuals in general and specifically to those struggling with disordered eating. PMID:22303623
Adolescents face stress in relation to normal growing up, to cultural pressures in looking slim and having a body image that mirrors peers' norms and values. Many adolescents make it through their youth without showing significant behavioural difficulties. Others negotiate these pressures through eating disorders. Both quantitative and qualitative data are used to identify adolescents' experiences and meanings in relation
Anger and aggressive behaviours, especially those self-directed, are frequent in subjects suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. They increase the complexity of the clinical features, change the prognosis and cause a more difficult management of these disorders. In order to elucidate the complex relationships between eating disorders, anger and aggressiveness, the history of traumatic experiences, the prevalence of dissociative,
Elisabetta Truglia; Edoardo Mannucci; Stefano Lassi; Carlo Maria Rotella; Carlo Faravelli; Valdo Ricca
Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong “running” role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours\\/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery
An addiction model of both eating disorders and obesity has received increasing attention in the popular and scientific literature. The addiction is viewed as a brain disease that must be directly targeted if treatment is to succeed. Evidence from laboratory feeding studies, epidemiology, genetic and familial research, psychopathological mechanisms, and treatment outcome research on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is inconsistent with the clinical validity or utility of the addiction model of eating disorders. Neurobiological research has shown commonalities in brain reward processes between obesity and substance abuse disorders. Yet emphasis on apparent similarities overlooks important differences between obesity and drug addiction. Interest in obesity as a brain disease should not detract from a public health focus on the 'toxic food environment' that is arguably responsible for the obesity epidemic and related nutrition-based chronic disease. PMID:20821736
It is estimated that 5.4 million Australians get sick annually from eating contaminated food and that up to 20% of this illness results from food handling behaviour. A study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) including past behaviour in predicting safe food handling intention and behaviour. One hundred and nine participants completed questionnaires
Adverse events at critical stages of development can lead to lasting dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS). To seek potential underlying changes in synaptic function, we used a newly developed protocol to measure alterations in receptor-mediated Ca(2+) fluorescence responses of synaptoneurosomes, freshly isolated from selected regions of the CNS concerned with emotionality and pain processing. We compared adult male controls and offspring of rats exposed to social stress in late pregnancy (prenatal stress, PS), which showed programmed behavioural changes indicating anxiety, anhedonia and pain hypersensitivity. We found corresponding increases, in PS rats compared with normal controls, in responsiveness of synaptoneurosomes from frontal cortex to a glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist, and from spinal cord to activators of nociceptive afferents. Through a combined pharmacological and biochemical strategy, we found evidence for a role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1)-mediated signalling, that may involve 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) activation, at both levels of the nervous system. These changes might participate in underpinning the enduring alterations in behaviour induced by PS. PMID:23932932
Sun, Liting; Gooding, Hayley L; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Mitchell, Rory; Fleetwood-Walker, Sue
Elite dancers are at increased risk of eating disorders. The authors hypothesized that specific learning about thinness in dance class, rather than simple participation in dance training, tends to be an important aspect of the risk process. Approximately 500 college women reported on their previous dance experiences, their dance-related learning about thinness, their eatingbehaviours and attitudes and their thinness expectancies. Results showed that lifetime amount of time spent in dance class was unrelated to adult eating disturbance, women's reports of learning experiences concerning thinness during their dance classes predicted adult disordered eating concurrently, and thinness expectancies appeared to mediate the relationship between learning about thinness and adult eating disturbance. Learning experiences about thinness in dance class seem more important than time spent in dance class when examining the relationship between dance study and eating disorders. PMID:18729131
... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...
... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...
... Home Living with Bowel Control Problems Resources Bowel Control Awareness Campaign Home Resources for Health Care Providers ... Home : Eating and Bowel Control Eating and Bowel Control Some bowel control problems improve simply by changing ...
Eating disorders during pregnancy, once thought to be rare, occur in a significant number of women. The incidences of the major eating disorders-anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa-are increasing because of cultural pressures on the drive for thinness. Because the age range for these major eating disorders overlaps with the age range for reproductive function, it is not unusual for a clinician to encounter a pregnant patient with a major eating disorder. Eating disorders attributable to the pregnant state include pregnancy sickness, pica, and ptyalism. The diagnostic criteria, etiology, nutritional behavioral influences, evolutionary psychological considerations where elucidated, and treatment of these disorders will be presented. Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to review how the major eating disorders impact pregnancy, to diagnose eating disorders during pregnancy using the diagnostic criteria, and to treat eating disorders during pregnancy. PMID:23943041
The clinical eating disorders are only the most extreme form of pathological eating attitudes and behaviors. Many people engage\\u000a in pathological weight-control behaviors without meeting the current diagnostic criteria for anorexia or bulimia nervosa and\\u000a may be regarded as having subclinical eating disorders. As described by Fairburn and Beglin (1), a broad spectrum of eating disorders appears to exist in
OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders.
Binge eating, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia-bulimia are terms often used without really knowing what precisely one is referring to. Otherwise, there are many articles concerning anorexia nervosa in medical literature, a disease, which can be seen and fascinates. These eating disorders are frequent in today's society; medical, psychological and social consequences are important. PMID:24090668
The outcome in eating disorders remains poor and commonly used methods of treatment have little, if any effect. It is suggested that this situation has emerged because of the failure to realize that the symptoms of eating disorder patients are epiphenomena to starvation and the associated disordered eating. Humans have evolved to cope with the challenge of starvation and the
Cognitions are of crucial importance in the -aetiology and the maintenance of eating disorders. Dysfunctional cognitions in eating disorders are related to body image, self-esteem and feeding. The aim of this paper is to review the actual knowledge in this area. First, we will display -cognitive models in eating disorders. Cognitive factors in -eating disorders are logical errors, cognitive slippage and conceptual complexity. Eating disorder patients seem to have a deficient cognitive development. Some cognitive models stipulate that eating disorder patients may develop organised cognitive structures schemas concerning the issues of weight and its implications for the self. These schemas can account for the persistence and for the understanding the "choice of the eating disorder symptomatology. Cognitive pheno-mena of interest are self-schema, weight-related schema and weight-related self-schema. The maintenance model of ano-rexia nervosa argued that, initially there is an extreme need to control eating which is supported by low self-esteem. The maintenance of the disorder is reinforced by three mechanisms: dietary restriction enhances the sense of being in control; aspects of starvation encourage further dietary restriction; concerns about shape and weight encourage restriction. The development and maintenance of bulimic symptomatology are explained by placing a high value on attaining an idealised weight and body shape accompanied by inaccurate beliefs. The cognitive model of specific family of origin experiences puts forward the development of -maladaptative expectancies for eating and thinness. Second, we discuss distortions in information processing. a) In feeding laboratories, bulimics show a wide range of caloric intake and a disruption of circadian feeding patterns. In overeating bulimics, large meals occurred mainly during afternoon and evening with high fat and carbohydrate intake, but the majority of meals were of normal size and frequency. Responsivity to food cues indicates that bulimics were more responsive to sight, smell and taste of their favourite binge food, and a greater responsivity was associated with increasing -cue salience. Eating disorder patients appear to have internalised a mediated social rule concerning "good food" and make drastic selections thus removing the possibility of choice of foodstuffs. b) Experimental processes: temporal factors in the processing of threat seem to be of importance in patients with high levels of eating psychopathology. There is no evidence for preattentive processing biases among anorectics. Changes in information processing speed after treatment were not linked to treatment condition or treatment response. c) Judgement and emotions: in eating disorder patients, distortions of depressogenic nature are found that influence the cognitive style; thoughts about eating, weight and shape are characterised by negative affective tone; negative emotions could account for bulimic behaviour; anxiety and distress are correlated to thought control strategies. Information treating seems to be impaired in a non-homogeneous way. d) Cognitive schemas are seriously maladaptive and not well investigated. In eating disorder patients, core beliefs are absolute, unconditional and dichotomous cognitions about oneself and the world. There are only few studies in this field moreover showing controversial results. Core beliefs can explain links between personality disorders and eating psychopathology. Pathological core beliefs have to be taken in to account because they influence the outcome and the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy. Third, the last part of this paper summarises actually available rating scales eva-luating distorted cognitions in eating disorders. There are different methods for evaluation: specific and non-specific self-report questionnaires, thought-sampling procedures, -methods derived from cognitive psychology. The Mizes Anorectic Cognition questionnaire (MAC) is a well-known self-rating scale with good psychometric properties. The revised form
A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images
Rewarding behaviours such as sexual activity, eating, nursing, parenting, social interactions, and play activity are conserved strongly in evolution, and they are essential for development and survival. All of these behaviours are enjoyable and represent pleasant experiences with a high reward value. Remarkably, rewarding behaviours activate the same brain circuits that mediate the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse
Liana Fattore; Miriam Melis; Paola Fadda; Marco Pistis; Walter Fratta
This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eatingbehaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image.
Viral encephalitides in infants are very often followed by serious mental manifestations. To be able experimentally to investigate this pathological phenomenon, we established the following model. Mice having recovered from an intracerebral infection with yellow fever virus 17 D (routine test for the potency of yellow fever vaccine) and giving the impression of normal and healthy animals were examined for their psychical behaviour. As unit of measurement we took the time for running through a labyrith (fig. 1). At the entrance of the labyrith in a box there was placed the population of animals of one cage (6 animals in maximum) and at the opposite side there was deposited the food. The animals going to be examined had been without food for 24 hours. The time was taken having passed from the moment of placing the animals up to the moment of their nibbing at the food. We examined 11 groups of mice having past routine tests for the potency of the yellow fever vaccine. One of them had been tested twice at an interval of 54 days (table 1). The 791 mice which had passed the encephalitic infection showed an average running time of 8.90 min. The 164 controls, however, had an average running time of 4.37 min (table 2). This difference is significant (p=greater than 1/1000). The average running time is proportional to the injected virus quantity (table 3). The significance of each single virus dilution to the group of normal animals is always greater than 1/1000. The significance is more than 1/100 for each single virus dilution between 10(-1) and 10(-3) compared with the virus dilution of 10(-5). Immediately after the clinical period (21 days), no difference could be observed between the single virus dilutions. After 76 days only, the test showed the above mentioned differences (table 4). Therefore, the mice having found their food after a long running time had more serious postencephalitic lesions than those having had a shorter running time. To prove this statement, we examined histologically brains of 14 mice which had found their food after 20 min on an average and those of 16 mice having had an average running time of 6.58 min. The histological evaluation was performed in regard to eight pathological characteristica. The results were recorded on tables for each slide with a histological preparation. For this we used squared paper (fig. 2, 3). For each brain of mice, the so-called "index of lesions" was calculated by the proportion of labelled and all squares. ..... PMID:1258562
The phenomenon of 'pro-eating disorder' websites remains relatively unexplored by researchers in published formats. Supporters of the sites claim beneficial effects but health professionals worry that the sites propagate disordered behaviours. The present study addressed visitor characteristics and perceived impact of visits. A 24-item questionnaire supplemented with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was developed and posted on the website of the UK mental health charity SANE. Participants who interacted with others on the sites and sought emotional support reported improved mental state after visiting, and for them, evidence was found of reduced impact from potentially damaging content. 'Silent browsing' in order to sustain a disorder was found to be mainly harmful. 'Silent browsers' may be particularly vulnerable to a worsening of their symptoms in the absence of beneficial effects from emotional support, but those who interact and find support could face a danger of a different sort. PMID:17676689
Picky eating is a relatively common problem during childhood, and parents lack clear strategies with which to decrease picky eating. This study examined whether increasing eating enjoyment and cooking enjoyment might give opportunities to decrease picky eating. Parents (n=305), mainly mothers with children between 6 and 12 years of age (53.8% boys; 46.2% girls), completed a questionnaire on pressure and restriction, eating enjoyment, and picky eating, and cooking enjoyment. Path analyses were performed to examine the mediating role of eating enjoyment. The final model provided a good fit to the data and explained 33% variance in picky eating. A strong inverse association between eating enjoyment and picky eating was found (?=-.44). Significant direct effects were found between cooking enjoyment and picky eating (?=-.16) and restriction and picky eating (?=.18). Eating enjoyment partly mediated the association between cooking enjoyment and picky eating. Results showed pressure had only an indirect effect on picky eating through eating enjoyment. Eating enjoyment serves as an important and central factor in children's picky-eating behavior. High controlling practices might create a negative environment around food and healthy eating and so decrease eating enjoyment and increase picky eating. PMID:22245133
Dieting is an important risk factor for disordered eating and eating disorders. Disordered eating occurs on a continuum from dieting and restrictive eating, abnormaleating behavior, and finally clinical eating disorders. The prevalence of eating disorders is increased in elite athletes and for this group the cause of starting to diet is related to (a) perception of the paradigm of appearance in the specific sport, (b) perceived performance improvements, and (c) sociocultural pressures for thinness or an "ideal" body. Athletes most at risk for disordered eating are those involved in sports emphasizing a thin body size/shape, a high power-to-weight ratio, and/or sports utilizing weight categories, such as in some high-intensity sports. In addition to dieting, personality factors, pressure to lose weight, frequent weight cycling, early start of sport-specific training, overtraining, injuries, and unfortunate coaching behavior, are important risk factors. To prevent disordered eating and eating disorders, the athletes have to practice healthy eating, and the medical staff of teams and parents must be able to recognize symptoms indicating risk for eating disorders. Coaches and leaders must accept that disordered eating can be a problem in the athletic community and that openness regarding this challenge is important. PMID:20840569
As can be seen throughout this book, childhood and adolescent obesity is of great concern. Obesity during childhood and adolescence\\u000a has been associated with physical, behavioral, and academic difficulties (Anderson & Butcher, 2006; Datar & Sturm, 2006).\\u000a This chapter will discuss developmental patterns related to normative eating habits as well as eating patterns associated\\u000a with problematic eating. Given that the
|The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…
Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.
The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several established measures. Depressive symptoms were greater in the
Kelly C. Allison; Carlos M. Grilo; Robin M. Masheb; Albert J. Stunkard
There is evidence from case studies suggesting that adapted dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders (ED) might improve disorder related complaints. Twenty-four women with BPD (9 with comorbid anorexia nervosa [AN] and 15 with bulimia nervosa [BN]), who already had failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments were consecutively admitted to an
Christoph Kröger; Ulrich Schweiger; Valerija Sipos; Sören Kliem; Ruediger Arnold; Tanja Schunert; Hans Reinecker
... to eat well but safely. When you eat eggs: Yolks and whites should be cooked solid. Do not ... cooked for at least 5 minutes. When eating chicken and other poultry: Cook whole pieces of poultry ...
