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Sample records for abnormal gastric emptying

  1. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  2. Definition of a gastric emptying abnormality in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R W; Grill, B B; Lange, R; Planky, M; Glass, E E; Greenfeld, D G

    1985-08-01

    Upper gastrointestinal symptoms may be prominent in anorexia nervosa. This study is an investigation of the gastric emptying of solid and liquid meal components in 16 female patients (mean age 20.0 years, range 14-40 years) who met accepted psychiatric diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. The results were compared with those of gastric emptying studies in 10 normal females of ideal body weight (mean age 25.4 years, range 20-35), 13 normal persons (12 males), and six patients (mean age 12 years, range 9-14 years) with weight loss (less than 90 percent ideal body weight) secondary to Crohn's disease with no psychiatric symptoms. A dual-isotope technique using chicken liver intracellularly labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) bound to sulfur colloid as the solid-phase marker, and indium-111 (111In) -labeled water as the liquid-phase marker was used. Gastric emptying was monitored for 2 hr by gamma camera. In 13 of the 16 anorexia nervosa patients (80%), gastric emptying of solids was slower than the range in the two groups of normal subjects, and mean gastric emptying was significantly slower (P less than 0.05) than in the weight-loss patients. Liquid emptying (water) in anorexia nervosa was normal and similar to the control groups studied. In 11 of the anorexia nervosa patients with delayed gastric emptying, intramuscular metoclopramide, 10 mg, significantly (P less than 0.05) accelerated the mean gastric emptying from 60 through 120 min after the meal. We conclude that in anorexia nervosa patients who are symptomatic and seeking medical care: gastric emptying of solids is significantly delayed when compared with female subjects of similar age and normal body weight and with patients of less than 90% ideal body weight but without psychiatric disorder; these data are consistent with an antral motility disturbance, either primary or secondary; and metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, accelerates (delayed) gastric emptying. PMID:4017831

  3. Delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marrinan, Sarah; Emmanuel, Anton V; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are evident in all stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most of the gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with PD are attributable to impaired motility. At the level of the stomach, this results in delayed gastric emptying. The etiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD is probably multifactorial but is at least partly related to Lewy pathology in the enteric nervous system and discrete brainstem nuclei. Delayed gastric emptying occurs in both early and advanced PD but is underdetected in routine clinical practice. Recognition of delayed gastric emptying is important because it can cause an array of upper gastrointestinal symptoms, but additionally it has important implications for the absorption and action of levodopa. Delayed gastric emptying contributes significantly to response fluctuations seen in people on long-term l-dopa therapy. Neurohormonal aspects of the brain-gut axis are pertinent to discussions regarding the pathophysiology of delayed gastric emptying in PD and are also hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD itself. Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone with potential as a therapeutic agent for delayed gastric emptying and also as a novel neuroprotective agent in PD. Recent findings relating to ghrelin in the context of PD and gastric emptying are considered. This article highlights the pathological abnormalities that may account for delayed gastric emptying in PD. It also considers the wider relevance of abnormal gastric pathology to our current understanding of the etiology of PD. PMID:24151126

  4. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  5. Gastric Emptying in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Rayner, Chris K; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by a diminished homeostatic regulation of physiologic functions, including slowing of gastric emptying. Gastric and small intestinal motor and humoral mechanisms in humans are complex and highly variable: ingested food is stored, mixed with digestive enzymes, ground into small particles, and delivered as a liquefied form into the duodenum at a rate allowing efficient digestion and absorption. In healthy aging, motor function is well preserved whereas deficits in sensory function are more apparent. The effects of aging on gastric emptying are relevant to the absorption of oral medications and the regulation of appetite, postprandial glycemia, and blood pressure. PMID:26195094

  6. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  7. Gastric emptying and Helicobacter pylori infection in duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Perri, F; Ghoos, Y F; Maes, B D; Geypens, B J; Ectors, N; Geboes, K; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1996-03-01

    The pathogenetic link between Helicobacter pylori gastritis and duodenal ulcer is still unknown. Fast gastric emptying of liquids might be important in the pathogenesis of gastric metaplasia of the duodenum and duodenal ulcer through an increased exposure of the duodenum to gastric acid. In H. pylori-infected subjects, an abnormal gastric emptying could affect urea breath test results and correlate with histological gastritis. This study was performed to evaluate the gastric emptying of liquids in duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection and the possible relation between the bacterial load, gastric emptying, and urea breath test results. Seventeen duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori gastritis and 15 healthy volunteers were studied by a [14C]octanoic acid and [13C]urea breath test to evaluate gastric emptying rate and H. pylori status simultaneously. Endoscopy with antral biopsies were performed in all duodenal ulcer patients. Duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection have a normal liquid gastric emptying that is unrelated with histological severity of gastritis. The urea breath test results and the gastric emptying parameters do not correlate with histology. A significant correlation between the gastric emptying and the urea hydrolysis rate is found. It is concluded that H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is not associated with abnormally fast liquid gastric emptying, and this finding should be taken into account when a casual link between H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is searched for. The correlation between gastric emptying and urea hydrolysis rate explains why no conclusions on intragastric bacterial load can be drawn from the urea breath test results. PMID:8617116

  8. GASTRIC MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC RAPID GASTRIC EMPTYING

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Manduca, Armando; Lake, David S.; Fidler, Jeff; Edwards, Phillip; Grimm, Roger C.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanisms of “idiopathic” rapid gastric emptying, which is associated with functional dyspepsia and functional diarrhea, are not understood. Our hypotheses were that increased gastric motility and reduced postprandial gastric accommodation contribute to rapid gastric emptying. Methods Fasting and postprandial (300kCal nutrient meal) gastric volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 20 healthy people and 17 with functional dyspepsia; 7 had normal and 10 had rapid gastric emptying. In 17 healthy people and patients, contractility was analyzed by spectral analysis of a time-series of gastric cross-sectional areas. Logistic regression models analyzed whether contractile parameters, fasting volume, and postprandial volume change could discriminate between health and patients with normal or rapid gastric emptying. Results While upper gastrointestinal symptoms were comparable, patients with rapid emptying had a higher (p = 0.002) body mass index (BMI) than normal gastric emptying. MRI visualized propagating contractions at ~ 3 cpm in healthy people and patients. Compared to controls (0.16 ± 0.02, Mean ± SEM), the amplitude of gastric contractions in the entire stomach was higher (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2–14.0) in patients with rapid (0.24 ± 0.03) but not normal gastric emptying (0.10 ± 0.03). Similar differences were observed in the distal stomach. However, the propagation velocity, fasting gastric volume, and the postprandial volume change were not significantly different between patients and controls. Conclusions MRI provides a noninvasive and refined assessment of gastric volumes and contractility in humans. Increased gastric contractility may contribute to rapid gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia. PMID:21470342

  9. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  10. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  11. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  12. Effects of proton pump inhibitors on gastric emptying: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sanaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2010-09-01

    The proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is widely used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer diseases, and functional dyspepsia. The pathogenesis of these acid-related and/or functional upper gastrointestinal disorders is potentially associated with abnormal gastric emptying. To date, variable effects of PPIs on gastric emptying have been reported. Therefore, it is relevant to gather and analyze published information on this topic. A systematic literature search has been performed, showing that the delaying effect of PPIs on gastric emptying of solid meals is consistent, whereas the effect of PPIs on the emptying of liquids is inconsistent. The underlying mechanisms whereby PPIs may affect gastric emptying have been discussed, most of which still remain hypothetic. Gastric emptying of solids involves a process of peptic hydrolysis. PPIs impair the hydrolytic digestion by inhibiting acid-dependent peptic activity, thereby delaying the solid emptying. Gastric emptying of liquids largely depends on volume and energy density of intragastric contents. PPIs variably modify the volume and the energy density by reducing gastric fluid secretion, thereby modifying the liquid emptying in an unpredictable manner. Hypergastrinemia has been considered to delay gastric emptying, but it seems of minor importance in the regulation of gastric emptying during PPI use. The delayed emptying of solids due to PPI therapy may have clinical implications in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, as well as diabetes. PMID:20012198

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric emptying disorders. Clinical usefulness of radionuclide measurements of gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Broderick, W.C.; Van Dyke, D.; Way, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms thought to be due to a gastric motility disorder. Sixty-six percent had had a previous operation on the stomach, and 21 percent had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Based on clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings, 48 patients were thought to have gastroparesis, 3 were thought to have dumping, and 2 had no diagnosis. Measurement of gastric emptying of solids showed that gastric emptying was normal in 12 patients, rapid in 15 patients, and slow in 26 patients. Further evaluation showed that half of the patients with normal gastric emptying, and one third of those with rapid gastric emptying had other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that responded well to surgery. Of those patients with dumping, diet modification was effective in 40 percent, and half of those who did not respond to dietary manipulations did well after reoperation. Nineteen patients with delayed gastric emptying were treated with metoclopramide. Sixty percent of those without previous gastric surgery responded, whereas only 25 percent of those with previous gastric surgery had good results. The rate of gastric emptying improved following reoperation in 9 (90 percent) of 10 patients with delayed gastric emptying (4 who had not responded to metoclopramide). Gastric emptying was measured again in 15 patients after treatment. The changes after treatment paralleled the clinical response. These studies indicate that gastroparesis cannot be reliably diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and standard tests. Gastric emptying studies are essential to diagnose and treat patients thought to have gastric motility disorders, and to evaluate the results of therapy.

  14. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  15. Automated analysis for scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying using invariant moments.

    PubMed

    Abutaleb, A; Delalic, Z J; Ech, R; Siegel, J A

    1989-01-01

    This study introduces a method for automated analysis of the standard solid-meal gastric emptying test. The purpose was to develop a diagnostic tool to characterize more reproducibly abnormalities of solid-phase gastric emptying. The processing of gastric emptying is automated using geometrical moments that are invariant to scaling, rotation, and shift. Twenty subjects were studied. The first step was to obtain images of the stomach using a nuclear gamma camera immediately after the subject had eaten a radio-labeled meal. The second step was to process and analyze the images by a recently developed automated gastric emptying analysis (AGEA) method, which determines the gastric contour and the geometrical properties include such parameters as area, centroid, orientation, and moments of inertia. Statistical tests showed that some of the moments were sensitive to the patient's gastric status (normal versus abnormal). The difference between the normal and abnormal patients became noticeable approximately 1 h after meal ingestion. PMID:18230536

  16. Simultaneous gastric emptying of two solid foods

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, K.; Graham, L.S.; Reedy, T.; Elashoff, J.; Meyer, J.H.

    1981-08-01

    A variety of radionuclide-labeled, solid foods have been used to measure gastric emptying. Implicit is the idea that the nuclide label identifies the rate of emptying of meal contents. The present studies tested whether different foods empty from the human stomach at different rates. Eight volunteers were fed meals of 200 ml of water + 213 g of beef stew + 52 g of chicken liver, with half the liver as 0.25-mm particles and half as 10-mm chunks, labeled with /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 113m/In, respectively, or the reverse. Another 8 subjects ingested 200 ml of water + 75 g of noodles, labeled with /sup 123/I, + 30 g of liver, labeled with /sup 113/In. Gastric emptying of each radionuclide was determined for 3 h by measuring the decline of counts in the gastric region of interest, using an Ohio Nuclear S410 gamma camera interfaced to a DEC computer. In each case, appropriate corrections were made for nuclear decay, down-scatter from /sup 113m/In, and septal penetration. Seven of 8 subjects emptied 0.25-mm liver particles more quickly than 10-mm chunks of liver, while 1 subject emptied the two sizes of liver at the same rate. The t 1/2 for the 0.25-mm liver was 70 +/- 10 min; and for the 10-mm liver, 117 +/- 19 min (p less than 0.05). Six of 8 subjects emptied noodles much faster than liver, while 2 emptied the two foods at similar rates. The t 1/2 for the noodles was 52 +/- 8 min; and for the liver, 82 +/- 5 min (p less than 0.02). Since different foods in the same meal were found to empty at different rates, we conclude the gastric emptying of every food in a meal is not accurately represented by the emptying of a single, nuclide-labeled food. The different t 1/2s for the emptying of 10-mm liver in the two meals (p less than 0.05) probably reflected the influence of other meal components on gastric motility.

  17. Factors regulating gastric emptying in preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether osmolality, volume, or energy density affects gastric emptying rate (GE); whether simultaneously decreasing osmolality and increasing volume accelerates GE; and whether GE is related to any clinical and/or demographic characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: GE was measured us...

  18. Measurement of gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients: effect of a new gastrokinetic agent (cisapride).

    PubMed Central

    Jian, R; Ducrot, F; Piedeloup, C; Mary, J Y; Najean, Y; Bernier, J J

    1985-01-01

    with identified abnormal gastric emptying. PMID:3884468

  19. Gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1997-06-01

    The underlying role of motility disorders and delayed gastric emptying in nonulcer dyspepsia is still questioned. This study aimed to determine the role of the gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. By means of breath test technology, gastric emptying results of 344 consecutive patients with nonulcer dyspepsia were compared with those of 70 normal healthy volunteers. Although gastric emptying was significantly delayed in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia compared with normal volunteers, there was a great overlap between the two groups. Using 5-95% confidence intervals of the control group in about 30% of the patients with nonulcer dyspepsia gastric emptying was delayed. No correlation was found between gastric emptying rate and age, weight, height, or sex of the subjects in both groups. These findings suggest that, apart from gastric emptying, other mechanisms are very important in the etiology of nonulcer dyspepsia. PMID:9201077

  20. Measurements of Gastric Emptying by Biomagnetic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, L. A.; Sosa, M.; Córdova, T.; Vargas, F. M.; Huerta, M. R.

    2006-09-01

    In the present work a new method to measure the average time of gastric emptying by using a magnetic tracer is showed, this work shows the application of foundations of the electromagnetic theory in the study of the gastrointestinal system. The presented technique is relatively cheap and can be used it to diagnose of diseases, is a noninvasive method, is a technique that does not use ionizing radiation. In this investigation was possible to measure the average time of gastric emptying with a very high precision. In this investigation measurements of 10 healthy volunteers were made, and an average time of gastric emptying of 36.45 minutes in the space of the time was obtained, in addition with the analysis to the signal by means of the use of a pass-band filter it was possible to measure the peristaltic frequencies of the stomach and an average time of 37.24 minutes in the space of frequencies. With this technique it is possible to obtain data of the walls of the stomach. A peristaltic frequency of 2.79 was obtained cpm (cycles per minute).

  1. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  2. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND GASTRIC EMPTYING IN POORLY CONTROLLED TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Kudva, Yogish; Basu, Ananda; Camilleri, Michael; Low, Phillip A.; Vella, Adrian; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute hyperglycemia delays gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether improved control of glycemia affects gastric emptying in these patients. We investigated whether overnight and short-term (6 months) improvements in control of glycemia affect gastric emptying. Methods We studied 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (levels of glycated hemoglobin >9%). We measured gastric emptying using the [13C]-spirulina platensis breath test on the patients’ first visit (visit 1), after overnight administration of insulin or saline, 1 week later (visit 2), and 6 months after intensive therapy for diabetes. We also measured fasting and post-prandial plasma levels of C-peptide, GLP1, and amylin, as well as autonomic functions. Results At visit 1, gastric emptying was normal in 10 patients, delayed in 14, and accelerated in 6; 6 patients had gastrointestinal symptoms; vagal dysfunction was associated with delayed gastric emptying (P<.05). Higher fasting blood levels of glucose were associated with shorter half-times of gastric emptying (thalf) at visits 1 (r= −0.46, P=.01) and 2 (r= −0.43, P=.02). Although blood levels of glucose were lower after administration of insulin (132±7 mg/dl) than saline (211±15 mg/dl; P=0.0002), gastric emptying thalf was not lower after administration of insulin, compared with saline. After 6 months of intensive therapy, levels of glycated hemoglobin decreased from 10.6%±0.3% to 9%±0.4% (P=.0003), but gastric emptying thalf did not change (92±8 min before, 92±7 min after). Gastric emptying did not correlate with plasma levels of GLP1 and amylin. Conclusions Two-thirds of patients with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes have mostly asymptomatic yet abnormal gastric emptying. Higher fasting blood levels of glucose are associated with faster gastric emptying. Overnight and sustained (6 months) improvements in glycemic control do not affect gastric emptying. PMID:25041866

  4. Relation between gastric emptying rate and rate of intraluminal lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1996-01-01

    The variable gastric emptying rate of a test meal is one of the major problems in evaluating accurately gastrointestinal physiological functions beyond the stomach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gastric emptying rate on the rate of intraluminal lipolysis. Thirty four subjects without pancreatic disease (21 with a normal gastric emptying and 13 with a known slow gastric emptying) and 14 subjects with pancreatic disease (four without and 10 with pancreatic insufficiency) were studied using a dual labelled breath test. The test meal consisted of one egg, 60 grams of white bread, 10 grams of margarine, and 150 ml of water (350 kcal). The egg yolk was labelled with 91 mg of 13C-octanoic acid, the margarine was labelled with 296 kBq of distearyl-2-14C-octanoyl-glycerol. Breath samples were taken every 15 minutes during six hours and analysed for 13CO2 and 14CO2 content. The gastric emptying rate of the meal was evaluated by the gastric emptying coefficient, the half emptying time, and the lag phase; the rate of intraluminal lipolysis was evaluated by the six hours cumulative 14CO2 excretion. Despite a clear distinction in the rate of intraluminal lipolysis, no difference could be detected in gastric emptying rate of the test meal between subjects without and with pancreatic disease. In subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, intraluminal hydrolysis was the rate limiting process in fat assimilation; in patients without pancreatic insufficiency, however, gastric emptying could be rate limiting. Therefore, patients with known slow gastric emptying, displayed a significantly decreased rate of intraluminal lipolysis compared with normal controls. This decrease could be corrected for accurately using a correction factor based on the gastric emptying coefficient. In conclusion, the combined 13C-octanoic acid and 14C-mixed triglyceride breath test permits the measurement of gastric emptying rate and intraluminal lipolysis simultaneously in a minimally

  5. Delayed gastric emptying does not normalize after gluten withdrawal in adult celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Oppia, Francesco; Scarpa, Mariella; Giannetti, Cristiana; Cabras, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying has been frequently detected in patients with untreated celiac disease. According to several studies, gluten withdrawal showed to be effective in normalizing the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with celiac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. Methods Twelve adult patients with celiac disease (age range 20-57 years) and 30 healthy controls (age range 30-54 years) underwent a (13)C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying. Half emptying time (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were calculated. After at least 12 months of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients underwent a new (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. A symptom score was utilized to detect dyspeptic and malabsorption symptoms in all the patients. Results The gastric motility parameters, t1/2 and tlag, were significantly longer in patients than in controls. On a gluten-free diet, surprisingly, the gastric emptying did not normalize despite an improvement of symptom score. No significant correlation between abnormal gastric emptying and specific symptom patterns, anthropometric parameters or severity of histological damage was found. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gluten-driven mucosal inflammation might determine motor abnormalities by affecting smooth muscle contractility or impairing gut hormone function. The persistence of these abnormalities on a gluten free diet suggests the presence of a persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation with a permanent perturbation of the neuro-immunomodulatory regulation. PMID:27161492

  6. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P < 0.001) and mesenteric blood flow and blood glucose (P < 0.001 for both) increased, following the drink. Three subjects (14%) had definite autonomic neuropathy and 8 (38%) had postprandial hypotension. There were no significant relationships between changes in blood pressure, heart rate or mesenteric artery blood flow with gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was related to the score for autonomic nerve function (R = 0.55, P < 0.01). There was an inverse relationship between the blood glucose at t = 30 min (R = -0.52, P < 0.05), while the blood glucose at t = 180 min was related directly (R = 0.49, P < 0.05), with gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: In mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose. PMID:27239112

  7. Study of the Gastric Emptying in Humans: Biomagnetic Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sosa, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2006-09-01

    Biomagnetic studies of the gastrointestinal system can be carried out in two ways. Recording the magnetic field produced by the myenteric nervous system or created by any oral contrast mean as magnetic tracers or markers. In the first case, a SQUID magnetometer is demanded while a fluxgate magnetometer is enough in the second case. In this work, a magnetic marker was ingested by 8 healthy volunteers, in three gastric volume conditions, to measure the luminal content volume effect in the gastric emptying and to perform the quantification of the peristaltic frequencies in gastric and duodenum tract segments. The average emptying times for low luminal content, relative to the emptying time when the intake was the highest, were 43.6 ± 15.6 % and 77.3 ± 47.0 %. These results show that the biomagnetic technique is a powerful modality to estimate the effects of the gastric volume in the gastric emptying and a way to record the peristaltic frequencies.

  8. Determinants of symptom pattern in idiopathic severely delayed gastric emptying: gastric emptying rate or proximal stomach dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Karamanolis, G; Caenepeel, P; Arts, J; Tack, J

    2007-01-01

    Background Idiopathic gastroparesis is a syndrome characterised by severely delayed gastric emptying of solids without an obvious underlying organic cause. Although delayed gastric emptying is traditionally considered the mechanism underlying the symptoms in these patients, poor correlations with symptom severity have been reported. Aims To investigate proximal stomach function and to study the correlation of delayed gastric emptying and proximal stomach dysfunction with symptom pattern and severity in idiopathic gastroparesis. Methods 58 consecutive patients (19 men, mean (standard deviation) age 41 (2) years) with severely delayed solid gastric emptying (gastric half‐emptying time (t1/2)>109 min) without an organic cause were recruited. They filled out a symptom‐severity questionnaire and underwent a gastric barostat study for assessment of gastric sensitivity and accommodation. Correlation of these mechanisms with symptom pattern and overall symptom severity (sum of individual symptoms) was analysed. Results At two different cut‐off levels for gastric emptying (upper limit of normal t1/2 up to 1.5 and 2 times), no significant change in symptom pattern occurred. 25 (43%) patients had impaired accommodation, and this was associated with higher prevalence of early satiety (p<0.005) and weight loss (p = 0.009). 17 (29%) patients had hypersensitivity to gastric distension, and this was associated with higher prevalences of epigastric pain (p = 0.005), early satiety (p = 0.04) and weight loss (p<0.005). Overall symptom severity was not correlated with gastric emptying or accommodation, but only with sensitivity to gastric distension (R = −0.3898, p = 0.003) and body weight (R = −0.4233, p = 0.001). Conclusions In patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the symptom pattern is determined by proximal stomach dysfunction rather than by the severity of delayed emptying. PMID:16840507

  9. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-05-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis.

  10. Effect of MWCNTs on Gastric Emptying in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Qi, W.; Geng, Yx; Pan, Dq; Lu, Y.; Xu, Jz; Wu, Ws

    2011-12-01

    After making model of gastric functional disorder (FD), part of model mice were injected intravenously (i.v.) with oxide multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) to investigate effect of carbon nanotubes on gastric emptying. The results showed that NO content in stomach, compared with model group, was decreased significantly and close to normal level post-injection with oMWCNTs (500 and 800 μg/mouse). In contrast to FD or normal groups, the content of acetylcholine (Ach) in stomach was increased obviously in injection group with 500 or 800 μg/mouse of oMWCNTs. The kinetic curve of emptying was fitted to calculate gastric motility factor k; the results showed that the k of injection group was much higher than FD and normal. In other words, the gastric motility of FD mice was enhanced via injection with oMWCNTs. In certain dosage, oMWCNTs could improve gastric emptying and motility.

  11. Gastric emptying of organic acids in the dog.

    PubMed

    Blum, A L; Hegglin, J; Krejs, G J; Largiadèr, F; Säuberli, H; Schmid, P

    1976-10-01

    Test meals of 300 ml. of six different organic acids were instilled into the stomach of six healthy mongrel dogs. Citric, acetic, propionic, lactic, tartaric and succinic acid were given in 50, 100, 150, and 200 mN concentrations. 2. During the emptying process, the gastric contents were aspirated and immediately re-instilled at 10 min intervals, and the following parameters were recorded: volume, concentration of the organic anion, pH, hydrogen ion concentration and osmolarity. 3. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, the combination of parameters which most effectively determines gastric emptying rate was found to be: concentration of the organic anion, followed by intragastric volume and number of previous test meals given on the same day. These three parameters appear in the equation for gastric emptying rate in which the individual characteristic of each acid is expressed by a constant. 4. Among the various acids, inhibition of emptying rate increases with rising number of carboxylic groups of the acid and its molecular weight. 5. After proximal gastric vagotomy, emptying rate of organic acids is independent of volume, and emptying approaches an exponential pattern. 6. A model for gastric emptying of organic acids with at least three different receptors is proposed: one for the structure of the organic acid, one for concentration and one for intragastric volume. PMID:10436

  12. Gastric emptying of organic acids in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, A L; Hegglin, J; Krejs, G J; Largiadèr, F; Säuberli, H; Schmid, P

    1976-01-01

    Test meals of 300 ml. of six different organic acids were instilled into the stomach of six healthy mongrel dogs. Citric, acetic, propionic, lactic, tartaric and succinic acid were given in 50, 100, 150, and 200 mN concentrations. 2. During the emptying process, the gastric contents were aspirated and immediately re-instilled at 10 min intervals, and the following parameters were recorded: volume, concentration of the organic anion, pH, hydrogen ion concentration and osmolarity. 3. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, the combination of parameters which most effectively determines gastric emptying rate was found to be: concentration of the organic anion, followed by intragastric volume and number of previous test meals given on the same day. These three parameters appear in the equation for gastric emptying rate in which the individual characteristic of each acid is expressed by a constant. 4. Among the various acids, inhibition of emptying rate increases with rising number of carboxylic groups of the acid and its molecular weight. 5. After proximal gastric vagotomy, emptying rate of organic acids is independent of volume, and emptying approaches an exponential pattern. 6. A model for gastric emptying of organic acids with at least three different receptors is proposed: one for the structure of the organic acid, one for concentration and one for intragastric volume. PMID:10436

  13. [Gastric emptying in reflux esophagitis. Effect of metoclopramide and cinitapride].

    PubMed

    Monés, J; Espinós, J C; Carrió, I; Calabuig, R; Vilardell, F

    1989-09-30

    The gastric emptying of solids was evaluated with radionuclide techniques in 16 patients with reflux esophagitis, demonstrated by two of the following methods: endoscopy, pathology, and/or pH measurement. The percentage of radionuclide remaining within the stomach was 80.8 +/- 17% after 45 minutes, 63.3 +/- 10% after 75 minutes, and 48.8 +/- 19% after 105 minutes, with a half time (T1/2) of gastric emptying of 103.4 +/- 6 minutes. These results showed significant differences in T1/2 with those from a control group of healthy individuals, the gastric emptying being slower in patients with esophagitis (103.4 min vs 85.3 min; p less than 0.01). Subsequently, a double blind study to assess the effect of metoclopramide and cinitapride on gastric emptying in patients with reflux esophagitis was carried out. Cinitapride accelerated the gastric emptying of solids with statistically significant differences when compared with placebo (84 min vs 104 min, p less than 0.05). In this study, metoclopramide showed a tendency to accelerate gastric emptying, although it did not achieve a significant difference with placebo. PMID:2691780

  14. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  15. Relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants and children: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.

    1984-05-01

    One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients (0-16 yr of age) with clinically suspected gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were evaluated using radionuclide scintigraphy. Although 46 of the patients (38.3%) had abnormal studies exhibiting evidence of GER, there were no signifcant differences in gastric emptying between patients with and without GER. At 60 min after ingestion, the 76 patients less than 2 yr old had a mean residual of 54%, whereas those over 2 yr of age had a value of 29%. Gastric emptying values may be age-related.

  16. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

  17. [The effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, H

    1990-02-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying and the sites of their action in the stomach, changes in gastric emptying after administration of these drugs were determined in healthy adults by means of radioisotopic technique, by setting 3 regions of interest, i.e., the whole stomach, the proximal area and the antral area. Following results were obtained. 1. With metoclopramide administration, no particular movement of gastric contents was found for several minutes after ingestion. Once the movement of emptying was initiated, the gastric contents were transferred more efficiently from the proximal area to the antral area in comparison with the corresponding movement observed in persons given no metoclopramide. On the other hand, the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum exceeded the inflow from the proximal area to the antral area. 2. With domperidon administration, transfer of gastric contents was markedly increased, but the outflow from the antral area did not exceed the inflow. Domperidone caused overall facilitation of gastric emptying, mainly by enhancing the emptying movement in the proximal area. 3. With aclatonium napadisilate administration, marked transfer of the gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was noted, and the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum was equal to the inflow within 10 min, then exceeded the inflow. 4. With trimebutine maleate administration, transfer of gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was conspicuous, and the outflow from the antral area exceeded the increased inflow, resulting in overall faciliation of gastric emptying. PMID:2255123

  18. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    SciTech Connect

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; Roca-Chiapas, J. M. de ls; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-11

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t{sub 1/2}). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  19. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; De la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t1/2). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  20. Preoperative gastric emptying. Effects of anxiety and oral carbohydrate administration.