... Dental Complications of Eating Disorders Dental Complications of Eating Disorders Dietary habits can and do play a role ... associated with dental complications that causes individuals with eating disorders to seek treatment. Signs & Symptoms Loss of tissue ...
Contemporary Western society emphasizes thinness for women, and the ideal female body size has become progressively smaller over the past half century. Meanwhile, the actual female body size has increased steadily, and rates of aberrant attitudes and behaviours surrounding food and weight have risen and tend to be much more common in overweight individuals. Thus disordered eating and excess body weight may perpetuate each other's development. We have synthesized the literature concerning female body size and disordered eating within a sociocultural context. Eight cognitions and behaviours that occur in women were examined: media exposure, weight stereotypes, body dissatisfaction, dieting, "fat talk," emotional eating, perfectionism, and the "superwoman" ideal. The research literature suggests that these factors may play a role in both disordered eating and obesity. Furthermore, these factors may induce triggers, exacerbated by perfectionism and excess weight, that increase the risk of binge eating. These triggers include interpersonal discrepancies, low interpersonal esteem, depressive affect, and dietary restraint. Comprehensive interventions targeting the indicated sociocultural cognitions and behaviours, combined with healthy living education, may be the most effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of disordered eating and obesity among females. PMID:21382233
Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are disorders characterized by abnormal patterns of weight regulation and eating behaviors, and by disturbances in attitudes and perceptions toward weight and body shape. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in regulating neural survival, development, function, and plasticity in the brain. Recent findings using heterozygous BDNF (±)
Objectives of review. The goal of this review is to highlight advances in research on the psychobiology of eating disorders during the period 2005- 2006. Summary of recent findings. Studies on the function of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine in eating disorders have demonstrated the presence of state- and trait-related alterations and their associations with behavioral and comorbid characteristics.
Angela Favaro; Palmiero Monteleone; Paolo Santonastaso; Mario Maj
ObjectiveSmoking has been reported as an appetite and weight control method in eating disorders; however, few studies have explored patterns of smoking across subtypes of eating disorders. The aim of this paper was to explore the patterns and prevalence of smoking behavior in 1524 women from two of the multisite Price Foundation Genetic studies.
Doris Anzengruber; Kelly L. Klump; Laura Thornton; Harry Brandt; Steve Crawford; Manfred M. Fichter; Katherine A. Halmi; Craig Johnson; Allan S. Kaplan; Maria LaVia; James Mitchell; Michael Strober; D. Blake Woodside; Alessandro Rotondo; Wade H. Berrettini; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
|Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a…
Eating disorders have become extremely common in today's society. The individuals most commonly affected by eating disorders have been women. This is often the result of societal demands, and can be greatly influenced by the relationships a woman has with her parents. The purpose of this study was to focus specifically on the father-daughter relationship of college women diagnosed with
|Case examples are presented of typical pressures felt by aerobic dance instructors, cheerleaders and majorettes, and wrestlers to illustrate how they may become susceptible to eating disorders. Suggestions are presented for coaches, parents, and administrators in preventing or intervening in eating disorders among athletes. (CB)|
The purpose of this study is to examine conformity to traditional feminine norms as a predictor of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology. Eight subscales of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) were examined as predictors of ED symptomatology as assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Findings indicate the Thinness subscale of the CFNI predicted significant portions of the variance
Melinda A. Green; Christopher M. Davids; Anna K. Skaggs; Cori M. Riopel; Jada J. Hallengren
Objectives of review. This chapter reviews research findings from 2005 and 2006 regarding dimensional personality traits, categorical personality disorders and dimensional personality pathology, and categorical person- ality subtypes in eating disorders. Summary of recent findings. Approaches linking specific personality traits to eating pathology have demonstrated the predictive validity of perfec- tionism and impulsiveness. Impulsive behaviors are associated with com- pulsivity
Studies the relationship between incest and bulimic behavior. Indicates incest victims are significantly more likely to binge, vomit, experience a loss of control over eating, and report body dissatisfaction than control subjects. Suggests incest may increase risk of bulimic behavior, and that eating problems may be a part of a larger pattern of…
Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of
The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eating disorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eating disorders and the level
Two studies investigated the stress–eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating
OBJECTIVE: To describe some biological, behavioural and psychological correlates of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and to determine the relationship between dietary restraint, binge eating, and leptin among obese women seeking treatment.DESIGN: Consecutive series of obese women enrolled in a clinical program for weight reduction treatment.SUBJECTS: Forty-two obese women. Eight participants met the criteria for ‘severe binge eating’ as measured by
A d'Amore; C Massignan; P Montera; A Moles; A De Lorenzo; S Scucchi
Although commonly associated with girls and women, eating disorders do not discriminate. School nurses need to be aware that male students also can suffer from the serious health effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia, anorexia athletica, and eating disorders not otherwise specified. Sports that focus on leanness and weight limits can add to a growing boy's risk of developing an eating disorder. Issues of body image and sexual development can complicate and can distort previously normal eating habits. Students may use powerful and dangerous drugs readily available via the Internet, including growth hormone, creatine, testosterone, and aminophylline, to build muscle and to eliminate fat, potentially causing serious health consequences. School nurses can partner with health and physical education teachers, coaches, school staff, parents, and students to identify and to support boys with eating disorders PMID:16419341
Bulimia nervosa and related syndromes are common, and occur in up to 5% of women who attend general practitioners. Young women in First World countries, particularly those who "diet", are at increased risk. Behaviours, such as binge eating and induced vomiting, are typically kept well hidden. Only a minority of those with these disorders present for treatment. General practitioners play a key role in primary and secondary prevention. Effective treatments include psychotherapies that focus on the patient's attitudes and relationships, not just the binge eatingbehaviour. About 50% of patients make a complete recovery, but the long term outcome is unknown. PMID:9847902
Hay, P J; Gilchrist, P N; Ben-Tovim, D I; Kalucy, R S; Walker, M K
Eating in response to an increasingly obesogenic environment has been strongly implicated as a salient aspect of eatingbehaviour, arguably influenced by learning and experience. Interindividual differences in susceptibility to weight gain may be due, in part, to variability in response to environmental triggers. The phenomenon of food craving may also be an important factor influencing appetite control. The present study tested a model, in which food craving was hypothesised to be an intervening causal variable, on a causal pathway between responsivity to environmental cues and the development of obesity. One hundred and twenty four participants (aged 21-71 years, 83 females and 41 males) completed the study. Participants completed the Dutch eatingbehaviour questionnaire (DEBQ), measuring external eating (externality), emotional eating (emotionality) and restrained eatingbehaviour (restraint), and an adapted form of the food craving inventory (FCI), assessing cravings for carbohydrate, fats, sweets and fast food fats, in addition to total food cravings. Initial analysis showed positive correlations between FCI-tot and body mass index (BMI), FCI-fats and BMI and FCI-fast food fats and BMI in both men and women, and between FCI-carbohydrates and BMI in men only. Multiple regression analyses showed externality as the principal predictor of food craving, which was greater in males compared to females, but differential for different food groups between genders. Restrained eating and cravings for fats and fast food fats were negatively associated in women only. As predicted, total cravings, and cravings for fats and fast food foods mediated the positive association between external eating and BMI. It is concluded that appetitive response to external cues as an important risk factor in appetite control is mediated through cravings for particular food groups and is gender-dependent. PMID:17349717
The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eatingbehaviours in men and women (N = 1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-up. Multivariate models indicated higher Perfectionism (p = .025), lower Interpersonal Distrust (p < .001), and higher Maturity Fears (p = .037) predicted increased risk for eating disorder onset at 10-year follow-up, but only Perfectionism (p = .004) predicted eating disorder maintenance. Differential prediction of eating disorder onset versus maintenance highlights potentially different psychological foci for prevention versus treatment efforts. PMID:23847146
Holland, Lauren A; Bodell, Lindsay P; Keel, Pamela K
|The Satter Eating Competence Model (ecSatter) conceptualizes eating competence as having 4 components: eating attitudes, food acceptance, regulation of food intake and body weight, and management of the eating context (including family meals). According to ecSatter, supporting nutritional health requires establishing and maintaining positive…
The results suggest that linear eaters, who eat at a constant rate, are unable to adjust their intake when challenged to eat at a rate that differs from their baseline rate. This is referred to as disinhibition, which is shown by those at risk for both eating disorders (too little food when eating slowly) and obesity (too much food when
The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eatingbehaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eatingbehaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. PMID:21986185
|The Revised Children's EatingBehaviour Inventory, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Krug Autism Behavior Checklist were used to assess eating/mealtime problems and related variables in 33 young high functioning autistic children (mean age 5 years, 3 months), 295 normally developing children (mean age 5 years, 8 months) and 11 young boys (mean…
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of amenorrhoea self-reported by patients who are suffering or recovering from eating or exercise disorders. METHODS: Menstrual status, eating and exercise behaviours and feelings, and weight history of 268 female patients, 16-40 years old and not taking oral contraception or hormone replacement, were assessed on admission to hospital or
Suzanne F. Abraham; Bianca Pettigrew; Catherine Boyd; Janice Russell
|Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…
Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eatingbehaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eatingbehaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.
Objective To examine the literature on binge eating to gain a better understanding of its biological foundations and their role in the eating disorders. Method Literature review and synthesis. Results Research using animal models has revealed several factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of binge eating. These factors, including stress, food restriction, the presence of palatable foods, and environmental conditioning, parallel many of the precursory circumstances leading to binge eating in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Discussion The animal literature has opened a new avenue to aid in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of binge eating. Future endeavors examining the genetic and environmental correlates of binge eating behavior will further contribute the understanding the biological foundations of binge eating and assist with establishing diagnostic criteria and the development of novel treatments for eating disorders marked by binge eating.
Emotional eating is part of the eating disorder spectrum. It requires specific, scientifically-valid treatments that address its biological, psychological, social\\/cultural, and spiritual aspects. Remuda's Emotional Eating Program offers this package for those who eat emotionally, whether overweight or not. Patients participate in a Biblically-based program that promotes healthy eating and a balanced lifestyle. The program integrates portions of Dialectical Behavior
Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are becoming more and more common in our society. Although they are psychiatric illnesses, there are many factors involved, including abnormal food behavior. Nutrients play an important role in the development and functionality of immunocompetent cells. An impaired immunocompetence has been shown to be an important causal factor in the increased
... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is the DASH Eating Plan? Dietary Approaches ... Rate This Content: Join us for a sodium Twitter chat on January 25! Have questions about sodium? ...
... to which someone brought cupcakes Stopping at a fast-food restaurant for breakfast and choosing high fat, high ... plan to buy (impulse buying) or eat at fast-food restaurants. Planning dinners at the beginning of the ...
Among seniors, food choice and related activities are affected by health status, biological changes wrought by aging and functional abilities, which are mediated in the larger arena by familial, social and economic factors. Determinants of healthy eating stem from individual and collective factors. Individual components include age, sex, education, physiological and health issues, psychological attributes, lifestyle practices, and knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours, in addition to other universal dietary determinants such as income, social status and culture. Collective determinants of healthy eating, such as accessible food labels, an appropriate food shopping environment, the marketing of the "healthy eating" message, adequate social support and provision of effective, community-based meal delivery services have the potential to mediate dietary habits and thus foster healthy eating. However, there is a startling paucity of research in this area, and this is particularly so in Canada. Using search and inclusion criteria and key search strings to guide the research, this article outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among Canadian seniors. In conclusion, dietary self-management persists in well, independent seniors without financial constraints, whatever their living arrangements, whereas nutritional risk is high among those in poor health and lacking in resources. Further study is necessary to clarify contributors to healthy eating in order to permit the development and evaluation of programs and services designed to encourage and facilitate healthy eating in older Canadians. PMID:16042161
In the beginning of 2014 a new service (residential and non residential) for eating disorders is being planned to open in Malta. A telephone based survey was conducted between 30 May and 11 June 2012. A randomized sample of 6000 of the population between 15 and 50 years old was chosen. 2.9 per cent of respondents have suffered from an eating disorder at some point in time. 2.0 percent of these had suffered from an eating disorder in the past, while the remaining (0.9 per cent) were suffering from an eating disorder at the time of study. Out of these 2,008 individuals participated in the study. Binge Eating was the most common eating disorder, with 55.8 per cent of respondents having this condition, followed by Anorexia (34.3 per cent) and Bulimia (13.3 per cent). These results were comparable to those of other European countries. Awareness of these conditions in the general population was generally good, higher in females and in those with a higher educational level. PMID:23995188
Prevailing models of the association between expressed emotion (EE) and relapse conceptualize EE as a form of stress for patients. In eating disorders (ED), there is no research addressed to evaluate the degree to which patients feel stress due to their relatives’ EE. It has been neither investigated how the EE and the subsequent stress relate to disordered behaviours and
Cristina Medina-Pradas; J. Blas Navarro; Steven. R. López; Antoni Grau; Jordi E. Obiols
... to Eating Disorders Factors That May Contribute to Eating Disorders Eating disorders are complex conditions that arise from a combination ... issues that can contribute to the development of eating disorders. NEDA acknowledges that there may be a difference ...
A disturbance in eating behavior is the defining characteristic of the clinical eating disorders, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder. Surprisingly little research has been devoted to assessing objectively the nature of the eating disturbances in these disorders, to elucidating what factors contribute to the development and persistence of these disturbances, or to describing how they change with treatment. This review, which is based on a Mars lecture delivered at the 2010 meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, reviews objective information about the nature of the disturbances of eating behavior in eating disorders. These data suggest that more detailed knowledge of eating behavior is an essential component of a full understanding of eating disorders and may provide a foundation for studies of pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment methods.
Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders.
Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. PMID:23756285
Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…
Obesity is a growing problem in the United States. Research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of obesity is vital. One past study examined four eating behaviors in relation to obesity: eating beyond satiety, snacking, night eating, and feeling hungry within three hours of eating. Only eating beyond satiety was associated with obesity. The present study examined these same eating
To investigate the relationship between eating problems and dissociation, 142 college women completed the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Bulimia Test, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Perceptual Alteration Scale, and a demographic information worksheet. The two eating-disorder inventories were strongly correlated (rs = .71). The two dissociation scales, however, were only moderately correlated (rs = .32), suggesting they are measuring different underlying experiences. The pattern of the correlations of the subscales of the dissociation scales with the eating disorder scales suggested that cognitive distortions were not as important in the relationship with eating disorders (all correlations were less than .21) as were dissociation of feelings and loss of control (the correlations for eating related subscales ranged as high as .51). These results were interpreted to suggest that dissociation of feelings might underlie eating problems. These results indicate the value of the use of hypnotherapy in working with eating-disordered clients. PMID:8203354
... Treatment Treatment Treatment is available. Recovery is possible. Eating disorders are serious health conditions that can be both physically and emotionally destructive. People with eating disorders need to seek professional help. Early diagnosis and ...