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, J; Thorell, A; Jacobsson, H; Larsson, S; Schnell, P O; Hylén, L; Ljungqvist, O

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overnight fasting is routine before elective surgery. This may not be the optimal way to prepare for surgical stress, however, because intravenous carbohydrate supplementation instead of fasting has recently been shown to reduce postoperative insulin resistance. In the current study, gastric emptying of a carbohydrate-rich drink was investigated before elective surgery and in a control situation. METHODS: Twelve patients scheduled for elective surgery were randomly given 400 mL of either a carbohydrate-rich drink (285 mOsm/kg, 12.0% carbohydrates, n = 6) or water 4 hours before being anesthetized. Gastric emptying was measured (gamma camera, 99Tcm). Each patient repeated the protocol postoperatively as a control. All values were presented as the mean +/- SEM by means of a nonparametric statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Despite the increased anxiety experienced by patients before surgery (p < 0.005), gastric emptying did not differ between the experimental and control situations. Initially, water emptied more rapidly than carbohydrate. However, after 90 minutes, the stomach was emptied regardless of the solution administered (3.2 +/- 1.1% [mean +/- SEM] remaining in the stomach in the carbohydrate group versus 2.3 +/- 1.2% remaining in the stomach in the water group). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative anxiety does not prolong gastric emptying. The stomach had been emptied 90 minutes after ingestion of both the carbohydrate-rick drink and water, thereby indicating the possibility of allowing an intake of iso-osmolar carbohydrate-rich fluids before surgery. PMID:8526579

  1. Decelerating gastric emptying: therapeutic possibilities in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W T; Schwartz, J G

    1996-09-01

    There is clear evidence of a positive correlation between carbohydrate absorption, plasma concentration of glucose, and the rate of gastric emptying. This suggests that clinical manipulation of gastric emptying rates may have therapeutic potential in glycaemic control. Cholecystokinin (CCK-8) has been shown to delay gastric emptying in individuals with Type 2 diabetes, but its potential as a therapy is limited by the need to administer it intravenously. The preferred routes of administration would be intramuscular injections, an intranasal spray or the use of orally ingested CCK analogues. Alternatively, the oral administration of an agent that enhances endogenous release of CCK could represent an important approach to the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Agents such as POT II may have a therapeutic indication in patients with recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. PMID:8894471

  2. Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Hameed; Malcolm, Paul; Salt, Louise; van Aken, George

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which gastric layering and retention of a meal could be used to reduce appetite using the same caloric load. Liquid (control) and semi-solid (active) meals were produced with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to 10 volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) were assessed over a period of 3 h. The active meal showed food boluses in the stomach persisting for ∼45 min, slower emptying rates, and lower plasma CCK levels over the first hour. After the first hour, both gastric emptying rates and plasma CCK levels were similar for both systems and slightly increased compared with the unfed situation. Despite the lower plasma CCK levels for the active meal over the first hour, this meal reduced appetite more than the control meal over the 3 h of the study. For a moderately increased plasma CCK level in the fed state, appetite was correlated with the volume of gastric contents rather than gastric emptying rates or plasma CCK. This suggests that enhanced gastric retention was the key factor in decreasing appetite and was probably mediated by a combination of intestinal nutrient sensing and increased viscosity in the stomach. PMID:23578786

  3. Gastric emptying and secretion in the milk-fed calf

    PubMed Central

    Bell, F. R.; Razig, S. A. D.

    1973-01-01

    1. For a few weeks, immediately post-natally, the abomasum of the ruminant stomach can be regarded as the analogue of the simple stomach for at this time food passes directly to the abomasum because of closure of the oesophageal groove. 2. Using standard fractional and serial test meal techniques discussed by Hunt (1956) and adapted for use in the calf, abomasal emptying, acid and pepsin secretion have been examined. Phenol red was used as a marker to measure volume changes of the test meal. 3. Abomasal emptying is exponential in character whether large or small volumes of fluid are instilled into the abomasum. The initial and end phase of emptying shows variable rates between animals. 4. Glucose and lactose solutions inhibit abomasal emptying as well as acid production. 5. Sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate of low concentration, near isotonic with blood plasma, stimulate abomasal emptying but the bicarbonate is most effective. Hypertonic solutions of these salts inhibit abomasal emptying. 6. Pepsin secretion in the abomasum of the calf is not affected by test meals of glucose, lactose, sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. 7. These results shows a great similarity between the physiology of the abomasum of the milk-fed calf and the simple stomach. This suggests that the same duodenal receptors, discussed by Hunt & Knox (1968), which control gastric movement in man are also effective in controlling gastric emptying in the milk-fed calf. PMID:4568910

  4. Anethole restores delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2016-03-25

    Functional dyspepsia (FD), a functional gastrointestinal disorder, is characterized by persistent or recurrent postprandial upper abdominal discomfort and epigastric pain. The high prevalence of FD and associated healthcare costs suggests that treatment of this condition by methods other than prescribed medicines, such as natural products, could be beneficial. Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation play important roles in the development of FD. Anethole (1-methoxy-4-((E)-propenyl)-benzene), a major component of essential fennel oil, has been used as a flavoring, in alcoholic beverage production and in pharmaceutical formulations for many years. In this study, we examined the effects of anethole on delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents. Oral administration of anethole improved clonidine-induced delayed gastric emptying but did not affect normal gastric emptying in mice. Fennel oil and Anchu-san (a Japanese herbal medicine containing anethole) also restored delayed gastric emptying. Furthermore, oral administration of anethole stimulated gastric accommodation in rats. These results suggest that anethole could be beneficial for the treatment of FD. PMID:26915803

  5. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  6. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J H; Elashoff, J; Porter-Fink, V; Dressman, J; Amidon, G L

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with 113mIn or 99mTc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with 113mIn and of chicken liver labeled with 99mTc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as 99mTc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food. PMID:3360258

  7. Human postprandial gastric emptying of 1-3-millimeter spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.H.; Elashoff, J.; Porter-Fink, V.; Dressman, J.; Amidon, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    Microspheres of pancreatin should empty from the stomachs of patients with pancreatic insufficiency as fast as food. The present study was undertaken in 26 healthy subjects to identify the size of spheres that would empty from the stomach with food and to determine whether different meals alter this size. Spheres of predefined sizes were labeled with /sup 113m/In or /sup 99m/Tc. Using a gamma-camera, we studied the concurrent gastric emptying of spheres labeled with /sup 113m/In and of chicken liver labeled with /sup 99m/Tc in 100-g, 154-kcal or 420-g, 919-kcal meals, or the concurrent emptying of 1-mm vs. larger spheres. One-millimeter spheres emptied consistently (p less than 0.01, paired t-test) faster than 2.4- or 3.2-mm spheres when ingested together with either the 420- or 100-g meals. Thus, in the 1-3-mm range of diameters, sphere size was a more important determinant of sphere emptying than meal size. Statistical analyses indicated that spheres 1.4 +/- 0.3 mm in diameter with a density of 1 empty at the same rate as /sup 99m/Tc-liver. Our data indicate some commercially marketed microspheres of pancreatin will empty too slowly to be effective in digestion of food.

  8. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M.; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected. PMID:27057750

  9. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Domstad, P A; Shih, W J; Humphries, L; DeLand, F H; Digenis, G A

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi [99mTc]triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET. PMID:3572544

  10. Gastric emptying is slow in chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Burnet, Richard B; Chatterton, Barry E

    2004-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of these symptoms and explore their relationship with objective (radionuclide) studies of upper GI function. Methods Thirty-two (32) patients with CFS and 45 control subjects completed a questionnaire on upper GI symptoms, and the 32 patients underwent oesophageal clearance, and simultaneous liquid and solid gastric emptying studies using radionuclide techniques compared with historical controls. Results The questionnaires showed a significant difference in gastric (p > 0.01) symptoms and swallowing difficulty. Nocturnal diarrhoea was a significant symptom not previously reported. 5/32 CFS subjects showed slightly delayed oesophageal clearance, but overall there was no significant difference from the control subjects, nor correlation of oesophageal clearance with symptoms. 23/32 patients showed a delay in liquid gastric emptying, and 12/32 a delay in solid gastric emptying with the delay significantly correlated with the mean symptom score (for each p ≪ 0.001). Conclusions GI symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome are associated with objective changes of upper GI motility. PMID:15619332

  11. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  12. Ingestion, gastric fill, and gastric emptying before and after withdrawal of gastric contents.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J M; Siemers, W; Grill, H J

    1994-11-01

    The notion that satiation signals are derived from the stomach with no additional contribution of postgastric sources (J. A. Deutsch. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, Food and Water Intake. 1990, vol. 10, p. 151-182) was evaluated in two experiments. In experiment 1, the gastric contents were withdrawn after the rat met the satiety criterion for an initial intraoral intake test (12.5% glucose delivered at 1.0 ml/min). Ten minutes later, the intraoral infusion was continued until the rat again met the satiety criterion. We found that rats reingested an amount closely corresponding to the amount withdrawn, in agreement with previous studies using spout-licking tests. Despite a lower gastric emptying rate during reingestion than during the initial test, the amount recovered from the stomach (both volume and solute content) after reingestion was significantly less (gastric volume 16% less; gastric glucose 18% less) than that withdrawn initially. In experiment 2, a portion (8 ml) of the gastric contents was removed after the end of an initial intraoral intake test and, after 10 min, rats were again given an opportunity to ingest to satiety. The procedure was repeated for a total of three withdrawals (24 ml) and three reingestion opportunities. Rats accurately replaced the amounts withdrawn such that net intake at the end of the experiment did not differ from that ingested during the initial test. In addition, the amount recovered from the stomach after the terminal test was considerably less (gastric volume 25% less; gastric glucose 29% less) than that recovered at the end of single-test control sessions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977874

  13. The menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kaibara, Naoko; Kobori, Ayase; Sekime, Ayako; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that ingestion of 60 mL of red wine or vodka prior to the ingestion of a pancake significantly inhibited the gastric emptying of the pancake in male subjects, but not in female subjects, and that the retention times of wine and vodka were significantly longer than those of the congener of red wine and mineral water in male subjects, whereas in female subjects the retention times of these four drinks did not differ significantly from one another. We hypothesized that the menstrual cycle may influence the gastric emptying of alcohol beverages. Here, we determined and compared the retention times of vodka and water in the stomach during the luteal phase and the follicular phase. Ten female healthy volunteers were studied. They recorded their basal body temperatures every day, and participated in the following experiments: each volunteer drank mineral water or vodka containing 14% alcohol (60 mL) during the low-temperature (follicular) phase as well as during the high-temperature (luteal) phase. The retention time of vodka was significantly longer than that of mineral water during the follicular phase, but no significant differences between the retention times of the two drinks were observed during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the menstrual cycle influences the gastric emptying rate of alcohol. PMID:26700595

  14. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  15. Delayed gastric emptying and enteric nervous system dysfunction in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, James G; Noorian, Ali Reza; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2009-07-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is the most common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Symptoms of GI dysmotility in PD include early satiety and weight loss from delayed gastric emptying and constipation from impaired colonic transit. Understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of these symptoms in PD patients has been hampered by the lack of investigation into GI symptoms and pathology in PD animal models. We report that the parkinsonian neurotoxin and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone causes delayed gastric emptying and enteric neuronal dysfunction when administered chronically to rats in the absence of major motor dysfunction or CNS pathology. When examined 22-28 days after initiation of rotenone infusion by osmotic minipump (3 mg/kg/day), 45% of rotenone-treated rats had a profound delay in gastric emptying. Electrophysiological recording of neurally-mediated muscle contraction in isolated colon from rotenone-treated animals confirmed an enteric inhibitory defect associated with rotenone treatment. Rotenone also induced a transient decrease in stool frequency that was associated with weight loss and decreased food and water intake. Pathologically, no alterations in enteric neuron numbers or morphology were apparent in rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that enteric inhibitory neurons may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of mitochondrial inhibition by parkinsonian neurotoxins and provide evidence that parkinsonian gastrointestinal abnormalities can be modeled in rodents. PMID:19409896

  16. Change in gastric emptying eight weeks after endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Nakamura, Jun; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastric emptying after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in gastric emptying from before ESD to 8 weeks after ESD. Methods: In total, 54 patients with early gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. A breath test with carbon 13 (13C) was conducted before ESD and at 1 and 8 weeks after ESD. The Tlag and T1/2 values were analyzed at each time point. The primary outcomes were the changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 and 8 weeks after ESD. The secondary outcomes were the factors associated with the changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed at 1 and 8 weeks after ESD compared with before ESD (Tlag P = 0.002, P < 0.001; T1/2 P = 0.005, P = 0.001, respectively). The changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 week after ESD were greater for proximal stomach lesions than for distal stomach lesions (P = 0.028, P < 0.001). Proximal stomach lesions were identified as the significant factor that influenced changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 week after ESD in the multivariate analyses (Tlag P = 0.003, T1/2 P = 0.005). Conclusions: ESD induced delayed gastric emptying until 8 weeks after ESD. Proximal stomach lesions were also associated with decreased emptying 1 week after ESD. PMID:27227121

  17. Measurement of gastric emptying during and between meal intake in free-feeding Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, P; Koslowsky, I; Koopmans, H S

    1999-02-01

    A new scintigraphic measurement technique is described that allows accurate assessment of gastric emptying in between as well as during a number of successive meals. Measurements were made every minute of food intake, gastric nutrient filling, and gastric emptying over a 6 h, 40 min period in conscious, free-feeding, loosely restrained rats. Before receiving access to the food, the animals had been deprived for a period of 31 h. Over the full duration of the experiment, an average rate of gastric emptying of 2.46 +/- 0.18 (SE) kcal/h was established. During most meals, however, the gastric emptying rate was increased so that an average of 26.9 +/- 2.7% of the ingested calories was emptied while the animals were feeding, with an average emptying rate of 0.15 +/- 0.014 kcal/min or 8.88 +/- 0.84 kcal/h. This transient increase in the rate of gastric emptying was followed by a subsequent slowing of gastric emptying after meal termination; in the 10-min postmeal interval, an average emptying rate of 0.96 +/- 0.12 kcal/h was found. Despite these fluctuations during and immediately after meals, a relatively constant rate of caloric emptying is maintained over longer periods. There were no differences between the emptying rate during the first meal when the gastrointestinal tract was still empty, compared with later meals when the gastrointestinal tract had been filled with food. The emptying rate during the 10-min postmeal interval, however, was significantly reduced during later meals. The results suggest that gastric emptying is controlled by different mechanisms during and after the ingestion of food and that these mechanisms remain in effect at various degrees of gastrointestinal filling. PMID:9950942

  18. Gastric antral injections of botulinum toxin delay gastric emptying but do not reduce body weight

    PubMed Central

    Topazian, Mark; Camilleri, Michael; Enders, Felicity T.; Clain, Jonathan E.; Gleeson, Ferga C.; Levy, Michael J.; Rajan, Elizabeth; Nehra, Vandana; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.; Talley, Nicholas J.; Clark, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastric injections of botulinum toxin A (BTA) have been reported to delay gastric emptying, increase satiation, and reduce body weight, but there are few data from randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Methods We enrolled 60 obese participants in a 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, concealed allocation trial to compare the effects of gastric antral injections of BTA (100 U, 300 U, or 500 U) and saline placebo. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinical research unit. Participants were given one set of injections of BTA or placebo into the gastric antral muscularis propria, using endoscopic ultrasound guidance. Gastric emptying of solids (GES) was measured by scintigraphy; we also measured body weight, satiation (maximum tolerated volume in a caloric liquid drink test), calorie intake (by food frequency questionnaire), gastrointestinal symptoms, and psychologic aspects of eating behavior (by rating scale). Results Compared with baseline values, 2 weeks after injections, the mean t1/2 for GES increased by 0.8, 14, 24, and 14 minutes among subjects given placebo, 100 U, 300 U, or 500 U of BTA, respectively (P=.24 overall, P=.04 for the group given 300 U vs placebo); 16 weeks after the injections, mean body weights were reduced by 2.2, 0.2, 2.3, and 3.0 kg in these groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean body weight change, satiation volume, caloric intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, or psychological aspects of eating behavior among groups. Conclusions Gastric antral injections of BTA may delay gastric emptying at a dose of 300 U, but do not cause early satiety, altered eating behaviors, or loss of body weight. Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT00976443 PMID:23063681

  19. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Max L.; Fransson, Boel A.; Barry, Sabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs. PMID:24982520

  20. Postprandial blood glucose response in relation to gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2009-10-01

    Glucostatic appetite regulation has numerous determinants, among others: cephalic phase digestion, gastric emptying and absorption, together influencing postprandial blood glucose responses and satiety. This short communication presents and reviews studies of gastric emptying, antral distension and postprandial glucose response and their relation to reports of satiety in healthy non-obese over night fasting subjects. PMID:19607867

  1. Intravenous erythromycin dramatically accelerates gastric emptying in gastroparesis diabeticorum and normals and abolishes the emptying discrimination between solids and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, J.L.; Vantrappen, G.; Janssens, J.; Van Cutsem, E.; Peeters, T.; De Roo, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has recently been shown to have a motilin like effect on gastrointestinal muscle strips. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of erythromycin on patients with delayed gastric emptying and healthy subjects using the dual radionuclide technique. Twelve patients with gastroparesis diabeticorum and ten healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined using 99mTc-SC scrambled egg and 111In-DTPA in water. Following a baseline study and on a separate day, each patient and control received a 15-min i.v. perfusion of erythromycin starting at meal ingestion. Eleven out of the 12 patients were restudied after a 3-wk oral administration. In patients and controls, i.v. erythromycin dramatically accelerated gastric emptying of both solids and liquids which were emptied at the same rate. After chronic oral administration, solid and liquid emptying remained significantly accelerated. Erythromycin appears to be a very powerful gastrokinetic drug. Derived compounds with the gastrokinetic effect and without the antibiotic activity could be useful in dyspeptic patients with delayed gastric emptying.

  2. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  3. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of intestinal electrical stimulation on gastric tone, antral contractions, pyloric tone, and gastric emptying in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jihong; Song, Gengqing; Wang, Lijie; Zhu, Hongbing; Brining, Doug; Chen, Jiande D. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on gastric tone, antral and pyloric contractions, and gastric emptying in dogs. Female hound dogs were equipped with a duodenal or gastric cannula, and one pair of serosal electrodes was implanted in the small intestine. The study consisted of five different experiments. Liquid gastric emptying was assessed by collection of chyme from the duodenal cannula in a number of sessions with and without IES and with and without N-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA). Postprandial antral and pyloric contractions were measured with and without IES and in the absence and presence of l-NNA or phentolamine by placement of a manometric catheter into the antrum and pylorus via the duodenal cannula. Gastric tone was assessed by measurement of gastric volume at a constant pressure. Gastric emptying was substantially and significantly delayed by IES or l-NNA compared with the control session. IES-induced delay of gastric emptying became normal with addition of l-NNA. IES reduced gastric tone, which was blocked by l-NNA. IES also inhibited antral contractions (frequency and amplitude), and this inhibitory effect was not blocked by l-NNA but was blocked by phentolamine. IES alone did not affect pyloric tone or resistance, but IES + l-NNA decreased pyloric tone. In conclusion, IES reduces gastric tone via the nitrergic pathway, inhibits antral contractions via the adrenergic pathway, does not affect pyloric tone, and delays liquid gastric emptying. IES-induced delay of gastric emptying is attributed to its inhibitory effects on gastric motility. PMID:18945955

  4. Neuromedin U inhibits food intake partly by inhibiting gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Dalbøge, Louise S; Pedersen, Søren L; Secher, Thomas; Holst, Birgitte; Vrang, Niels; Jelsing, Jacob

    2015-07-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a gut-brain peptide, implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis via the peripherally expressed NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1) and the central NMUR2. We investigated the effects of a lipidated NMU analog on gastric emptying (GE), glucose homeostasis and food intake to evaluate the use of a NMU analog as drug candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Finally mRNA expression of NMU and NMUR1 in the gut and NMUR2 in the hypothalamus was investigated using a novel chromogen-based in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. Effects on food intake (6 and 18 h post dosing) were addressed in both mice and rats. The effects on GE and glycaemic control were assessed in mice, immediately after the first dose and after seven days of bidaily (BID) dosing. The lipidated NMU analog exerted robust reductions in GE and food intake in mice and improved glycaemic control when measured immediately after the first dose. No effects were observed after seven days BID. In rats, the analog induced only a minor effect on food intake. NMU mRNA was detected in the enteric nervous system throughout the gut, whereas NMUR1 was confined to the lamina propria. NMUR2 was detected in the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate nuclei (ARC) in mice, with a reduced expression in ARC in rats. In summary, the anorectic effect of the lipidated NMU is partly mediated by a decrease in gastric emptying which is subject to tachyphylaxis after continuous dosing. Susceptibility to NMU appears to be species specific. PMID:25895852

  5. The effect of trimebutine maleate on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, A; Caner, B; Ozturk, F; Bayhan, H; Narin, Y; Mentes, T

    1999-08-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of trimebutine maleate, a drug used in both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic motility disorders, on gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia having prolonged gastric emptying rates and to compare the parameters used for the determination of the lag period observed during the emptying of solid foods from the stomach. Gastric emptying was measured by the radionuclide technique. Twenty normal volunteers and 43 patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia participated in the study. Radionuclide imaging was performed by using a solid meal labeled with 99mTc-tin colloid. Of the patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, 20 had prolonged gastric emptying. They were given three weeks of oral treatment with trimebutine maleate and had their radionuclide gastric emptying study repeated. Treatment with trimebutine maleate resulted in reduction in duration of the lag period and less retention of food at 100 minutes (p < 0.0005). After treatment with trimebutine maleate, no significant difference has been observed in the mean symptom score of patients with prolonged gastric emptying. Among the parameters used for the determination of the lag period, lag period determined by a mathematical equation (TLAG) has been found to be longer than the lag period determined by visual inspection of the images (VLAG) and there was correlation between the two parameters when the lag time was short. PMID:10510878

  6. Effect of Y-25130, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonist, on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Haga, K; Asano, K; Inaba, K; Morimoto, Y; Setoguchi, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of Y-25130 on gastric emptying of nutrient test meals (solid chow) was examined in mice. In a dose range of 0.01-1 mg/kg, p.o., Y-25130 significantly accelerated gastric emptying of solid meals in a dose-dependent manner, at an ED30 of 0.021 mg/kg. Other 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and prokinetic agents having 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonistic properties accelerated the emptying of solid meals in the following rank order of potency: Y-25130 = granisetron > or = tropisetron > ondansetron > cisapride > metoclopramide. The acceleration of the gastric emptying showed a good correlation with the antagonistic potencies of these compounds on 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors, determined by the inhibition test of the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex in anesthetized rats (r2 = 0.99). Domperidone (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and trimebutine (10 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) failed to increase the rate of emptying from the stomach. Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p.), a chemotherapeutic agent, significantly delayed the gastric emptying of solid meals, and Y-25130 (0.1-1 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented such a delay in emptying in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Y-25130 accelerates the gastric emptying in mice by antagonism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor. PMID:7625886

  7. Effects of pramlintide, an amylin analogue, on gastric emptying in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vella, A; Lee, J S; Camilleri, M; Szarka, L A; Burton, D D; Zinsmeister, A R; Rizza, R A; Klein, P D

    2002-04-01

    Pramlintide delays gastric emptying, possibly by a centrally mediated mechanism. Our aim was to determine whether the effects of pramlintide on gastric emptying differ in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who had no history of complications. Using a randomized, three-period, two-dose, crossover design, we studied the effects of 0, 30, or 60 microg t.i.d. pramlintide subcutaneously for 5 days each in six type 1 and six type 2 diabetic subjects. Gastric emptying of solids was measured by 13C-Spirulina breath test. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) response to the test meal was also measured. Relative to placebo [t 50% 91 +/- 6 min (means +/- SEM)], pramlintide equally delayed gastric emptying following 30 or 60 microg t.i.d. (268 +/- 37 min, 329 +/- 49 min, respectively; P < 0.01]. Postprandial HPP levels were lower in response to 30 and 60 microg pramlintide compared to placebo. There were no significant differences in the effects on gastric emptying or HPP levels between type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects. Pramlintide delays gastric emptying in diabetes unassociated with clinically detected complications. Further studies are needed in diabetic patients with impaired gastric motor function. PMID:11975712

  8. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids. PMID:7995200

  9. Peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy accelerates gastric emptying in healthy pigs: proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Geyl, Sophie; Legros, Romain; Charissou, Aurélie; Mesturoux, Laura; Couquet, Claude-Yves; Carrier, Paul; Brayette, Anaïs; El-Ouafi, Zora; Loustaud-Ratti, Veronique; Sautereau, Denis; Monteil, Jacques; Jacques, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, can be diagnosed with gastric emptying scintigraphy. Manometric studies of patients with gastroparesis show increased pyloric tone (pylorospasm). Among the recent endoscopic therapies for pylorospasm is peroral endoscopic pylorotomy (POP). In this study, we explored the effect of POP on gastric emptying in healthy pigs. Material and methods: Four mini-pigs underwent POP following general anaesthesia. The mucosal entrance was situated 5 cm above the pylorus. POP was performed through a submucosal tunnel dissection. The duration of gastric emptying was assessed by scintigraphy before and after the procedure. The pigs were then euthanised for necropsy and pathologic assessment of the pylorus. Results: The mean duration of the procedure was 55 (± 4 SD) min. All surgeries were performed in their entirety with 100 % feasibility. There were no cases of bleeding. The one case of perforation had no clinical significance. The duration of gastric emptying was 2.22-fold shorter after POP compared with before POP (T½ post-POP = 84.5 [± 35.7 SD] min vs. T½ pre-POP = 188.4 [± 87.3 SD] min; P = 0.029). In agreement with the endoscopic observations, sectioning of the pyloric muscle in each pig was histologically complete. Conclusion: The efficacy of the procedure provides indirect proof of the involvement of the pyloric ring in delayed gastric emptying and suggests new therapies for patients with gastroparesis. Our protocol combining gastric emptying scintigraphy and POP validated the use of anaesthetised mini-pigs as a learning and training model for POP or other endoscopic/surgical procedures related to gastric emptying. PMID:27556100

  10. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  11. The pattern of gastric emptying: a new view of old results

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    1. Gastric emptying has until now been regarded as exponential in form, but this pattern does not account for all phases of a meal. 2. A pattern of emptying in which the square root of the volume of meal remaining declines linearly with time has been shown to account for the experimental results with less error. PMID:5937408

  12. Parallel gastric emptying of nonhydrolyzable fat and water after a solid-liquid meal in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Cortot, A.; Phillips, S.F.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the control of gastric emptying of the oil phase of a mixed solid and liquid meal. Previous studies had shown that liquid dietary fats normally leave the stomach at a slower rate than does water. We wished to determine whether the slower emptying of fats was due to the physical characteristics of food (lower density and greater viscosity than water), to retardation by duodenal feedback mechanisms, or whether both factors contributed. Thus, we quantified the emptying rates of water and sucrose polyester (a nonabsorbable analog of dietary fat) ingested by healthy volunteers as a mixed solid and liquid meal. Gastric emptying was quantified by an intubation-perfusion method incorporating an occlusive jejunal balloon to facilitate recovery. Four phase-specific, nonabsorbable markers were used. (14C(Sucrose octaoleate and polyethylene glycol were incorporated in the meal and traced the lipid and water phases, respectively; (3H)glycerol triether and phenolsulfonphthalein were used as duodenal recovery markers. Sucrose polyester (substituting for dietary fat) was emptied very rapidly, and at about the same rate as was water, in contrast to natural fat, which empties very slowly. Emptying of water was rapid and comparable to that observed after mixed meals containing natural fat. These results imply that gastric emptying of the oil phase is controlled by receptors sensitive to the hydrolytic products of fat digestion and that the slow emptying of dietary fat is not simply due to its lower density.

  13. Relation between gastric emptying rate and energy intake in children compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1995-02-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids in children is difficult because the available methods are either invasive or induce a substantial radiation burden. In this study the newly developed 13C octanoic acid breath test was used to examine the gastric emptying rate of solids and milk in healthy children and to compare gastric emptying in children and adults. Fifteen healthy children and three groups of nine healthy adults were studied, using three different test meals labelled with 50 mg of 13C octanoic acid: a low caloric pancake (150 kcal), a high caloric pancake (250 kcal), and 210 ml of milk (134 kcal). Breath samples were taken before and at regular intervals after ingestion of the test meal, and analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The gastric emptying parameters were derived from the 13CO2 excretion curves by non-linear regression analysis. No significant difference was found between children and adults in the emptying rate of the low caloric solid test meal. In children as well as in adults, increasing the energy content of the solid meal resulted in a significantly slower emptying rate. The milk test meal, however, was emptied at a faster rate in adults and at slower rate in children compared with the low caloric solid test meal. Moreover, the emptying rate of milk in children was significantly slower than in adults. In conclusion, a similar gastric emptying rate of solids but a slower emptying of full cream milk was shown in children of school age compared with adults, using the non-radioactive 13C octanoic acid breath test. PMID:7883214

  14. Relation between gastric emptying rate and energy intake in children compared with adults.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids in children is difficult because the available methods are either invasive or induce a substantial radiation burden. In this study the newly developed 13C octanoic acid breath test was used to examine the gastric emptying rate of solids and milk in healthy children and to compare gastric emptying in children and adults. Fifteen healthy children and three groups of nine healthy adults were studied, using three different test meals labelled with 50 mg of 13C octanoic acid: a low caloric pancake (150 kcal), a high caloric pancake (250 kcal), and 210 ml of milk (134 kcal). Breath samples were taken before and at regular intervals after ingestion of the test meal, and analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The gastric emptying parameters were derived from the 13CO2 excretion curves by non-linear regression analysis. No significant difference was found between children and adults in the emptying rate of the low caloric solid test meal. In children as well as in adults, increasing the energy content of the solid meal resulted in a significantly slower emptying rate. The milk test meal, however, was emptied at a faster rate in adults and at slower rate in children compared with the low caloric solid test meal. Moreover, the emptying rate of milk in children was significantly slower than in adults. In conclusion, a similar gastric emptying rate of solids but a slower emptying of full cream milk was shown in children of school age compared with adults, using the non-radioactive 13C octanoic acid breath test. PMID:7883214

  15. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  16. Muscarinic blockade inhibits gastric emptying of mixed-nutrient meal: effects of weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Alavi, A; Chen, J; Pourdehnad, M; Townsend, R R

    1999-03-01

    We compared the vagal contribution to gastric emptying in lean and obese subjects by monitoring gastric emptying of a meal during muscarinic blockade. Lean (n = 6) and obese subjects (n = 6) underwent two treatments: 1) saline infusion and 2) atropine infusion [0.4 mg/m2 bolus, 0.4 mg. (m2)-1. h-1] for 2 h, initiated 30 min before ingestion of a 600-kcal breakfast (64% carbohydrate, 23% fat, 13% protein) composed of orange juice (labeled with Indium-111), egg sandwich (labeled with Technetium-99m), cereal, milk, and banana. Anterior and posterior images were taken every 90 s for 90 min using a dual-headed camera. Atropine significantly delayed emptying of both solid (P < 0.007) and liquid (P < 0.002). Obese subjects exhibited a greater delay in liquid emptying during muscarinic blockade compared with lean subjects (P < 0.02). Female subjects exhibited a slower rate of gastric emptying and were less sensitive to atropine. These data suggest that obese subjects exhibit altered gastric cholinergic activity compared with lean subjects and that gender differences in gastric emptying rate may be due to differences in autonomic tone. PMID:10070130

  17. Gastric and pyloric sphincter muscle function and the developmental-dependent regulation of gastric content emptying in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sobchak, Curtis; Fajardo, A Felipe; Shifrin, Yulia; Pan, Jingyi; Belik, Jaques

    2016-06-01

    Feeding intolerance is a common issue in the care of preterm neonates. The condition manifests as delayed emptying of gastric contents and represents a therapeutic challenge, since the factors accounting for its manifestations are unknown. The main goal of this study was to comparatively investigate the age-related function of rat gastric and pyloric smooth muscle and their putative regulators. We hypothesized that a reduced gastric muscle contraction potential early in life contributes to the delayed gastric emptying of the newborn. Newborn and adult rat gastric (fundus) and pyloric sphincter tissues were comparatively studied in vitro. Shortening of the tissue-specific dissociated smooth muscle cell was evaluated, and expression of the key regulatory proteins Rho-associated kinase 2 and myosin light chain kinase was determined. Gastric and pyloric smooth muscle cell shortening was significantly greater in the adult than the respective newborn counterpart. Expression of myosin light chain kinase and Rho-associated kinase 2 was developmentally regulated and increased with age. Pyloric sphincter muscle expresses a higher neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein content in newborn than adult tissue. Compared with later in life, the newborn rat gastropyloric muscle has a Ca(2+)-related reduced potential for contraction and the pyloric sphincter relaxation-dependent modulators are overexpressed. To the extent that these rodent data can be extrapolated to humans, the delayed gastric emptying in the newborn reflects reduced stomach muscle contraction potential, as opposed to increased pyloric sphincter tone. PMID:27125274

  18. [Gastric emptying in elderly patients with cerebral vascular diseases and the effect of trimebutine].

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Kobatake, K; Haruma, K; Yamanaka, H; Fujimura, J; Yoshihara, M; Sumii, K; Kajiyama, G

    1993-01-01

    The authors investigated gastric emptying in 18 elderly patients with cerebral vascular diseases using the acetaminophen method. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to their levels of daily activity. One group consisted of 10 comatose patients (71-92 years old), the other consisted of 8 patients (74-95 years old) who could walk by themselves. We also investigated gastric emptying in 6 comatose patients (38-83 years old) because of other diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in 11 elder controls (75-95 years old). In elderly controls, the acetaminophen concentration at 45 minutes was 9.08 +/- 1.71 micrograms/ml. In comatose patients due to cerebral vascular diseases, the concentration was 3.89 +/- 1.60 micrograms/ml, which showed significantly delayed gastric emptying (p < 0.05). In patients with cerebral vascular diseases who could walk, the concentration was 6.51 +/- 0.99 micrograms/ml. In comatose patients by another diseases, the concentration was 5.82 +/- 1.13 micrograms/ml. We suspected that delayed gastric emptying is related to the comatose state. Trimebutine significantly (p < 0.01) improved gastric emptying in comatose patients with cerebral vascular diseases. PMID:8474227

  19. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Avill, R.; Mangnall, Y.F.; Bird, N.C.; Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Seagar, A.D.; Johnson, A.G.; Read, N.W.

    1987-04-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant.

  20. Effects of delayed gastric emptying on postprandial glucose kinetics, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Ling; Schiavon, Michele; Mallad, Ashwini; Man, Chiara Dalla; Basu, Rita; Bharucha, Adil. E.; Cobelli, Claudio; Carter, Rickey E.; Basu, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Controlling meal-related glucose excursions continues to be a therapeutic challenge in diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic reasons for this need to be understood better to develop appropriate therapies. To investigate delayed gastric emptying effects on postprandial glucose turnover, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responsivity and function, as a feasibility study prior to studying patients with type 1 diabetes, we used the triple tracer technique C-peptide and oral minimal model approach in healthy subjects. A single dose of 30 μg of pramlintide administered at the start of a mixed meal was used to delay gastric emptying rates. With delayed gastric emptying rates, peak rate of meal glucose appearance was delayed, and rate of endogenous glucose production (EGP) was lower. C-peptide and oral minimal models enabled the assessments of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responsivity simultaneously. Delayed gastric emptying induced by pramlintide improved total insulin sensitivity and decreased total β-cell responsivity. However, β-cell function as measured by total disposition index did not change. The improved whole body insulin sensitivity coupled with lower rate of appearance of EGP with delayed gastric emptying provides experimental proof of the importance of evaluating pramlintide in artificial endocrine pancreas approaches to reduce postprandial blood glucose variability in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25074985

  1. Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs. [Cobalt 60 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Jacobus, J.P.; Grissom, M.P.; Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-03-01

    The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n . 10) or domperidone (n . 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

  2. Gastric emptying time and the effect of cisapride in cirrhotic patients with autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gumurdulu, Yuksel; Yapar, Zeynep; Canataroglu, Abdullah; Serin, Ender; Gumurdulu, Derya; Kibar, Mustafa; Colakoglu, Salih

    2003-02-01

    GOALS To investigate the relationships between gastric emptying and autonomic dysfunction in hepatic cirrhosis and to assess the effects of cisapride on gastric emptying in cirrhotic patients. STUDY Twenty-four cirrhotic patients (8 patients in each Child-Pugh classification) and 25 healthy controls were enrolled. All the patients had viral (B or C) hepatitis. Patients with DM, alcoholic cirrhosis, active peptic ulcer, gastric malignancy and pyloric obstruction were excluded by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Parasympathetic and sympathetic functions were assessed by the criteria set forth by Ewing and Clark. Drugs affecting GI motility and smoking were discontinued 48 hours and 12 hours prior to the study respectively. A solid-phase of gastric emptying study was conducted by scintigraphic method for the calculation of gastric half-emptying time (GET1/2). RESULTS The study revealed that 9 patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis had autonomic neuropathy and none of Child-Pugh A cirrhosis had autonomic neuropathy. Prolonged GET1/2 was noted in cirrhotics compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, there was significant difference between 9 patients (Child B-C) with autonomic neuropathy compared with patients 15 patients without autonomic neuropathy. Again there was a significant difference in GET1/2 between Child A cirrhotic and Child B-C cirrhotic whether they had autonomic neuropathy or not. Cisapride decreased GET1/2 significantly in cirrhotic patients (Child B-C cirrhotic). Clearly, patients with autonomic neuropathy in Child B-C cirrhosis had significantly reduced GET1/2 after cisapride administration. Even though cisapride decreased GET1/2 in patients with Child B-C cirrhosis without autonomic neuropathy, this was not significant. CONCLUSION Autonomic neuropathy in advanced cirrhosis from viral hepatitis may cause prolonged gastric emptying. Cisapride can shorten gastric emptying time in such patients. PMID:12544204

  3. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S S; Gupta, Y K

    1998-08-01

    Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:9720611

  4. Electrical bioimpedance and other techniques for gastric emptying and motility evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Flores-Hernández, Corina; Morales-Mata, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify non-invasive, inexpensive, highly sensitive and accurate techniques for evaluating and diagnosing gastric diseases. In the case of the stomach, there are highly sensitive and specific methods for assessing gastric motility and emptying (GME). However, these methods are invasive, expensive and/or not technically feasible for all clinicians and patients. We present a summary of the most relevant international information on non-invasive methods and techniques for clinically evaluating GME. We particularly emphasize the potential of gastric electrical bioimpedance (EBI). EBI was initially used mainly in gastric emptying studies and was essentially abandoned in favor of techniques such as electrogastrography and the gold standard, scintigraphy. The current research evaluating the utility of gastric EBI either combines this technique with other frequently used techniques or uses new methods for gastric EBI signal analysis. In this context, we discuss our results and those of other researchers who have worked with gastric EBI. In this review article, we present the following topics: (1) a description of the oldest methods and procedures for evaluating GME; (2) an explanation of the methods currently used to evaluate gastric activity; and (3) a perspective on the newest trends and techniques in clinical and research GME methods. We conclude that gastric EBI is a highly effective non-invasive, easy to use and inexpensive technique for assessing GME. PMID:22368782

  5. The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J N; Stubbs, D F

    1975-01-01

    1. Results were collected from thirty-three published and unpublished studies of gastric emptying. The volumes of the meals ranged from 50 to 1250 ml., and composition varied from pure carbohydrates to ordinary food. 2. From the published composition of the meals, their nutritive density, as kcal/ml. (4-18 KJ/ml.) was computed: it ranged from zero to 2-3 kcal/ml. 3. The volume of each meal, or test meal, delivered to the duodenum in 30 min was determined, assuming that gastric emptying was exponential. 4. The greater the nutritive density of a meal, the less was the volume transferred to the duodenum in 30 min. The original volume of meal given was not a determinant of the rate of emptying (ml./min). 5. The slowing of gastric emptying with a meal of high nutritive density was not sufficient to prevent an increased rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum (nutritive density times volume delivered in unit time) with a meal of high nutritive density. 6. Assuming an appropriate relationship for the interaction of a stimulus (kcal/ml.) and duodenal receptors, it was possible to predict a rate of gastric emptying for each meal, given its nutritive density. Knowing the initial volume of the meal, it was possible to predict the mean half time for its emptying. 7. There were eight sets of anomalous results: in four the volumes of meal given were less than 200 ml.; explanations of the anomalies in the other four results could not be provided. 8. The results are consistent with equal slowing of gastric emptying by the duodenal action of the products of digestion of isocaloric amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate, for example, 4 g fat or 9 g carbohydrate, both 36 kcal, taking carbohydrate and protein as 4 kcal/g and fat as 9 kcal/g. PMID:1127608

  6. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  7. Gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of lipids in man. A new scintigraphic method of study

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, R.; Vigneron, N.; Najean, Y.; Bernier, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    We measured gastric emptying of fat and water from a solid-liquid meal in healthy volunteers using a tubeless scintigraphic method. /sup 75/Se glycerol triether, incorporated in butter, was the lipid-phase marker, and /sup 99m/Tcm, ingested with 250 ml water, the non-lipid phase marker. In seven of these subjects we also measured the gastric emptying of solids and liquids with /sup 99m/Tc bound to cooked egg whites as the solid-phase marker and /sup 111/In ingested with 250 ml water as the marker of the solid and aqueous phases. Emptying and intragastric repartition of each marker were measured by detection of radioactivity changes over the abdominal area using a gamma-camera. The stability and the specificity of the labeling was checked for each marker. Mean gastric emptying rate (expressed as percentage ingested marker emptied per hr) of lipids (17.4 +/- 2.4) was much lower than that of the rest of the meal (34.2 +/- 1.8) and slightly, but significantly, lower than that of solids (22.8 +/- 1.8). An intragastric layering of fat above nonlipids was observed only after the first postprandial hour and remained moderate. Thus, lipids are emptied more slowly than any other component of an ordinary meal, and this is not due only to layering of fat above water.

  8. Study of gastrointestinal opiate receptors: the role of the mu receptor on gastric emptying: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.; Sullivan, S.

    1983-08-01

    Animal and in vitro experiments suggest that opiates exert their actions by interaction with possibly five different subtypes of opiate receptors, identified as mu, kappa, sigma, delta, and epsilon. As yet there is no conclusive evidence for their existence in man. Our experiments on morphine and the enkephalin analog DAMME have suggested at least two types of opiate receptors involved in gastric secretion. In this study we have used the very powerful and nonselective opiate agonist etorphine to stimulate as many of the different opiate receptors as possible. We have then attempted to block selectively the ..mu.. receptor by administering a small dose of naloxone. Etorphine delayed gastric emptying whereas naloxone alone had no effect. In combination, the inhibitory effect of etorphine on gastric emptying was incompletely prevented while the subjective effects of etorphoine were completely abolished. These results may indicate that ..mu.. receptors are important in the regulation of gastric emptying, but that other (non-..mu..) receptors are also involved. The radionuclide study of gastric emptying, as used here, is a potentially powerful tool in physiological research on the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Tumor-associated gastroparesis with esophageal carcinoma. Use of intravenous metoclopramide during radionuclide gastric emptying studies to predict clinical response

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, A.I.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fleischer, D.E.

    1989-07-01

    This case report describes a patient with esophageal carcinoma and tumor-associated gastroparesis. The radionuclide gastric emptying study diagnosed very delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying. Metoclopramide was administered intravenously during the study and was able to predict a good response to oral therapy.

  10. Changes in patients’ symptoms and gastric emptying after Helicobacter pylori treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Geng, Chang-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yan-Lin; Tong, Li-Quan; Gao, Ping; Gao, Yue-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes in clinical symptoms and gastric emptying and their association in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. METHODS: Seventy FD patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative group (28 patients), and H. pylori-positive group (42 patients). Patients in the H. pylori-positive group were further randomly divided into groups: H. pylori-treatment group (21 patients) and conventional treatment group (21 patients). Seventy two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The proximal and distal stomach area was measured by ultrasound immediately after patients took the test meal, and at 20, 40, 60 and 90 min; then, gastric half-emptying time was calculated. The incidence of symptoms and gastric half-emptying time between the FD and control groups were compared. The H. pylori-negative and conventional treatment groups were given conventional treatment: domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The H. pylori-treatment group was given H. pylori eradication treatment + conventional treatment: lansoprazole 30 mg once daily, clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily and amoxicillin 1.0 g twice daily for 1 wk, then domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The incidence of symptoms and gastric emptying were compared between the FD and control groups. The relationship between dyspeptic symptoms and gastric half-emptying time in the FD and control groups were analyzed. Then total symptom scores before and after treatment and gastric half-emptying time were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: The incidence of abdominal pain, epigastric burning sensation, abdominal distension, nausea, belching, and early satiety symptoms in the FD group were significantly higher than in the control group (50.0% vs 20.8%; 37.1% vs 12.5%; 78.6% vs 44.4%; 45.7% vs 22.2%; 52.9% vs 15.3%; 57.1% vs 19.4%; all P < 0.05). The gastric half-emptying times of the proximal end, distal end, and the whole stomach in the FD group were slower than in the

  11. A valid, accurate, office based non-radioactive test for gastric emptying of solids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Camilleri, M; Zinsmeister, A; Burton, D; Kost, L; Klein, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Current breath tests for measurement of gastric emptying of solids are expensive, possibly inaccurate, and require cumbersome calculations.
AIMS—We wished to validate a simplified solid gastric emptying test using a [13C]Spirulina platensis breath test for accurate results relative to scintigraphy.
SUBJECTS—Thirty healthy volunteers.
METHODS—We measured gastric emptying of egg containing [13C]S platensis and 99mTc sulphur colloid by breath 13CO2 and scintigraphy over six hours. A generalised linear regression model was used to predict t1/2 and tLAG by scintigraphy from breath 13CO2 data. The model was cross validated and normative data calculated for a prepacked [13C]meal.
RESULTS—Regression models using all breath data over six hours, for the first three hours, and for samples at 75, 90, and 180 minutes ("reduced model") predicted t1/2 and tLAG values similar to scintigraphy (tLAG 43 (SD 12) min; t1/2 100 (20) min). Standard deviations of differences in t1/2 and tLAG between scintigraphy and the "reduced model" were both 10 minutes. Gastric t1/2 for the prepacked [13C]meal was 91 (15) min (10-90% range: 74-118).
CONCLUSION—The [13C]S platensis breath test and a simple formula using breath 13CO2 at baseline, 90, and 180 minutes measured gastric emptying t1/2 for solids with results that were comparable with scintigraphy.


Keywords: stable isotope; breath test; gastric emptying PMID:10807886

  12. Effect of size and density on canine gastric emptying of nondigestible solids.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J H; Dressman, J; Fink, A; Amidon, G

    1985-10-01

    Previous studies suggested that the food-containing canine stomach retains large, nondigestible spheres until all food has emptied; but it is not known whether there is a threshold size or a gradation of sizes that will empty along with food. Further, nothing is known of the effects of such parameters as density, shape, and surface energy on the emptying of nondigestible particles of any given size. To answer these questions 6 dogs with chronic duodenal fistulas were studied. Radiolabeled food and spheres were collected from the fistulas to compare the rate of gastric emptying of the spheres with that of the food. After a standard test meal of 99mTc-labeled liver, steak, and water, diverted chyme was collected over a stack of sieves in 30-min fractions over 5 postcibal hours. The percent of fed spheres and fed 99mTc-labeled liver in each collection was counted, and liquid chyme was returned to the distal duodenum. Spheres with a density of 1 emptied progressively faster as sphere diameters were decreased from 5 to 1 mm; but 0.015-mm spheres emptied at about the same rate as those with diameters of 1 mm. Emptying of the spheres became similar to emptying of the 99mTc-labeled liver at about 1.6 mm. Spheres with densities less than 1 or greater than 1 emptied more slowly than spheres of the same size with a density of 1, whereas paper squares emptied the same way as spheres of comparable size and density. Surface energy did not affect emptying. The findings indicated that both sphere size and density affect their emptying in the presence of food. PMID:4029560

  13. Gastric emptying and postprandial glucose excursions in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because amylin is co-secreted with insulin from beta cells, patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are deficient in both insulin and amylin. Amylin delays gastric emptying and suppresses glucagon in the postprandial period. Hence, we hypothesized that children with complication-naive T1DM have acceler...

  14. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  15. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  16. Use of radionuclide imaging to determine gastric emptying of carbohydrate solutions during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, D; Miles, A; O'Neill, I; Critchley, M; Grime, S; Stockdale, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the repeatability of continual assessment of the gastric emptying rates of carbohydrate solutions in exercising subjects using 99mtechnetium labelling. METHODS--Gastric emptying of a 5% glucose solution and an iso-osmotic maltodextrin solution was measured using 3 MBq of 99mtechnetium labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and continuous gamma camera imaging in five male subjects. The subjects performed four 1 h trials at 70% VO2 peak on a cycle ergometer. After 15 min, 200 ml of a radiolabelled solution of glucose or maltodextrin were ingested in a blind crossover protocol. The two solutions were each ingested on separate occasions (trial 1 and trial 2) to establish repeatability. RESULTS--Statistical analysis showed no differences between trial 1 and trial 2 for both solutions. There were no significant differences for the emptying rates between the two test solutions. CONCLUSIONS--Posterior imaging using a computer linked gamma camera following the ingestion of 99mtechnetium labelled DTPA mixed with carbohydrate solutions provides a repeatable method of assessing gastric emptying characteristics in exercising subjects. This technique showed no significant differences between the emptying rates of a single dose of iso-osmotic glucose or maltodextrin solution. Images Fig 1 PMID:8665111

  17. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a /sup 99m/technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it.

  18. Gastric emptying evaluation by ultrasound prior colonoscopy: An easy tool following bowel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Coriat, Romain; Polin, Vanessa; Oudjit, Ammar; Henri, Franck; Dhooge, Marion; Leblanc, Sarah; Delchambre, Chantal; Esch, Anouk; Tabouret, Tessa; Barret, Maximilien; Prat, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the gastric emptying after bowel preparation to allow general anaesthesia. METHODS: A prospective, non-comparative, and non-randomized trial was performed and registered on Eudra CT database (2011-002953-80) and on www.trial.gov (NCT01398098). All patients had a validated indication for colonoscopy and a preparation using sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets. The day of the procedure, patients took 4 tablets with 250 mL of water every 15 min, three times. The gastric volume was estimated every 15 min from computed antral surfaces and weight according to the formula of Perlas et al (Anesthesiology, 2009). Colonoscopy was performed within the 6 h following the last intake. RESULTS: Thirty patients were prospectively included in the study from November 2011 to May 2012. The maximum volume of the antrum was 212 mL, achieved 15 min after the last intake. 24%, 67% and 92% of subjects had an antral volume below 20 mL at 60, 120 and 150 min, respectively. 81% of patients had a Boston score equal to 2 or 3 in each colonic segment. No adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation were reported. CONCLUSION: Gastric volume evaluation appeared to be a simple and reliable method for the assessment of gastric emptying. Data allow considering the NaP tablets bowel preparation in the morning of the procedure and confirming that gastric emptying is achieved after two hours, allowing general anaesthesia. PMID:25309090

  19. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying and ultrasonographic assessment of antral area: relation to appetite.

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, K; Jones, K L; Chatterton, B E; Horowitz, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying has potential advantages over scintigraphy, but there is little information about its accuracy. AIMS: The relation between ultrasonographic measurements of antral area and (a) scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of liquids (b) postprandial satiation, were evaluated. SUBJECTS: Seven normal volunteers were studied. METHOD: Each subject drank 75 g dextrose dissolved in 350 ml of water (300 kcal) or beef soup (20 kcal), both labelled with technetium-99m sulphur colloid on separate days and had measurement of gastric emptying by scintigraphy and ultrasound. RESULTS: Scintigraphic and ultrasound 50% emptying times (T50s) were comparable and longer (p < 0.001) for dextrose than soup mean (SEM) (dextrose 107 (16) min v 108 (18) min, soup 24 (4) min v 23 (5) min). There were close correlations between scintigraphic and ultrasound T50s (dextrose r = 0.94, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and between the time at which the distal stomach content decreased from its maximum value by 50% (measured scintigraphically) and the ultrasound T50 (dextrose r = 0.95, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). In contrast, there was no significant relation between the distal stomach content when expressed as a percentage of the maximum content in the total stomach and the ultrasound T50. After dextrose, fullness was related (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) to the postprandial increase in antral area measured by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound measurements of gastric emptying are: (a) of comparable sensitivity to scintigraphy in quantifying emptying of both low and high nutrient liquids (b) correlate with postprandial satiation, suggesting that the latter may be mediated by antral distension. PMID:8984016

  20. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. PMID:27072508

  1. Solid gastric emptying mediated by the serotonin (5-HT)3 receptor in mice is a simple marker to predict emesis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kentaro; Takagi, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and emesis are often observed as side effects with many medicines and may lead to poor treatment compliance. In the present study, we aimed to establish simple methods for predicting nausea and/or emesis in mice, which do not vomit, using drugs and chemicals known to evoke nausea and/or emesis. The gastrointestinal transit test, the liquid gastric emptying by phenol red solution (Phenol red method) and the solid gastric emptying by resin beads (Beads method) were used and the effects of antispasmogenics (atropine, 0.1-3 mg/kg i.p.; salmon calcitonin, 1-30 units/kg i.m.), nauseants (copper sulfate, 1-30 mg/kg p.o.; apomorphine, 0.01-0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and chemotherapeutics (cisplatin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.; doxorubicin, 0.3-10 mg/kg i.v.) were evaluated. In addition, the effects of ondansetron, a serotonin (5-HT)(3) receptor antagonist, on the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by salmon calcitonin, copper sulfate, cisplatin and doxorubicin were also assessed. Only the solid gastric emptying method could detect changes of gastric emptying by all drugs and chemicals. We also found that the inhibition of solid gastric emptying induced by cisplatin and doxorubicin was dose-dependently antagonized by ondansetron. However, ondansetron failed to antagonize the salmon calcitonin-induced delay, but exerted only very weak effects with copper sulfate. Solid gastric emptying may be more suitable than gastrointestinal intestinal transit or liquid gastric emptying in mice to predict nausea and/or emesis. Our results also suggest that chemotherapeutic-induced delay of solid gastric emptying mediated via 5-HT(3) receptors in mice could also be useful for prediction purposes. PMID:21297338

  2. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice. PMID:20969650

  3. Studies of the reproducibility, acquisition and analysis of gastric emptying studies in pediatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.H.K.; Rosen, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis, reproducibility and acquisition of gastric emptying data in a pediatric population was evaluated by obtaining data simultaneously with anterior and posterior gamma camera detectors, repetitive studies in patients and by the use of power exponential analysis, in addition to conventional monoexponential methodology. 13 patients with a variety of gastroesophageal pathologies were studied with simultaneous anterior and posterior gamma camera data acquisition. Excluding 4 subjects with substantial emesis, there was no statistical difference in data obtained anteriorly and posteriorly. The anterior scan in general revealed more rapid initial emptying compared to the posterior scan, resulting in a smaller shape factor (S) when power exponential function analysis was employed. T1/2 using either simple monoexponential or power exponential calculations showed no difference for data obtained anteriorly or posteriorly. T3/4 showed larger values in posteriorly obtained data as compared to anteriorly obtained data. 7 patients had repetitive studies performed at intervals from 1-9 days. Data so obtained showed no statistical difference in T1/2, T3/4 or S derived, either by single exponential or power exponential. The authors conclude therefore that gastric emptying data in a pediatric age group appears to be reproducible in repetitive studies. There appears to be no difference in data acquired anteriorly or posteriorly. The utilization of a power exponential analysis of gastric emptying data may augment the description of data by providing a quantitative expression of a multiexponential function.

  4. Effect of the energy density of a solid-liquid meal on gastric emptying and satiety.

    PubMed

    Carbonnel, F; Lémann, M; Rambaud, J C; Mundler, O; Jian, R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of the energy density of a meal on gastric emptying and satiety was assessed in nine volunteers. They ingested, in randomized order, a diluted (2671 kJ/L, 950 mL) and a concentrated (7452 kJ/L, 350 mL) test meal of 2500 kJ each (80% as solids). Half-emptying times of solids and liquids were not significantly different for the diluted and concentrated meal (solids: 145 +/- 18 and 156 +/- 16 min, respectively; liquids: 76 +/- 10 and 84 +/- 10 min, respectively), and consequently, pyloric outputs of energy were identical. Neither the intensity and duration of satiety, nor the amount of energy ingested, ad libitum, 6 h after the test meal, were significantly affected by energy density of the food ingested. Both the intensity and duration of satiety correlated significantly with the gastric emptying time for solids (r = 0.60 and 0.67, respectively, P < 0.01). These results show that satiety depends on gastric emptying of energy and is not affected by the energy density of food intake. PMID:8074058

  5. Effects of clonidine and sumatriptan on postprandial gastric volume response, antral contraction waves and emptying: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, M A; Fox, M R; Steingoetter, A; Menne, D; Pal, A; Fruehauf, H; Kaufman, E; Forras-Kaufman, Z; Brasseur, J G; Goetze, O; Hebbard, G S; Boesiger, P; Thumshirn, M; Fried, M; Schwizer, W

    2009-09-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) may be driven by tonic contraction of the stomach ('pressure pump') or antral contraction waves (ACW) ('peristaltic pump'). The mechanism underlying GE was studied by contrasting the effects of clonidine (alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist) and sumatriptan (5-HT(1) agonist) on gastric function. Magnetic resonance imaging provided non-invasive assessment of gastric volume responses, ACW and GE in nine healthy volunteers. Investigations were performed in the right decubitus position after ingestion of 500 mL of 10% glucose (200 kcal) under placebo [0.9% NaCl intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC)], clonidine [0.01 mg min(-1) IV, max 0.1 mg (placebo SC)] or sumatriptan [6 mg SC (placebo IV)]. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) were assessed every 5 min for 90 min, interspersed with dynamic scan sequences to measure ACW activity. During gastric filling, TGV increased with GCV indicating that meal volume dictates initial relaxation. Gastric contents volume continued to increase over the early postprandial period due to gastric secretion surpassing initial gastric emptying. Clonidine diminished this early increase in GCV, reduced gastric relaxation, decreased ACW frequency compared with placebo. Gastric emptying (GE) rate increased. Sumatriptan had no effect on initial GCV, but prolonged gastric relaxation and disrupted ACW activity. Gastric emptying was delayed. There was a negative correlation between gastric relaxation and GE rate (r(2 )=49%, P < 0.001), whereas the association between ACW frequency and GE rate was inconsistent and weak (r2=15%, P = 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that nutrient liquid emptying is primarily driven by the 'pressure pump' mechanism. PMID:19413683

  6. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Ruwart, M J; Rush, B D

    1984-08-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of "enteropooling" in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric 51Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Small-intestinal transit was expressed as the percentage of small intestinal length traveled by the visually detected marker. Gastric emptying was expressed as the percentage of the total 51Cr found in the small intestine. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2 in doses as high as 0.2 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, had none of these effects. However, a high-dose intravenous bolus (1.0 mg/kg) or infusion (1.0 mg/kg X 45 min) both inhibited gastric emptying. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. The animals simultaneously received

  7. A gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential is a better fit for gastric emptying data from mice

    PubMed Central

    Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J.; Coleman, Heidi D.; Linden, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential and with a proposed two-component model. The appropriateness of the fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion. We found that extension of the gamma variate model to include a stretched exponential improves the fit, which allows for a better estimation of T1/2 and Tlag. When two distinct peaks in gastric emptying are present, a two-component model is required for the most appropriate fit. We conclude that use of a stretched exponential gamma variate model and when appropriate a two-component model will result in a better estimate of physiologically relevant parameters when analyzing mouse gastric emptying data. PMID:26045615

  8. Effects of calcium channel blockers on gastric emptying and acid secretion of the rat in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Brage, R.; Cortijo, J.; Esplugues, J.; Esplugues, J. V.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Rodriguez, C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of three calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem and cinnarizine) on gastric emptying and secretion in the rat. Pretreatment with the calcium blockers delayed gastric emptying of phenol red in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil was the most effective of the agents tested. Verapamil and diltiazem inhibited gastric acid secretion in the pylorus-ligated rat without affecting pepsin output. Cinnarizine was ineffective in this model. When the perfused lumen of the anaesthetized rat was used, verapamil was found to inhibit responses to carbachol or histamine more than those to pentagastrin. Further, we found a greater sensitivity to verapamil for basal compared with vagal-stimulated (2-deoxy-D-glucose) acid secretion. Neither diltiazem nor cinnarizine modified gastric acid secretion in this experimental model. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of extracellular calcium in gastric motility and secretion, and the existence of a regional and functional selectivity for calcium blockers is proposed. PMID:3814903

  9. Gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal are not coordinated in liver cirrhosis--a simultaneous sonographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, M; Dumitraşcu, D L; Csakany, I

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: An impaired contractility has been suggested as a contributor to the increased incidence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis, but the few studies on gall bladder emptying in cirrhotics offered contradictory results. Ingestion of a meal triggers the physiological pathway of gall bladder emptying; therefore, it was decided to analyse postprandial kinetics by investigating simultaneously the rates of gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Gastric and gall bladder emptying were measured using ultrasound techniques after a solid-liquid meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal) in 24 patients with liver cirrhosis and in 12 controls. None of the subjects had gall bladder disease. Sequential changes in cross sectional area of the gastric antrum and in gall bladder volume were represented as a monoexponential process after the test meal. Cirrhotic patients were analysed according to the severity of disease (Child classes). The presence of portal gastropathy was assessed by endoscopy. Differences between groups were assessed using the two tailed Student's t test for unpaired observations and the correlations by linear regression (Pearson's coefficient). RESULTS: It was found that gastric emptying after the solid-liquid meal was delayed in cirrhotic patients compared with controls. Gall bladder emptying was significantly diminished in cirrhotic patients: the area under curve was greater in Child A (p = 0.01), Child B (p = 0.04), and Child C (p = 0.014) cirrhotics compared with controls. No correlation was found between the variables of gastric and gall bladder emptying. Gall bladder refilling began earlier in cirrhotics than in controls, before completion of gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the lack of coordination between gastric and gall bladder emptying in liver cirrhosis. They also support the hypothesis that diminished gall bladder contractility might contribute to the increased gallstone