How can I eat without harming others? Motivated by this question, I ask Torontonians active in the local food movement about the food they eat and the work they do. Listening to their stories, I learn that \\
The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations between peer teasing and body dissatisfaction (BD), emotional symptoms, drive for thinness (DT), and abnormaleating behaviors, as well as to analyze the mediating role of gender and body mass index (BMI) in such disorders. We screened 57,997 school children between 13 and 16 years of age. Scores in weight-related teasing and competency-related teasing were higher among girls, as well as overweight or obese individuals. Weight-teasing correlated more strongly with abnormaleating attitudes and behaviors, whereas competency-teasing correlated with emotional symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that weight-teasing is significantly and independently associated with BD, especially in boys. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between weight-teasing and abnormaleating in girls, although its predictive value was very low (Exp(B) = 1.009). Mediation analysis and Path analysis showed the mediating role of DT in this association. Interventions on teasing do not seem to be a priority in eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:23241090
Increased and decreased platelet monoamineoxidase (MAO) activity have been reported in patients with eating disorders indicating abnormalities of the serotonin turnover. However, whether these findings are related to eating disorders or are rather reflecting the pathophysiology of borderline personality traits in these patients is still unknown. Platelet monoamineoxidase (MAO) activity and comorbid personality disorders were investigated in 72 patients with
Marina Díaz-Marsá; Jose L. Carrasco; Laura de Anta; Rosa Molina; Jerónimo Sáiz; Jesus Cesar; Juan J. López-Ibor
Differentiated examination of eating attitudes and behaviours of female and male German ballet school students with particular\\u000a reference to their age and analysis of common points with and differences from female Anorexia nervosa (A.n.) patients. The\\u000a Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) was used. Male and female adolescent students of a ballet school and a high school as well\\u000a as anorectic patients
K.-J. Neumärker; N. Bettle; O. Bettle; U. Dudeck; U. Neumärker
The current study sought to better characterize eating behavior, binge-eating behavior, and other potentially problematic, distracting behaviors while driving in patients with eating disorders. Forty patients with eating disorders who reported eating in their car at least once per week were included. Thirty subjects with eating disorders reported binge-eating while driving. A surprisingly high number of subjects reported engaging in
John Glass; James E Mitchell; Martina de Zwaan; Steve Wonderlich; Ross D Crosby; James Roerig; Melissa Burgard; Kathryn Lancaster; Janeen Voxland
This project will get kids to explore what it means to be healthy. The students will go through various websites to learn about healthy eating and exercise. Students you will answer the various questions and go to each website to explore what you need to do to be a healthy eater and what your body needs to function daily. Use the following website to explore your body and what the foods you eat really do for your body. Why you need certain foods Use ...
Objective The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in a representative school population of\\u000a early adolescents of both sexes and to evaluate persistence and incidence after two years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method An initial sample of 1336 (mean age = 11.37) was assessed in a two-phase design. The Children Eating Attitudes Test was used\\u000a to select 258 participants (T1) from
|Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
|In the past 10 years, eating disorders among adolescent females have become of increasing concern. To assess the prevalence of eating disorders, unusual eating-related behaviors and attitudes, and psychological states among college women, 677 women, from three private northeastern United States colleges, completed a questionnaire assessing…
Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…
As central nervous system serotonergic dysregulation has been postulated to exist in both eating and aggression disorders, we hypothesized that anger attacks would be more common among patients with eating disorders than among control subjects. In addition, we wanted to examine possible relationships between the presence of anger attacks and the type or severity of the eating disorder. Subjects were
Maurizio Fava; Sandra M. Rappe; Jennifer West; David B. Herzog
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
The characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied in ballet dancers in full-time training and compared with other young women at school. Dancers had higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test. Dancers were more likely to have an eating disorder when strict modified DSM-3-R criteria were applied. Currently 1 dancer (1.6%) and no student had anorexia nervosa, 1 dancer (1.6%) and 3 students (1.3%) had bulimia nervosa and 5 dancers (8.3%) and 9 students (4.2%) had an unclassified eating disorder. Another dancer had been treated for anorexia nervosa in the past. One dancer was treated for bulimia nervosa and 6 for weight loss. Dancers were more likely to have been told to increase their body weight. Dancers were not more likely to be afraid of losing control of their weight and becoming obese if they attempted weight gain, to ignore the advice to gain weight or resist gaining weight. Regular self-induced vomiting was reported by 4% of women. Dancers are at risk for the development of eating disorders. Ballet dancers are under pressure to maintain low body weight. The low body weight and menstrual disturbance found among young dancers during training are two of the characteristics of anorexia nervosa Ballet dancers use behaviours aimed at weight control and weight loss. In dancers and professional groups under intense pressure to diet, low body weight and amenorrhoea are not sufficient criteria to diagnose anorexia nervosa. These behaviours can result in binge eating and multiple behaviours aimed at preventing binge eating. Whether the characteristics of bulimia among dancers are sufficient for a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa to be made is unknown. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified among young ballet dancers in full-time ballet training and to provide information about the risk of development of eating disorders among young women required to maintain below average body weight while continuing above average exercise. PMID:8865353
The behaviour of an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) eating from an adult Linnaeus’ two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) was described. Observation was made at the Viruá National Park of northern Brazil. The sloth had an estimated weight of 7kg and a portion of its hairs were plucked after the kill. The ocelot began to eat its prey by the braincase. Three days
Miguel Delibes; Javier Calzada; Cuauhtémoc Chávez; Eloy Revilla; Beatriz A. Ribeiro; Denise Prado; Claudia Keller; Francisco Palomares
|Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eatingbehaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…
Rationale Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the control of eatingbehaviour by inhibiting food intake. Obese women with binge-eating disorder\\u000a (OB-BED) were recently found to have reduced 5-HT transporter binding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a successful treatment on 5-HT transporters in OB-BED.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The 5-HT transporter binding of seven OB-BED was measured by single-photon emission
Liisa I. Tammela; Aila Rissanen; Jyrki T. Kuikka; Leila J. Karhunen; Kim A. Bergström; Eila Repo-Tiihonen; Hannu Naukkarinen; Esko Vanninen; Jari Tiihonen; Matti Uusitupa
The purpose of this explorative research was to examine how the COPE (Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced Inventory),\\u000a an established instrument for measuring coping styles, and EDI-2 (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), a widely used questionnaire\\u000a for assessing psychological and behavioural features of eating disorders (ED), discriminate among healthy individuals, inpatients\\u000a with anorexia nervosa (AN) and inpatients with bulimia nervosa (BN). A
Valentina Villa; Gian Mauro Manzoni; Francesco Pagnini; Gianluca Castelnuovo; Gian Luca Cesa; Enrico Molinari
Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are putative eating disorders frequently seen in obese individuals. Data suggest that BED fulfills criteria for a mental disorder. Criteria for NES are evolving but at present do not require distress or functional impairment. It remains unclear whether BED and NES, as they are currently defined, are optimally useful for characterizing
OBJECTIVE. To assess whether weight-related teasing predicts the development of binge eating, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and frequent dieting among male and female adolescents. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted with an ethnically and socioeconom- ically diverse sample of 2516 adolescents who completed surveys at both time 1 (1998 -1999) and time 2 (2003-2004) of the Project EAT (Eating Among
Jess Haines; Dianne Neumark-Sztainer; Marla E. Eisenberg; Peter J. Hannan
... of fat called omega-3 (oh-MAY-guh) fatty acids. Research suggests that eating omega-3 fatty acids lowers your chances of dying from heart disease. ... mackerel, anchovies, and sardines) have more omega-3 fatty acids than lean fish (such as cod, haddock, and ...
Objectives of review. This review summarizes twin and genetic studies of eating disorders (EDs) published in 2005 and 2006. Summary of recent findings. Twin studies highlight important gender differences in genetic liability to ED symptoms and possible shared genetic transmission between EDs and anxiety disorders. Association and linkage analyses have suggested the presence of distinct genetic risk factors for anorexia
Kristen M Culbert; Jennifer D Slane; Kelly L Klump
The Internet has become a means of disseminating information to consumers about nutrition. Numerous Web sites from universities, clinics, hospitals, and non-profit organizations offer nutrition advice to consumers. Although Internet users should beware of misinformation, nutrition Web sites and newsgroups can provide a wealth of information if used with caution. Sites covering such topics as healthy eating, food values, weight
Clinical applications of electroencephalography (EEG) are used with different objectives, EEG being a noninvasive and painless procedure. In respect of eating disorders, in the 1950s a new line of study about the neurological bases of anorexia nervosa was started and has since been developed. The purpose of this review is to update the existing literature data on the main findings in respect of EEG in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. Despite the fact that weight gain tends to normalize some brain dysfunctions assessed by means of EEG, the specific effect of gaining weight remains controversial. Different studies have reported that cortical dysfunctions can be found in patients with anorexia nervosa even after weight gain, whereas others have reported a normalization of EEG in respect of the initial reduced alpha/ increased beta power in those patients with refeeding. Findings of studies that have analyzed the possible relationship between eating disorders and depression, based on sleep EEG disturbances, do not support the idea of eating disorders as a variant of depression or affective disorders. Some EEG findings are very consistent with previous neuroimaging results on patients with anorexia nervosa, reporting neural disturbances in response to stimuli that are relevant to the pathology (eg, stimuli like food exposure, different emotional situations, or body images).
Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with receptors may be persistent after respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 recovering from an eating disorder.
|The psychosomatic theory of obesity assumes that binging, eating in response to emotional distress, is characteristic of obese individuals, yet experimental attempts to demonstrate binging have yielded weak support for this assumption. The incidence of binging was investigated by means of structured interviews on food habits with 41 male and 39…
This Geotimes article highlights recent work done by Derek Lovley on the microbe Geobacter. The article discusses the ability of Geobacter to eat metal wastes as well as the prospect of using Geobacter as a microbial fuel cell. The web site also contains links to the Geotimes' home page, the American Geological Institute (AGI) home, and other useful AGI links.
|Explains the value of harvesting garden weeds and eating them. Discusses antioxidant and other nutritional qualities of weeds, weeds that are especially useful as raw or cooked vegetables, the importance of weed identification, and the dangers of weed-killing herbicides. Highlights purslane. (PVD)|
... better in any other skill, sometimes you need the support of a coach, trainer, or family member to get you where you need to ... Do? Eating Disorders Our Friend Might Have Anorexia. How Can We Help? What Can I Do About ...
Most people with a tracheostomy tube will be able to eat normally. However, swallowing food or liquid may feel differently. ... When you get your tracheostomy tube, or trach, you will not be able ... Instead, you will get nutrients through an IV (a intravenous ...
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
|Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Children residing in care (hereafter referred to as childcare residents) are a risk-group for emotional disturbances and behaviour problems. Based on existing knowledge of risk factors one would also expect this population to be a high-risk group for eating disorders and related body-image disorders. The objective of this study was to describe pathological eatingbehaviour, dysfunctional body focusing and psychological
The present study explored the relationships among dietary style (ranging from meat eating to veganism), cognitive restraint and feminist values. Two-hundred and twenty-seven participants with varying dietary styles completed the restraint subscale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Attitudes Towards Feminism Scale (ATFS). Results indicated that among males, those who are high in cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those low in cognitive restraint. Among women who are high in feminist values, those with high cognitive restraint are more likely to exhibit a vegetarian dietary style than those with low cognitive restraint, whereas for women low in feminist values those with high and low cognitive restraint are equally likely to exhibit vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary styles. It is suggested that for some individuals, adoption of a vegetarian dietary style is an attempt to mask their dieting behaviour from others. PMID:9989924
Self-starvation as well as binge eating appears to be far more complex than the uniformity of eating disorders clinical features let us predict. One reason is that these "body-centred" behaviours generate severe biological effects, the complications playing a great part in the recovery process. Furthermore, these disorders which origins are likely to be multi-factorial seem to arise from physiological (ephebic modifications, gene pool...), family and sociocultural factors, psychological features predominating in a synergy always leading to a specificity that cannot be ignored. The progression towards mixed forms made the distinction between anorexia and bulimia nervosa, insufficiently accurate, leading to examine the addictive dimension these troubles have in common. Despite different theoretical surroundings, it has been suggested that an insecure style of attachment may be highly implicated in the disorders occurring. Moreover, a great number of surveys insisted on identity disturbance, and predisposition to intemperate dependency, resulting from the poor quality of internalized relationships. From that viewpoint, both fasting and binge eating appear as a form of addiction meant to mitigate the defense mechanisms failure and the flaws of the psychological organization. Impulsivity appears as a way to avoid processing affects, acting-out being here to balance the ego weakness deriving from the lack of inner security. The fluctuations in the sense of self lead them to self-damaging behaviours meant to vent their pervasive, chronic feeling of emptiness. Occurring whereas the subject still depends on his parents, puberty reactivates a vivid anguish of passivity, and generates attempts to take the control back. Therefore, these patients re-enact in their dealings with food and their body dissatisfaction the pattern of unstable relationships established with their kin, characterized by alternating between merging and rejection, engulfment and remoteness. PMID:18361275
Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) selectively eat more carbohydrates (CHO), particularly sweets but also starch-rich foods, during their depression in winter. The Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was administered to female SAD patients, healthy female controls, and female medical students to determine their eating style, together with the modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ+). SAD patients showed higher values for "emotional" (EMOT) eating than the students, and these in turn had higher values than the controls. In comparison to controls, SAD patients and students head high values for the factor "external" (EXT) eating, but there was no difference between the groups with respect to "restraint" (REST) eating. This is in strong contrast to patients with bulimia and anorexia nervosa, who are high REST eaters, indicating that SAD patients do not have a similar eating disorder. Additional items showed that SAD patients selectively eat sweets under emotionally difficult conditions (when depressed, anxious, or lonely). Configural frequency analysis showed that seasonal body weight change (SBWC) is high in subjects with high EMOT and REST eating together with a high body mass index (BMI). This result is in accordance with the concept of disinhibition of dietary restraint in extreme emotional situations, e.g., the depressive state. PMID:9056125
Much remains to be understood about the etiology of eating disorders. There is substantial evidence that reproductive hormones, specifically estrogens, play a direct role in normal food intake. Evidence is increasing that the reproductive hormones play a role in the abnormal food intake associated with eating disorders. For example, there is an inverse association between estradiol and eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary studies also suggest that hormone augmentation may be a beneficial adjunct to the standard treatment of choice for eating disorders. However, research is limited, so definitive conclusions about the benefit of hormone augmentation in treatment cannot be drawn. Future research, with a focus on translational studies, should continue to explore the role of reproductive hormones in the vulnerability to and maintenance of eating disorders. PMID:23585773
Baker, Jessica H; Girdler, Susan S; Bulik, Cynthia M
Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders. PMID:22930387
Eating epilepsy (EE), where seizures are triggered by eating, is rare and has not been reported in the Gulf region. In EE, the ictal semiology includes partial or generalised seizures. Focal brain changes on imaging, if present, are often confined to the temporal lobe or perisylvian region. Therapeutic options, especially in those patients who are refractory to pharmacotherapy, have not been well-established. We report a series of five patients with EE from Oman, a country located in the eastern part of the Arabian Gulf region, and highlight the usefulness of temporal lobectomy in one patient who had medically-intractable EE. Surgical intervention could be considered as a potential therapeutic option in carefully selected patients with medically-intractable seizures.