  10. Cigarette smoking and rate of gastric emptying: effect on alcohol absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R D; Horowitz, M; Maddox, A F; Wishart, J M; Shearman, D J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of cigarette smoking on alcohol absorption and gastric emptying. DESIGN--Randomised crossover study. SETTING--Research project in departments of medicine and nuclear medicine. SUBJECTS--Eight healthy volunteers aged 19-43 who regularly smoked 20-35 cigarettes a day and drank small amounts of alcohol on social occasions. INTERVENTIONS--Subjects drank 400 ml of a radiolabelled nutrient test meal containing alcohol (0.5 g/kg), then had their rates of gastric emptying measured. Test were carried out (a) with the subjects smoking four cigarettes an hour and (b) with the subjects not smoking, having abstained for seven days or more. The order of the tests was randomised and the tests were conducted two weeks apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Peak blood alcohol concentrations, absorption of alcohol at 30 minutes, amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes, and times taken for 50% of the meal to leave the proximal stomach and total stomach. RESULTS--Smoking was associated with reductions in (a) peak blood alcohol concentrations (median values in non-smoking versus smoking periods 13.5 (range 8.7-22.6) mmol/l v 11.1 (4.3-13.5) mmol/l), (b) area under the blood alcohol concentration-time curve at 30 minutes (264 x 10(3) (0-509 x 10(3)) mmol/l/min v 140 x 10(3)) (0-217 x 10(3) mmol/l/min), and (c) amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes (39% (5-86%) v 23% (0-35%)). In addition, smoking slowed both the 50% gastric emptying time (37 (9-83) minutes v 56 (40-280) minutes) and the intragastric distribution of the meal. There was a close correlation between the amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes and the area under the blood alcohol concentration-time curve at 30 minutes (r = 0.91; p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION--Cigarette smoking slows gastric emptying and as a consequence delays alcohol absorption. PMID:1991182

  11. Delayed gastric emptying: whom to test, how to test, and what to do.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, Frank K; Parkman, Henry P

    2006-07-01

    Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, is a common cause of chronic nausea and vomiting as seen in a gastroenterology practice. Diabetic, postsurgical, and idiopathic causes remain the three most common forms of gastroparesis. In addition to nausea and vomiting, symptoms of gastroparesis may include early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Physiologic changes that may explain symptoms in patients with gastroparesis, in addition to delayed gastric emptying, include impaired fundic accommodation, antral hypomotility, gastric dysrhythmias, pylorospasm, and perhaps visceral hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of gastroparesis is best determined using a radioisotope-labeled solid meal with scintigraphic imaging for at least 2 hours, and preferably 4 hours, postprandially. Most commonly, a 99mTc sulfur colloid-labeled egg sandwich with imaging at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours is used. Extension of the gastric emptying test to 4 hours improves the accuracy of the test, but unfortunately, this is not commonly performed at many centers. Emptying of liquids remains normal until the late stages of gastroparesis and is less useful. The aims of treatment should be to control symptoms and maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. Patients should be advised to eat small meals and to limit their intake of fat and fiber. Additional dietary recommendations may include increasing caloric intake in the form of liquids. For diabetic patients, control of blood glucose levels is important, as symptom exacerbation is frequently associated with poor glycemic control. Specific treatment often begins with metoclopramide, 10 mg, up to four times daily, after a discussion of possible side effects with the patient. An antiemetic agent, such as prochlorperazine, 5 to 10 mg orally or 25 mg by suppository, can be added on an as-needed basis every 4 to 6 hours to control nausea. If these antiemetic medications are not effective, or if side effects develop, orally dissolving ondansetron, 8 mg

  12. Slower eating rate is independent to gastric emptying in obese minipigs.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, D; Guérin, S; Malbert, C H

    2010-11-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether the altered eating behavior observed in the context of a diet-induced metabolic syndrome is related to changes of the gastric emptying and autonomic balance. Eight adult male Göttingen minipigs were subjected during 5months to ad libitum Western diet (WD). Several factors were compared between the lean (before WD) and obese conditions: general activity and eating behavior, gastric emptying, adiposity, glycemia and insulinemia during IVGTT, and heart rate variability (HRV). In our model, obesity did not alter the gastric emptying (258±26 vs. 256±14 min, P>0.10) but induced insulin resistance: increased basal insulinemia (12.6±0.8 to 36.6±6.1 mU/l, P<0.02) and reduced insulin sensitivity (4.5E-4±0.7E-4 to 2.5E-4±0.2E-4 min(-1) per mU.l(-1) of insulin, P<0.05). The HRV and sympathovagal balance were not significantly modified (P>0.10). Fed ad libitum with WD, animals overate durably (P<0.001). During a 30-min meal test though, the ingestion speed, the food ingested (1076±48 vs. 520±52 g) and energy intake decreased in the obese condition (P<0.05), which can be explained by the fragmentation of the daily caloric intake. These data suggest that the slower eating rate and increased number of meals observed in obese minipigs without neuropathy is independent to gastric emptying. The explanation may be sought rather in central modifications induced by obesity that might modify the food perception and/or motivation. PMID:20691715

  13. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwart, M.J.; Rush, B.D.

    1984-08-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric /sup 2/Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit.

  14. Use of SPECT/CT to confirm inconclusive gastric emptying scintigraphy results.

    PubMed

    Henrichon, Stephen; Seltzer, Marc; Siegel, Alan

    2015-06-01

    A 70-year-old man with cramping, abdominal pain, and diarrhea for 5 months after revision of a Nissen fundoplication underwent further evaluation with solid gastric emptying scintigraphy. On sequential planar images, we were uncertain if activity was present within the stomach or within loops of small bowel. SPECT/CT performed at 4 hours was used to localize the tracer, confirming its presence within the stomach. PMID:25783518

  15. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomé, R.; Salden, B.; Vrolijk, M. F.; Troost, F. J.; Masclee, A.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i) part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii) part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780 PMID:26352940

  16. Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy Results in Children are Affected by Age, Anthropometric Factors, and Study Duration

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gregory K.; Shulman, Robert J.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2014-01-01

    Background A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Methods Retrospective review of children who underwent a 4-hour solid-meal GES study at a tertiary care center. GES results and anthropometric data (e.g., weight, stature, body surface area) were systematically captured. Key Results Of 216 children, 188 (87%) were able to complete the study meal. Children unable to complete the meal were younger and smaller. In multivariate analysis, only increasing body surface area (BSA) was identified as being positively associated with ability to complete the meal (odds ratio: 19.7; P<0.001). Of those completing the meal, 48 (26%) had delayed emptying (4-hour retention value >10%). These children were significantly younger and smaller than those with normal emptying. In multivariate analysis of those completing the meal, only increasing BSA (odds ratio: 0.26; P=0.006) was identified as being negatively associated with delayed emptying. There was a progressive increase in the positive predictive value for identification of delayed gastric emptying as the duration of the study increased (0.25, 0.60, and 0.71 at 1, 2, and 3 hr, respectively) using the 4-hr value as a comparator. Conclusions and Inferences Young children have more difficulty completing the GES meal. Childhood gastric retention is affected by age and anthropometric factors, primarily BSA. The standardized 4-hr GES protocol may need to take these factors into account in children. PMID:25557417

  17. Pharmacological modulation of gastric emptying rate of solids as measured by the carbon labelled octanoic acid breath test: influence of erythromycin and propantheline.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, B D; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B J; Rutgeerts, P J; Ghoos, Y F; Vantrappen, G

    1994-01-01

    The *C (13C or 14C) labelled octanoic acid breath test was recently developed to measure the gastric emptying rate of solids. This study aimed to investigate whether it is sensitive enough to detect pharmacologically induced changes in the gastric emptying rate. Nine healthy volunteers were studied in basal condition, after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin, and after peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying in all subjects, with an increase of the gastric emptying coefficient (p = 0.0043) in eight of nine and a fall in both the gastric half emptying time (p = 0.0020) and the lag phase (p = 0.0044) in all nine. Propantheline significantly reduced the gastric emptying rate, with a decreased gastric emptying coefficient (p = 0.0007) and an increased gastric half emptying time (p = 0.0168) in all subjects, but no change in the lag phase (p = 0.1214). Further mathematical analysis showed that breath sampling at 15 minutes intervals over a four hour period is recommended to guarantee accuracy and the discriminative value of the breath test in various gastric emptying patterns. In conclusion the *C labelled octanoic acid breath test is sufficiently sensitive to show pharmacologically induced changes of gastric emptying rates of solids. PMID:8150342

  18. Dynamic carbon 13 breath tests for the study of liver function and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-02-01

    In gastroenterological practice, breath tests (BTs) are diagnostic tools used for indirect, non-invasive assessment of several pathophysiological metabolic processes, by monitoring the appearance in breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate. Labelled substrates originally employed radioactive carbon 14 ((14)C) and, more recently, the stable carbon 13 isotope ((13)C) has been introduced to label specific substrates. The ingested (13)C-substrate is metabolized, and exhaled (13)CO2 is measured by mass spectrometry or infrared spectroscopy. Some (13)C-BTs evaluate specific (microsomal, cytosolic, and mitochondrial) hepatic metabolic pathways and can be employed in liver diseases (i.e. simple liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, drug and alcohol effects). Another field of clinical application for (13)C-BTs is the assessment of gastric emptying kinetics in response to liquids ((13)C-acetate) or solids ((13)C-octanoic acid in egg yolk or in a pre-packed muffin or the (13)C-Spirulina platensis given with a meal or a biscuit). Studies have shown that (13)C-BTs, used for gastric emptying studies, yield results that are comparable to scintigraphy and can be useful in detecting either delayed- (gastroparesis) or accelerated gastric emptying or changes of gastric kinetics due to pharmacological effects. Thus, (13)C-BTs represent an indirect, cost-effective and easy method of evaluating dynamic liver function and gastric kinetics in health and disease, and several other potential applications are being studied. PMID:25339354

  19. Dynamic carbon 13 breath tests for the study of liver function and gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    In gastroenterological practice, breath tests (BTs) are diagnostic tools used for indirect, non-invasive assessment of several pathophysiological metabolic processes, by monitoring the appearance in breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate. Labelled substrates originally employed radioactive carbon 14 (14C) and, more recently, the stable carbon 13 isotope (13C) has been introduced to label specific substrates. The ingested 13C-substrate is metabolized, and exhaled 13CO2 is measured by mass spectrometry or infrared spectroscopy. Some 13C-BTs evaluate specific (microsomal, cytosolic, and mitochondrial) hepatic metabolic pathways and can be employed in liver diseases (i.e. simple liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, drug and alcohol effects). Another field of clinical application for 13C-BTs is the assessment of gastric emptying kinetics in response to liquids (13C-acetate) or solids (13C-octanoic acid in egg yolk or in a pre-packed muffin or the 13C-Spirulina platensis given with a meal or a biscuit). Studies have shown that 13C-BTs, used for gastric emptying studies, yield results that are comparable to scintigraphy and can be useful in detecting either delayed- (gastroparesis) or accelerated gastric emptying or changes of gastric kinetics due to pharmacological effects. Thus, 13C-BTs represent an indirect, cost-effective and easy method of evaluating dynamic liver function and gastric kinetics in health and disease, and several other potential applications are being studied. PMID:25339354

  20. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  1. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Jayden A. R.; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  2. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components.

    PubMed

    Stahel, Priska; Cant, John P; MacPherson, Jayden A R; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  3. Desvenlafaxine succinate ameliorates visceral hypersensitivity but delays solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Lei, Yong; Li, Shiying; Song, Gengqing; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-08-15

    Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DVS on visceral hypersensitivity and solid gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia. Twenty-eight gastric hyperalgesia rats and 20 control rats were used. Visceral sensitivity during gastric distention (GD) was assessed by recording of electromyogram (EMG) at pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. DVS with doses of 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg were administrated by gavage, 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.3 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously, and 5-HT2A antagonist (ketanserin, 1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally. The level of norepinephrine in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 1) visceral hypersensitivity induced by acetic acid was validated. 2) DVS dose-dependently reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the gastric hypersensitivity rats. The EMG (% of baseline value without GD) during GD at 60 and 80 mmHg with DVS at a dose of 30 mg/kg were 119.4 ± 2.3% (vs. saline 150.9 ± 2.7%, P < 0.001) and 128.2 ± 3.2% (vs. saline 171.1 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg. DVS at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced visceral hypersensitivity only during GD at 60 mmHg. 3) Neither WAY-100635 nor ketanserin blocked the effect of DVS on visceral sensitivity. 4) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma NE level (P = 0.012 vs. saline). 5) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly delayed solid gastric emptying (P < 0.05 vs. saline). We conclude that DVS reduces visceral sensitivity in a rodent model of visceral hypersensitivity and delays solid gastric emptying. Caution should be made when DVS is used for treating patients. PMID:23764892

  4. NMDA Receptors of Gastric-Projecting Neurons in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus Mediate the Regulation of Gastric Emptying by EA at Weishu (BL21).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Bin; Jing, Xianghong; Qiao, Yongfa; Gao, Xinyan; Yu, Huijuan; Zhu, Bing; Qiao, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    A large number of studies have been conducted to explore the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility. While several lines of evidence addressed the basic mechanism of EA on gastrointestinal motility regarding effects of limb and abdomen points, the mechanism for effects of the back points on gastric motility still remains unclear. Here we report that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist kynurenic acid inhibited the gastric emptying increase induced by high-intensity EA at BL21 and agonist NMDA enhanced the effect of the same treatment. EA at BL21 enhanced NMDAR, but not AMPA receptor (AMPAR) component of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) in gastric-projecting neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). In sum, our data demonstrate an important role of NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission of gastric-projecting DMV neurons in mediating EA at BL21-induced enhancement of gastric emptying. PMID:22654955

  5. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance. PMID:25729886

  6. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  7. [Electrogastrography: responses to food and sham feeding and relationships with gastric emptying of solids in men].

    PubMed

    Bruley des Varannes, S; Bury, A; Lartigue, S; Bizais, Y; Galmiche, J P

    1993-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography is a non invasive method to study gastric electromechanical activity. The aim of this work was to determine the amplitude of electrogastrographic (EGG) activity a) during fasting, b) after a meal, c) following vagal stimulation by sham feeding, and to determine the relationship between gastric emptying of solids and EGG activity. EGG activity was recorded in eight healthy subjects in various experimental conditions, twice after sham feeding, twice after a meal, and once during the simultaneous scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying of the solid component of a meal. During one of the sham feeding tests, subjects were intubated and acid secretion was measured. The EGG signal amplitude was continuously monitored and an intercorrelation function (IF) was calculated using the Fast Fourier Transforms of electrical activity recorded by 2 cutaneous electrodes placed on the epigastric area. During fasting, IF was usually of low amplitude with occasional short increases of amplitude. Sham feeding without intubation rarely induced an early and brief increase in IF amplitude (2 of 8 subjects). Sham feeding-induced acid secretion was negatively correlated with IF amplitude (r = 0.78, P = 0.02) suggesting a motor inhibition associated with vagally stimulated acid secretion. When given orally, meals induced an increase in IF amplitude, but there was major intra- and interindividual variations. There was no significant correlation between the IF increase and the half emptying time for solids (r = 0.62, P = 0.10). This study shows that the high variability of EGG activity during fasting considerably hampers the analysis of changes induced by any stimulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8500697

  8. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  9. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  10. Impairment of Nitrergic System and Delayed Gastric Emptying in Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Deficient Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gangula, Pandu R.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Hale, Ashley B.; Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Channon, Keith M.; Ravella, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Background In the current study, we have investigated whether low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLR-KO), moderate oxidative stress model and cholesteremia burden display gastroparesis and if so whether nitrergic system is involved in this setting. In addition, we have investigated if sepiapterin (SEP) supplementation attenuated impaired nitrergic system and delayed gastric emptying. Methods Gastric emptying and nitrergic relaxation were measured in overnight fasting mice. nNOSα dimerization, anti-oxidant markers such as Nrf2, GCLM, GCLC, HO-1, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) were measured using standard methods. Biopterin levels and intestinal transit time were measured using HPLC and dye migration assay, respectively. Wild type (WT) and LDLR-KO were supplemented with SEP. Key Results In LDLR null stomachs, 1) significant reduction in rate of gastric emptying, gastric pyloric and fundus nitrergic relaxation & nNOSα dimerization, 2) elevated oxidized biopterins and reduced ratio of BH4/BH2+B, 3) reduced Nrf2 and GCLC protein expression & no change in GCLM, HO-1, Cat, Sod1 and 4) accelerated small intestinal motility were noticed. Supplementation of SEP restored delayed gastric emptying, impaired pyloric and fundus nitrergic relaxation with restoration of nNOS dimerization and nNOS expression. Conclusions and Inferences This novel data suggests that hyperlipidemia and/or suppression of selective antioxidants may be a potential cause of developing gastroparesis in diabetic patients. PMID:21414103

  11. Validation of corrections for errors in collimation during measurement of gastric emptying of nuclide-labeled meals.

    PubMed

    VanDeventer, G; Thomson, J; Graham, L S; Thomasson, D; Meyer, J H

    1983-03-01

    The study was undertaken to validate phantom-derived corrections for errors in collimation due to septal penetration or scatter, which vary with the size of the gastric region of interest (ROI). Six volunteers received 495 ml of 20% glucose labeled with both In-113m DTPA and Tc-99m DTPA. Gastric emptying of each nuclide was monitored by gamma camera as well as by periodic removal and reinstillation of the meal through a gastric tube. Serial aspirates from the gastric tube confirmed parallel emptying of In-113m and Tc-99m, but analyses of gamma-camera data yielded parallel emptying only when adequate corrections were made for errors in collimation. Analyses of ratios of gastric counts from anterior to posterior, as well as analyses of peak-to-scatter ratios, revealed only small, insignificant anteroposterior movement of the tracers within the stomach during emptying. Accordingly, there was no significant improvement in the camera data when corrections were made for attenuation with intragastric depth. PMID:6338170

  12. Exenatide in obesity with accelerated gastric emptying: a randomized, pharmacodynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; O’Neill, Jessica; Eckert, Deborah; Carlson, Paula; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with differences in satiety, gastric emptying (GE), gastric volume, and psychological traits. Exenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is associated with variable weight loss. We compared the effects of exenatide, 5 μg, and placebo SQ, twice daily for 30 days on GE of solids and liquids (scintigraphy), satiety (ad libitum buffet meal), satiation (nutrient drink test, maximum tolerated volume [MTV]), and weight loss in 20 participants with documented accelerated GE of solids (T1/2 < 90 min). Exenatide delayed GE of solids (T1/2 [Δ] 86 min relative to placebo, P < 0.001) and reduced calorie intake at buffet meal ([Δ] 129 kcal compared to placebo). Median weight loss was −0.95 kg (IQR −0.7 to −2.1) for exenatide and −0.55 kg (0.3 to −2.1) for placebo (P = 0.23); 80% of exenatide group had documented reduction in weight. In the exenatide treatment group, there was an inverse correlation between gastric emptying T1/2 and MTV (R = −0.548, P = 0.089). The univariate association of weight change with posttreatment MTV was borderline (Rs = 0.43, P = 0.06); in the multiple regression model, posttreatment MTV was associated with weight change (P = 0.047). The effect of the short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on GE is associated with the change in food intake, and the latter impacts weight loss in response to exenatide treatment. PMID:26542264

  13. A renal transplant recipient with delayed gastric emptying in amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever improved with erythromycin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saglam, F; Celik, A; Cavdar, C; Sifil, A; Atila, K; Kaya, G C; Bora, S; Gulay, H; Camsari, T

    2008-01-01

    Patients with systemic amyloidosis often have symptoms related to impared gastrointestinal motility due to delayed gastric emptying, which results from autonomic nerve or smooth muscle infiltration with amyloid. There is no current report about gastric delaying secondary to amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever. In this report, we have described a renal transplant recipient with delayed gastric emptying secondary to amyloidosis due to familial Mediterranean fever, which improved with erithromycin treatment. PMID:18261613

  14. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  15. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats.

    PubMed

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; Dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-02-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  16. Comparative Effects of Prolonged and Intermittent Stimulation of the Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor on Gastric Emptying and Glycemia

    PubMed Central

    Umapathysivam, Mahesh M.; Lee, Michael Y.; Jones, Karen L.; Annink, Christopher E.; Cousins, Caroline E.; Trahair, Laurence G.; Rayner, Chris K.; Chapman, Marianne J.; Nauck, Michael A.; Horowitz, Michael; Deane, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute administration of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its agonists slows gastric emptying, which represents the major mechanism underlying their attenuation of postprandial glycemic excursions. However, this effect may diminish during prolonged use. We compared the effects of prolonged and intermittent stimulation of the GLP-1 receptor on gastric emptying and glycemia. Ten healthy men received intravenous saline (placebo) or GLP-1 (0.8 pmol/kg ⋅ min), as a continuous 24-h infusion (“prolonged”), two 4.5-h infusions separated by 20 h (“intermittent”), and a 4.5-h infusion (“acute”) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion. Gastric emptying of a radiolabeled mashed potato meal was measured using scintigraphy. Acute GLP-1 markedly slowed gastric emptying. The magnitude of the slowing was attenuated with prolonged but maintained with intermittent infusions. GLP-1 potently diminished postprandial glycemia during acute and intermittent regimens. These observations suggest that short-acting GLP-1 agonists may be superior to long-acting agonists when aiming specifically to reduce postprandial glycemic excursions in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24089511

  17. Serum levels of ghrelin and obestatin in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying of unclear etiology

    PubMed Central

    Saliakellis, Efstratios; Karatzas, Nikolaos; Iakovou, Ioannis; Farmaki, Evangelia; Varlamis, Georgios; Fotoulaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Ghrelin and obestatin are peptides of the gut-brain axis affecting appetite and gastrointestinal motility. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, case-control study to determine pre- and postprandial serum levels of total ghrelin and obestatin along with gastric emptying scintigraphy in children with symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying time (GET), not attributable to any identifiable cause. Results Twenty children with symptoms suggestive of delayed GET, of whom 9 had delayed GET, and 20 age-matched healthy children were enrolled. Preprandial ghrelin and obestatin were higher compared to controls (GHR mean level in patients and controls: 1162 pg/mL and 401 pg/mL respectively; P<0.05; OB mean level in patients and controls: 417 pg/mL and 325 pg/mL respectively; not statistically significant). Postprandial ghrelin was significantly decreased in the subgroup of patients with delayed GET (GHR mean level in children with normal and prolonged GET: 1237 pg/mL and 584 pg/mL respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion Obestatin and ghrelin were deranged in children with symptoms indicative of delayed GET of unexplained etiology. Gastric emptying was prolonged in almost half of the patients thus gastric emptying scintigraphy should be considered in the investigation of children with such symptomatology. PMID:26423109

  18. [Radionuclide study of gastric emptying in patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for postoperative alkaline gastritis].

    PubMed

    Asensio del Barrio, C; Lapeña Gutiérrez, L; Núñez Peña, J; Prensa Martínez, A; Martínez-Ramos, C; Carreras Delgado, J L

    1998-01-01

    Roux-en-Y reconstruction is a widely used surgical procedure to reduce the postoperative gastritis secondary to biliary reflux (POGBR). Some studies have shown that after applying this technique, certain symptoms, called Roux stasis syndrome, ocurred. They seem to be caused by a delayed gastric emptying. The aim of the survey is to evaluate that emptying. Three groups have been studied: Group 1: 15 patients with POGBR after Billroth II and Roux-en-Y diversion. Group 2: 15 patients after Billroth II without POGBR. Group 3: 15 healthy volunteers. The gastric emptying after a 99mTc-DTPA-meal was performed in every patient. The stadistical study from the T1/2 emptying showed no significative differences between group 1 before and after Roux-en-Y procedure, nor between these and group 2 and 3. The gastric emptying study does not demonstrate that Roux-en-Y delays it, so it is not the reason of Roux syndrome. PMID:9812010

  19. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs. PMID:20145582

  20. Biomagnetic techniques for evaluating gastric emptying, peristaltic contraction and transit time

    PubMed Central

    la Roca-Chiapas, Jose María De; Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Biomagnetic techniques were used to measure motility in various parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly a new technique for detecting magnetic markers and tracers. A coil was used to enhance the signal from a magnetic tracer in the GI tract and the signal was detected using a fluxgate magnetometer or a magnetoresistor in an unshielded room. Estimates of esophageal transit time were affected by the position of the subject. The reproducibility of estimates derived using the new biomagnetic technique was greater than 85% and it yielded estimates similar to those obtained using scintigraphy. This technique is suitable for studying the effect of emotional state on GI physiology and for measuring GI transit time. The biomagnetic technique can be used to evaluate digesta transit time in the esophagus, stomach and colon, peristaltic frequency and gastric emptying and is easy to use in the hospital setting. PMID:22025978

  1. Biomagnetic techniques for evaluating gastric emptying, peristaltic contraction and transit time.

    PubMed

    la Roca-Chiapas, Jose María De; Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro

    2011-10-15

    Biomagnetic techniques were used to measure motility in various parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly a new technique for detecting magnetic markers and tracers. A coil was used to enhance the signal from a magnetic tracer in the GI tract and the signal was detected using a fluxgate magnetometer or a magnetoresistor in an unshielded room. Estimates of esophageal transit time were affected by the position of the subject. The reproducibility of estimates derived using the new biomagnetic technique was greater than 85% and it yielded estimates similar to those obtained using scintigraphy. This technique is suitable for studying the effect of emotional state on GI physiology and for measuring GI transit time. The biomagnetic technique can be used to evaluate digesta transit time in the esophagus, stomach and colon, peristaltic frequency and gastric emptying and is easy to use in the hospital setting. PMID:22025978

  2. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  3. Simultaneous markers for fluid and solid gastric emptying: new variations on an old theme: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Thompson, D; Syed, I

    1981-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques for the assessment of gastric emptying have become popular in the past 6 yr. A new double-nuclide technique, for the simultaneous tagging of the solid and fluid phases, is described. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC) is used in a manner similar to that described by Meyer and colleagues, but the new technique does not involve the use of live chickens, a significant advantage over the earlier procedures. Several fluid-phase radionuclides were tested to be used in conjunction with the Tc-99m SC. Indium-111 DTPA was found to be the only compatible fluid-phase agent. This new double-tracer technique promises to be safe, economical, simple, and physiologically sound. PMID:7277021

  4. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO4). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  5. Gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and fecal output in dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    PubMed

    Mulè, Flavia; Amato, Antonella; Serio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which results from deficiency in dystrophin, a sarcolemma protein of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, is characterized by progressive striated muscle degeneration, but various gastrointestinal clinical manifestations have been observed. The aim was to evaluate the possible impact of the dystrophin loss on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mdx mice (animal model for DMD). The gastric emptying of a carboxymethyl cellulose/phenol red dye non-nutrient meal was not significantly different at 20 min from gavaging between wild-type and mdx mice. The intestinal transit and the fecal output were significantly decreased in mdx versus normal animals, although the length of the intestine was similar in both animals. The present results provide evidence for motor intestinal alterations in mdx mice in in vivo conditions. PMID:19784719

  6. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Igor A; Koebnick, Corinna; Tasi, Atingwa M; Hahn, Eckhart Georg; Konturek, Peter C

    2009-10-01

    Alterations in the neurohumoral regulation of the upper intestine may change rhythmicity and pattern of ghrelin and obestatin, the latter presumably antagonizing ghrelin effects. Five nongastroparetic diabetic patients and five with gastroparesis were investigated. Over 390 min including breakfast and lunch, ghrelin was significantly lower in patients with gastroparesis compared with in those without (P = 0.015). Ghrelin subsequent to lunch decreased significantly (P = 0.011) in patients without gastroparesis, but not in gastroparetic patients (P = 0.669). Obestatin was similar in both groups and unchanged. No significant differences in ghrelin-to-obestatin ratio were observed (P = 0.530). Loss of rhythmicity in the ghrelin levels of gastroparetic diabetics highlights the importance of integrity of the neurohumoral-intestinal axis. Stable diurnal obestatin levels do not support the concept of interaction between ghrelin and obestatin in terms of regulation of food intake and gastric emptying. PMID:19082715

  7. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  8. Gastric emptying of solids measured by means of magnetised iron oxide powder.

    PubMed

    Forsman, M

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a radiation-free method to measure gastric emptying. Such a method would be useful e.g. for patients who need repeated measurements and in pregnancy. Ferrimagnetic particles (gamma-Fe2O3), ingested within a solid test meal (pancakes), were magnetised by an applied magnetic field. After magnetisation, the remanent magnetic field was measured with fluxgate magnetometers outside the stomach (anterior and posterior). The intragastric contents was estimated from the strength of the remanent field. The procedure was repeated 18 times over a period of up to 2 h postprandially. The test meal was chosen to correspond to a radiolabelled test meal that had previously been used in a scintigraphic study with (other) healthy persons. In vivo measurements were carried out on 16 healthy male volunteers. The estimated retained magnetic tracer in the stomach after the 2 h measurement time was 31 +/- 12% (mean +/- SD) and the lag phase time was 31 +/- 11 min. The corresponding scintigraphic curve (from the previous study) from 16 males showed 40 +/- 14% retained isotope after 2 h. The early part of the mean emptying curve decreased slightly faster than the corresponding scintigraphic one, but the similarity of the two seems promising enough for further development of the present method. PMID:9614740

  9. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t/sup 1///sup 2/ for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis.

  10. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis. PMID:1339143

  11. L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway modulates gastric motility and gallbladder emptying induced by erythromycin and liquid meal in humans.