Gujjar, Arunodaya R.; Jacob, P. C.; Ramanchandiran, Nandhagopal; Al-Asmi, Abdullah
Objective To develop an index of overall diet quality.Design The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total possible index score is 100.Methods\\/subjects Data from the 1989
EILEEN T KENNEDY; JAMES OHLS; STEVEN CARLSON; KATHRYN FLEMING
The Food and Nutrition Service of the US Department of Agriculture offers online educational material as part of "Eat Smart. Play Hard." -- a public information campaign designed to promote healthy living in American children. While the site and its materials are geared for use by state and local program coordinators, anyone is welcome to download the available information and activity sheets. Click on Cool Stuff for Kids for nutrition-related puzzles and games. Parents Place offers informational brochures and an educational bookmark.
Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating disorders…
|Emotional eating occurs frequently in individuals with eating disorders and is an overlooked factor within addictions research. The present study identified the relationship between emotional eating, substance use, and eating disorders, and assessed the usefulness of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) for individuals with concurrent eating…
Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating.
Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.
Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...
... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...
Objective: Discrimination can have a negative impact on psychological well-being, attitudes and behaviour. This research evaluates the impact of experiences of weight-based discrimination upon emotional eating and body dissatisfaction, and also explores whether people's beliefs about an ingroup's social consensus concerning how favourably overweight people are regarded can moderate the relationship between experiences of discrimination and negative eating and weight-related
In order to establish norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among young adult women, the questionnaire was administered to a large general population sample of women aged 18–42 yr in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) region of Australia. Normative data were derived for EDE-Q subscales and for the occurrence of specific eating disorder behaviours, for each of five
BackgroundPeople with eating disorders (ED) frequently present with inflexible behaviours, including eating related issues which contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Small scale studies point to difficulties with cognitive set-shifting as a basis. Using larger scale studies will lend robustness to these data.Methodology\\/Principal Findings542 participants were included in the dataset as follows: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) n = 171; Bulimia
Kate Tchanturia; Helen Davies; Marion Roberts; Amy Harrison; Michiko Nakazato; Ulrike Schmidt; Janet Treasure; Robin Morris
\\u000a The eating disorders anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder and allied diagnoses such as eating\\u000a disorder not otherwise specified are common, complex psychiatric disorders with a significant genetic component. Aetiology\\u000a is unknown, but both phenotypic characteristics and genetic factors appear to be shared across these disorders, and indeed\\u000a patients often change between diagnostic categories. Molecular studies have
Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1). Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2) following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a) the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability) and (b) Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency). Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134) occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p < 0.001) while for two scores ICCs were < 0.4 (p < 0.05). Spearman correlations ranged from 0.34–0.48 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha 0.50–0.80. Three scores were modified based on this analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found no evidence of a difference between means (p > 0.05) for 10/12 (test-retest reliability) and 3/7 (validity) scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.
Wilson, Annabelle M; Magarey, Anthea M; Mastersson, Nadia
|A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.|
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, commonly involve a dysregulation of behavior (e.g., a lack or excess of inhibition and impulsive eating patterns) that is suggestive of prefrontal dysfunction. Functional neuro-imaging studies show that prefrontal-subcortical systems play a role in eating behavior and appetite in healthy individuals, and that people with eating disorders have altered activity in these systems. Eating behavior is often disturbed by illnesses and injuries that impinge upon prefrontal-subcortical systems. This study examined relationships between executive functioning and eating behavior in healthy individuals using validated behavioral rating scales (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale and Eating Inventory). Correlations demonstrated that increased dysexecutive traits were associated with disinhibited eating and greater food cravings. There was also a positive association with cognitive restraint of eating, suggesting that increased compensatory behaviors follow disinhibited eating. These psychometric findings reinforce those of other methodologies, supporting a role for prefrontal systems in eating. PMID:14660070
A study to examine the kind of eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) among adolescents encountered during treatment at an outpatient eating disorder clinic is conducted. Results indicate that EDNOS is more predominant among adolescents seeking treatment for eating disorders.
Eddy, Kamryn T.; Doyle, Angela Celio; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B.; Le Grange, Daniel
Background Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is still unknown. In the present study, we conducted interspecific phylogenetic analyses for all nine known species in the tribe Perissodini (seven Perissodus and two Haplotaxodon species) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses of the nuclear DNA. On the basis of the resultant phylogenetic frameworks, the evolution of their feeding habits was traced using data from analyses of stomach contents, habitat depths, and observations of oral jaw tooth morphology. Results AFLP analyses resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the Perissodini, strongly supporting monophyly for each species. The character reconstruction of feeding ecology based on the AFLP tree suggested that scale eating evolved from general carnivorous feeding to highly specialized scale eating. Furthermore, scale eating is suggested to have evolved in deepwater habitats in the lake. Oral jaw tooth shape was also estimated to have diverged in step with specialization for scale eating. Conclusion The present evolutionary analyses of feeding ecology and morphology based on the obtained phylogenetic tree demonstrate for the first time the evolutionary process leading from generalised to highly specialized scale eating, with diversification in feeding morphology and behaviour among species.
Takahashi, Rieko; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hori, Michio
Platelet behaviour has been studied in a group of men and women treated with a variety of oestrogens. Although platelet aggregation is affected, changes in platelet electrophoretic behaviour are more striking. The administration of oral contraceptives containing oestrogens induces an abnormality in platelets and plasma lipids similar to that seen in patients with arterial disease.
There is currently no clear understanding of the ways in which predisposing and maintaining variables exert their influence\\u000a on eating attitudes and behaviours. This study investigated two potentially meaningful variables: parental bonding and perfectionistic\\u000a schemas. Both variables have been implicated in the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (e.g. Bruch 1978; Davis et al. 2000). A cross-sectional design was employed,
Suzanne Deas; Kevin Power; Paula Collin; Alex Yellowlees; David Grierson
Aims Increased body weight and disordered eating attitudes/behaviours are common in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Disordered eating increases risks for diabetes-related complications. This study aimed to identify a rapid screening approach for disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescent girls with T1D and to examine the relationship between disordered eating and body weight in this population. Methods Ninety adolescent girls, aged 12–19 years, provided a self-assessment of weight status. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess attitudes/behaviours toward food and eating, appetitive responsiveness to the food environment, disinhibition in eating and weight history. Results Forty-three per cent of participants reported a history of overweight. Compared with participants who reported never being overweight, those who reported ever being overweight were significantly older, scored significantly higher on all measures of disordered eating attitudes/behaviours (P ? 0.009) and were 4.8 times more likely to be currently overweight or obese (P < 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was similar between those who did and did not report ever being overweight. Conclusions Because of the ill-health effects of disordered eating and the higher rate of overweight in adolescent girls with T1D, effective screening tools are warranted. The single question ‘Have you ever been overweight?’ may be sufficient as a first question to screen for those at high risk for disordered eating attitudes/behaviours and to provide early intervention and prevention.
Markowitz, J. T.; Lowe, M. R.; Volkening, L. K.; Laffel, L. M. B.
Problem dietary patterns in adolescent girls could lead to poor nutrient intake and subsequent adverse health effects. Little is known about actual food intake patterns of those with subclinical eating disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships between food intake patterns of adolescent girls and indicators of problem eating behaviors. Nine hundred eighty adolescent girls (X
M. K. Hoy; I. Contento; J. Books-Gunn; J. Graber; M. P. Warren
Non-human animal studies demonstrate relationships between stress and selective intake of palatable food. In humans, exposure to laboratory stressors and self-reported stress are associated with greater food intake. Large studies have yet to examine chronic stress exposure and eating behavior. The current study assessed the relationship between stress (perceived and chronic), drive to eat, and reported food frequency intake (nutritious food vs. palatable non-nutritious food) in women ranging from normal weight to obese (N = 457). Greater reported stress, both exposure and perception, was associated with indices of greater drive to eat— including feelings of disinhibited eating, binge eating, hunger, and more ineffective attempts to control eating (rigid restraint; r’s from .11 to .36, p ’s < .05). These data suggest that stress exposure may lead to a stronger drive to eat and may be one factor promoting excessive weight gain. Relationships between stress and eating behavior are of importance to public health given the concurrent increase in reported stress and obesity rates.
A cognitive behavioural theory of the maintenance of anorexia nervosa is proposed. It is argued that an extreme need to control eating is the central feature of the disorder, and that in Western societies a tendency to judge self-worth in terms of shape and weight is superimposed on this need for self-control. The theory represents a synthesis and extension of
Earlier studies assessing the possible moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on the relation between stress and actual food intake have obtained mixed results. The null findings in some of these studies might be attributed to misclassification of participants due to the use of the median splits and/or insufficient participants with extreme scores. The objective of the two current studies was to test whether it is possible to predict distress-induced eating with a self-report emotional eating scale by using extreme scorers. In study 1 (n=45) we used a between-subjects design and emotional eating was assessed after food intake during a negative or a neutral mood (induced by a movie). In study 2 (n=47) we used a within-subjects design and emotional eating was assessed well before food intake, which occurred after a control or stress task (Trier Social Stress Task). The main outcome measure was actual food intake. In both studies self-reported emotional eating significantly moderated the relation between distress and food intake. As expected, low emotional eaters ate less during the sad movie or after stress than during the neutral movie or after the control task, whereas high emotional eaters ate more. No such moderator effect was found for emotional eating in the entire sample (n=124) of study 1 using the median-split procedure or the full range of emotional eating scores. We conclude that it is possible to predict distress-induced food intake using self-reports of emotional eating provided that the participants have sufficiently extreme emotional eating scores. PMID:22037008
van Strien, Tatjana; Herman, C Peter; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; de Weerth, Carolina
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between family meals and parental encouragement of healthy eating overall and by ethnicity. DESIGN: Family meal frequency was measured with one item asking how many times in the past 7 d all or most of the family ate a meal together, which was then categorized to represent three levels of family meals (?2 times, 3-6 times and ?7 times). Parental encouragement of healthy eating assessed how often parents encouraged the student to eat fruits and vegetables, drink water, eat wholegrain bread, eat breakfast and drink low-fat milk (never to always). An overall scale of parental encouragement of healthy eating was created. Mixed-effect regression analyses were run controlling for gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic status. Moderation by ethnicity was explored. SETTING: Middle schools. SUBJECTS: Participants included 2895 US eighth grade students participating in the Central Texas CATCH (Coordinated Approach To Child Health) Middle School Project (mean age 13·9 years; 24·5 % White, 52·7 % Hispanic, 13·0 % African-American, 9·8 % Other; 51·6 % female). RESULTS: Eating more family meals was significantly associated with having parents who encouraged healthy eatingbehaviours (P for trend <0·001). The number of family meals was positively associated with encouragement of each of the healthy eatingbehaviours (P for trend <0·0001). There were no differences in the relationships by ethnicity of the students. CONCLUSIONS: Families who eat together are more likely to encourage healthy eating in general. Interventions which promote family meals may include tips for parents to increase discussions about healthy eating. PMID:23651952
Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E; Springer, Andrew E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H
\\u000a \\u000a Objectives: This chapter reviews brain imaging findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa which characterize brain circuitry that may\\u000a contribute to the pathophysiology of eating disorders (EDs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of recent findings: Recent imaging studies provide evidence of disturbed gustatory processing in EDs which involve the anterior insula as well\\u000a as striatal regions. These results raise the possibility that individuals with anorexia
Walter H. Kaye; Angela Wagner; Julie L. Fudge; Martin Paulus
Many aspects of the motivation to eat are involved in the impairment of adequate food intake and body weight control. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by adopting widely used eating questionnaires, the Three Factors EatingBehaviour Questionnaire (TFEQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the associations of different antipsychotic medications with the food attitudes of 153 schizophrenic patients: we compared 93 individuals treated with atypical antipsychotics, 27 treated with conventional neuroleptics and 33 untreated patients. We did not find any difference according to sex, but the mean body mass index varied significantly among the three groups of patients. The DEBQ external eating factor was higher in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics than in patients who received conventional neuroleptics (P=0.035). The TFEQ disinhibition and DEBQ emotional eating scores tended to change among the three types of treatment. Patients with metabolic syndrome (19%) had lower DEBQ external eating scores (P=0.044) and a tendency of higher TFEQ disinhibition scores. The TFEQ disinhibition and hunger scores increased according to the body mass index (P=0.003; P=0.017). The main outcome of this study is that the patients treated with atypical antipsychotics were more reactive to external eating cues, which could partly explain the higher weight gain often reported in these patients. PMID:19606055
Sentissi, Othman; Viala, Annie; Bourdel, Marie C; Kaminski, Flaminia; Bellisle, France; Olié, Jean P; Poirier, Marie F
Coping skills are a subject that college students face everyday. These coping skills may be healthy or unhealthy. Eating disorders may be classified as both a coping skill and a disease. The prevalence of eating disorders is disproportionate among men and women attending college, and there is a wide continuum that includes the commonly recognized disorders, such as anorexia and
Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…
|Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…
Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.
Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…
Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy…
Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.
Summary The role of socio-cultural factors in the pathogenesis of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia has been the object of recent interest. The phenomena, mainly described in the West, were partly attributed to the idealisation of thinness in Western culture. The paper reviews published epidemiological research from non-western countries in the area of eating disorders to elucidate the difference
Adolescent athletes are especially vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviors. Risk factors include participation in sports where weight and lean body type are important, high-intensity training, pressure from coaches, and training and dieting beginning at an early age. Medical complications associated with these unhealthy dietary and weight-control practices and eating disorders can be potentially dangerous. Prevention strategies include minimizing the
Dilip R. Patel; Donald E. Greydanus; Helen D. Pratt; Elaine L. Phillips
The association between the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and substance use disorder (SUD) has been widely investigated, however, our understanding of the relationship between the disorders remains unclear. Explanatory models have tended to focus on behaviors, yet, little is currently known about the patterns of association among disordered eating and substance use behaviors. In
To better understand how dental practitioners identify, counsel, and refer patients with eating disorders. A questionnaire was mailed to 625 dental practitioners, 54 (19%) of the dentists and 69 (20%) of the dental hygienists responded. Most dental practitioners were aware of eating disorder patients in their practices and most discussed their findings with their patients or parents. However, one of
MELISSA BURGARD; AMY CANEVELLO; JAMES MITCHELL; MARTINA DE ZWAAN; ROSS CROSBY; STEVE WONDERLICH; JAMES ROERIG; NANCY ADDY
|This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Investigates male attitudes towards healthy eating and makes comparisons with a group of women of similar age and socio-economic status. Claims the results indicate that men are less likely to use books and magazines as a source of nutrition information and are less likely to buy or eat products advertised as “low calorie”, “diet” or “lite”. However, products which are
Purpose – This study aims to explore perceptions of healthy\\/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted of 152 seventh, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings – Results showed that respondents frequently ate
Kara Chan; Gerard Prendergast; Alice Grønhøj; Tino Bech-Larsen
|Across the UK there is a great deal of concern about the quality of children's diets and the growing problem of children's obesity. There is also anxiety about the rise of dieting and eating disorders at younger ages. Both obesity and eating disorders can be treated through educational, medical and therapeutic means with varying degrees of…
Because of the unpredictability of food in nature, humans have evolved to eat to their physiological limits when food is plentiful. Discrepancies between the environment in which the hunger and eating system evolved and the food-replete environments in which many people live have led to the current problem of overconsumption. This evolutionary…
Pinel, John P. J.; Assanand, Sunaina; Lehman, Darrin R.
Hypothesized that individual differences in eating behavior based on the distinction between obese and normal Ss could be demonstrated within a population of normal Ss classified as to the extent of restraint chronically exercised with respect to eating. Ss were 42 female college students. Restrained Ss resembled the obese behaviorally, and unrestrained Ss resembled normals. This demonstration was effected in
|Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family…
Wilson, G. Terence; Grilo, Carlos M.; Vitousek, Kelly M.
This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…
Men with anorexia and bulimia nervosa account for 10% of people with this condition and for binge eating disorder they account for as many as 25%. Risk factors in men include athletics, sexuality, psychiatric co-morbidity and negative life experiences. Differences in eating disorders exist between men and women relating to behavior and psychological symptoms. Men are much more likely than
Theodore E. Weltzin; Nicolette Weisensel; David Franczyk; Kevin Burnett; Christine Klitz; Pamela Bean
Objective: To evaluate the relation between lesions of various brain structures and the development of eating disorders and thus inform the neurobiological research on the aetiology of these mental illnesses.Method: We systematically reviewed 54 previously published case reports of eating disorders with brain damage. Lesion location, presence of typical psychopathology, and evidence suggestive of causal association were recorded.Results: Although simple
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances in understanding the etiology of eating disorders require
Objectives of review. This chapter reviews articles published in 2005 and 2006 on the influence of culture, ethnicity and gender on eating disorders. Specific social environmental factors, including media portrayals of body ideals and peer and family environment, are also reviewed. Summary of recent findings. Certain non-Western values may increase the risk of eating disorders. Ethnicity and gender may moderate
Significant progress has been achieved in the development and evaluation of evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders over the past 25 years. Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, and existing evidence supports the use of a specific form of family therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Important challenges remain. Even the
G. Terence Wilson; Carlos M. Grilo; Kelly M. Vitousek
This study aims at exploring the prevalence of eating disorders in a sample of adolescents living in a community in Northeast Italy. It takes into account age and gender differences in a mixed male-female sample of 1000 school-aged adolescents corresponding to 10% of the young population aged 15-19 years of the district. The study was based on self-reported questionnaires, including the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE), and the Body Attitudes Test (BAT). The cases at risk were identified on the basis of the suggested validated cutoff for a clinically relevant syndrome. Females scored higher than males at all ages, body mass index levels, and socio-economic status levels. We found 100 females (15.8%) and 8 males (2.8%) scoring higher than the suggested cutoff for caseness on the EAT (cutoff=30); 26 females (4.1%) and 1 male (0.3%) scoring higher than the suggested cutoff for caseness on the BITE (cutoff=20); 287 females (45.5%) and 24 males (8.6%) scoring higher than the suggested cutoff for caseness on the BAT (cutoff=36). We did not find any gradient between age and socioeconomic status and the scores on the eating disorder inventories. BAT scores predicted with sharp precision the presence of an abnormal psychometric pattern on the EAT and the BITE. The prevalence of psychometric patterns that indicate an eating disorder seems in our adolescent sample higher than those reported in previous similar studies carried out in the North of Italy. The use of self-report inventories is a limitation in drawing definitive conclusions on the rates of eating disorder in this area; however, bodily dissatisfaction seems to be psychologically linked to abnormaleating patterns. PMID:12860368
Miotto, Paola; De Coppi, Monica; Frezza, Michela; Preti, Antonio
During the last 50 years, eating disorders have developed to a complicated and widespread medical and social issue. The latest research results indicate that eating disorders have a quite complicated and multifactorial etiology. According to the multifactorial etiological model, the impact of mass media can be regarded mainly as a precipitating factor. The literature review showed that mass media have a considerable impact on the development and perpetuation of eating disorders. Mass media contribute to the promotion of the thinness ideal as a way to achieve social approval, recognition and success. Mass media also promote dieting and food deprivation, as a successful way of life or as a socially agreeable practice. Furthermore, the literature review showed that mass media remain the main source of information about eating disorders. Considering the above result, mass media could play a major role in the promotion of prevention practices and early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21971198
Background Picky eating is relatively common among infants and children, often causing anxiety for parents and caregivers. The purpose of this study was to determine the key aspects of picky eating and feeding difficulties among children aged 1 to 10?years in Singapore and the impact on their parents or caregivers. Methods In this survey, 407 parents or grandparents who are the primary caregivers of children aged 1 to 10?years in Singapore were interviewed via telephone using a structured questionnaire of 36 questions. Respondents were randomly selected from the Singapore Residential Telephone Directory to meet a pre-set interlocked quota of race, sex, and age to represent the population. Quantitative data collected included demographics, body weight and height, respondents’ perceptions of the duration of picky eating, the child’s eating habits and perceived health status, respondents’ attitudes towards picky eating, coping strategies and the impact on family relationships. Bonferroni z-test and t-test were used to indicate significance across groups or demographics, while Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of association between variables. Results One-half of the respondents reported that the child was ‘all the time’ (25.1%) or sometimes (24.1%) a picky eater. When aided with a list of typical behaviours, the respondent-reported prevalence of picky eating or feeding difficulties occurring ‘all the time’ increased to 49.6%. The highest number of respondents first noticed the child’s picky eatingbehaviours or feeding difficulties as early as 1?year (20.0%). Children 3 to 10?years [p?=?0.022], children of professional respondents (p?=?0.019), and children with a family history of picky eating (p?=?0.03) were significantly more likely to be picky eaters. Overall, all ‘picky eating’ and all ‘feeding difficulty’ behaviours occurring ‘all the time’ were significantly associated with caregiver stress when feeding (p?=?0.000026 and p?=?0.000055, respectively) and with a negative impact on family relationships (p?=?0.011 and p?=?0.00000012, respectively). Conclusions The perceived prevalence and duration of picky eatingbehaviours and feeding difficulties are high. The impact on the respondent and family relationships appears to be significant in Singapore. Parental concerns about picky eating should be adequately assessed and managed in routine clinic consultations.
Epidemiological studies propose that extension of the human lifespan or the reduction of age associated diseases may be achieved by physical exercise, caloric restriction, and by consumption of certain substances such as resveratrol, selenium, flavonoids, zinc, omega 3 unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins E and C, Ginkgobiloba extracts, aspirin, green tea catechins, antioxidants in general, and even by light caffeine or alcohol consumption. Though intriguing, these studies only show correlative (not causative) effects between the application of the particular substance and longevity. On the other hand, obesity is yet a strong menace to the western society and it will emerge even more so throughout the next decades according to the prediction of the WHO. Although obesity is considered a severe problem, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms causing the associated degeneration of organs and finally death. Nutrient related adverse consequences for health and thus ageing may be due to a high sugar or high fat diet, excessive alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke amongst others. In this article we examine the interdependencies of eating and ageing and suggest yeast, one of the most successful ageing models, as an easy tool to elucidate the molecular pathways from eating to ageing. The conservation of most ageing pathways in yeast and their easy genetic tractability may provide a chance to discriminate between the correlative and causative effects of nutrition on ageing. PMID:20079384
Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating as measured by the Eating Attitude Test (EAT26) among mothers of girls diagnosed with various types of eating disorders, in comparison with mothers of depressive girls and their relationship with daughters’ results 14 years after the beginning of the Polish political and cultural transformation of 1989. Material/Methods The data of 68 mothers and their daughters were used in statistical analysis (anorexia nervosa restrictive type: 18, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type: 12, bulimia: 14, depression: 24). The mean age in the group of mothers was 43.5 (SD 5.3), daughters: 16.7 (SD 1.4). Results In the group of mothers, the results of EAT26 test were lower than results of the general population of Polish females or patients’ mothers obtained in a different cultural context. Results from girls with an eating disorder diagnosis considerably exceed the mean result of Polish population studies of teenagers. There were no statistically significant differences between the EAT26 results of mothers of girls with various types of eating disorders and mothers of depressive girls. Sociocultural variables such as education and place of residence of mothers also did not differentiate the studied groups and did not have a significant influence on attitudes towards weight and body shape presented by the studied mothers. Conclusions The obtained results may suggest that in the studied population, the social background of mothers and disturbances of their own mothers’ attitudes towards weight and body shape were not an important and specific risk factor in the development of their daughters’ eating disorders.
Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Jozefik, Barbara; Salapa, Kinga
Israel presents a unique opportunity to study the role of socio-cultural parameters in the development of mental disturbances because of the exceptional diversity of the Israeli society. In the present review, we aimed to analyse the current state of disordered eating in Israel by means of an extensive literature review. The following are the main findings of our review: The frequency of maladaptive eating among female and male Israeli Jewish adolescents is higher in comparison to many other Westernized countries. Among different Jewish sub-populations, Kibbutz women have been found until recently to show higher rates of disordered eating in comparison to other Israeli samples. Recent studies show no such difference between Kibbutz members and the general Israeli population. No clear-cut findings emerge with respect to the influence of immigration and degree of Jewish religious affiliation on the occurrence of disordered eating. In contrast, disordered eating is less prevalent in Israeli-Arabs compared with Israeli-Jews. Moreover, diverse Israeli-Arab groups show different rates of disordered eating. We discuss the high rate of disordered eating in Israeli youth in light of Israel being a culture in transition that is constantly exposed to the risk of terrorism. The changes in the rates of disordered eating in the Kibbutzim are discussed in light of the dramatic societal changes occurring in these communities within a relatively brief period of time. The low rates of disordered eating in Israeli-Arabs reflect the traditional non-Westernized characteristics of their society, whereas the differences between diverse Arab sub-populations depend upon the degree of exposure to Westernized influences and the presence of conflicts between modern and traditional values. PMID:18613253
Background: Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events, eating fruits, smoking and hashish or ecstasy use in a sample of Greek adolescents. Age and gender patterns are considered. Methods: Participants were 5991 Greek school pupils who responded to questionnaires assessing behaviour and attitudes towards
Objective Disordered eating occurs in women at both weight extremes of anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity. Cortisol, peptide YY (PYY), Ieptin, and ghrelin are hormones involved in appetite and feeding behavior that vary with weight and body fat. Abnormal levels of these hormones have been reported in women with AN, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), and obesity. The relationship between appetite-regulating hormones and disordered eating psychopathology is unknown. We therefore studied the relationship between orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones and disordered eating psychopathology in women across a range of weights. Design A cross-sectional study of 65 women, 18–45 years: 16 with AN, 12 normal-weight with HA, 17 overweight or obese, and 20 normal-weight in good health. Methods Two validated measures of disordered eating psychopathology, the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), were administered. Fasting PYY, Ieptin, and ghrelin levels were measured; Cortisol levels were pooled from serum samples obtained every 20 min from 2000 to 0800 h. Results Cortisol and PYY levels were positively associated with disordered eating psychopathology including restraint, eating concerns, and body image disturbance, independent of body mass index (BMI). Although Ieptin levels were negatively associated with disordered eating psychopathology, these relationships were not significant after controlling for BMI. Ghrelin levels were generally not associated with EDE-Q or EDI-2 scores. Conclusions Higher levels of Cortisol and PYY are associated with disordered eating psychopathology independent of BMI in women across the weight spectrum, suggesting that abnormalities in appetite regulation may be associated with specific eating disorder pathologies.
Background Low doses of dopamine agonists (DA) and levodopa are effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). A range of impulse control and compulsive behaviours (ICBs) have been reported following the use of DAs and levodopa in patients with Parkinson's disease. With this study we sought to assess the cross-sectional prevalence of impulse control behaviours (ICBs) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and to determine factors associated with ICBs in a population cohort in Germany. Methods Several questionnaires based on validated and previously used instruments for assessment of ICBs were mailed out to patients being treated for RLS. Final diagnoses of ICBs were based on stringent diagnostic criteria after psychiatric interviews were performed. Results 10/140 RLS patients of a clinical cohort (7.1%) were finally diagnosed with ICBs, 8 of 10 on dopamine agonist (DA) therapy, 2 of 10 on levodopa. 8 of the 10 affected patients showed more than one type of abnormalbehaviour. Among those who responded to the questionnaires 6/140 [4.3%] revealed binge eating, 5/140 [3.6%] compulsive shopping, 3/140 [2.1%] pathological gambling, 3/140 [2.1%] punding, and 2/140 [1.4%] hypersexuality in psychiatric assessments. Among those who did not respond to questionnaires, 32 were randomly selected and interviewed: only 1 patient showed positive criteria of ICBs with compulsive shopping and binge eating. ICBs were associated with higher DA dose (p = 0.001), younger RLS onset (p = 0.04), history of experimental drug use (p = 0.002), female gender (p = 0.04) and a family history of gambling disorders (p = 0.02), which accounted for 52% of the risk variance. Conclusion RLS patients treated with dopaminergic agents and dopamine agonists in particular, should be forewarned of potential side effects. A careful history of risk factors should be taken.