    PubMed

    Fiorucci, S; Distrutti, E; Quintieri, A; Sarpi, L; Spirchez, Z; Gulla, N; Morelli, A

    1995-06-01

    There is recent evidence that nitric oxide, a soluble gas produced from L-arginine, is released by the smooth muscle cells and neurons of the gastrointestinal tract where it exerts a myorelaxive action. However, little is known about the effects nitric oxide has on gastric and gallbladder motility during the inter- and postprandial phases in man. We therefore investigated the effects 200 mg/kg/hr L-arginine exerts on the gastric and gallbladder motility induced by 2 mg/kg erythromycin or a liquid meal in 21 subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gastric and gallbladder emptying were evaluated by sonography. Fasting antral motility was expressed as antral motility index (MI). In fasting subjects, L-arginine administration determined a threefold increase in plasma nitrite concentrations. Administration of erythromycin caused a significant rise in the antral MI, which was inhibited by L-arginine (P < 0.05). Ingestion of a liquid meal also significantly increased antral MI, but it returned to basal values 90 min after the end of the meal. Although L-arginine administration caused a significant reduction in the antral MI (P < 0.05), it did not inhibit gastric emptying. L-Arginine provoked an approximately 40% increase in basal gallbladder volume, completely blocked erythromycin-induced emptying, and partially, but significantly, prevented the emptying induced by a liquid meal (P < 0.01). Our study suggests that nitric oxide may be implicated in the physiological modulation of gastric and gallbladder motility during the inter- and postprandial phases in man. PMID:7781462

  12. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu; Owyang, Chung

    2015-05-15

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  13. Effect of meal volume and calorie load on postprandial gastric function and emptying: studies under physiological conditions by combined fiber-optic pressure measurement and MRI.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Monika A; Menne, Dieter; Steingoetter, Andreas; Goetze, Oliver; Forras-Kaufman, Zsofia; Kaufman, Elad; Fruehauf, Heiko; Boesiger, Peter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark R

    2009-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of meal volume (MV) and calorie load (CL) on gastric function. MRI and a minimally invasive fiber-optic recording system (FORS) provided simultaneous measurement of gastric volume and pressure changes during gastric filling and emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in physiological conditions. The gastric response to 12 iso-osmolar MV-CL combinations of a multinutrient drink (MV: 200, 400, 600, 800 ml; CL: 200, 300, 400 kcal) was tested in 16 healthy subjects according to a factorial design. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV = MV + secretion) were measured by MRI during nasogastric meal infusion and gastric emptying over 60 min. Intragastric pressure was assessed at 1 Hz by FORS. The dynamic change in postprandial gastric volumes was described by a validated three-component linear exponential model. The stomach expanded with MV, but the ratio of GCV:MV at t(0) diminished with increasing MV (P < 0.01). Postprandial changes in TGV followed those of GCV. Intragastric pressure increased with MV, and this effect was augmented further by CL (P = 0.02); however, the absolute pressure rise was <4 mmHg. A further postprandial increase of gastric volumes was observed early on before any subsequent volume decrease. This "early" increase in GCV was greater for smaller than larger MV (P < 0.01), indicating faster initial gastric emptying of larger MV. In contrast, volume change during filling and in the early postprandial period were unaffected by CL. In the later postprandial period, gastric emptying rate continued to be more rapid with high MVs (P < 0.001); however, at any given volume, gastric emptying was slowed by higher CL (P < 0.001). GCV half-emptying time decreased with CL at 18 +/- 6 min for each additional 100-kcal load (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that gastric wall stress (passive strain and active tone) provides the driving force for gastric emptying, but distal resistance to gastric outflow regulates

  14. The effect of gastric secretion on gastric physiology and emptying in the fasted and fed state assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Goetze, O; Treier, R; Fox, M; Steingoetter, A; Fried, M; Boesiger, P; Schwizer, W

    2009-07-01

    Conventional measurement of gastric secretion is invasive and cannot assess the intra-gastric distribution of gastric contents or the effects of secretion on gastric function. This study assessed the effect of gastric secretion on gastric volume responses and emptying (GE) using a validated fast T(1) mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Twelve healthy participants were studied in the fasted state and after 200 kcal Gadolinium-DOTA labelled glucose meal during intravenous infusion of pentagastrin or placebo in double-blind, randomized order. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) was assessed by MRI volume scans and secretion by fast T(1) mapping. Data was described by the kappa-coefficient (volume change after meal ingestion), by GE half time (T(50)) and maximal GE rate (GER(max)) derived all from a GE model. Pentagastrin increased GCV and TGV compared to placebo [kappa(GCV):1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1; kappa(TGV): 1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.7 +/- 0.1; P < 0.001]. T(1) maps revealed a secretion layer above the meal, the volume of which was associated with kappa (R(2) = 83%, P < 0.001). TGV and GCV change were similar in both conditions (kappa; P = ns). T(50) was higher for pentagastrin than for placebo (84 +/- 7 vs 56 +/- 4min, P < 0.001); however, GER(max) was similar (5.9 +/- 0.6 vs 4.9 +/- 0.4 mL min(-1), P = ns). This study shows volume and distribution of gastric secretion can be quantified in-vivo by non-invasive MRI T(1) mapping. Increased GCV drove TGV accommodation without evidence of a direct effect of pentagastrin or excess acid on gastric function. Secretion increases GCV thus prolongs GE as assessed by T(50); however, GE rate is unchanged. PMID:19344341

  15. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Jönsson, Jenny Maria; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Darwich, Gassan; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298 PMID:19531257

  16. Sex difference in the effects of alcohol on gastric emptying in healthy volunteers: a study using the (13)C breath test.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Miyuki; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Sekime, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on alcohol and gastric emptying using the (13)C breath test showed that alcohol consumption delayed gastric emptying of meals in healthy male subjects. However, they did not employ female subjects, and the retention time of alcoholic beverages in the stomach has not been examined, yet. We examined the retention time (= gastric emptying rate) of alcoholic beverages in the stomach in healthy male and female subjects. We also examined whether the congeners (nonalcoholic components) of red wine have any effect on gastric emptying. The retention time of 60 mL of red wine, vodka, congeners of red wine, or mineral water, was measured using a (13)C labeled acetic acid breath test. In male subjects, the retention time of wine and vodka was significantly longer than that of congeners and mineral water. In female subjects, although the (13)C content in the breath was slightly but significantly decreased by wine and congeners, but not by vodka, and the parameters for gastric emptying did not differ significantly among the 4 drinks. That is, alcohol hardly influenced the retention time in female subjects. In conclusion, there are sex differences in the gastric emptying rate of alcohol. PMID:24389403

  17. Gastric emptying and duodenal motility upon intake of a liquid meal with monosodium glutamate in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiyasu; Yogo, Hideto; Nishimiya, Yuuta; Hori, Shinji; Kosugi, Takashi; Nakayama, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glutamate is thought to serve as a special signal for gut functions. We investigated the effects of monosodium l‐glutamate (MSG) on gastric emptying and duodenal motility. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. Coronal images were successively acquired after ingestion of liquid meal (200 kcal in 200 mL: 9 g protein, 28.4 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g fat, 370 mg Na+) with and without 0.5% MSG. During the acquisition of MRI, participants breathed freely. In all participants, the gastric residual volume gradually decreased to 80.1 ± 14.2% without MSG and to 75.9 ± 14.3% with MSG after 60 min (P = 0.45 between the groups, n = 10). In two of 10 participants, gastric emptying slowed down significantly, whereas in the remaining eight participants, gastric residual volume decreased to 84.0 ± 13.1% without MSG, and to 73.0 ± 14.6% with MSG after 60 min (P = 0.015, n = 8). There was no difference in the shape of the stomach between groups. In four of the eight participants responding positively to MSG, the duodenum wall was sufficiently identified to quantify the motions. The inclusion of MSG enhanced duodenal motility, judging from changes in (1) the magnitude of the duodenal area, (2) the center of gravity, and (3) the mean velocity of the wall motions. The third parameter most significantly indicated the excitatory effect of l‐glutamate on duodenum motility (~ three‐ to sevenfold increase during 60 min, P < 0.05, n = 4). These results suggest that MSG accelerates gastric emptying by facilitating duodenal motility, at least in subjects with positive responses to MSG. PMID:24744869

  18. Zinc directly stimulates cholecystokinin secretion from enteroendocrine cells and reduces gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shingo; Hira, Tohru; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2016-07-15

    Zinc, an essential mineral element, regulates various physiological functions such as immune responses and hormone secretion. Cholecystokinin (CCK), a gut hormone, has a role in protective immunity through the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, appetite, and inflammatory response. Here, we examined the effect of zinc on CCK secretion in STC-1 cells, an enteroendocrine cell line derived from murine duodenum, and in rats. Extracellular zinc triggered CCK secretion accompanied with increased intracellular Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) mobilization in STC-1 cells. Zinc-induced CCK secretion was abolished in the absence of intracellular Zn(2+) or extracellular calcium. Upon inhibition of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), extracellular zinc failed to increase intracellular Ca(2+) and subsequent CCK secretion. In rats, oral zinc administration decreased gastric emptying through the activation of CCK signaling. These results suggest that zinc is a novel stimulant for CCK secretion through the activation of TRPA1 related to intracellular Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) mobilization. PMID:27107934

  19. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    PubMed

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  20. Simultaneous noninvasive evaluation of gastric emptying and orocaecal transit times. Use in studying the actions of cisapride in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Guillausseau, P J; Bayle, M; Chagnon, S; Caulin, C; Sallenave, J R

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to use a novel combination of two methods for the simultaneous evaluation of two effects of oral cisapride in 10 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy; gastric empyting time was measured by following radio-opaque markers and orocaecal transit time by the sulphasalazine-sulphapridine method. The study was of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. It was possible to evaluate the effect of a prokinetic drug on gastric emptying and orocaecal transit times using these two noninvasive techniques at the same time. Cisapride significantly reduced both the gastric empyting (1.2 h versus 2.1 h) and orocaecal tansit (5.9 h versus 7.7 h) times. PMID:1425866

  1. Regulation of gastric emptying rate and its role in nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in rats after vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Adam P.; Smith, Eric P.; Begg, Denovan P.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Sisley, Stephanie; Greer, Todd; Sorrell, Joyce; Lemmen, Lisa; LaSance, Kati; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.; D'Alessio, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are effective weight loss surgeries that also improve glucose metabolism. Rapid, early rises of circulating insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations following food ingestion are characteristic of these procedures. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that postprandial hormone release is due to increased nutrient emptying from the stomach. Radioscintigraphy and chemical and radiolabeled tracers were used to examine gastric emptying in rat models of VSG and RYGB surgery. Intraduodenal nutrient infusions were used to assess intestinal GLP-1 secretion and nutrient sensitivity in VSG rats compared with shams. Five minutes after a nutrient gavage, the stomachs of RYGB and VSG rats were completely emptied, whereas only 6.1% of the nutrient mixture had emptied from sham animals. Gastric pressure was increased in VSG animals, and rats with this procedure did not inhibit gastric emptying normally in response to increasing caloric loads of dextrose or corn oil, and they did not respond to neural or endocrine effectors of gastric motility. Finally, direct infusion of liquid nutrients into the duodenum caused significantly greater GLP-1 release in VSG compared with shams, indicating that increases in GLP-1 secretion after VSG are the result of both greater gastric emptying rates and altered responses at the level of the intestine. These findings demonstrate greatly accelerated gastric emptying in rat models of RYGB and VSG. In VSG this is likely due to increased gastric pressure and reduced responses to inhibitory feedback from the intestine. PMID:24368666

  2. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells. PMID:26322627

  3. 1-Aminobenzotriazole modulates oral drug pharmacokinetics through cytochrome P450 inhibition and delay of gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Rowan A; Weber, Eckhard; Tigani, Bruno; Lavan, Paul; Medhurst, Stephen; Sohal, Bindi

    2014-07-01

    The simultaneous effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) on inhibition of in vivo metabolism and gastric emptying were evaluated with the test compound 7-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,6-dimethylpyrazolo[5,1-b]oxazole(NVS-CRF38), a novel corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist with low water solubility, and the reference compound midazolam with high water solubility in rats. Pretreatment of rats with 100 mg/kg oral ABT administered 2 hours before a semisolid caloric test meal markedly delayed gastric emptying. ABT increased stomach weights by 2-fold; this is likely attributable to a prosecretory effect because stomach concentrations of bilirubin were comparable in ABT and control groups. ABT administration decreased the initial systemic exposure of orally administered NVS-CRF38 and increased Tmax 40-fold, suggesting gastric retention and delayed oral absorption. ABT increased the initial systemic exposure of midazolam, however for orally (but not subcutaneously) administered midazolam, extensive variability in plasma-concentration time profiles was apparent. Careful selection of administration routes is recommended for ABT use in vivo, variable oral absorption of coadministered compounds can be expected due to a disturbance of gastrointestinal transit. PMID:24727486

  4. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  5. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-olof

    2003-01-01

    Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal) was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal), containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5%) provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER). Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding) was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %), (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %). Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p < 0.01), median GER 54 %, (range 7 to 71 %), (the first quartile = 48 %, the third quartile = 60 %). When the viscosity of the rice pudding was decreased (basic test meal added with water), the difference in median GER 65 %, (range 38 to 79 %), (the first quartile = 56 %, the third quartile = 71 %) was not significantly different (p = 0.28) compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy

  6. Effect of bran, ispaghula, and inert plastic particles on gastric emptying and small bowel transit in humans: the role of physical factors.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, A; Vincent, R M; Perkins, A C; Spiller, R C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coarse bran is known to accelerate transit through the whole gut and to increase stool weight. This effect is much reduced by grinding the bran, suggesting that particle size influences gut motor patterns. AIMS: To compare the effect of 15 g coarse bran with 15 g inert plastic particles and 7 g of ispaghula on the gastric emptying and small bowel transit of a rice pudding test meal. SUBJECTS: 13 healthy volunteers. METHODS: Transit of 99mTc labelled rice studied by gamma-scintigraphy measuring gastric emptying and colonic arrival over 10 hours. Small bowel transit was estimated from the difference between time to 50% gastric emptying and 50% colonic arrival. RESULTS: Bran delayed gastric emptying by 22 (SEM 8) minutes compared with control values of 88 (SEM 6) minutes p < 0.05. Ispaghula and plastic particles had no significant effect. Small bowel transit was accelerated compared with control values of 322 (SEM 29) minutes, decreasing by 95 (29) minutes and 62 (22) minutes after bran and plastic particles respectively. Ispaghula again showed no significant effect. CONCLUSION: Coarse bran delays gastric emptying and accelerates small bowel transit. The marked acceleration of small bowel transit also seen with inert plastic particles may be due to increased upper gut secretions after stimulation of enteric nerves. PMID:9071936

  7. Validation of a rapid, semiautomatic image analysis tool for measurement of gastric accommodation and emptying by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sreerup; Dixit, Sudeepa; Fox, Mark; Pal, Anupam

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages for the assessment of gastrointestinal structures and functions; however, processing MRI data is time consuming and this has limited uptake to a few specialist centers. This study introduces a semiautomatic image processing system for rapid analysis of gastrointestinal MRI. For assessment of simpler regions of interest (ROI) such as the stomach, the system generates virtual images along arbitrary planes that intersect the ROI edges in the original images. This generates seed points that are joined automatically to form contours on each adjacent two-dimensional image and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D). An alternative thresholding approach is available for rapid assessment of complex structures like the small intestine. For assessment of dynamic gastrointestinal function, such as gastric accommodation and emptying, the initial 3D reconstruction is used as reference to process adjacent image stacks automatically. This generates four-dimensional (4D) reconstructions of dynamic volume change over time. Compared with manual processing, this semiautomatic system reduced the user input required to analyze a MRI gastric emptying study (estimated 100 vs. 10,000 mouse clicks). This analysis was not subject to variation in volume measurements seen between three human observers. In conclusion, the image processing platform presented processed large volumes of MRI data, such as that produced by gastric accommodation and emptying studies, with minimal user input. 3D and 4D reconstructions of the stomach and, potentially, other gastrointestinal organs are produced faster and more accurately than manual methods. This system will facilitate the application of MRI in gastrointestinal research and clinical practice. PMID:25540229

  8. Validation of a rapid, semiautomatic image analysis tool for measurement of gastric accommodation and emptying by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudeepa; Fox, Mark; Pal, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages for the assessment of gastrointestinal structures and functions; however, processing MRI data is time consuming and this has limited uptake to a few specialist centers. This study introduces a semiautomatic image processing system for rapid analysis of gastrointestinal MRI. For assessment of simpler regions of interest (ROI) such as the stomach, the system generates virtual images along arbitrary planes that intersect the ROI edges in the original images. This generates seed points that are joined automatically to form contours on each adjacent two-dimensional image and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D). An alternative thresholding approach is available for rapid assessment of complex structures like the small intestine. For assessment of dynamic gastrointestinal function, such as gastric accommodation and emptying, the initial 3D reconstruction is used as reference to process adjacent image stacks automatically. This generates four-dimensional (4D) reconstructions of dynamic volume change over time. Compared with manual processing, this semiautomatic system reduced the user input required to analyze a MRI gastric emptying study (estimated 100 vs. 10,000 mouse clicks). This analysis was not subject to variation in volume measurements seen between three human observers. In conclusion, the image processing platform presented processed large volumes of MRI data, such as that produced by gastric accommodation and emptying studies, with minimal user input. 3D and 4D reconstructions of the stomach and, potentially, other gastrointestinal organs are produced faster and more accurately than manual methods. This system will facilitate the application of MRI in gastrointestinal research and clinical practice. PMID:25540229

  9. [Determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction and its application in the evaluation of gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-na; Sun, Su-juan; Shen, Zhu-fang

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to establish a method to determine the serum acetaminophen concentration based on diazo reaction, and apply it in the gastric emptying evaluation. Theoretically, acetaminophen could take hydrolysis reaction in hydrochloric acid solution to produce p-aminophenol, which could then take diazo reaction resulting in a product with special absorption peak at 312 nm. Then the serum acetaminophen concentration and recovery rate were calculated according to the standard curve drawn with absorbance at 312 nm. ICR mice were given a dose of acetaminophen (500 mg x kg(-1)) by gavage and the serum acetaminophen was dynamically measured through the diazo reaction. Besides, ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with the long-acting GLP-1 analog GW002 before the gavage of acetaminophen, and serum acetaminophen concentration was measured as above to study how GW002 could influence the gastric emptying. The data showed acetaminophen ranging from 0 to 160 μg x mL(-1) could take diazo reaction with excellent linear relationship, and the regression equation was y = 0.0181 x +0.0104, R2 = 0.9997. The serum acetaminophen was also measured with good linear relationship (y = 0.0045 x + 0.0462, R = 0.9982) and the recovery rate was 97.4%-116.7%. The serum concentration of acetaminophen reached peak at about 0.5 h after gavage, and then gradually decreased. GW002 could significantly lower the serum acetaminophen concentration and make the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decrease by 28.4%. In conclusion, a method for the determination of serum acetaminophen based on the diazo reaction was established with good accuracy and could be used in the evaluation of gastric emptying. PMID:26234136

  10. New frontiers in gut nutrient sensor research: monosodium L-glutamate added to a high-energy, high-protein liquid diet promotes gastric emptying: a possible therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Zai, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Nagoshi, Atsuto; Maeda, Masaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2010-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is a clinical syndrome that features abdominal symptoms centered in the upper abdomen without an organic basis. Three possible mechanisms of gastric dysfunction could be related to functional dyspepsia: 1) delayed gastric emptying, 2) impaired gastric accommodation to food intake, and 3) hypersensitivity to gastric distention. Delayed gastric emptying has been suggested to lead to prolonged antral distension that causes dyspeptic symptoms. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore a focal point of debate about anorexia caused by dyspepsia, and prokinetic agents are often administered in Japan for its treatment. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-energy liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method to improve delayed gastric emptying could be enhancement of chemosensors that activate the autonomic nervous system innervating the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, enrichment with glutamate promoted gastric emptying after intake of a high-protein meal, suggesting that free glutamate is important for protein digestion and that MSG may be helpful for management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:20093786

  11. Long-term effects of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance and gastric emptying in noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ray, T K; Mansell, K M; Knight, L C; Malmud, L S; Owen, O E; Boden, G

    1983-03-01

    Effects of long-term (2 months) supplementation of diet with 20 g of guar gum and 10 g of wheat bran on metabolic control was studied in 12 obese, poorly controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients. Addition of fiber reduced urinary excretion of glucose from 30.5 +/- 6 to 8.3 +/- 2 g/24 h, (p less than 0.025), fasting plasma glucose concentration from 301 +/- 24 to 184 +/- 15 mg/dl (p less than 0.025), and plasma cholesterol concentration from 277 +/- 24 to 193 +/- 9 mg/dl (p less than 0.025). No significant changes were observed in the patients weight and serum concentrations of triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, free fatty acids, and insulin. Addition of fiber also delayed gastric emptying of liquids and solids. This effect became statistically significant 60 and 90 min after intake of a test meal for liquids and solids, respectively. We conclude that addition of guar and bran to the diet resulted in long-term improvement of metabolic control in these patients and that delayed gastric emptying may be one of the mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect. PMID:6299089

  12. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  13. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. PMID:27117004

  14. Ambulatory electrogastrography in patients with sclerodermia, delayed gastric emptying, dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Is there any clinical relevance?

    PubMed

    Hocke, M; Seidel, T; Sprott, H; Oelzner, P; Eitner, K; Bosseckert, H

    2001-07-01

    Background: Changes in electrogastrographic parameters are described in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, sclerodermia, dyspepsia, and delayed gastric emptying in static measurements. However, no information is available about changes in ambulatory measurements. The objective of this study was to find parameters that discriminate between these diseases using cutaneous 24-h-electrogastrography. Methods: Cutaneous 24-h electrogastrography (EGG) measurements were taken from 20 patients with dyspepsia, 10 patients with systemic sclerosis (sclerodermia, SSc), 7 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 7 patients with delayed gastric emptying, and 10 healthy volunteers. Measurements were made using a DIGITRAPPER EGG (Synectics Medical Inc., Stockholm, Sweden) and the accompanying computerized data analysis package (ElectroGastroGram Version 6.30, Gastrosoft Inc., Synectics Medical Inc., Stockholm, Sweden). Frequency and power were compared pre- and postprandially, as well as during the entire day of measurement. Results: The 24-h measurements in healthy volunteers revealed 45.00%+/-12.12% normal values (2.4-3.7 cpm), 30.10%+/-7.15% bradygastric values (<2.4 cpm), and 24.20%+/-7.76% tachygastric values (>3.7 cpm). There was no significant change in frequency between rest and motion, but there was a significant increase in power (P<0.05). There was significantly more bradygastria in patients with dyspepsia periprandially as well as after 24 h (P<0.01) than in healthy volunteers. The mean power of patients with dyspepsia was significantly higher than that of patients with IBS (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cutaneous 24-h-EGG may be used as an additional means of differentiating between dyspepsia and IBS. PMID:11395301

  15. Anorexigenic effects of miglitol in concert with the alterations of gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Tajiri, Y; Yamada, K

    2012-04-01

    Although the α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol (MG) has been reported to have anorexigenic effects, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of MG on appetite in relation to concomitant changes in postprandial gut hormone levels. This randomized open-label crossover study included 20 healthy volunteers. The effects of 50 mg MG on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin levels were assessed in conjunction with a simultaneous determination of appetite scores using visual analogue scales (VAS) over 3 h after the ingestion of a 592 kcal test cookie. Additionally, the gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using breath ¹³CO₂ appearance in 10 subjects. 12 subjects were administered 50 mg MG thrice a day for 1 week, and alterations of the gut hormone levels and the VAS scores for appetite were evaluated. MG pre-administration resulted in a significant enhancement of GLP-1 and PYY responses induced by the cookie ingestion. Following MG administration, ghrelin level declined at 1 h, with a persistent suppression during the postprandial phase in contrast to the restoration to the basal level without MG. Furthermore, MG pre-administration suppressed appetite and maintained satiety evaluated using a VAS rating with concomitant inhibition of GER after cookie ingestion. One-week administration of MG did not influence either gut hormone levels before a meal or VAS rating during a whole day. These observations suggest that MG exerts an anorexigenic effects with concomitant alterations of gut hormone secretions and gastric emptying after meal ingestion. PMID:22351480

  16. Selective lack of tolerance to delayed gastric emptying after daily administration of WIN 55,212-2 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Abalo, R; Cabezos, P A; López-Miranda, V; Vera, G; González, C; Castillo, M; Fernández-Pujol, R; Martín, M I

    2009-09-01

    The use of cannabinoids to treat gastrointestinal (GI) motor disorders has considerable potential. However, it is not clear if tolerance to their actions develops peripherally, as it does centrally. The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on GI motility, as well as those in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. WIN was administered for 14 days, at either non-psychoactive or psychoactive doses. Cardiovascular parameters were measured in anaesthetized rats, whereas central effects and alterations in GI motor function were assessed in conscious animals using the cannabinoid tetrad and non-invasive radiographic methods, respectively. Tests were performed after first (acute effects) and last (chronic effects) administration of WIN, and 1 week after discontinuing treatment (residual effects). Food intake and body weight were also recorded throughout treatment. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged after acute or chronic administration of WIN. Central activity and GI motility were acutely depressed at psychoactive doses, whereas non-psychoactive doses only slightly reduced intestinal transit. Most effects were reduced after the last administration. However, delayed gastric emptying was not and could, at least partially, account for a concomitant reduction in food intake and body weight gain. The remaining effects of WIN administration in GI motility were blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM 251, which slightly accelerated motility when administered alone. No residual effects were found 1 week after discontinuing cannabinoid treatment. The different systems show differential sensitivity to cannabinoids and tolerance developed at different rates, with delayed gastric emptying being particularly resistant to attenuation upon chronic treatment. PMID:19413685

  17. Electroacupuncture at ST36 ameliorates gastric emptying and rescues networks of interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Xu, Juan Juan; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiao Hua

    2013-01-01

    Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is certified in the stomach of diabetic patients. Though electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 is an effective therapy to regulate gastric motility, the mechanisms of EA at ST36 on gastric emptying and networks of ICC remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of EA on gastric emptying and on the alterations of ICC networks. Rats were randomized into the control, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats with sham EA (DM+SEA), diabetic rats with low frequency EA (DM+LEA) and diabetic rats with high frequency EA groups (DM+HEA). The expression of c-kit in each layer of gastric wall was assessed by western blotting. The proliferation of ICC was identified by immunolabeling of c-kit and Ki67 as the apoptosis of ICC was examined by TUNEL staining. The results were as follows: (1) Gastric emptying was severely delayed in the DM group, but accelerated in the LEA and HEA group, especially in the LEA group. (2) The expression of c-kit in each layer was reduced apparently in the DM group, but also up-regulated in the LEA and HEA group. (3) Plentiful proliferated ICC (c-kit+/Ki67+) forming bushy networks with c-kit+ cells were observed in the LEA and HEA group, while the apoptotic cells (c-kit+/TUNEL+) were hardly captured in the LEA and HEA group. Collectively, low and high frequency EA at ST36 rescue the damaged networks of ICC by inhibiting the apoptosis and enhancing the proliferation in the stomach of diabetic rats, resulting in an improved gastric emptying. PMID:24391842

  18. Gastric emptying scan after distal subtotal gastrectomy: Differences between Billroth I and II and predicting the presence of food residue at endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung-Min; Kim, Sungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether gastric emptying scans (GESs) showed different emptying patterns between patients after different types of laparoscopic distal subtotal gastrectomies. We also investigated whether the presence of food residue via endoscopy can be predicted by GESs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients who had GESs within postoperative week 1 after a Billroth I or Billroth II operation. Diabetic patients were excluded. GESs were done with a solid test meal. Percent emptying at each scan time was analyzed. The presence of food residue in the stomach and gastrointestinal symptoms at the outpatient clinic were also analyzed. Results: In total, 46 patients were enrolled (Billroth I: Billroth II = 21:25). Sixteen patients underwent a second GES (postoperative 3-6 months). Both groups showed delayed gastric emptying at the postoperative 1 week scan, but group I showed much slower emptying. However, this difference disappeared by the second scan. Based on endoscopies conducted 6 months after the operation, 73.2% of patients had significant amounts of food residue, which hindered an accurate evaluation. The proportion of patients with food residues did not differ between the groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that a cut-off value of ≤ 30% emptying at 100 min and 120 min in postoperative 3-6 month scans was both highly sensitive and specific for predicting the presence of food residue (90.91% and 75% for 100 min and 91.67% and 75% for 120 min, respectively). Conclusions: GESs within a week after distal subtotal gastrectomy show slower emptying of Billroth I than II. At a ≤ 30% emptying threshold, a GES can predict subtotal gastrectomy patients who might have a significant amount of food residue in their stomach even after following typical fasting instructions to prepare endoscopy. PMID:26885000

  19. Comparison of p53 and DNA content abnormalities in adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, C. M.; Sloan, J. M.; McManus, D. T.; Maxwell, P.; Arthur, K.; McGuigan, J. A.; Ritchie, A. J.; Russell, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the association between 17p allelic loss, p53 gene mutation, p53 protein expression and DNA aneuploidy in a series of adenocarcinomas arising in the oesophagus and gastric cardia. 17p allelic loss was detected in 79% (15 of 19) of oesophageal and in 83% (29 of 35) of gastric adenocarcinomas. p53 mutations were detected in 70% (14 of 20) and 63% (26 of 41) of oesophageal and of gastric adenocarcinomas respectively. Both tumour types were associated with a predominance of base transitions at CpG dinucleotides. In five cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the same mutation was detected both in tumour and in adjacent dysplastic Barrett's epithelium. Diffuse p53 protein expression was detected in 65% (13 of 20) and 59% (24 of 41) of oesophageal and of gastric tumours, respectively, and was associated with the presence of p53 missense mutation (Chi-squared, P < 0.0001). DNA aneuploidy was detected in 80% (16 of 20) of oesophageal and in 70% (28 of 40) of gastric tumours. No association was found between p53 or DNA content abnormalities and tumour stage or histological subtype. In conclusion, this study detected a similar pattern of p53 alterations in adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia--molecular data consistent with the observation that these tumours demonstrate similar clinical and epidemiological features. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9460999

  20. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Results Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). Conclusions In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats. PMID:25266643

  1. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nNOS, restores gastric emptying and nNOS expression in female diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gangula, Pandu R R; Mukhopadhyay, Sutapa; Ravella, Kalpana; Cai, Shijie; Channon, Keith M; Garfield, Robert E; Pasricha, Pankaj J

    2010-05-01

    Gastroparesis is a debilitating disease predominantly affecting young women. Recently, dysregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric plexus neurons has been implicated for delayed solid gastric emptying/gastroparesis in diabetic patients. In this study, we have explored the role of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a major cofactor for nNOS activity and NO synthesis in diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes was induced with single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body wt, ip) in female rats, with experiments performed on week 3 or 9 following induction, with or without 3-wk BH4 supplementation. Gastric pyloric BH4 levels were significantly decreased in diabetic female rats compared with control (18.6 +/- 1.45 vs. 31.0 +/- 2.31 pmol/mg protein). In vitro studies showed that 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis, significantly decreased gastric NO release and nitrergic relaxation. Three-week dietary supplementation of BH4 either from day 1 or week 6 significantly attenuated diabetes-induced delayed gastric emptying for solids (3 wk: BH4, 67 +/- 6.7 vs. diabetic, 36.05 +/- 7.09; 9 wk: BH4, 57 +/- 8.45 vs. diabetic, 33 +/- 9.91) and diabetes-induced reduction in pyloric nNOS-alpha protein expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 significantly restored gastric nNOS-alpha dimerization in 9-wk-old diabetic female rats. In addition, BH4 treatment reversed (17.23 +/- 5.81 vs. 42.0 +/- 2.70 mmHg x s) the diabetes-induced changes in intragastric pressures (IGP) and gastric pyloric nitrergic relaxation (-0.62 +/- 0.01 vs. -0.22 +/- 0.07). BH4 deficiency plays a critical role in diabetes-induced alterations including delayed solid gastric emptying, increased IGP, reduced pyloric nitrergic relaxation, and nNOS-alpha expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 accelerates gastric emptying by restoring nitrergic system in diabetic female rats. Therefore, BH4 supplementation is a potential therapeutic option for female

  2. Prognostic value of serum tumor abnormal protein in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    LAN, FENG; ZHU, MING; QI, QIUFENG; ZHANG, YAPING; LIU, YONGPING

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of protein occurs in nearly all types of cancers and has been confirmed to be associated with tumor progression, metastasis and the survival rate of patients. The present study aimed to explore the prognostic value of tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in gastric cancer patients. TAP was detected in the blood of 42 gastric cancer patients and 56 healthy volunteers by using the TAP testing kit. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of TAP. In total, 64.3% of gastric cancer patients were positive for TAP, and TAP was significantly correlated with poor prognosis [progression-free survival (PFS), 4.2 vs. 12.6 months; P=0.043]. TAP [hazard ratio (HR), 64.487; P<0.01), differentiation (HR, 17.279; P<0.01) and TNM stage (HR, 45.480; P<0.01) were found to be independent predictive factors for PFS. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that TAP is associated with a reduced PFS in gastric cancer patients. The results of the present study therefore indicated that the TAP test has significant prognostic value for gastric cancer patients. PMID:27330802

  3. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  4. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P < 0.05). Our investigations with the different

  5. Aperitif effects on gastric emptying: a crossover study using continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID System).