This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for eating disorders. In general, hypotheses derived from cognitive-behavioral theories have been
Donald A. Williamson; Marney A. White; Emily York-Crowe; Tiffany M. Stewart
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings
The purpose of this study was to document disordered eating patterns and prevalence rates to assess the current extent of the problem among college students. The Undergraduate Student Health Risk Appraisal Survey, with a Disordered Eating Subscale, generated such information. A randomized stratified study (n=320) of students at a major university ascertained disordered eating patterns, documented diagnosed eating disorders, and
Zolpidem is associated with an amnestic sleep-related eating disorder, but not with compulsive eating behaviors. A 57-year-old woman receiving zolpidem for insomnia showed compulsive evening eating behavior under a wakeful state. Her compulsive evening eating behavior disappeared when zolpidem treatment was halted. Here, we report her case. PMID:24045611
Kim, Hyung Ki; Kwon, Jun Tack; Baek, Jeehun; Park, Duck Su; Yang, Kwang Ik
An eating disorder is an illness that causes serious disturbances to your everyday diet, such as eating extremely small amounts of food or severely overeating. A person with an eating disorder may have started out just eating smaller or larger amounts of ...
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are disorders of eating and weight-related behavior that together afflict some 1–3% of women in the United States. One of the remarkable features about each of the eating disorders is how persistent the disordered eating behavior becomes once it has begun. Substantial psychological, social, and physiological disturbances are associated with eating disorders, and
Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.
Central dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the motivational aspects of eating and food choices. This review focuses on human and animal data examining the importance of dopamine on binge eating behaviors. Early works examining dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of bulimic individuals suggested decreased dopamine turnover during the active phase of the illness. While neuroimaging studies of dopamine mechanisms in bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are limited, genetic studies in humans have implicated an increased frequency of dopamine transporter and associated D2 receptor polymorphisms with binge pathology. Recent examinations of rodent models of dietary-induced binge eating (DIBE) have investigated plausible dopamine mechanisms involved in sustaining binge eating behaviors. In DIBE models, highly palatable foods (fats, sugars and their combination), as well as restricted access conditions appear to promote ingestive responses and result in sustained dopamine stimulation within the nucleus accumbens. Taken together with studies examining the comorbidity of illicit drug use and eating disorders, the data reviewed here support a role for dopamine in perpetuating the compulsive feeding patterns of BN and BED. As such, we propose that sustained stimulation of the dopamine systems by bingeing promoted by preexisting conditions (e.g., genetic traits, dietary restraint, stress, etc.) results in progressive impairments of dopamine signaling. To disrupt this vicious cycle, novel research-based treatment options aiming at the neural substrates of compulsive eating patterns are necessary.
OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to identify both the ingredients for success and the potential impediments to social marketing effectiveness for healthy eatingbehaviour, focusing on studies conducted over the last 10 years. DESIGN: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining seventeen databases to identify studies reporting the use of social marketing to address healthy eating. Thirty-four empirical studies were analysed to examine the effectiveness of social marketing interventions to improve healthy eatingbehaviour using Andreasen's (2002) social marketing benchmark criteria. Statistical analysis was undertaken to quantitatively evaluate whether effectiveness varied between study categories (subsets). SETTING: Healthy eating empirical studies published from 2000 onwards. SUBJECTS: Empirical studies that self-identified as social marketing. RESULTS: Sixteen social marketing studies (subset 1) were identified in the review. These were systematic studies which sought to change behaviour through tailored solutions (e.g. use of marketing tools beyond communication was clearly evident) that delivered value to the target audience. For these sixteen studies, the mean number of criteria identified was five. Six studies met all six criteria. Positive change to healthy eatingbehaviour was found in fourteen of sixteen studies. The sixteen studies that met the definition of social marketing used significantly more of Andreasen's (2002) criteria and were more effective in achieving behavioural change than the eighteen studies in subset 2. CONCLUSIONS: Social marketing is an involved process and it is important that studies identifying as social marketing adopt social marketing benchmark criteria. Social marketing when employed to its full extent offers the potential to change healthy eating. PMID:23711161
THE use of behavioural mutants of Drosophila to elucidate functions of the nervous system has produced several nonphototactic mutants snowing abnormality in the recorded waveform of the electroretinogram (ERG)1,2. We are working with a mutant strain of D. melanogaster which, though behaving phototactically positive in a T-maze under low ambient light, is visually impaired and behaves as though blind in
We recently reported that the centromedian-parafascicular thalamic complex (CM-Pf) degenerates in Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The contribution of such thalamic pathology to disease symptoms has not yet been established. The present study therefore investigated the behavioural impact of lesioning the corresponding thalamic region (termed Pf) on a range of behaviours present in rodents. There were four surgical groups: (1) sham medial forebrain bundle (mfb)+sham Pf, (2) 6-OHDA mfb lesion+sham Pf, (3) sham mfb+NMDA Pf lesion, (4) 6-OHDA+NMDA Pf lesions. Posture, sensory functions and apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry were assessed before and after each surgery. Other assessments performed including a timed motivational task, grooming behaviours and piloerection. 6-OHDA lesions induced postural (ipsilateral curling and head position biases), sensorimotor (increased latency to respond to tactile stimulation of the contralateral side when eating or grooming) and rotational abnormalities (contralateral circling after apomorphine). The main effects of combined 6-OHDA+Pf lesions were improved performance in a motivational task (decreased latency to retrieve reward) but worsened piloerection, relative to animals with either 6-OHDA or Pf lesions alone. The thalamic zone common to all lesioned animals involved the posterior Pf. Our data suggests that the posterior CM-Pf may be involved in motivational responses and autonomic dysfunction in parkinsonian disorders. PMID:15970217
Henderson, J M; Schleimer, S B; Allbutt, H; Dabholkar, V; Abela, D; Jovic, J; Quinlivan, M
The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to compare the dietary history and the 7-day record method to assess dietary habits in obese women. The second goal was to investigate whether eating behavior characteristics influence self-reported dietary intake. The study took place at the Obesity Outpatient Clinic, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. Subjects were 137 obese women with a mean age of 40 +/- 12 years and a mean body mass index of 38.2 +/- 6.0 kg/m2. Dietary intake was assessed both by the dietary history and by the 7-day record method. Resting energy expenditure was measured by continuous indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level was estimated using the Baecke questionnaire. To study different aspects of eatingbehaviour, the "Dutch EatingBehaviour Questionnaire" was used. Absolute energy intake, as assessed by the 7-day record, was consistently lower than with the dietary history method. Sixteen percent of the obese women were overreporters while 66% clearly underreported energy intake, using dietary history as standard method. Restrained eating was associated with underreporting, while all aspects of emotional and external eating behavior were significantly higher in the group of overreporters. No relationship could be observed between the degree of underreporting and age, body weight or body mass index. Energy intake, as assessed by the dietary history method, correlated better with measured energy expenditure in obese subjects than the 7-day record. Eating behavior characteristics influence the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake in obese women. PMID:16777809
Athletic identity is the extent to which an individual identifies with being an athlete. Strong "running" role identity may contribute to increased restrictive dieting behaviours, potentially placing such individuals at risk for eating disorders. In this study, we examined differences in eating and exercise behaviours/attitudes and athletic identity in obligatory versus non-obligatory runners. Male and female participants completed a battery of questionnaires including the Eating Disorder Inventory, Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). OEQ scores ?50 were indicative of obligatory exercise. The non-obligatory runners (n = 82) and obligatory runners (n = 91) were compared on the various measures. Obligatory runners scored significantly higher (P < 0.002) on all of the eating attitudes/disorder measures, and the AIMS (P ? 0.006). Scores on the AIMS were correlated with all disordered eating measures (P < 0.05). Exercising to maintain identification with the running role may be associated with pathological eating and training practices. PMID:21644168
Research examining the impact of work on health behaviours has rarely provided a complete picture of the impact across health behaviours. Twenty-four employees were interviewed about their smoking, drinking, exercise and eating. Themes included the impact of the work environment, including policy, convenience and workplace cultural norms; business events effecting one's routine and again convenience and workplace cultural norms; being busy at work effecting time and energy for healthy behaviour; and work stress leading to health behaviours being used as coping responses on bad and good days. The impact of work is similar across health behaviours and is primarily detrimental. PMID:22992583
BACKGROUND: Individuals who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa refuse to maintain a minimally normal body weight, are intensely afraid of gaining weight and exhibit a significant disturbance in the perception of the shape and size of their body. Postmenarchal females with this disorder are amenorrohic. In the Binge-Eating\\/Purging subtype individuals regularly engage in binge eating and purging behaviour (i.e self-induced vomiting
Emilia Manzato; Maria Mazzullo; Malvina Gualandi; Tatiana Zanetti; Giovanni Scanelli
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
Objective: To compare the eating and sleep-wake patterns of persons with the night eating syndrome (NES) with those of matched control subjects.Research Methods and Procedures: Forty-six overweight\\/obese NES subjects (mean age 43.3 ± 9.8 years; 32 women) and 43 similar controls (mean age 39.0 ± 11.0 years; 28 women) wore wrist actigraphs for 7 days and completed sleep and food
John P. O’Reardon; Brenda L. Ringel; David F. Dinges; Kelly Costello Allison; Naomi L. Rogers; Nicole S. Martino; Albert J. Stunkard
Objective To compare the prevalence of eating disorders between Western and non-Western countries. Method Potential references were identified through an English-language literature search using Medline and Medscape articles. Results Prevalence rates in Western countries for anorexia nervosa ranged from 0.1% to 5.7% in female subjects. Prevalence rates for bulimia nervosa ranged from 0% to 2.1% in males and from 0.3% to 7.3% in female subjects in Western countries. Prevalence rates in non-Western countries for bulimia nervosa ranged from 0.46% to 3.2% in female subjects. Studies of eating attitudes indicate abnormaleating attitudes in non-Western countries have been gradually increasing. Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorders in non-Western countries is lower than that of the Western countries but appears to be increasing.
This systematic review summarises and critically appraises the literature on structural magnetic resonance imaging in people with a current or past eating disorder. Studies using voxel-based morphometry image analysis were included. Ten studies reported on a total of 236 people with a current or past eating disorder and 257 healthy controls. Sample heterogeneity prohibited a meta-analytic approach. The findings do not unequivocally indicate grey or white matter volume abnormalities in people with an eating disorder. Nevertheless, these preliminary data suggest that, compared with healthy controls, people with anorexia nervosa have decreased grey matter in a range of brain regions and that those with bulimia nervosa have increased grey matter volumes in frontal and ventral striatal areas. Research in the recovery phase and longitudinal studies suggest that potential brain tissue abnormalities may recover with clinical improvement. Overall, as the available data are inconclusive, further efforts in this field are warranted. PMID:22052722
Van den Eynde, Frederique; Suda, Masashi; Broadbent, Hannah; Guillaume, Sébastien; Van den Eynde, Magali; Steiger, Howard; Israel, Mimi; Berlim, Marcelo; Giampietro, Vincent; Simmons, Andrew; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain; Schmidt, Ulrike
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of a discriminant function that predicts risk of pathogenic eating in comparison with a standard self report measure (EAT) and a clinical interview. In addition, to determine the effectiveness of this discriminant function using a variety of collegiate athletes. Methods: A total of 319 participants were asked to complete a series of self report measures that assessed dietary practices. In addition, anthropometric measures were obtained, and a random sample of 15% participated in a structured clinical interview. Results: Correlational analyses indicated that the discriminant function categorisation of risk was significantly related to both the clinical interview and EAT (p?0.05). The discriminant function was accurate in predicting risk category in this diverse group of athletes, particularly with respect to those at low risk (83.1%) and those at high risk (72.7%). Conclusion: This information may be helpful in the development of a simple, accessible tool to identify athletes at risk of engaging in pathogenic eatingbehaviours.
DePalma, M; Koszewski, W; Romani, W; Case, J; Zuiderhof, N; McCoy, P
The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, Cooper and Fairburn 1987) is the most widely used instrument for the diagnosis of eating disorders. The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence...
Binge-eating disorder (BED), characterized by binge meals without purging afterward, is found in about 30% of obese individuals seeking treatment. The study objective was to ascertain abnormalities in hormones influencing appetite in BED, especially ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating peptide, which was expected to be elevated. Measurements were made of plasma insulin, leptin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, as well as glucose following
ObjectiveWeight increase is a problem in women with bipolar disorder (BD). Furthermore, there is evidence that both binge eating disorder (BED) and menstrual cycle abnormalities occur more frequently in women with affective disorders than in the general population. We investigated whether there is a clinical link between the two disorders and menstrual cycle.
Nikola Schoofs; Frank Chen; Peter Bräunig; Thomas Stamm; Stephanie Krüger
Clinical evidence suggests that initial attempts to regulate weight gain quickly become habit-like in individuals with eating disorders. These behaviors are controlled excessively in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and are controlled more intermittently, with periods of lost control, in patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). We suspect that abnormalities in frontostriatal systems that subserve self-regulatory control and habit learning may
Rachel Marsh; Joanna E. Steinglass; Kara Graziano; Bradley S. Peterson; B. Timothy Walsh
The distinguishing pathology of eating disorders is obsessive concern with food, fat, and diet, yet these characteristics are not abnormal in our culture, particularly for women. We are inundated with entreaties to diet, to lose weight, and to keep weight off. Our media is saturated with images of the slender ideal, the fantastical promises of what rewards are bestowed on
An understanding of how infant eatingbehaviour relates to later obesity is required if interventions in infancy are to be attempted. The aim of this paper is to review findings from the Gateshead Millennium Study to describe (i) what we have already established about the relationship between infant feeding transitions, infancy weight gain and eatingbehaviour and (ii) describe new analyses that examine how infant eatingbehaviour and temperament relate to infancy weight gain and childhood adiposity. The Gateshead Millennium Study recruited 1029 infants at birth and parents completed questionnaires five times in the first year. We have already described how starting solids and ceasing breast-feeding seems to be a response to rapid early weight gain, rather than a cause, and that parents identify and respond to the individual appetite characteristics of their child. A number of questions about eatingbehaviour at 12 months were used to construct an infancy eating avidity score that was positively associated with height at age 7-8 years, but not with an adiposity index constructed using bioelectrical impedance, waist and skinfolds. Infancy eating avidity score was associated with greater fussiness and lower satiety responsivity on the Child EatingBehaviour Questionnaire at age 6-8 years. Temperament measured at age 6 weeks and 8 months showed no consistent associations with either infancy weight gain or adiposity at 6-8 years. While infancy may seem a logical time to intervene with children at risk of future obesity, the collective findings from this substantial population-based study largely suggest otherwise. PMID:21861948
Wright, Charlotte M; Cox, Katherine Marie; Le Couteur, Ann
Eating disorders and chronic pain are among the most vexing problems encountered by the clinician.When both problems occur\\u000a concurrently in a patient, adequate assessment and implementation of an effective treatment program become most complex.
Ching King Chieng; Ronald J. Kulich; Scott Streusels
|The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)|
Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
|Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)|
Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.
Acute rhabdomyolysis results from susceptible persons eating quail during the migrating season. The etiology is unknown. Muscular exercise is an important precipitating factor. In this paper the literature on this and related rhabdomyolytic and hemolytic ...
Have you ever wondered how some birds with long beaks eat and drink? Well, researchers have discovered a new way that some shorebirds get their food, and it's more complicated than you might have thought!
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)
Most female football players are healthy. However, recent findings from our studies on Norwegian female elite athletes also show that football players are dieting and experiencing eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction and stress fractures. Dieting behaviour and lack of knowledge of the energy needs of the athlete often leads to energy deficit, menstrual dysfunction and increased risk of bone mass loss. Although dieting, eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction are less common than in many other sports, it is important to be aware of the problem as eating disorders in female athletes can easily be missed. Therefore, individuals, including the players themselves, coaches, administrators and family members, who are involved in competitive football, should be educated about the three interrelated components of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mass), and strategies should be developed to prevent, recognise and treat the triad components.
The majority of children between one and five years of age who are brought in by their parents for refusing to eat are healthy and have an appetite that is appropriate for their age and growth rate. Unrealistic parental expectations may result in unnecessary concern, and inappropriate threats or punishments may aggravate a child’s refusal to eat. A detailed history and general physical examination are necessary to rule out acute and chronic illnesses. A food diary and assessment of parental expectations about eatingbehaviour should be completed. Where the child’s ‘refusal’ to eat is found to be related to unrealistic expectations, parents should be reassured and counselled about the normal growth and development of children at this age.
Leung, Alexander KC; Marchand, Valerie; Sauve, Reginald S
Binge eating is a central diagnostic feature of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED), yet the phenomenon of bingeing has not been adequately defined, and there is considerable variability in how individuals label eating episodes as binges. We examined the agreement among binge-eating individuals, non-eating-disordered peers, and professional dietitians over whether particular eating episodes were binges. Twenty-nine females with
William G. Johnson; Rebecca E. Carr-Nangle; Douglas W. Nangle; Martin M. Antony; Claudia Zayfert
This cross-sectional study examined binge eating and binge drinking behaviours analysing their association with the process of identity formation in adolescence and individual tendency towards conformism. The sample consisted of 1500 Italian students (660 boys and 840 girls) attending high school. The average age of the students was 17.31 years (SD = 1.34; range: 17–19). They completed self-report measures assessing binge behaviours,
Fiorenzo Laghi; Francesca Liga; Emma Baumgartner; Roberto Baiocco
The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa traditionally have been viewed as sociocultural in origin. However, recent behavioral genetic findings suggest substantial genetic influence on these disorders. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infancy, but initial results are promising. This article reviews findings from family, twin, and molecular genetic studies that support substantial genetic influences on disordered eating and highlights additional areas for future research.
To assess sexuality, personality, and eating pathology in women with eating disorders (EDs), we asked a random sample of 234 clinicians to describe an ED patient (age 16–65). Restricting AN patients tended to be childlike and prim\\/proper, while BN patients tended to be flirtatious and promiscuous. A constricted\\/overcontrolled personality predicted a childlike sexuality independent of AN diagnosis, and an undercontrolled,
EATS is a study that was designed to validate the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), a new and improved food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed by NCI staff. The study was novel in that it examined not only the DHQ, but also two other widely used FFQs. In addition, within the overall EATS study, investigators evaluated the validity of two new short dietary assessment instruments developed by NCI staff.
\\u000a Experts agree that the most effective treatment of children with eating disorders is multisystem based and combines the expertise\\u000a of several disciplines. Specialists in pediatrics, internal medicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry, and nutrition,\\u000a for example, may collaborate with one another at various relevant points in the course of treatment. Eating disorders, unique\\u000a among mental\\/emotional conditions, influence a child’s development in broad,
Humans and other warm-blooded animals living with continuous access to a variety of good-tasting foods tend to eat too much and suffer ill health as a result—a finding that is incompatible with the widely held view that hunger and eating are compensatory processes that function to maintain the body’s energy resources at a set point. The authors argue that because
John P. J. Pinel; Sunaina Assanand; Darrin R. Lehman
A number of theories have been proposed to explain the substantial comorbidity between the eating disorders and the substance-related disorders. Among them is the claim that self-starvation—exacerbated by excessive exercising—is itself an addiction to the body’s endogenous opioids. While efforts have also been made to identify an “addictive personality,” attempts to establish whether eating-disordered patients share these characteristics have met
Results. The results supported the sociocultural model among both male and female adolescents. Perceived pressure to lose weight was directly associated with eatingbehaviour, as well as indirectly associated through social comparisons, internalization and body dissatisfaction. However, social comparisons were most strongly related to body dissatisfaction among adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight. Conclusions. The findings indicate that models of
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa among youngsters mean heavy disturbances in eatingbehaviour, but they can be cured. The physician in charge of the treatment has to set up a contract with the patient and his family. The family has to be reassured because she is not responsible. PMID:12412190
The aim of this article is to discuss the problem of social role of women in contemporary China from eating and drinking behaviour perspective. The article has been written on the base of long term empirical study conducted in contemporary Beijing. The author is focusing on two issues he has noticed during his research: the growing number of young Chinese
This study investigated anxiety before, during, and after eating, as well as during an earlier neutral activity, in anorexic, bulimic, and normal-weight females. Anxiety was assessed by self-report (ratings of pleasure, arousal, and anxiety), psychophysiological (heart rate and skin conductance), and behavioural (food consumption) measures. Controls reported little or no anxiety and ate almost all of the test meal. The
Barbara U. Buree; Demetrios Papageorgis; Robert D. Hare
|Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between…
OBJECTIVE: Binge eating disorder (BED) and the night eating syndrome (NES) have been linked to obesity. This review summarizes their characteristics, implications of their diagnoses and treatment outcomes.METHOD: Selective review of the literature on BED and NES.RESULTS: BED was proposed as a distinctive disorder on the basis of two large multisite studies in the early 1990s. It is associated with
Objective:To study the phenomenon that obese subjects show considerable individual variability in their reported relationships between eating and sensations of hunger and fullness.Design:A laboratory study of the relationship between eatingbehaviour traits and the episodic oscillations in sensations of hunger and fullness in response to obligatory, fixed energy breakfast (481 kcal) and lunch (675 kcal) meals.Subjects:Obese subjects were divided into
The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an adaptation of DBT for the treatment of BED (DBT-BED) featuring mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance training. A small study by Telch and colleagues found that modified DBT-BED was more effective than a wait list control in eliminating binge eating. A second study showed that DBT-BED resulted in a significantly greater remission rate from binge eating at posttreatment than a group comparison treatment designed to control for nonspecific therapeutic factors such as treatment alliance and expectations.50 This difference between the two treatments disappeared over a 12-month follow-up, indicating the absence of DBT-BED-specific influences on long-term outcomes. Both CBT and IPT have been shown to be more effective in eliminating binge eating than BWL in controlled, comparative clinical trials. Nonetheless, BWL has been effective in reducing binge eating and associated eating problems in BED patients in some studies and might be suitable for treatment of BED patients without high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology. A finding worthy of future research is the apparent predictive value of early treatment response to BWL, indicating when BWL is likely to prove effective or not. No evidence supports the concern that BWL's emphasis on moderate caloric restriction either triggers or exacerbates binge eating in individuals with BED. Initially, CBTgsh was recommended as a feasible first-line treatment that might be sufficient treatment for a limited subset of patients in a stepped care approach. More recent research, however, has shown that CBTgsh seems to be as effective as a specialty therapy, such as IPT, with a majority of BED patients. The subset of patients that did not respond well to CBTgsh in this research were those with a high level of specific eating disorder psychopathology, as noted. A plausible explanation for this moderator effect is that the original Fairburn CBTgsh manual does not include an explicit emphasis on body shape and weight concerns. Subsequent implementation of this treatment has incorporated a module that dire
This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. PMID:19932143
Differentiated examination of eating attitudes and behaviours of female and male German ballet school students with particular reference to their age and analysis of common points with and differences from female Anorexia nervosa (A.n.) patients. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) was used. Male and female adolescent students of a ballet school and a high school as well as anorectic patients participated in this study. EAT totals exhibited by female and male ballet school students were higher with significance than those recorded from high school students. EAT totals > 30 were reached by 21.6% of female ballet school students but by no male ballet school student at all. In the context of certain EAT items, a number of differences are described between female ballet school students, on the one hand, and female A.n. patients, on the other. No case was identifiable which would satisfy ICD-10 criteria for Anorexia nervosa. Attitudes and behaviours of adolescent female and male ballet dancers toward eating and their own body should be judged with due consideration of their specific living conditions. PMID:9563809
Neumärker, K J; Bettle, N; Bettle, O; Dudeck, U; Neumärker, U
Rewarding behaviours such as sexual activity, eating, nursing, parenting, social interactions, and play activity are conserved strongly in evolution, and they are essential for development and survival. All of these behaviours are enjoyable and represent pleasant experiences with a high reward value. Remarkably, rewarding behaviours activate the same brain circuits that mediate the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse and of other forms of addiction, such as gambling and food addiction. Given the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in a variety of physiological functions of the nervous system, it is not surprising that it takes part in the complex machinery that regulates gratification and perception of pleasure. In this review, we focus first on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the modulation of neural activity and synaptic functions in brain regions that are involved in natural and nonnatural rewards (namely, the ventral tegmental area, striatum, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex). Then, we examine the role of the endocannabinoid system in modulating behaviours that directly or indirectly activate these brain reward pathways. More specifically, current knowledge of the effects of the pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on natural (eating, sexual behaviour, parenting, and social play) and pathological (gambling) rewarding behaviours is summarised and discussed. PMID:20353776
Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Pistis, Marco; Fratta, Walter
Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine
Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine
Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified, are psychiatric disorders with physical complications. Several factors may contribute to the onset of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, including a familial predisposition to these disorders as well as individual personality characteristics. Dissatisfaction with body shape and an overwhelming desire to be thin are considered as risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and diuretics, and psychiatric morbidity. They include xerosis, lanugolike body hair, telogen effluvium, carotenoderma, acne, hyperpigmentation, seborrheic dermatitis, acrocyanosis, perniosis, petechiae, livedo reticularis, interdigital intertrigo, paronychia, acquired striae distensae, and acral coldness. The most characteristic cutaneous sign of vomiting is Russell sign (knuckle calluses). Symptoms due to laxative or diuretic abuse include adverse reactions to drugs. Symptoms due to psychiatric morbidity (artefacta) include the consequences of self-induced trauma. The role of the dermatologist in the management of eating disorders is to make an early diagnosis of the "hidden" signs of eating disorders in patients who tend to minimize or deny their disorder. PMID:23245978
Ballet dancers are frequently regarded as having a higher risk of developing eating disorders (ED). This paper describes the eating habits and prevalence of ED in a group of female students from a dance academy in Rome, Italy. Participants were assessed with an array of measures conventionally employed (usually singly) in epidemiological studies of ED, namely: an anthropometrical-nutritional evaluation, the EAT, EDI, and BUT questionnaires, and the EDE interview. The 160 students who agreed to participate were evaluated anthropometrically, nutritionally and psychometrically and 83 underwent the EDE structured interview. Their calorie intake was insufficient in all age groups in terms of the nutritional standards required by their daily physical activity. EAT, EDI and BUT enhanced concerns about dieting, food intake control and body image. The significance of the correlations between calorie intake and the EAT Dieting and the EDI Perfectionism and Interceptive Awareness scores increased in function of age. Food, weight and body image concerns increased with age and length of time in the ballet environment The reduced calorie intake was not necessarily linked to the presence of psychopathological signs. PMID:11930986
Dotti, A; Fioravanti, M; Balotta, M; Tozzi, F; Cannella, C; Lazzari, R
SUMMARY Consumption of and\\/or abstinence from substances with a high reward value (e.g. heroin, marijuana, alcohol, nicotine, certain foods) are associated with cognitive biases for information related to the substance. Such cognitive biases are important since they may contribute to difficulties in controlling intake of the substance. We examine cognitive biases for stimuli related to food. For the first time,
Emmanuel M. Pothos; Raff Calitri; Katy Tapper; Jeffrey M. Brunstrom; Peter J. Rogers
Developed countries around the world are experiencing an epidemic of overeating and obesity with significant costs at a personal, familial, and societal level. While most research on obesity has focused on metabolic factors, this paper considers how emotional factors might contribute to this problem. Two examples we address are the use of food to modify negative mood states, also called
Used the Eating and Exercise Examination to investigate the eating, weight, shape, and exercise behaviors of 93 male college students. About 20 percent of respondents displayed eating attitudes and behaviors characteristic of eating disorders and disordered eating. They were similar to female students in eating attitudes, undereating, overeating,…
Two studies explored whether intuitive eating (i.e., eating based on physiological hunger and satiety cues rather than situational and emotional cues) is a distinct construct from low levels of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology among college women. Previous research has demonstrated that high levels of ED symptomatology are related to lower levels of well-being. Therefore, if intuitive eating is a distinct
Increasing attention has been given to measuring symptoms of eating disorders in adolescents, but representative norms for the two widely used measures, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), have not been available. The present study collected normative data on 1,373 high school boys and girls in Grades 9–12. Significant sex, but not age, differences were
Debate exists in the eating disorders field about the fitness to practise of counsellors with eating disorder histories (Johnston, Smethurst & Gowers, 2005). Yet despite widespread acknowledgement of the demanding nature of eating disorder counselling in general (Zerbe, 2008), almost no research exists about the actual experiences of recovered eating disorder counsellors in particular. Using semi-structured interviews this study aimed
Nicola M. Rance; Naomi P. Moller; Barbara A. Douglas
Eating disorders (ED) are a comorbid criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). The Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI) was distributed to parents\\/guardians of children (N = 115) aged eight to fourteen, attending a private school and clinically diagnosed with ADHD or LD. The CEBI provides an eating behavior (EB) score and a parent-perceived eating problems
|Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…
Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered. PMID:23291285
Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O
Criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) were assessed in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normal subjects. However, only weak support was found for the concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Generally there was little association between the EAT or the
Janet Gross; James C. Rosen; Harold Leitenberg; Mary E. Willmuth
Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure
Marion M. Hetherington; Annie S. Anderson; Geraldine N. M. Norton; Lisa Newson
It has been hypothesized that college women are particularly susceptible to the development and maintenance of disturbed eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of disordered eating attitudes and eating disorders in a sample of Turkish female college students. The Eating Attitudes Test was administered to a sample of 414 female college students. The subjects
Eating disorders are rare in the black population, particularly in black men. A case of an atypical eating disorder in a black male adolescent is described. The clinical characteristics of this case are compared with others in the literature.