    PubMed

    Inamori, M; Iida, H; Endo, H; Hosono, K; Akiyama, T; Yoneda, K; Fujita, K; Iwasaki, T; Takahashi, H; Yoneda, M; Goto, A; Abe, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kubota, K; Nakajima, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between aperitif and gastric emptying. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Under two conditions (after drinking an aperitif versus not), the (13)C breath test was performed for 4 h with a liquid meal (200 kcal/200 ml) containing 100 mg (13)C acetate. We used 50 ml of umeshu as the aperitif. This is a traditional Japanese plum liqueur, and contains 7 ml alcohol (14%). In the aperitif group, T(1/2), T(lag), and T(peak) were significantly delayed [T(1/2) (132: 113-174) versus (112: 92-134) (P = 0.0069); T(lag) (80: 63-94) versus (55: 47-85) (P = 0.0069); and T(peak) (81: 62-96) versus (54: 34-84) (P = 0.0069), (median: range, aperitif versus control, min)]. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the aperitif group as compared with the control group. This study revealed that even a small amount of alcohol such as an aperitif may contribute to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:18688714

  6. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity. PMID:26429932

  7. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  8. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation. PMID:26168984

  9. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation. PMID:21779093

  10. Effects of the once-daily GLP-1 analog liraglutide on gastric emptying, glycemic parameters, appetite and energy metabolism in obese, non-diabetic adults

    PubMed Central

    van Can, J; Sloth, B; Jensen, C B; Flint, A; Blaak, E E; Saris, W H M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mechanisms for liraglutide-induced weight loss are poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effects of liraglutide on gastric emptying, glycemic parameters, appetite and energy metabolism in obese non-diabetic individuals. Design: Participants (N=49, 18–75 years, body mass index: 30–40 kg m−2) were randomized to two of three treatments: liraglutide 1.8 mg, 3.0 mg, or placebo in a double-blind, incomplete crossover trial. After 5 weeks, 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation were measured in a respiratory chamber. Gastric emptying (acetaminophen absorption method), glycemic parameters and appetite were assessed during a 5-h meal test. Ad libitum energy intake during a subsequent lunch was also assessed. Results: Five-hour gastric emptying (AUC0–300 min) was found to be equivalent for liraglutide 1.8 versus 3.0 mg (primary end point), and for both liraglutide doses versus placebo, as 90% confidence intervals for the estimated treatment ratios were contained within the prespecified interval (0.80–1.25). However, 1-h gastric emptying was 23% lower than placebo with liraglutide 3.0 mg (P=0.007), and a nonsignificant 13% lower than placebo with liraglutide 1.8 mg (P=0.14). Both liraglutide doses similarly reduced fasting glucose (0.5–0.6 mmol l−1 versus placebo, P<0.0001), glucose Cmax and 1-h AUC versus placebo; only liraglutide 3.0 mg reduced iAUC0–300 min (by ∼26% versus placebo, P=0.02). Glucagon iAUC0–300 min decreased by ∼30%, and iAUC0–60 min for insulin and C-peptide was ∼20% lower with both liraglutide doses versus placebo. Liraglutide doses similarly increased mean postprandial satiety and fullness ratings, reduced hunger and prospective food consumption and decreased ad libitum energy intake by ∼16%. Liraglutide-associated reductions in EE were partly explained by a decrease in body weight. A relative shift toward increased fat and reduced carbohydrate oxidation was

  11. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Andrew M.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Bierau, Jörgen; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2) ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen) in an upright seated position (control) and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion). Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05), which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA) response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05). Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05). Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease. PMID:27089362

  12. Gastric control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P H; McHugh, P R; Moran, T H; Stephenson, J D

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying leads to enhanced satiety and this mechanism may contribute to the undereating observed after administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and fenfluramine, and in patients with anorexia nervosa. Pyloric smooth muscle bears specific CCK receptors and the evidence suggests that a major site of action for CCK satiety is in the periphery. CCK receptors are widespread in the neonatal rat stomach but not in the brain and over the first two weeks of life binding in the stomach decreases and that in the brain increases. This and the finding that independent ingestion as well as gastric emptying are inhibited by CCK at birth suggest the stomach as its likely site of action in the neonatal rat. Fenfluramine inhibits feeding in animals and in patients with bulimia nervosa. In monkeys, fenfluramine inhibits gastric emptying and this action correlates with its feeding inhibition. Patients with anorexia nervosa who are acutely starving and rats maintained on a restricted diet have delayed gastric emptying. Anorexic patients showed abnormal reporting of both hunger and satiety, and, together with those with bulimia nervosa, often associated gastric contents with symptoms of eating disorder, indicating disturbed interpretation of gastric signals. PMID:3065484

  13. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  14. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  15. Drug-resin drug interactions in patients with delayed gastric emptying: What is optimal time window for drug administration?

    PubMed

    Camilleri, M

    2016-08-01

    Most drug-drug interactions involve overlap or competition in drug metabolic pathways. However, there are medications, typically resins, whose function is to bind injurious substances such as bile acids or potassium within the digestive tract. The objective of this article is to review the functions of the stomach and the kinetics of emptying of different food forms or formulations to make recommendations on timing of medication administration in order to avoid intragastric drug interactions. Based on the profiles and kinetics of emptying of liquid nutrients and homogenized solids, a window of 3 h between administration of a resin drug and another 'target' medication would be expected to allow a median of 80% of medications with particle size <1 mm to empty from the stomach and, hence, avoid potential interaction such as binding of the 'target' medication within the stomach. PMID:26987693

  16. Urocortins and CRF type 2 receptor isoforms expression in the rat stomach are regulated by endotoxin: role in the modulation of delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wu, S Vincent; Taché, Yvette

    2012-07-01

    Peripheral activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF(2)) by urocortin 1, 2, or 3 (Ucns) exerts powerful effects on gastric function; however, little is known about their expression and regulation in the stomach. We investigated the expression of Ucns and CRF(2) isoforms by RT-PCR in the gastric corpus (GC) mucosa and submucosa plus muscle (S+M) or laser captured layers in naive rats, their regulations by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg ip) over 24 h, and the effect of the CRF(2) antagonist astresssin(2)-B (100 μg/kg sc) on LPS-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) 2-h postinjection. Transcripts of Ucns and CRF(2b,) the most common wild-type CRF(2) isoform in the periphery, were expressed in all layers, including myenteric neurons. LPS increased Ucn mRNA levels significantly in both mucosa and S+M, reaching a maximal response at 6 h postinjection and returning to basal levels at 24 h except for Ucn 1 in S+M. By contrast, CRF(2b) mRNA level was significantly decreased in the mucosa and M+S with a nadir at 6 h. In addition, CRF(2a), reportedly only found in the brain, and the novel splice variant CRF(2a-3) were also detected in the GC, antrum, and pylorus. LPS reciprocally regulated these variants with a decrease of CRF(2a) and an increase of CRF(2a-3) in the GC 6 h postinjection. Astressin(2)-B exacerbated LPS-delayed GE (42-73%, P < 0.001). These data indicate that Ucn and CRF(2) isoforms are widely distributed throughout the rat stomach and inversely regulated by immune stress. The CRF(2) signaling system may act to counteract the early gastric motor alterations to endotoxemia. PMID:22517775

  17. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2–dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. Methods This double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects (22 men, 14 women) to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo (2:1 ratio; 23:13) once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning. Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen on Days 0 and 10. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. Results No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids (acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax) were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. Conclusions Teduglutide 4 mg/day for 10 days does not affect gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects as measured by acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. No unexpected safety signals were observed. Trial registration This study was registered at Clinical

  19. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Wickenberg, Jennie; Fahlström, Rickard; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof; Darwiche, Gassan

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1), cereal bran flakes (GER2) or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3). Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023). The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045) and 120 min (p = 0.023) after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy subjects, they should be

  20. New ghrelin agonist, HM01 alleviates constipation and L-dopa-delayed gastric emptying in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, H.; Pietra, C.; Giuliano, C.; Garcia-Rubio, S.; Xu, X.; Yakabi, S.; Taché, Y.; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation and L-dopa-induced gastric dysmotility are common gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigate the novel ghrelin agonist, HM01 influence on GI motor dysfunctions in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats. Methods HM01 pharmacological profiles were determined in vitro and in vivo in rats. We assessed changes in fecal output and water content, and gastric emptying (GE) in 6-OHDA rats treated or not with orogastric (og) HM01 and L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD, 20/2 mg kg−1). Fos immunoreactivity (ir) cells in specific brain and lumbosacral spinal cord were quantified. Key results HM01 displayed a high binding affinity to ghrelin receptor (Ki: 1.42 ± 0.36 nM), 4.3±1.0 h half-life and high brain/plasma ratio. 6-OHDA rats had reduced daily fecal output (22%) and water intake (23%) compared to controls. HM01 (3 and 10 mg kg−1) similarly reversed the decreased 4-h fecal weight and water content in 6-OHDA rats. Basal GE was not modified in 6-OHDA rats, however, LD/CD (once or daily for 8 days) delayed GE in 6-OHDA and control rats that was prevented by HM01 (3 mg kg−1 acute or daily before LD/CD). HM01 increased Fos-ir cell number in the area postrema, arcuate nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius and lumbosacral intermediolateral column of 6-OHDA rats where 6-OHDA had a lowering effect compared to controls. Conclusions & Inferences 6-OHDA rats display constipation- and adipsia-like features of PD and L-dopa-inhibited GE. The new orally active ghrelin agonist, HM01 crosses the blood brain barrier and alleviates these alterations suggesting a potential benefit for PD with GI disorders. PMID:25327342

  1. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of cinnamaldehyde via altered ghrelin secretion and functional impact on food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

  2. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

  3. Feasibility of measuring gastric emptying time, with a wireless motility device, after subjects consume fiber-matched liquid and solid breakfasts.

    PubMed

    Willis, Holly J; Thomas, William; Willis, David J; Slavin, Joanne L

    2011-08-01

    To explore the feasibility and sensitivity of a new technology for measuring gastric emptying time (GET) in appetite research, and also to compare appetite after subjects consumed macronutrient- and fiber-matched liquid and solid meals. Fourteen women (BMI of 21.2 ± 0.3) participated in this randomized, crossover study. On two separate days, fasted subjects consumed liquid (fruit juices and skim milk) and solid (oatmeal, blueberries, and apples) breakfasts. Both meals had 10 g of fiber and 410 kcal. GET was assessed with the SmartPill GI Motility System®, appetite was assessed with visual analog scales, and food intake was measured at lunch. Despite the same amount of fiber, GET was about 1h longer after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Subjects were less hungry after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Satisfaction and fullness were marginally improved with the oatmeal compared to the liquids. There was a negative association between GET and hunger. Lunchtime food and beverage intake did not differ between treatments. The SmartPill appears feasible and sensitive in appetite research, but has limitations. A solid meal with naturally occurring fiber from oatmeal and whole fruits increased GET and decreased hunger more than a liquid meal with added fiber. PMID:21435365

  4. Central Nesfatin-1 Reduces Dark-Phase Food Intake and Gastric Emptying in Rats: Differential Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Lambrecht, Nils W. G.; Taché, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    Nesfatin-1, derived from nucleobindin2, is expressed in the hypothalamus and reported in one study to reduce food intake (FI) in rats. To characterize the central anorexigenic action of nesfatin-1 and whether gastric emptying (GE) is altered, we injected nesfatin-1 into the lateral brain ventricle (intracerebroventricular, icv) or fourth ventricle (4v) in chronically cannulated rats or into the cisterna magna (intracisternal, ic) under short anesthesia and compared with ip injection. Nesfatin-1 (0.05 μg/rat, icv) decreased 2–3 h and 3–6 h dark-phase FI by 87 and 45%, respectively, whereas ip administration (2 μg/rat) had no effect. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)1/CRF2 antagonist astressin-B or the CRF2 antagonist astressin2-B abolished icv nesfatin-1’s anorexigenic action, whereas an astressin2-B analog, devoid of CRF-receptor binding affinity, did not. Nesfatin-1 icv induced a dose-dependent reduction of GE by 26 and 43% that was not modified by icv astressin2-B. Nesfatin-1 into the 4v (0.05 μg/rat) or ic (0.5 μg/rat) decreased cumulative dark-phase FI by 29 and 60% at 1 h and by 41 and 37% between 3 and 5 h, respectively. This effect was neither altered by ic astressin2-B nor associated with changes in GE. Cholecystokinin (ip) induced Fos expression in 43% of nesfatin-1 neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and 24% of those in the nucleus tractus solitarius. These data indicate that nesfatin-1 acts centrally to reduce dark phase FI through CRF2-receptor-dependent pathways after forebrain injection and CRF2-receptor-independent pathways after hindbrain injection. Activation of nesfatin-1 neurons by cholecystokinin at sites regulating food intake may suggest a role in gut peptide satiation effect. PMID:19797401

  5. Sodium intake, brain c-Fos protein and gastric emptying in cell-dehydrated rats treated with methysergide into the lateral parabrachial nucleus.

    PubMed

    David, Richard B; Roncari, Camila F; Lauar, Mariana R; Vendramini, Regina C; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that methysergide, a serotonergic antagonist, injected into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) combined with a pre-load of 2 M NaCl, given by gavage, induces 0.3 M NaCl intake. The mechanisms involved in this paradoxical behavior are still unknown. In the present work, we investigated the effect of serotonergic blockade into the LPBN on hindbrain and hypothalamic activity, gastric emptying and arterial blood pressure in cell-dehydrated rats. Methysergide plus 2 M NaCl infused intragastrically or intravenously promoted 0.3 M NaCl intake in two-bottle tests. In cell-dehydrated rats with no access to fluids, methysergide compared to vehicle increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema and non-oxytocinergic cells of the ventral portion of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). There was no alteration in the number of neurons double-labeled for Fos-ir and oxytocin in the PVN and supraoptic nuclei. There was also no alteration in plasma oxytocin and vasopressin, or arterial pressure. In rats cell-dehydrated by i.v. 2 M NaCl, methysergide also did not change the amount of an intragastric load of 0.3 M NaCl retained in the stomach or intestine. The results suggest that methysergide injected into the LPBN of cell-dehydrated rat does not alter primary inhibitory signals that control sodium intake. The inhibitory signals blocked by methysergide in the LPBN possibly originated from activation of brain osmoreceptors, second order visceral/hormonal signals or a combination of both. PMID:26171591

  6. ABNORMAL GASTRIC AND COLONIC PERMEABILITY IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN (RAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent histologic studies have suggested evidence of low grade inflammation in many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Additionally, small intestinal permeability recently has been reported to be abnormal in some adults with IBS. Whether the same is true for children with RAP, a condition...

  7. Effect of gastric acid suppressants on human gastric motility

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, H; Urbain, J; Knight, L; Brown, K; Trate, D; Miller, M; Maurer, A; Fisher, R

    1998-01-01

    Background—The effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonists on gastric emptying is controversial. 
Aims—To determine the effects of ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole on gastric motility and emptying. 
Patients and methods—Fifteen normal subjects underwent simultaneous antroduodenal manometry, electrogastrography (EGG), and gastric emptying with dynamic antral scintigraphy (DAS). After 30 minutes of fasting manometry and EGG recording, subjects received either intravenous saline, ranitidine, or famotidine, followed by another 30 minutes recording and then three hours of postprandial recording after ingestion of a radiolabelled meal. Images were obtained every 10-15 minutes for three hours to measure gastric emptying and assess antral contractility. Similar testing was performed after omeprazole 20 mg daily for one week. 
Results—Fasting antral phase III migrating motor complexes (MMCs) were more common after ranitidine (9/15 subjects, 60%), famotidine (12/15, 80%), and omeprazole (8/12, 67%) compared with placebo (4/14, 29%; p<0.05). Postprandially, ranitidine, famotidine, and omeprazole slowed gastric emptying, increased the amplitude of DAS contractions, increased the EGG power, and increased the antral manometric motility index. 
Conclusions—Suppression of gastric acid secretion with therapeutic doses of gastric acid suppressants is associated with delayed gastric emptying but increased antral motility. 

 Keywords: gastric motility; gastric emptying; histamine H2 receptor antagonists; proton pump inhibitors; gastric acid secretion; scintigraphy PMID:9536950

  8. Effects of trimebutine maleate on gastric motility in patients with gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, T; Nagao, T; Andou, T; Misu, N; Kobayashi, Y; Hirako, M; Hara, M; Fujinami, T

    1998-12-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate (TM), a prokinetic drug, on gastrointestinal motility in patients with gastric ulcer were investigated. Twenty patients with active gastric ulcers were allocated to two groups; 10 patients received a proton pump inhibitor alone (PPI group), given orally, and 10 patients received oral TM in combination with a PPI (PPI + TM group), each for a period of 8 weeks. Electrogastrography (EGG) and gastric emptying were measured before and after the treatment period. During the active ulcer stage, tachygastria (more than 0.06 Hz) or bradygastria (less than 0.04 Hz) in the EGG frequency were observed in 9 patients either before or after meals. During the healed ulcer stage, tachygastria or bradygastria was observed in 4 of 10 patients in the PPI group, while in the PPI + TM group, 1 patient had tachygastria and none had bradygastria. Postprandial dip (PD) was observed in 3 of the 20 patients during the active stage, while after treatment, PD was observed in 3 patients in the PPI group and in 6 patients in the PPI + TM group, respectively. Gastric emptying in the PPI group did not show any change between before and after treatment, while that in the PPI + TM group improved significantly after treatment. These results suggest that TM may have an ameliorative effect on abnormal gastric motility in patients with gastric ulcer. PMID:9853554

  9. [Regulation factors of stomach emptying in dogs].

    PubMed

    Krejs, G J; Hegglin, J; Säuberli, H; Largiadér, F; Schmid, P; Blum, A L

    1976-03-01

    Gastric emptying of organic acids was studied in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. After chronic esophagostomies were performed according to the method of Komarov, a total of 340 test meals were instilled. Each test meal consisted of 300 ml of 6 different organic acids with decreasing molecular weight and different concentrations. After the experiments were achieved, each dog underwent a proximal gastric vagotomy according to the method of Amdrup, and experiments with citric acid were repeated. The results may be summarized as follows: multiple stepwise regression analysis of the data is consistent with a model in which gastric emptying of organic acids is regulated by 3 receptors. The receptors respond to concentration of the organic acid, the actual volume, and the type of acid. The volume receptor is located in the corpus of the stomach because the effect of volume accelerates the emptying rate after proximal gastric vagotomy while the effects of concentration and type of acid remain unchanged. PMID:1270294

  10. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromskiĭ, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs. PMID:3962263

  11. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  12. Effect of selective β-adrenoceptor blockade and surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex on delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinagre, A.M.; Collares, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex. PMID:26840714

  13. A hybrid transducer to evaluate stomach emptying by ultrasound and susceptometric measurements: an in vivo feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Alexandre C; Sampaio, Diego R T; Pavan, Theo Z; Baffa, Oswaldo; Carneiro, Antonio A O

    2015-07-01

    Gastric emptying reflects a diversity of important physiological functions. Alternating current biosusceptometry (ACB) is an inexpensive, radiation-free, and minimally invasive method to evaluate gastric emptying, but its response depends on the spatial distribution of the magnetized material and does not provide precise anatomical information. The hybrid transducer, which combines ACB and an ultrasound probe, is an alternative to improve susceptometry measurements, namely the spatial localization of the magnetized source. In this study, initial stomach emptying, in rats, was monitored with the aid of the hybrid transducer. Yogurt mixed with ferrite particles was injected into the rat's stomach. The hybrid transducer was placed on the rat's abdomen during experiments, and the susceptometry signal and magnetomotive ultrasound (MMUS) images were saved and postprocessed. MMUS highlighted the movement of magnetic particles due to magnetic force from ACB excitation coils, and showed the rat's stomach location. In this feasibility study, we monitored the stomach emptying of 4 rats for 20 min. The mean relative ACB signal decayed by 4.6 ± 0.1%, and the mean relative area of MMUS images decreased by 4.5 ± 0.2%, after 20 min postingestion of the magnetic meal due to stomach emptying. In a second experiment, 3-D MMUS images from axial sequences were obtained by spatially translating the hybrid transducer, providing details of the stomach wall, which may enable minimally invasive detection of abnormalities. In conclusion, the MMUS image increased ACB spatial resolution and furnished additional anatomical information. PMID:26168175

  14. Physical characteristics of indigestible solids affect emptying from the fasting human stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, B; Beglinger, C; Neumayer, M; Stalder, G A

    1989-01-01

    Gastric emptying of indigestible solids depends on their size. It is not clear whether physical characteristics other than particle size affect emptying of indigestible solids from the fasting human stomach. We studied gastric emptying of three differently shaped particles, (cubes, spheres, rods) of either hard or soft consistency during the fasting state in human volunteers. The shape of indigestible particles did not affect their emptying. The area under the gastric emptying curve (AUC: particles x hour) was for hard cubes 24.7 (2.2), for hard spheres 27.9 (1.6), for hard rods 26.9 (2.7). All soft particles emptied faster than their identically shaped hard counterparts, but there was no difference among the three shapes (AUC for soft cubes: 29.2 (3.0), for soft spheres 32.0 (1.8), for soft rods 34.1 (1.2). If gastric emptying of hard and soft particles was compared independently of their shape, soft particles emptied significantly faster than hard ones: AUC 31.8 (1.2) v 26.5 (1.3) (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, the consistency but not the shape significantly affects gastric emptying. Specific physical characteristics other than size and shape may affect gastric emptying of indigestible particles which may be of importance in the design of drugs. PMID:2599438

  15. The Big Empty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Richard; Smith, Shelley; Tisdale, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Discusses "The Big Empty" or, the Great Basin. Suggests that it is not empty but rather a great ecosystem rich in plants, animals, and minerals. Presents information and activities to guide students in exploring the Great Basin in order to understand the ways in which such an arid and seemingly harsh environment can support so many living things.…

  16. Effect of pirenzepine on gallbladder emptying in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.L.; Anagnostides, A.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of the selective antimuscarinic agent, pirenzepine, on gallbladder function was studied in six healthy volunteers, using /sup 99m/Tc HIDA (N-(2,6-diethylthenyl) carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) hepatobiliary scanning. Pirenzepine, in doses that inhibit gastric acid secretion, did not alter gallbladder emptying responses to sham feeding stimulation or to a test meal.

  17. Gastric motor dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease: Current pre-clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Carolina; Antonioli, Luca; Colucci, Rocchina; Ballabeni, Vigilio; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Bernardini, Nunzia; Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with several non-motor symptoms, such as behavioral changes, urinary dysfunction, sleep disorders, fatigue and, above all, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, including gastric dysmotility, constipation and anorectal dysfunction. Delayed gastric emptying, progressing to gastroparesis, is reported in up to 100% of patients with PD, and it occurs at all stages of the disease with severe consequences to the patient's quality of life. The presence of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates in myenteric neurons throughout the digestive tract, as well as morpho-functional alterations of the enteric nervous system (ENS), have been documented in PD. In particular, gastric dysmotility in PD has been associated with an impairment of the brain-gut axis, involving the efferent fibers of the vagal pathway projecting directly to the gastric myenteric plexus. The present review intends to provide an integrated overview of available knowledge on the possible role played by the ENS, considered as a semi-autonomous nervous network, in the pathophysiology of gastric dysmotility in PD. Particular attention has been paid review how translational evidence in humans and studies in pre-clinical models are allowing a better understanding of the functional, neurochemical and molecular alterations likely underlying gastric motor abnormalities occurring in PD. PMID:26499757

  18. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  19. Effect of trimebutine maleate on emptying of stomach and gallbladder and release of gut peptide following a solid meal in man.

    PubMed

    Okano, H; Saeki, S; Inui, A; Kawai, Y; Ohno, S; Morimoto, S; Ohmoto, A; Nakashima, T; Miyamoto, M; Okita, M

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the effect of orally administered trimebutine maleate on gastric and gallbladder emptying and on the release of gut peptide, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and gastrin in humans for 120 min after ingestion of a solid meal. Gastric emptying was measured by a radionuclide technique. Gallbladder emptying was estimated by real-time ultrasonography. The oral administration of 200 mg of trimebutine maleate significantly shortened the lag time in starting gastric emptying (P < 0.05). Considering gallbladder emptying, trimebutine significantly inhibited the fasting emptying induced by neural reflex. Postprandially, there was a tendency toward an accelerated gallbladder emptying in the early phase. Neither the maximal percentage of gallbladder emptying nor the time of peak gallbladder emptying were affected. Trimebutine significantly blunted the post-prandial PP response in the cephalic and gastric phases, reflecting a vagal-cholinergic activity (P < 0.05). The PP response in the intestinal phase was also blunted. Gastrin release was significantly augmented only during the period of fasting after drug administration (P < 0.05). The major effect of trimebutine maleate appears to be a shortening of the lag time at the start of gastric emptying probably via its anticholinergic activity. PMID:8482179

  20. Therapeutic potential of synchronized gastric electrical stimulation for gastroparesis: enhanced gastric motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbing; Sallam, Hanaa; Chen, Dennis D; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects and mechanism of synchronized gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on gastric contractions and gastric emptying. The first experiment was designed to study the effects of SGES on antral contractions in four randomized sessions. Sessions 1 (control) and 2 (atropine) were performed in the fasting state, composed of three 30-min periods (baseline, stimulation, and recovery). Sessions 3 (control) and 4 (SGES performed during 2nd 20-min period) were performed in the fed state, consisting of two 20-min periods; glucagon was injected after the first 20-min recording. The second experiment was designed to study the effect of SGES on gastric emptying and consisted of two sessions (control and SGES). SGES was delivered with train duration of 0.5-0.8s, pulse frequency of 40 Hz, width of 2 ms, and amplitude of 4 mA. We found that 1) SGES induced gastric antral contractions in the fasting state. The motility index was 1.3 +/- 0.5 at baseline and 6.1 +/- 0.7 (P = 0.001) during SGES. This excitatory effect was completely blocked by atropine. 2) SGES enhanced postprandial antral contractions impaired by glucagon. 3) SGES significantly accelerated glucagon-induced delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was 25.5 +/- 11.3% without SGES and 38.3 +/- 10.7% with SGES (P = 0.006 vs. control). This novel method of SGES induces gastric antral contractions in the fasting state, enhances glucagon-induced antral hypomotility in the fed state, and accelerates glucagon-induced delayed gastric emptying. The effect of SGES on antral contractions is mediated via the cholinergic pathway. PMID:17881615

  1. Emptiness Formation Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Ng, Stephen; Starr, Shannon

    2016-08-01

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a d-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order {exp(-c L^{d+1})} where L is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the {d=1} case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case {d ≥ 2} are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion, which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  2. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  3. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach. PMID:27283660

  4. Two-channel gastric pacing in patients with diabetic gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyue; Sarosiek, Irene; Forster, Jameson; Ross, Robert A.; Chen, Jiande D.Z.; McCallum, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Our primary goals were to investigate the effects of two-channel gastric pacing on gastric myoelectrical activity, and energy consumption with the secondary intent to monitor gastric emptying and symptoms in patients with severe diabetic gastroparesis. Methods Four pairs of temporary pacing wires were inserted on the serosa of the stomach at the time of laparotomy to place the Enterra™ System in 19 patients with severe gastroparesis not responding to standard medical therapies. Two of the pairs were for electrical stimulation and the other two for recording. Five days after surgery the optimal pacing parameters for the entrainment of gastric slow waves in each patient were identified by serosal recordings. Two-channel gastric pacing was then initiated for 6 weeks using a newly developed external multi-channel pulse generator. Electrogastrogram (EGG), total symptom score (TSS), and a 4-hour gastric emptying test were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of active gastric pacing. Enterra™ device was turned OFF during the duration of this study. Key Results Two-channel gastric pacing at 1.1 times the intrinsic frequency entrained gastric slow waves and normalized gastric dysrhythmia. After 6 weeks of gastric pacing, tachygastria was decreased from 15±3 to 5±1% in the fasting state and from 10±2 to 5±1% postprandially (P<0.05), mean TSS was reduced from 21.3±1.1 to 7.0±1.5 (P<0.05) and mean 4-hour gastric retention improved from 42% to 28% (P=0.05). Conclusions& Inferences Two-channel gastric pacing is a novel treatment approach which is able to normalize and enhance gastric slow wave activity as well as accelerate gastric emptying in patients with diabetic gastroparesis with a good safety profile. PMID:21806741

  5. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  6. Gastric metastasis from salivary duct carcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Nimura, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Yoshikazu; Sueta, Takayuki; Maki, Kenji; Kayashima, Yoshiyuki; Shiwaku, Hironari; Kato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present a very rare case of gastric metastasis mimicking primary gastric cancer in a patient who had undergone surgery for salivary duct carcinoma. Presentation of case A 67-year-old man had been diagnosed as having right parotid cancer and had undergone a right parotidectomy and lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was salivary duct carcinoma. One year after the surgery, a positron emission tomography–computed tomography scan using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) revealed an abnormal uptake of FDG in the left cervical, mediastinal, paraaortic, and cardiac lymph nodes; stomach; and pancreas. On gastroduodenoscopy, there was a huge, easily bleeding ulcer mimicking primary gastric cancer at the upper body of the stomach. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the primary gastric cancer and the metastatic tumor using gastroduodenoscopy and biopsy. Because of the uncontrollable bleeding from the gastric cancer, we performed an emergency palliative total gastrectomy. On histological examination, the gastric lesion was found to be metastatic carcinoma originating from the salivary duct carcinoma. Discussion In the presented case, we could not diagnose the gastric metastasis originating from the salivary duct carcinoma even by endoscopic biopsy. This is because the histological appearance of salivary duct carcinoma is similar to that of high-grade adenocarcinoma, thus, resembling primary gastric cancer. Conclusion When we perform endoscopic examination of patients with malignant neoplasias, a possibility of metastatic gastric cancer should be taken into consideration. PMID:27085106

  7. Current concepts in gastric motility in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    De Block, Christophe E M; De Leeuw, Ivo H; Pelckmans, Paul A; Van Gaal, Luc F

    2006-02-01

    This review addresses the current concepts in our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms, symptoms, clinical consequences, diagnosis and treatment of delayed gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting and abdominal bloating, occur in 30-50% of patients with diabetes. The use of scintigraphic techniques, and more recently breath test, has shown that as many as 50% of diabetic patients have gastroparesis. Diabetic gastroparesis comprises a decrease in fundic and antral motor activity, a reduction or a lack of the interdigestive migrating motor complex, gastric dysrhythmias, and pylorospasms. The mechanisms involved include: autonomic neuropathy, acute hyperglycaemia, and abnormalities in gastrointestinal hormones and neuropeptides. Other possible contributing factors such as hypothyroidism and H. pylori infection are discussed as well. Because treatment is possible by means of dietary advise, prokinetics or surgical procedures, it is important to identify risk factors for and to diagnose gastroparesis to prevent morbidity by controlling gastrointestinal symptoms, and to enhance glucoregulation. Understanding the current advances is key to the development of novel therapeutic strategies and for making rational choices in the management of diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:18220621

  8. Gastric motor effects of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 in diabetic mice with gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wen-Cai; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Wei-Gang; Yan, Jun; Zheng, Qi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic significance of ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) in diabetic mice with gastric motility disorders. METHODS: A diabetic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. Diabetic mice were injected ip with ghrelin or GHRP-6 (20-200 μg/kg), and the effects on gastric emptying were measured after intragastric application of phenol red. The effect of atropine, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or D-Lys3-GHRP-6 (a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist) on the gastroprokinetic effect of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg) was also investigated. The effects of ghrelin or GHRP-6 (0.01-10 μmol/L) on spontaneous or carbachol-induced contractile amplitude were also investigated in vitro, in gastric fundic circular strips taken from diabetic mice. The presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a transcripts in the fundic strips of diabetic mice was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: We established a diabetic mouse model with delayed gastric emptying. Ghrelin and GHRP-6 accelerated gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis. In the presence of atropine or L-NAME, which delayed gastric emptying, ghrelin and GHRP-6 (100 μg/kg) failed to accelerate gastric emptying. D-Lys3-GHRP-6 also delayed gastric emptying induced by the GHS-R agonist. Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increased the carbachol-induced contractile amplitude in gastric fundic strips taken from diabetic mice. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of GHS-R mRNA in the strip preparations. CONCLUSION: Ghrelin and GHRP-6 increase gastric emptying in diabetic mice with gastroparesis, perhaps by activating peripheral cholinergic pathways in the enteric nervous system. PMID:18322959

  9. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  10. Efficacy of ipamorelin, a ghrelin mimetic, on gastric dysmotility in a rodent model of postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Tyler, Karl; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Pietra, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background Delayed gastric emptying is a common disorder with few effective therapeutic options. The goal of this study was to investigate whether ipamorelin, a synthetic peptidomimetic that acts on the ghrelin receptor, accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastroparesis induced by abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation. Methods Fasted adult male rats were subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation. Following the surgery rats received ipamorelin (0.014–0.14 µmol/kg) or vehicle control via intravenous administration. Gastric emptying was measured by the percent of total recovered radioactivity remaining in the stomach 15 minutes after intragastric gavage of 1.5 mL of 99mTc (technicium-99m) sulfur colloid in 0.5% methylcellulose. In a separate group of rats subjected to laparotomy and intestinal manipulation, the gastric fundus was isolated and tissue segments were suspended in an organ bath to assess the effect of ipamorelin (1 µM) on gastric smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation. Results Abdominal surgery caused a delay in gastric emptying with 78% ± 5% of the meal remaining in the stomach in vehicle controls. Ipamorelin (0.014 µmol/kg intravenous) resulted in a significant acceleration (P < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated rat) of gastric emptying with 52% ± 11% of the meal remaining in the stomach compared to nonsurgical control animals with 44% ± 6%. Following abdominal surgery and intestinal manipulation, isolated preparations of gastric smooth muscle exhibited a marked inhibition of acetylcholine and electrical field stimulation-induced contractile responses, which were reversed by ipamorelin and ghrelin. Conclusion These results suggest that ipamorelin accelerates gastric emptying in a rodent model of postoperative ileus through the stimulation of gastric contractility by activating a ghrelin receptor-mediated mechanism involving cholinergic excitatory neurons.

  11. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  12. Multiple Small Coronary Artery Fistulas Emptying into the Left Ventricle: A Rare but Challenging Problem

    PubMed Central

    Kahaly, Omar

    2016-01-01

    A coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or a great vessel. CAFs are rare based on coronary arteriography and when found they most often empty into the right ventricle and atrium and less often into the high pressure, low compliance left ventricle (LV). A patient who presented with atypical chest pain and was found to have multiple small CAFs originating from the ramus intermedius coronary artery and emptying into the LV is presented. This case highlights the challenges in providing an appropriate therapy for multiple small CAFs emptying into the LV. PMID:27525009

  13. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  14. Patterns of ventricular emptying by Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool studies

    SciTech Connect

    Links, J.M.; Douglass, K.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Temporal Fourier analysis was applied to the processing of ECG-gated cardiac blood-pool studies on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to yield information about the pattern of ventricular emptying in normal hearts and in others with conduction abnormalities. The transform data at the fundamental frequency (the heart rate) were used to construct two types of display: (a) a distribution histogram of the pixel phase values, and (b) a cinematic display of the wave of emptying as it spread over the cardiac chambers. Preliminary results indicate that temporal Fourier analysis permits visualization of the pattern of ventricular emptying, which may prove useful in the study of motion abnormalities and asynergies, including those resulting from myocardial hypertrophy or conduction abnormalities, and as an aid in the optimum placement of pacemakers.

  15. Sonographic evaluation of resting gallbladder volume and postprandial emptying in patients with gallstones.

    PubMed

    Kishk, S M; Darweesh, R M; Dodds, W J; Lawson, T L; Stewart, E T; Kern, M K; Hassanein, E H

    1987-05-01

    We investigated fasting gallbladder volume and gallbladder emptying in response to a fatty meal in 20 patients with asymptomatic gallstones and compared the results with findings from healthy controls. Compared with control subjects without gallstones, the majority of patients with gallstones exhibited a higher resting gallbladder volume, less fractional emptying after a fatty meal, and a higher postmeal residual volume. These abnormalities all appeared to stem from an abnormally high resting gallbladder volume. Whether the increased gallbladder volume and decreased postprandial fractional emptying in the gallstone patients represents a primary or secondary abnormality remains to be determined. The results suggest that in some patients decreased gallbladder contractility may contribute to gallstone development or proliferation. PMID:3554918

  16. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) . 2013;51(3); 140-146. ... 2012:chap 49. Zeringe M, Fowler GC. Gastrointesinal decontamination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger & Fowler's ...

  17. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  19. Microprocessor controlled movement of liquid gastric content using sequential neural electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Mintchev, M; Sanmiguel, C; Otto, S; Bowes, K

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gastric electrical stimulation has been attempted for several years with little success. 
Aims—To determine whether movement of liquid gastric content could be achieved using microprocessor controlled sequential electrical stimulation. 
Methods—Eight anaesthetised dogs underwent laparotomy and implantation of four sets of bipolar stainless steel wire electrodes. Each set consisted of two to six electrodes (10×0.25 mm, 3 cm apart) implanted circumferentially. The stomach was filled with water and the process of gastric emptying was monitored. Artificial contractions were produced using microprocessor controlled phase locked bipolar four second trains of 50 Hz, 14 V (peak to peak) rectangular voltage. In four of the dogs four force transducers were implanted close to each circumferential electrode set. In one gastroparetic patient the effect of direct electrical stimulation was determined at laparotomy. 
Results—Using the above stimulating parameters circumferential gastric contractions were produced which were artificially propagated distally by phase locking the stimulating voltage. Averaged stimulated gastric emptying times were significantly shorter than spontaneus emptying times (t1/2 6.7 (3.0) versus 25.3 (12.9) minutes, p<0.01). Gastric electrical stimulation of the gastroparetic patient at operation produced circumferential contractions. 
Conclusions—Microprocessor controlled electrical stimulation produced artificial peristalsis and notably accelerated the movement of liquid gastric content. 

 Keywords: gastric electrical stimulation; gastric motility PMID:9824339

  20. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  1. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  2. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  3. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must...

  4. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight. 31.16 Section 31.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must...

  5. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  6. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  7. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  8. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  10. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Proximal gastric vagotomy. Comparison between open and laparoscopic methods in the canine model.

    PubMed Central

    Kollmorgen, C F; Gunes, S; Donohue, J H; Thompson, G B; Sarr, M G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors compared open and laparoscopic proximal gastric vagotomies for efficacy of acid reduction and preservation of gastric emptying. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA. Laparoscopic methods have been used to perform vagotomy in patients with duodenal ulcer; however, no direct comparisons are available of laparoscopic and open surgical procedures regarding acid reduction and gastric emptying. METHODS. Thirty-one consecutive dogs were randomized to open proximal gastric vagotomy (OPGV; n = 11), laparoscopic anterior seromyotomy and posterior truncal vagotomy (ASPTV; n = 10), or laparoscopic proximal gastric vagotomy (LPGV; n = 10). Intraoperative endoscopic Congo red testing assured complete vagotomy. Basal acid output (BAO) and maximal acid output (MAO) during pentagastrin and insulin-induced hypoglycemia were measured with marker dilution techniques, and gastric emptying was assessed with radionuclide-labelled solid and liquid markers before and 5 weeks after operation. RESULTS. Operative time (mean +/- standard error of the mean) for OPGV was shorter compared with ASPTV and LPGV (86 +/- 7 minutes vs. 124 +/- 7 minutes and 115 +/- 7 minutes; p < 0.002). Postoperative BAO did not decrease in any group. Open proximal gastric vagotomy and LPGV, but not ASPTV, decreased MAO (p < 0.05); (after pentagastrin, OPGV from 26.4 +/- 1.7 mEq/hour to 11.3 +/- 0.1 mEq/hour, LPGV from 21.4 +/- 1.0 mEq/hour to 6.4 +/- 0.5 mEq/hour; after insulin-induced hypoglycemia, OPGV from 9.9 +/- 0.5 mEq/hour to 2.2 +/- 0.3 mEq/hour, LPGV from 7.9 +/- 0.5 mEq/hour to 1.9 +/- 0.4 mEq/hour). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids, as quantitated by the time for one half of the marker to empty (T 1/2) and the shape of the emptying curve, were similar before and after all three surgical procedures. CONCLUSIONS. Laparoscopic proximal gastric vagotomy was comparable to OPGV in decreasing stimulated gastric acid production without significantly altering gastric emptying. Anterior seromyotomy

  12. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  13. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  14. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  15. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  16. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  17. Sepiapterin reverses the changes in gastric nNOS dimerization and function in diabetic gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    GANGULA, P. R. R.; MUKHOPADHYAY, S.; PASRICHA, P. J.; RAVELLA, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated previously that in vivo supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4); a co-factor for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) significantly restored delayed gastric emptying and attenuated nitrergic relaxation in diabetic rat. In this study, we have investigated whether supplementation of sepiapterin (SEP), a precursor for BH4 biosynthesis via salvage pathway restores gastric emptying and nitrergic system in female diabetic rats. Methods Diabetic rats (streptozotocin-induced) were supplemented with BH4 or SEP (20 mg kg−1 body weight). Gastric nitrergic relaxation in the presence or absence of high glucose and SEP were measured by electric field stimulation. Gastric muscular strips from healthy or diabetic female rats were incubated in the presence or absence of high glucose, SEP and/or methotrexate (MTX). Nitric oxide release was measured colorimetrically by NO assay kit. The expression of nNOSα and dimerization was detected by Western blot. Key Results In vitro studies on gastric muscular tissues showed that MTX, an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis via salvage pathway, significantly decreased NO release. In vivo treatment with MTX reduced both gastric nitrergic relaxation and nNOSα dimerization. Supplementation of SEP significantly attenuated delayed gastric emptying in diabetic rats. In addition, SEP supplementation restored impaired nitrergic relaxation, gastric nNOSα protein expression and dimerization in diabetic rats. Conclusions & Inferences The above data suggests that supplementation of SEP accelerated gastric emptying and attenuated reduced gastric nNOSα expression, and dimerization. Therefore, SEP supplementation is a potential therapeutic option for female patients of diabetic gastroparesis. PMID:20731778

  18. Predictors of response to a behavioral treatment in patients with chronic gastric motility disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashed, Hani; Cutts, Teresa; Abell, Thomas; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; El-Gammal, Ahmed; Adl, Dima

    2002-01-01

    Chronic gastric motility disorders have proven intractable to most traditional therapies. Twenty-six patients with chronic nausea and vomiting were treated with a behavioral technique, autonomic training (AT) with directed imagery (verbal instructions), to help facilitate physiological control. After treatment, gastrointestinal symptoms decreased by >30% in 58% of the treated patients. We compared those improved patients to the 43% who did not improve significantly. No significant differences existed in baseline symptoms and autonomic measures between both groups. However, baseline measures of gastric emptying and autonomic function predicted treatment outcome. Patients who improved manifested mild to moderate delay in baseline gastric emptying measures. The percent of liquid gastric emptying at 60 mins and the sympathetic adrenergic measure of percent of change in the foot cutaneous blood flow in response to cold stress test predicted improvement in AT outcome, with clinical diagnostic values of 77% and 71%, respectively. We conclude that AT treatment can be efficacious in some patients with impaired gastric emptying and adrenergic dysfunction. More work is warranted to compare biofeedback therapy with gastric motility patients and controls in population-based studies.

  19. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  20. Are empty methadone bottles empty? An analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of potentially lethal intoxications, resulting in fatal overdoses. A few cases of infantile intoxications have been described in the literature, some of which resulted in death. Nowadays, more than 50,000 bottles are used every day in France, most of which are thrown away in the bin. Relatives at home, especially children, can have access to these empty bottles. This study aims to determine whether the residual quantity of methadone in the bottles is associated with a risk of intoxication for someone who has a low tolerance to opiates, such as a child. Methods The methadone dosage left in a sample of 175 bottles recapped after use by the patients taking their maintenance treatment in an addiction treatment program centre was analysed during a 2-week period in March 2013. Results The mean residual quantity of methadone left in each bottle after use is 1.9 ± 1.8 mg and 3.3 ± 2.4 mg in the sample of 60 mg bottles. Conclusions There is a potential danger of accidental overdose with empty bottles of methadone syrup, especially for children. To take into account this hazard, several harm reduction strategies can be proposed, such as favouring the taking of the treatment within the delivery centres rather than the ‘take home’ doses, asking methadone users to bring back their used bottles, and raising patients’ awareness of the intoxication risks and the necessary everyday precautions. For stable patients with take home methadone, the use of capsules could be considered. PMID:24990630

  1. Chitosan-poly(acrylic) acid polyionic complex: in vivo study to demonstrate prolonged gastric retention.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Susana; Prada, Pablo; de la Torre, Paloma M; Torrado, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a chitosan-poly(acrylic) acid based controlled drug release system for gastric antibiotic delivery. Different mixtures of amoxicillin (A), chitosan (CS), and poly(acrylic) acid (PAA) were employed to obtain these polyionic complexes. A non-invasive method was employed for determining the gastric residence time of the formulations. It was studied the swelling behavior and drug release from these complexes. Gastric emptying rate study was performed by means of the [13C]octanoic acid breath test. The gastric emptying rates of two different formulations (conventional and gastric retentive system) were studied. Swelling studies indicated that the extent of swelling was greater in the polyionic complexes than in the single chitosan formulations. The amoxicillin diffusion from the hydrogels was controlled by the polymer/drug interaction. The property of these complexes to control the solute diffusion depends on the network mesh size, which is a significant factor in the overall behavior of the hydrogels. The gastric half-emptying time of the polyionic complex was significantly delayed compared to the reference formulation, showing mean values of 164.32+/-26.72 and 65.06+/-11.50min, respectively (P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that, these polyionic complexes are good systems for specific gastric drug delivery. PMID:14609680

  2. Empty Consonants in Root-Medial Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    This analysis of verb morphology in Seri finds evidence that empty consonants occur in root-medial position. Analysis focuses on the parallel conjugation patterns of the verbs for "know" and "give," finding an empty consonant slot in the middle of each. This position is never preceded by a consonant, so it never appears as a geminated consonant,…

  3. Gastric Carcinoids

    PubMed Central

    Borch, Kurt; Ahrén, Bo; Ahlman, Håkan; Falkmer, Sture; Granérus, Göran; Grimelius, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Background: Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. Methods: A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Results: Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Conclusion: Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids. PMID:15973103

  4. HER2 testing in gastric cancer: An update

    PubMed Central

    Abrahao-Machado, Lucas Faria; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is increasingly recognized as a frequent molecular abnormality in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer. With the recent introduction of HER2 molecular targeted therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer, determination of HER2 status is crucial in order to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. This paper provides an update on our knowledge of HER2 in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer, including the prognostic relevance of HER2, the key differences between HER2 protein expression interpretation in breast and gastric cancer, the detection methods and the immunohistochemistry scoring system. PMID:27217694

  5. HER2 testing in gastric cancer: An update.

    PubMed

    Abrahao-Machado, Lucas Faria; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam

    2016-05-21

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is increasingly recognized as a frequent molecular abnormality in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer. With the recent introduction of HER2 molecular targeted therapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer, determination of HER2 status is crucial in order to select patients who may benefit from this treatment. This paper provides an update on our knowledge of HER2 in gastric and gastroesophageal cancer, including the prognostic relevance of HER2, the key differences between HER2 protein expression interpretation in breast and gastric cancer, the detection methods and the immunohistochemistry scoring system. PMID:27217694

  6. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  7. Gastric bezoar after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Tardum Tardu, Ali; Tolan, Kerem; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Karagul, Servet; Kirmizi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to present a patient with gastric pouch bezoar after having a bariatric surgery. Presentation of case Sixty-three years old morbid obese female had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 14 months ago. She has lost 88% of her excess body mass index; but started to suffer from nausea, abdominal distention and vomiting lately, especially for the last two months. The initial evaluation by endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and an upper gastrointestinal contrast series overlooked the pathology in the gastric pouch and did not display any abnormality. However, a second endoscopy revealed a 5 cm in diameter phytobezoar in the gastric pouch which was later endoscopically removed. After the bezoar removal, her complaints relieved completely. Discussion The gastric bezoars may be confused with the other pathologies because of the dyspeptic complaints of these patients. The patients that had a bariatric surgery; are more prone to bezoar formation due to their potential eating disorders and because of the gastro-enterostomy made to a small gastric pouch after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion Possibility of a bezoar formation should be kept in mind in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who has nausea and vomiting complaints. Removal of the bezoar provides a dramatic improvement in the complaints of these patients. PMID:27107501

  8. The surgical treatment of chronic gastric atony following Roux-Y diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, S.B.; Woodward, E.R.

    1989-06-01

    Symptoms of severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and frequent bezoars, as well as objective gastric retention, can occur following Roux-Y biliary diversion for alkaline reflux gastritis. Medical therapy and prokinetic drugs have proven ineffective. This review evaluates 37 patients who underwent further gastric resection from 1979 to 1987 to improve gastric emptying and resolve symptoms. Fifteen patients underwent perioperative radionuclide solid-food gastric emptying studies. Seventy-three per cent (27 of 37 patients) of the patients who underwent further gastric resection (70% to 95%) had a satisfactory postoperative response. Twenty patients were graded Visick 1 or 2 and 7 Visick-3 patients, although much improved, still had some symptoms of gastroparesis. Twenty-seven per cent (10 of 37 patients) failed to improve and underwent completion total gastrectomy. Overall, 70% of this group had almost complete resolution of their symptoms. Three of 10 patients were considered ''failures'' due to postprandial pain in 1 and early vasomotor dumping in 2. Of the 10 patients who failed initial revisional surgery, 7 underwent a 70% to 80% subtotal gastric resection (STG) and 3 patients underwent 85% to 95% extensive resection (EXT.G.). Of the 15 patients who underwent perioperative radionuclide evaluation, a mean two-hour gastric retention of 61.4% +/- 4% (SEM) decreased to 25% +/- 4% following further gastric resection. Eight patients were in the STG group and seven patients were in the EXT.G group. Following STG, mean two-hour gastric retention of 58.2% +/- 3.5% decreased to 38% +/- 3% (p less than 0.05). In seven patients who underwent EXT.G, mean two-hour retention of 65% +/- 4% decreased to 10% +/- 2.5% (p less than 0.005). EXT.G resulted in normal gastric emptying and few late failures.

  9. Ghrelin Is an Essential Factor for Motilin-Induced Gastric Contraction in Suncus murinus.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kayuri; Hequing, Huang; Mondal, Anupom; Yoshimura, Makoto; Ito, Kazuma; Mikami, Takashi; Takemi, Shota; Jogahara, Takamichi; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi

    2015-12-01

    Motilin was discovered in the 1970s as the most important hormone for stimulating strong gastric contractions; however, the mechanisms by which motilin causes gastric contraction are not clearly understood. Here, we determined the coordinated action of motilin and ghrelin on gastric motility during fasted and postprandial contractions by using house musk shrew (Suncus murinus; order: Insectivora, suncus named as the laboratory strain). Motilin-induced gastric contractions at phases I and II of the migrating motor complex were inhibited by pretreatment with (D-Lys(3))-GHRP-6 (6 mg/kg/h), a ghrelin receptor antagonist. Administration of the motilin receptor antagonist MA-2029 (0.1 mg/kg) and/or (D-Lys(3))-GHRP-6 (0.6 mg/kg) at the peak of phase III abolished the spontaneous gastric phase III contractions in vivo. Motilin did not stimulate gastric contractions in the postprandial state. However, in the presence of a low dose of ghrelin, motilin evoked phase III-like gastric contractions even in the postprandial state, and postprandial gastric emptying was accelerated. In addition, pretreatment with (D-Lys(3))-GHRP-6 blocked the motilin-induced gastric contraction in vitro and in vivo, and a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist reversed this block in gastric contraction. These results indicate that blockade of the GABAergic pathway by ghrelin is essential for motilin-induced gastric contraction. PMID:26441238

  10. First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T; DeMaster, E G; Furne, J K; Springfield, J; Levitt, M D

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol metabolism by gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral ethanol time-concentration curves (AUCs) in rats and humans. We quantitated this metabolism in rats by measuring the gastric absorption of oral ethanol (0.25 g/kg) and the gastric venous-arterial (V-A) difference of ethanol versus ethanol metabolites (acetate, acetaldehyde, and bicarbonate). Over 1 h, approximately 20% of the ethanol was absorbed from the stomach and 70% was emptied into the duodenum. The gastric V-A difference of ethanol metabolites was less than 4% of that of ethanol. Thus, gastric metabolism accounted for less than 1% (less than 4% of 20% absorbed) of the dose. This negligible metabolism was predictable from the low affinity of gastric ADH for ethanol. In contrast, gastric ADH has a high affinity for octanol, and 66% of this compound was metabolized during gastric absorption. Evidence supporting gastric metabolism of ethanol largely derives from the lower AUCs observed after oral than after intravenous administration; however, we observed increasingly higher AUCs with increasingly rapid portal vein infusions of identical ethanol doses. We conclude that gastric metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat, and differences in AUCs ascribed to gastric metabolism may reflect differences in ethanol absorption. PMID:1601990

  11. How often do fishes "run on empty"?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arrington, D.A.; Winemiller, K.O.; Loftus, W.F.; Akin, S.

    2002-01-01

    We used a large data set of African, Neotropical, and North American fishes to examine the frequency with which fishes have empty stomachs (nspecies = 254; nindividuals = 36875). Mean percentage of empty stomachs was low across all fishes (16.2 ?? 1.2%) but varied from 0% to 79.4% among individual species. Nocturnal fishes had empty stomachs more frequently than diurnal fishes. Trophic classification was strongly associated with the percentage of empty stomachs, a pattern also revealed from an intraspecific analysis. Fishes appear to adjust their feeding intervals relative to the energy density, conversion efficiency, and particle size of their food. Piscivorous fishes seem to be the only trophic group that regularly experience long periods of empty stomachs, with species that consume prey whole and those that provide extended parental care having the highest proportions of empty stomachs. Activity patterns and life histories of some piscivorous species probably have evolved in partial response to energetic benefits of large, energy-rich food resources.