Lawlor, Brian A.; Burket, Roger C.; Hodgin, Jon A.
... all the symptoms of anorexia or bulimia, that person may be diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The following section lists examples of how an individual may have a profound eating problem and not have anorexia nervosa ...
... Intolerances Autism Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Digestive Health Eating Disorders Fertility and Reproductive Health Heart and Cardiovascular HIV/ ... CDN, ACSM-HFS, who specializes in working with eating disorder clients. "If someone is orthorexic, they typically avoid ...
Eating disorders Basics In-Depth Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Eating disorder treatment: Know your options By Mayo Clinic staff ...
Numerous empirical studies indicate a higher frequency of eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa in young female diabetic patients compared to the normal population. The comorbidity of the two syndromes usually leads to a continuous metabolic disorder bearing high risks of acute metabolic failure or early microangiopathic lesions. In addition to "restraint eating" as an essential element of diabetic therapy a premorbid neurotic malformation and/or poor coping strategies are further predisposing aspects for the development of an eating disorder. The inpatient treatment of a 22 year old patient suffering from both diabetes mellitus and bulimia nervosa demonstrates the association of neurotic malformation, poor coping style and the directive function of diabetic therapy. PMID:8560950
Medical history, eating habits, weight, current symptomatology and EDI (Eating Disorders Inventory)-scores of 41 bulimic female patients with and without past training in dancing, who came for treatment to an outpatient clinic, were compared. It was found that both groups of patients were not different for age, age at beginning of bulimia, actual as well as minimal and maximal BMI (Body mass index), length and severity of symptomatology, frequency of bulimic behaviors, and scores on the subscales of the EDI, but it should be noted that these similarities might be in relationship with some methodological shortcomings. Considering the prevalence of bulimia nervosa in women and the high frequency of ballet and sports training in teenagers, some hypotheses about the possible influence of strenuous physical exercise in childhood on the symptomatology and some psychological traits in adults with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder are presented. Further studies, including standardized scales and larger samples, are necessary. PMID:7526458
Archinard, M; Scherer, U; Reverdin, N; Rouget, P; Allaz, A F
Emotional eating is conceptualized as eating in response to negative affect. Data from a larger study of physical activity was employed to examine the associations among specific emotions\\/moods and emotional eating in an adolescent sample. Six-hundred and sixty-six students of diverse backgrounds from 7 middle schools in Los Angeles County participated. Cross-sectional analysis revealed no gender differences in emotional eating,
Selena T. Nguyen-Rodriguez; Jennifer B. Unger; Donna Spruijt-Metz
Eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, affect approximately 14 million people in the U.S., three-fourths of whom are female. Contrary to popular belief, eating disorders affect people of all ages. Women's health nurses can play a vital role in identifying adolescents and women who may be suffering from an eating disorder and referring them for specialized treatment. PMID:23957797
The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for assessing the severity of disturbed eating, use the tool to place disturbed eating behavior severity on a continuum, and to investigate how demographic and psychographic characteristics associated with disturbed eating differ across this continuum. Young adults (n=2438; 58% White; 63% female) from three north coast universities completed an online survey (fall 2009 to summer 2010) assessing eating behaviors and psychographic characteristics. Eating behavior scores were used to calculate the Disturbed Eating Severity Score (DESS), which placed participants along a continuum of four disturbed eating severity (non- disturbed to highly-disturbed) categories. Analysis of covariance and post hoc tests revealed significant differences among DESS categories on all eating behavior scales and nearly all psychographic characteristics. Thus, the DESS scale may help health care practitioners identify patients with varying degrees of disturbed eating behaviors and offer early interventions that could halt progress toward an eating disorder. PMID:22504370
Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.
The purpose of the following study was to examine the relationship between participation in athletic and exercise activities and eating disordered behavior among a college student population. A sample of 853 undergraduate students completed the EAT-26 and indicated participation in athletic activities to determine eating disorder-related dieting and exercise attitudes and behaviors. Results demonstrate that participation in recreational activities correlates
Stress is thought to influence human eating behavior and has been examined in animal and human studies. Our understanding of the stress-eating relation is confounded by limitations inherent in the study designs; however, we can make some tentative conclusions that support the notion that stress can influence eating patterns in humans. Stress appears to alter overall food intake in two
This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…
Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.
The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982), and four-factor (Dieting, Oral Control, Awareness of Food Contents, and
Liette B. Ocker; Eddie T. C. Lam; Barbara E. Jensen; James J. Zhang
In the past 20 to 25 years, a significant amount of research has been directed toward diabetes and eating disorders. Evidence from the literature suggests that subclinical eating disorders and bulimia nervosa are prevalent in patients with type 1 diabetes, while subclinical and clinical binge eating disorders are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the determination of
The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes in certain sports display a higher tendency toward eating disorders than athletes in other sports. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was administered to 191 athletes (104 females, 87 males). The athletes were classified into three groups (i.e., sport classes) according to type of sport. Overall, 10.6% of the female athletes
Objective: To describe menstrual dis- turbance in eating disorders (ED). Method: We describe menstrual history in 1,705 women and compare eating, weight, and psychopathological traits across menstrual groups. Results: Menstrual dysfunction occurred across all eating disorder subtypes. Indi- viduals with normal menstrual history and primary amenorrhea reported the highest and lowest lifetime body mass index (BMI), respectively. Normal men- struation
Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro; Laura M. Thornton; Katherine H. Plotonicov; Federica Tozzi; Kelly L. Klump; Wade H. Berrettini; Harry Brandt; Steven Crawford; Scott Crow; Manfred M. Fichter; David Goldman; Katherine A. Halmi; Craig Johnson; Allan S. Kaplan; Pamela Keel; Maria LaVia; James Mitchell; Alessandro Rotondo; Michael Strober; Janet Treasure; D. Blake Woodside; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik
|This article presents an integrated cognitive-behavioral theory of eating disorders that is based on hypotheses developed over the past 30 years. The theory is evaluated using a selected review of the eating disorder literature pertaining to cognitive biases, negative emotional reactions, binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and risk factors for…
Williamson, Donald A.; White, Marney A.; York-Crowe, Emily; Stewart, Tiffany M.
|The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…
Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali
|The study was designed to examine the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two widely adopted EAT models were tested: three-factor (Dieting, Bulimia and Food Preoccupation, and Oral Control) with 26 items (Garner, Olmsted, Bohr, & Garfinkel, 1982),…
Ocker, Liette B.; Lam, Eddie T. C.; Jensen, Barbara E.; Zhang, James J.
|Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)|
In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely
This study sought to enhance understanding of how people conceptualize and manage healthy eating. An interpretivist approach employed the constant comparative method to analyze 79 open-ended interviews with individuals about food choices and eating behaviors for health-related themes. Participant reports depicted cognitive systems for defining healthy eating, where personal meanings evolved through ongoing exposure to a variety of experiential and
Laura Winter Falk; Jeffery Sobal; Carole A. Bisogni; Margaret Connors; Carol M. Devine
There has recently been more recognition of the deficiencies of the diagnostic systems for eating disorders and the importance of the residual category of ‘eating disorder not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). When strictly applied, formal diagnostic criteria, such as those of ICD-10 or DSM-IV, exclude many people who are clearly suffering from clinically significant eating disorders. Such people are described as
|Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)|
The purpose of this investigation was to improve the understanding of the public's perception of hygiene standards in eating places and their knowledge of the inspection system. A telephone survey found that despite many claiming experience of food poisoning, and a widely held belief that using eating places may result in illness, people continue to eat out or purchase takeaways
|Eating represents a choice among many alternative behaviors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of how food reinforcement and behavioral choice theory are related to eating and to show how this theoretical approach may help organize research on eating from molecular genetics through treatment and prevention of obesity. Special…
Epstein, Leonard H.; Leddy, John J.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Faith, Myles S.
Decisions about the classification of eating disorders have significant scientific and clinical implications. The eating disorder diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) reflect the collective wisdom of experts in the field but are frequently not supported in empirical studies and do not capture the disorders of eating experienced by
Stephen A. Wonderlich; Thomas E. Joiner; Pamela K. Keel; Donald A. Williamson; Ross D. Crosby
Objective: To examine binge eating and eating-related cognitions and behavior in a sample of ethnically diverse women who are severely obese and seeking bariatric surgery.Research Methods and Procedures: Female bariatric surgery candidates (62 African Americans, 18 Latinas, 130 whites) completed questionnaires on binge eating and eating-related cognitions and behavior and completed a structured clinical interview to confirm binge-eating disorder diagnosis.Results:
Lisa A. P. Sánchez-Johnsen; Maureen Dymek; John Alverdy; Daniel le Grange
Based on the movement-pedagogical concept of Feldenkrais and the findings-of disturbed body perception by eating disordered patients this research aimed at studying the therapeutical effects of the Feldenkrais Method "Awareness through Movement" with eating disorder patients, 15 eating disordered patients treated at the Roseneck hospital for behavioural medicine rated-by means of a questionnaire consisting of scales of the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), the questionnaire for body perception (Fragebogen zum Körpererleben; FKE), the Emotion inventory (Emotionalitätsinventar; EMI-B), the Anorexia-Nervosa-Inventory for Self-rating (ANIS) and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI)-various aspects of their eating disorder before and after participating in a nine hour course of the Feldenkrais Method. The data of these patients were compared to those of the members of a control group, also consisting of 15 eating disordered patients who did not participate in a Feldenkrais course. The participants of the Feldenkrais-course showed increasing contentment with regard to problematic zones of their body and their own health as well as concerning acceptance and familiarity with their own body. Other results were a more spontaneous, open and self-confident behaviour, the decrease of feelings of helplessness and decrease of the wish to return to the security of the early childhood, which indicates the development of felt sense of self, self-confidence and a general process of maturation of the whole personality. The outcome points to the therapeutical effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method with eating-disorder patients within a multimodal treatment program. PMID:9265198
SYNOPSIS Eating and swallowing are complex behaviors involving volitional and reflexive activities of more than 30 nerves and muscles. They have two crucial biological features: food passage from the oral cavity to stomach and airway protection. The swallowing process is commonly divided into oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages according to the location of the bolus. The movement of the food in the oral cavity and to the oropharynx differs between eating solid food and drinking liquid. Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus. The goal of dysphagia rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of feeding and swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient alimentation and hydration.
Earlier studies assessing the possible moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on the relation between stress and actual food intake have obtained mixed results. The null findings in some of these studies might be attributed to misclassification of participants due to the use of the median splits and\\/or insufficient participants with extreme scores. The objective of the two current studies
Tatjana van Strien; C. Peter Herman; Doeschka J. Anschutz; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Carolina de Weerth
The goals of the study were to explore anger correlation with bulimic symptoms and to test the mediation power of anger between personality and eating psychopathology. A total of 242 bulimia nervosa (BN) outpatients and 121 healthy controls were recruited. Assessment was performed using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2); Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ); Binge Eating Scale (BES); and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mediation was tested on the whole BN group, on controls and on two BN subgroups based on a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness extensively relate to anger and psychopathology in bulimic group. Bulimic symptoms are related to Trait Reactive Anger. Trait Anger and Anger Expression fully mediate Cooperativeness effects on binge eating and Impulsiveness in the BN subjects. Anger Expression-In partially mediates between Harm Avoidance and Social Insecurity/Interpersonal Distrust in BN subjects. The comparison with controls and the analysis of subgroups underlines that these patterns are specific for BN. Anger mediation between Cooperativeness, and binge eating and impulsive behaviours confirm the relevance of relational dynamics in the expression of these core eating symptoms. Relational skills may represent a relevant target for the treatment of BN. PMID:22944222
It is well known that persons of low socioeconomic position consume generally a less healthy diet. Key determinants of unhealthy eating among disadvantaged individuals include aspects of the family and external environment. Much less is known about family and environmental determinants of healthy eating among social disadvantaged children. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the family and environmental factors underlying resilience to poor nutrition among children and their mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 mother-child pairs (N = 76) from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Children were selected if they were a healthy weight, consumed adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables and were physically active. Two main themes emerged from the interviews: active strategies from parents to promote healthy eating and external barriers and supports to healthy eating. Mothers believed that exercising control over access to unhealthy food, providing education and encouragement for consumption of healthy food and enabling healthy food options aided their child to eat well. Children did not perceive food advertisements to be major influences on their eating preferences or behaviour. The results of the current study offer insight into potential avenues for nutrition promotion among disadvantaged children. PMID:21350037
Because myocyte depolarization and repolarization depend on intra- and extracellular shifts in ion gradients, abnormal serum electrolyte levels can have profound effects on cardiac conduction and the electrocardiogram (EKG). Changes in extracellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels can change myocyte membrane potential gradients and alter the cardiac action potential. These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead EKG
Deborah B Diercks; George M Shumaik; Richard A Harrigan; William J Brady; Theodore C Chan
Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by
Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.
Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormal psychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.
Pigment abnormalities have been reported to occur on both sides of flatfish. Hypomelanosis or pseudo-albinism, characterized by white patches or areas devoid of normal pigmentation on the ocular surface of the skin, is common in both wild and hatchery reared flatfish. The blind side may display hypermelanosis in the form of dark spots, known as ambicoloration of the skin. The