  12. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut. PMID:10842759

  13. Novel insights into the effects of diabetes on gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Chinmay S; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetic Interventions and Complications cohort indicate that the disease burden of gastroparesis in diabetes remains high, consistent with the outcome of cross-sectional studies in type 1 and 2 diabetes. An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic gastroparesis at the cellular level has emerged in the last decade, particularly as a result of initiatives such as the National Institute of Health funded Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium in the US. Management of diabetic gastroparesis involves dietary and psychological support, attention to glycaemic control, and the use of prokinetic agents. Given that the relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is weak, therapies targeted specifically at symptoms, such as nausea or pain, are important. The relationship between gastric emptying and postprandial glycaemia is complex and inter-dependent. Short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, that slow gastric emptying, can be used to reduce postprandial glycaemic excursions and, in combination with basal insulin, result in substantial reductions in glycated haemoglobin in type 2 patients. PMID:26647088

  14. Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hoad, C.L.; Parker, H.; Hudders, N.; Costigan, C.; Cox, E.F.; Perkins, A.C.; Blackshaw, P.E.; Marciani, L.; Spiller, R.C.; Fox, M.R.; Gowland, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    MRI can assess multiple gastric functions without ionizing radiation. However, time consuming image acquisition and analysis of gastric volume data, plus confounding of gastric emptying measurements by gastric secretions mixed with the test meal have limited its use to research centres. This study presents an MRI acquisition protocol and analysis algorithm suitable for the clinical measurement of gastric volume and secretion volume. Reproducibility of gastric volume measurements was assessed using data from 10 healthy volunteers following a liquid test meal with rapid MRI acquisition within one breath-hold and semi-automated analysis. Dilution of the ingested meal with gastric secretion was estimated using a respiratory-triggered T1 mapping protocol. Accuracy of the secretion volume measurements was assessed using data from 24 healthy volunteers following a mixed (liquid/solid) test meal with MRI meal volumes compared to data acquired using gamma scintigraphy (GS) on the same subjects studied on a separate study day. The mean (SD) coefficient of variance between 3 observers for both total gastric contents (including meal, secretions and air) and just the gastric contents (meal and secretion only) was 3 (2) % at large gastric volumes (> 200 ml). Mean (SD) secretion volumes post meal ingestion were 64 (51) ml and 110 (40) ml at 15 and 75 minutes respectively. Comparison with GS meal volumes, showed that MRI meal only volume (after correction for secretion volume) were similar to GS, with a linear regression gradient (std err) of 1.06 (0.10) and intercept −11 (24) ml. In conclusion, (i) rapid acquisition removed the requirement to image during prolonged breath-hold (ii) semi-automatic analysis greatly reduced time required to derive measurements and (iii) correction for secretion volumes provides accurate assessment of gastric meal volumes and emptying. Together these features provide the scientific basis of a protocol which would be suitable in clinical practice

  15. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4-dependent calcium influx and ATP release in mouse and rat gastric epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Boudaka, Ammar Abdullkader; Muhammad, Jibran Sualeh; Tominaga, Makoto; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and its physiological meaning in mouse and rat gastric epithelia. METHODS: RT-PCR and immunochemistry were used to detect TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression in mouse stomach and a rat normal gastric epithelial cell line (RGE1-01), while Ca2+-imaging and electrophysiology were used to evaluate TRPV4 channel activity. ATP release was measured by a luciferin-luciferase assay. Gastric emptying was also compared between WT and TRPV4 knockout mice. RESULTS: TRPV4 mRNA and protein were detected in mouse tissues and RGE1-01 cells. A TRPV4-specific agonist (GSK1016790A) increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and/or evoked TRPV4-like current activities in WT mouse gastric epithelial cells and RGE1-01 cells, but not TRPV4KO cells. GSK1016790A or mechanical stimuli induced ATP release from RGE1-01 cells while TRPV4 knockout mice displayed delayed gastric emptying in vivo. CONCLUSION: TRPV4 is expressed in mouse and rat gastric epithelium and contributes to ATP release and gastric emptying. PMID:27350729

  16. Effect of DA-9701 on Gastric Motor Function Assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Seonwoo; Choi, Dongil; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving gastric accommodation and gastric emptying is an attractive physiological treatment target in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). We evaluated the effect of DA-9701, a new drug for FD, on gastric motor function after a meal in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Forty healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either DA-9701 or placebo. After 5 days of treatment, subjects underwent gastric MRI (60 min before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after a liquid test meal). Gastric volume was measured through 3-dimensional reconstruction from MRI data. We analyzed 4 outcome variables including changes in total gastric volume (TGV), proximal TGV, and proximal to distal TGV ratio after a meal and gastric emptying rates after adjusting values at the pre-test meal. Results Changes in TGV and proximal TGV after a meal did not differ between the DA-9701 and placebo groups (difference between groups -25.9 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -54.0 to 2.3 mL, P = 0.070 and -2.9 mL, 95% CI -30.3 to 24.5 mL, P = 0.832, respectively). However, pre-treatment with DA-9701 increased postprandial proximal to distal TGV ratio more than placebo (difference between groups 0.93, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.79, P = 0.034). In addition, pre-treatment with DA-9701 significantly increased gastric emptying as compared with placebo (mean difference between groups 3.41%, 95% CI 0.54% to 6.29%, P = 0.021, by mixed model for repeated measures). Conclusion Our results suggested that DA-9701 enhances gastric emptying and does not significantly affect gastric accommodation in healthy volunteers. Further studies to confirm whether DA-9701 enhances these gastric motor functions in patients with FD are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02091635 PMID:26402448

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  18. Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Risk of Abnormal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Sharma, Eesha

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) increase the risk of abnormal bleeding by lowering platelet serotonin and hence the efficiency of platelet-driven hemostasis; by increasing gastric acidity and possibly gastric ulceration; and by other mechanisms. The upper gastrointestinal tract is the commonest site of SRI-related abnormal bleeding; bleeding at this location may be increased by concurrent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy and by treatment with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs. Bleeding at this location may be reduced by concurrent administration of acid-suppressing drugs. PMID:27514297

  19. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Henrique O; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Catarina; Gomes, Joana; Magalhães, Ana; Reis, Celso A

    2016-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation plays a crucial role in several physiological and pathological processes of the gastric tissue. Modifications in enzymes responsible for key glycosylation steps and the consequent abnormal biosynthesis and expression of their glycan products constitute well-established molecular hallmarks of disease state. This review addresses the major role played by mucins and associated O-glycan structures in Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa and the subsequent establishment of a chronic infection, with concomitant drastic alterations of the gastric epithelium glycophenotype. Furthermore, alterations of mucin expression pattern and glycan signatures occurring in preneoplastic lesions and in gastric carcinoma are also described, as well as their impact throughout the gastric carcinogenesis cascade and in cancer progression. Altogether, mucin-type O-glycosylation alterations may represent promising biomarkers with potential screening and prognostic applications, as well as predictors of cancer patients' response to therapy. PMID:27409642

  20. Effect of food matrix microstructure on stomach emptying rate and apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility of almond lipids.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-10-01

    Almond lipids can be consumed in different forms such as nuts, oil-in-water emulsions or oil. The stomach emptying rate (SER) of almond lipids (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) as a function of the food matrix was studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy based on the stomach emptying of a marker (AlCl3-6H2O) in the growing rat. Chyme and digesta samples were collected following serial gavaging (0.2 g of fat per 2 mL of almond lipid suspension) to study microstructural changes and determine the apparent ileal digestibility of almond fatty acids as a function of the native food matrix. The T(1/2) for the stomach emptying of crushed whole almonds and almond cream (194 ± 17 min and 185 ± 19 min, respectively) were not different (P > 0.05) from that of a gastric-stable Tween-oil emulsion (197 ± 19 min). The T(1/2) values for a sodium caseinate (NaCas)-oil emulsion (145 ± 11 min) and a gastric-unstable Span-oil emulsion (135 ± 7 min) were different (P < 0.05) from those for crushed whole almonds, almond cream and Tween-oil emulsion, while almond milk and oil emptied at an intermediate rate (157 ± 9 min and 172 ± 11 min, respectively). Extensively coalesced emulsions under gastric conditions (almond oil, almond cream and Span-oil) had lower (P < 0.05) overall apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility (85.8%, 75.8% and 74.3%, respectively) than crushed whole almonds, almond milk, NaCas-oil and Tween-oil emulsions (91.0%, 92.2%, 92.1% and 88.7%, respectively). The original food matrix and structural changes occurring within the gastrointestinal tract had an impact on SER and ileal fatty acid digestibility of the almond preparations. PMID:25066699

  1. Gastric Electrical Stimulation with the Enterra System: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Nikhil; Livemore, Sam; Dunne, Declan; Khan, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is a surgically implanted treatment option for refractory gastroparesis. Aim. To systematically appraise the current evidence for the use of gastric electrical stimulation and suggest a method of standardisation of assessment and follow-up in these patients. Methods. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, DISCOVER, and Cochrane Library was conducted using the keywords including gastric electrical stimulation, gastroparesis, nausea, and vomiting and neuromodulation, stomach, central nervous system, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, and gastrointestinal. Results. 1139 potentially relevant articles were identified, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria and were included. The quality of studies was variable. There was a variation in outcome measures and follow-up methodology. Included studies suggested significant reductions in symptom severity reporting over the study period, but improvements in gastric emptying time were variable and rarely correlated with symptom improvement. Conclusion. The evidence in support of gastric electrical stimulation is limited and heterogeneous in quality. While current evidence has shown a degree of efficacy in these patients, high-quality, large clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this therapy and to identify the patients for whom this therapy is inappropriate. A consensus view on essential preoperative assessment and postoperative measurement is needed. PMID:26246804

  2. Inhibitory neurotransmission regulates vagal efferent activity and gastric motility.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Caitlin A; Travagli, R Alberto; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract receives extrinsic innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which regulate and modulate the function of the intrinsic (enteric) nervous system. The stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract in particular are heavily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system, supplied by the vagus nerve, and disruption of vagal sensory or motor functions results in disorganized motility patterns, disrupted receptive relaxation and accommodation, and delayed gastric emptying, amongst others. Studies from several laboratories have shown that the activity of vagal efferent motoneurons innervating the upper GI tract is inhibited tonically by GABAergic synaptic inputs from the adjacent nucleus tractus solitarius. Disruption of this influential central GABA input impacts vagal efferent output, hence gastric functions, significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of this functionally dominant inhibitory synapse and its role in regulating vagally determined gastric functions. PMID:27302177

  3. Inhibitory effect of the herbal antidepressant St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on rat gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A

    2008-02-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a highly popular and effective herbal antidepressant that clinically interacts with a number of conventional drugs. Because alterations in gastric emptying can cause pharmacokinetic interactions, in the present study we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract prepared from the flowering tops of Hypericum perforatum (SJW extract) on rat gastric motility. Orally administered SJW extract delayed gastric emptying in vivo. In vitro studies showed that SJW extract was significantly more active in inhibiting acetylcholine (or prostaglandin E2)-induced contractions than electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions. The effect of SJW extract on EFS-induced contractions was unaffected by drugs that inhibit intrinsic inhibitory nerves or by tachykinin antagonists, but it was reduced by the 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist methysergide. The inhibitory effect of SJW extract on acetylcholine-induced contractions was reduced by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, but not by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine or by methysergide. Among the chemical constituents of SJW extract tested, hyperforin and, to a lesser extent, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercitrin, inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions. It is concluded that SJW has a direct inhibitory effect on smooth muscle and could also possibly modulate gastric neurotransmission. If extended to humans, the inhibitory effect of SJW extract on gastric emptying in vivo could contribute, at least in part, to the clinical pharmacokinetic interactions between conventional medicines and this herbal antidepressant. PMID:18172613

  4. Selexipag: a selective prostacyclin receptor agonist that does not affect rat gastric function.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Keith; Ernst, Roland; Hess, Patrick; Studer, Rolf; Clozel, Martine

    2010-10-01

    Selexipag [2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N-(methylsulfonyl)acetamide] is an orally available prostacyclin (PGI(2)) receptor (IP receptor) agonist that is chemically distinct from PGI(2) and is in clinical development for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Selexipag is highly selective for the human IP receptor in vitro, whereas analogs of PGI(2) can activate prostanoid receptors other than the IP receptor. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of selectivity for the IP receptor on gastric function by measuring 1) contraction of rat gastric fundus ex vivo and 2) the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal transport in response to selexipag in comparison with other PGI(2) analogs. The rat gastric fundus expresses mRNA encoding multiple prostanoid receptors to different levels: prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP(1)) > prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP(3)), IP receptor > prostaglandin D(2) receptor 1, thromboxane receptor. Selexipag and metabolite {4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}acetic acid (ACT-333679) did not contract gastric fundus at concentrations up to 10(-3) M. In contrast, the PGI(2) analogs iloprost and beraprost evoked concentration-dependent contraction of gastric fundus. Contraction to treprostinil was observed at high concentration (10(-4) M). Contraction to all PGI(2) analogs was mediated via activation of EP(3) receptors, although EP(1) receptors also contributed to the contraction of gastric fundus to iloprost and beraprost. Antagonism of IP receptors did not affect responses. Oral selexipag did not significantly alter gastric function in vivo, as measured by rates of stomach emptying and intestinal transport, whereas beraprost slowed gastrointestinal transport. The high functional selectivity of selexipag and ACT-333679 for the IP receptor precludes a stimulatory action on gastric smooth muscle and may help minimize gastric side effects such as nausea and vomiting. PMID:20660124

  5. The "Empty Nest": A Transition Within Motherhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Donald; Lonner, Thomas

    1971-01-01

    This paper deals with the change within women's lives as they perceive a diminution of the motherhood role in the "empty nest" stage of the family life cycle. It identifies certain aspects which portend for an easy or uneasy transition into another life style beyond the immediacy of motherhood. (Author)

  6. Encouraging Classroom Participation with Empty Extrinsic Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinee, William

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to encourage classroom participation with empty extrinsic rewards. He uses "bonus points" in awarding students for particularly interesting or well thought-out contributions to the class discussion. These bonus points have absolutely no effect on the student's course grade. But the students respond…

  7. Starvation injury after gastric reduction for obesity.

    PubMed

    Mason, E E

    1998-09-01

    Gastric reduction operations are designed to control body weight by establishing a small, meal-size juxtaesophageal, gastric pouch that empties into the jejunum (gastric bypass) or the larger portion of the stomach (gastroplasty). If the outlet of the pouch is too small, a patient may be limited to ingesting clear liquids. Vomiting then occurs if heavier liquids or normal foods are taken. An occasional patient has difficulty eating properly and vomits even though the pouch volume and outlet are of optimum size. For a patient who reports vomiting, a distinction must be made between episodic improper eating and uncontrolled starvation. Three types of starvation injury are described: (1) sudden death from protein malnutrition; (2) refeeding syndrome; and (3) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. The mechanisms of the development, manifestations, prevention, and treatment of these complications are explained. Surgeons who treat severe obesity should be aware of these complications and be prepared to manage patients who have uncontrolled vomiting so that such complications either do not develop or are recognized and treated as early as possible before serious and irreversible injury occurs. PMID:9717429

  8. Gastric retention properties of superporous hydrogel composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Blevins, W E; Park, H; Park, K

    2000-02-14

    In many applications, usefulness of conventional hydrogels is limited by their slow swelling. To improve the swelling property of the conventional hydrogels, we have synthesized superporous hydrogels (SPHs) which swell fast to equilibrium size in minutes due to water uptake by capillary wetting through numerous interconnected open pores. The swelling ratio was also large in the range of hundreds. The mechanical strength of the highly swollen SPHs was increased by adding a composite material during the synthesis. The composite material used in the synthesis of SPH composites was Ac-Di-Sol((R)) (croscarmellose sodium). The gastric retention property of the prepared SPH composites was tested in dogs both in fasted and fed conditions. The SPH composites were placed in a hard gelatin capsule (size 000) for oral administration. All dogs tested were fasted for 36 h before experiments. Under the fasted condition, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for 2-3 h after before breaking into two pieces and being emptied. When food was given before the experiment just once following 36 h of fasting, the SPH composite remained in the stomach for more than 24 h, even though the fed condition was maintained only for the first few hours. Our study indicated that SPH composites possessed three properties necessary for gastric retention: fast swelling; superswelling; and high mechanical strength. While more improvements need to be made, the SPH composites provide the basis for the development of effective long-term gastric retention devices. PMID:10640644

  9. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  10. Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Patterns of Gastric Dysrhythmia in Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Angeli, Timothy R.; Cheng, Leo K.; Du, Peng; Wang, Tim Hsu-Han; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Vannucchi, Maria-Giuliana; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Lahr, Christopher; Vather, Ryash; Windsor, John A.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Abell, Thomas L.; O’Grady, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting (CUNV) is a debilitating disease of unknown cause. Symptoms of CUNV substantially overlap with those of gastroparesis, so the diseases therefore may share pathophysiologic features. We investigated this hypothesis by quantifying densities of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and mapping slow wave abnormalities in patients with CUNV vs controls. Methods Clinical data and gastric biopsy specimens were collected from 9 consecutive patients with at least 6 months of continuous symptoms of CUNV, but normal gastric emptying, treated at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, and from 9 controls (individuals undergoing bariatric surgery but free of gastrointestinal disease or diabetes). ICCs were counted and ultrastructural analyses were performed on tissue samples. Slow-wave propagation profiles were defined by high-resolution electrical mapping (256 electrodes; 36 cm2). Results from patients with CUNV were compared to those of controls as well as patients with gastroparesis who were previously studied by identical methods. Results Patients with CUNV had fewer ICCs than controls (mean 3.5 vs 5.6 bodies/field; P<.05), with mild ultrastructural abnormalities in the remaining ICCs. Slow-wave dysrhythmias were identified in all 9 subjects with CUNV vs only 1/9 controls. Dysrhythmias included abnormalities of initiation (stable ectopic pacemakers, unstable focal activities) and conduction (retrograde propagation, wave front collisions, conduction blocks, and re-entry), operating across bradygastric, normal (range 2.4−3.7 cycles/min), and tachygastric frequencies; dysrhythmias showed velocity anisotropy (mean 3.3 mm/s longitudinal vs 7.6 mm/s circumferential, P<.01). ICCs were less depleted in patients with CUNV than those with gastroparesis (mean 3.5 vs 2.3 bodies/field; P<.05), but slow-wave dysrhythmias were similar between groups. Conclusions This study defined cellular and bioelectrical abnormalities in

  11. Enigmatic electrons, photons, and ``empty`` waves

    SciTech Connect

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1995-08-22

    A spectroscopic analysis is made of electrons and photons from the standpoint of physical realism. In this conceptual framework, moving particles are portrayed as localized entities which are surrounded by ``empty`` waves. A spectroscopic model for the electron Stands as a guide for a somewhat similar, but in essential respects radically different, model for the photon. This leads in turn to a model for the ``zeron``. the quantum of the empty wave. The properties of these quanta mandate new basis states, and hence an extension of our customary framework for dealing with them. The zeron wave field of a photon differs in one important respect from the standard formalism for an electromagnetic wave. The vacuum state emerges as more than just a passive bystander. Its polarization properties provide wave stabilization, particle probability distributions, and orbit quantization. Questions with regard to special relativity are discussed.

  12. Update on gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Maria; Stanley, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    Although less common than oesophageal variceal haemorrhage, gastric variceal bleeding remains a serious complication of portal hypertension, with a high associated mortality. In this review we provide an update on the aetiology, classification and management of gastric varices, including acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding and primary prophylaxis. We describe the optimum management strategies for gastric varices including drug, endoscopic and radiological therapies, focusing on recent published evidence. PMID:24891929

  13. Borrmann Type 4 Advanced Gastric Cancer: Focus on the Development of Scirrhous Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Seun Ja

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Borrmann type 4 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is very important for improving the prognosis of AGC patients. Because there is no definite mass in most cases of Borrmann type 4 AGC, its accurate diagnosis via endoscopy requires an understanding of its pathogenesis and developmental process. Moreover, many people confuse linitis plastica (LP) type gastric cancer (GC), scirrhous GC, and Borrmann type 4 AGC. To distinguish each of these cancers, knowledge of their endoscopic and pathological differences is necessary, especially for LP type GCs in the developmental stage. In conclusion, diagnosis of pre-stage or latent LP type GC before progression to typical LP type GC requires the detection of IIc-like lesions in the fundic gland area. It is also crucial to identify any abnormalities such as sclerosis of the gastric wall and hypertrophy of the mucosal folds during endoscopy. PMID:27456608

  14. Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass: mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritz, P; Vaurs, C; Barigou, M; Hanaire, H

    2016-03-01

    Hypoglycaemia after gastric bypass can be severe, but is uncommon, and is sometimes only revealed through monitoring glucose concentrations. The published literature is limited by the heterogeneity of the criteria used for diagnosis, arguing in favour of the Whipple triad with a glycaemia threshold of 55 mg/dl as the diagnostic reference. Women who lost most of their excess weight after gastric bypass, long after the surgery was performed, and who did not have diabetes before surgery are at the greatest risk. In this context, hypoglycaemia results from hyperinsulinism, which is either generated by pancreas anomalies (nesidioblastosis) and/or caused by an overstimulation of β cells by incretins, mainly glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose absorption is both accelerated and increased because of the direct communication between the gastric pouch and the jejunum. This is a post-surgical exaggeration of a natural adaptation that is seen in patients who have not undergone surgery in whom glucose is infused directly into the jejunum. There is not always a correspondence between symptoms and biological traits; however, hyperinsulinism is constant if hypoglycaemia is severe and there are neuroglucopenic symptoms. The treatment relies firstly on changes in eating habits, splitting food intake into five to six daily meals, slowing gastric emptying, reducing the glycaemic load and glycaemic index of foods, using fructose and avoiding stress at meals. Pharmacological treatment with acarbose is efficient, but other drugs still need to be validated in a greater number of subjects (insulin, glucagon, calcium channel blockers, somatostatin analogues and GLP-1 analogues). Lastly, if the surgical option has to be used, the benefits (efficient symptom relief) and the risks (weight regain, diabetes) should be weighed carefully. PMID:26508374

  15. Fire exposure of empty 30B cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehlke, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders for UF{sub 6} handling, transport, and storage are designed and built as unfired pressure vessels under ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria and standards. They are normally filled and emptied while UF{sub 6} is in its liquid phase. Transport cylinders such as the Model 30B are designed for service at 200 psi and 250{degrees}F, to sustain the process conditions which prevail during filling or emptying operations. While in transport, however, at ambient temperature the UF{sub 6} is solid, and the cylinder interior is well below atmospheric pressure. When the cylinders contain isotopically enriched product (above 1.0 percent U-235), they are transported in protective overpacks which function to guard the cylinders and their contents against thermal or mechanical damage in the event of possible transport accidents. Two bare Model 30B cylinders were accidentally exposed to a storage warehouse fire in which a considerable amount of damage was sustained by stored materials and the building structure, as well as by the cylinder valves and valve protectors. The cylinders were about six years old, and had been cleaned, inspected, hydrotested, and re-certified for service, but were still empty at the time of the fire. The privately-owned cylinders were transferred to DOE for testing and evaluation of the fire damage.

  16. Novel Diet, Drugs, and Gastric Interventions for Gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This review of the pathophysiologic basis for gastroparesis and recent advances in the treatment of patients with gastroparesis shows that there are several novel approaches to advance treatment of gastroparesis including diet, novel prokinetics, interventions on the pylorus, and novel forms of gastric electrical stimulation. The field of gastroparesis is likely to advance with further studies, with help from a guidance document from the Food and Drug Administration on gastroparesis, and with recent approval of the stable isotope gastric emptying test to ensure eligibility of participants in multicenter trials. Clinical experience and a formal, randomized, controlled trial provide insights on optimizing dietary interventions in patients with gastroparesis. This review addresses the biologic rationale of these different treatments, based on known physiology and pathophysiology of gastric emptying. The novel medications include the motilin agonist, camicinal; 5-HT4 receptor agonists, such as velusetrag; and the ghrelin agonist, relamorelin. New approaches target pylorospasm by stent placement, endoscopic pyloric myotomy, or laparoscopic pyloroplasty. These approaches offer the opportunity to achieve more permanent reduction of resistance to flow at the pylorus over the intrapyloric injection of botulinum toxin, which typically has to be repeated every few months if it is efficacious. A novel device, deployed in porcine stomach, involved per-endoscopic electrical stimulation. These promising approaches require formal, randomized, controlled trials and deployment in patients. The presence of concomitant antral hypomotility may be a significant factor in the responsiveness to interventions at the pylorus. PMID:26762845

  17. Effectiveness of Gastric Neurostimulation in Patients With Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jeremy; Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Elli, E. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with gastroparesis have significantly delayed gastric emptying because of impaired nerve function. Gastric neurostimulation from Enterra Therapy provides electrical pulses to the stomach tissue that promotes stimulation of stomach smooth muscle, thereby enhancing gastric emptying. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Enterra Therapy (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) in reducing symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients with drug-refractory gastroparesis. Material and Methods: In this study 25 patients underwent minimally invasive, laparoscopic placement of the Enterra Therapy device. Patients were asked to rank their severity of symptoms and quality of life retrospectively by completing the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale and Short Form 36 Health Survey with respect to their condition before and 6 months after initiation of Enterra Therapy. Results: Eighteen patients completed the surveys. Patients showed statistically significant improvement in their overall Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores and the mental health component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Discussion: Currently, Enterra Therapy has Humanitarian Use Device status, which means that more clinical evidence is needed to prove its effectiveness in gastroparesis. By showing that Enterra Therapy reduces symptoms of gastroparesis and improves patient quality of life, this study contributes to the increasing amount of data supporting its use and potential Food and Drug Administration approval. PMID:25392675

  18. Changes in gastric myoelectric activity during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Sandoz, Gwenn R.; Stern, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine postprandial myoelectric activity of the stomach and gastric activity associated with space motion sickness using electrogastrography. Three crewmembers participated in this investigation. Preflight, subjects exhibited normal postprandial responses to the ingestion of a meal. Inflight, crewmembers exhibited an abnormal decrease in the power of the normal gastric slow wave after eating on flight day 1, but had a normal postprandial response by flight day 3. Prior to and during episodes of nausea and vomiting, the electrical activity of the stomach became dysrhythmic with 60-80% of the spectral power in the bradygastric and tachygastric frequency ranges. These findings indicate that gastric motility may be decreased during the first few days of space flight. In addition, changes in the frequency of the gastric slow wave associated with space motion sickness symptoms are consistent with those reported for laboratory-induced motion sickness.

  19. The effect of drugs and stimulants on gastric myoelectrical activity

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecień, Jarosław; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive diagnostic method useful for the registration and analysis of gastric myoelectrical activity. Abnormalities within an electrogastrogram were found to correlate with a number of disorders and symptoms, like functional dyspepsia, diabetic gastroparesis and terminal hepatic or renal failure. The EGG is also a valuable diagnostic method enabling the evaluation of the effect of drugs on gastric myoelectrical activity, which can be intentional, as in the case of prokinetics, or can have an adverse character. Our review focuses on drugs with a proven impact on gastric myoelectrical activity and hence on the electrogastrogram. The paper assembles and discusses the results of investigations dealing with changes in the electrogastrograms evoked by various drugs. Moreover, the mechanisms of the influence on the gastric myoelectrical activity of drugs, curative substances and stimulants are presented. PMID:25097708

  20. Phytobezoar leading to gastric outlet obstruction in a patient with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Om Prakash; Dhakal, Mona; Bhandari, Dhurba

    2014-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a condition which results in delayed gastric emptying without gastric outflow tract obstruction. Gastrointestinal involvement in diabetes can present in various forms such as oesophageal dysmotility, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, gastroparesis, enteropathy, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and glycogenic hepatopathy. Gastroparesis is the most common gastric motility disorder complicating long-standing diabetes. It can sometimes lead to mechanical obstruction as a result of formation of bezoars. Phytobezoars are the most common type of bezoar and are composed of indigestible food, vegetable fibre or seeds. Poor pyloric function and decreased acid formation predisposes phytobezoars formation in patients with diabetic gastroparesis. An 80-year-old patient with diabetes in our presentation developed gastric outlet obstruction due to impaction of phytobezoar over the pylorus. PMID:24928925

  1. Increased gastric PCO2 during exercise is indicative of gastric ischaemia: a tonometric study

    PubMed Central

    Kolkman, J; Groeneveld, A; van der Berg, F G; Rauwerda, J; Meuwissen, S

    1999-01-01

    Background—Diagnosis of gastric ischaemia is difficult and angiography is an invasive procedure. Angiographic findings may not correlate with clinical importance. 
Aims—To investigate whether tonometric measurement of intragastric PCO2 during exercise can be used to detect clinically important gastric ischaemia. 
Methods—Fourteen patients with unexplained abdominal pain or weight loss were studied. Splanchnic angiography served as the gold standard. Three patients were studied again after a revascularisation procedure. Gastric PCO2 was measured from a nasogastric tonometer, with 10 minute dwell times, and after acid suppression. Gastric and capillary PCO2 were measured before, during, and after submaximal exercise of 10 minutes duration. 
Results—Seven patients had normal angiograms; seven had more than 50% stenosis in the coeliac (n=7) or superior mesenteric artery (n=4). Normal subjects showed no changes in tonometry. In patients with stenoses, the median intragastric PCO2 (PiCO2) at rest was 5.2 kPa (range 4.8-11.2) and rose to 6.4 kPa (range 5.7-15.7) at peak exercise; the median intragastric blood PCO2 gradient increased from 0.0 kPa (range −0.8 to 5.9) to 1.7 kPa (range 0.9 to 10.3; p<0.01). Only two subjects had abnormal tonometry at rest; all had supernormal values at peak exercise. The PCO2 gradient correlated with clinical and gastroscopic severity; in patients reexamined after revascularisation (n=3), exercise tonometry returned to normal. 
Conclusion—Gastric tonometry during exercise is a promising non-invasive tool for diagnosing and grading gastrointestinal ischaemia and evaluating the results of revascularisation surgery for symptomatic gastric ischaemia. 

 Keywords: gastric ischaemia; tonometry; carbon dioxide; exercise test PMID:9895373

  2. Endogenous neuropeptide-Y depresses the afferent signalling of gastric acid challenge to the mouse brainstem via Y2 and Y4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wultsch, T.; Painsipp, E.; Thoeringer, C.K.; Herzog, H.; Sperk, G.; Holzer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Vagal afferents signal gastric acid challenge to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the rat brainstem. This study investigated whether NTS neurons in the mouse also respond to gastric acid challenge and whether this chemonociceptive input is modified by neuropeptide-Y (NPY) acting via Y2 or Y4 receptors. The gastric mucosa of female mice was exposed to different concentrations of HCl or saline, excitation of neurons in the NTS visualized by c-Fos immunohistochemistry, gastric emptying deduced from the gastric volume recovery, and gastric lesion formation evaluated by planimetry. Relative to saline, intragastric HCl (0.15-0.35 M) increased the number of c-Fos-expressing cells in the NTS in a concentration-dependent manner, inhibited gastric emptying but failed to cause significant haemorrhagic injury in the stomach. Mice in which the NPY Y2 or Y4 receptor gene had been deleted responded to gastric acid challenge with a significantly higher expression of c-Fos in the NTS, the increases amounting to 39 and 31 %, respectively. The HCl-induced inhibition of gastric emptying was not altered by deletion of the Y2 or Y4 receptor gene. BIIE0246 (0.03 mmol/kg subcutaneously), a Y2 receptor antagonist which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, did not modify the c-Fos response to gastric acid challenge. The Y2 receptor agonist peptide YY-(3-36) (0.1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) likewise failed to alter the gastric HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS. BIIE0246, however, prevented the effect of peptide YY-(3-36) to inhibit gastric acid secretion as deduced from measurement of intragastric pH. The current data indicate that gastric challenge with acid concentrations that do not induce overt injury but inhibit gastric emptying is signalled to the mouse NTS. Endogenous NPY acting via Y2 and Y4 receptors depresses the afferent input to the NTS by a presumably central site of action. PMID:16216428

  3. Effect of Alginate on Satiation, Appetite, Gastric Function and Selected Gut Satiety Hormones in Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Vázquez Roque, María I.; Camilleri, Michael; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Clark, Matthew M.; Wodrich, Lynne; Lempke, Mary; McKinzie, Sanna; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Lack of control of food intake, excess size and frequency of meals are critical in to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria Digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, but its effects on gastric motor functions and satiation are unknown. We evaluated effects of 10 days treatment with alginate or placebo on gastric functions, satiation, appetite and gut hormones associated with satiety in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a randomized, 1:1, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study in 48 overweight or obese participants with excluded psychiatric co-morbidity and binge eating disorder. All underwent measurements of gastric emptying (GE), fasting and postprandial gastric volumes (GV), postprandial satiation, calorie intake at a free choice meal and selected gut hormones after 1 week of alginate (3 capsules vs. matching placebo per day, ingested 30 minutes before the main meal). Six capsules were ingested with water 30 minutes before the gastric emptying, gastric volume and satiation tests on days 8–10. There were no treatment group effects on gastric emptying or volumes, gut hormones (ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY), satiation, total and macronutrient calorie intake at a free choice meal. There was no difference detected in results between obese and overweight patients. Alginate treatment over 10 days has no effect on gastric motor functions, satiation, appetite or gut hormones. These results question the use of short-term alginate treatment for weight loss. PMID:19960001

  4. Lateral hypothalamic lesions cause gastric injury by stimulating gastric contractility.

    PubMed

    Garrick, T; Grijalva, C V; Trauner, M

    1993-07-01

    Changes in gastric contractility following lateral hypothalamic (LH) lesions with and without bilateral cervical vagotomy were measured in urethan-anesthetized rats. LH lesions were induced with direct current passed through stereotaxically placed electrodes. Gastric contractility was recorded continuously for 4 h with acutely implanted strain gauge force transducers and analyzed by computer. LH lesions consistently stimulated gastric contractility and caused more gastric mucosal injury than control conditions. Vagotomy blocked both gastric mucosal injury and high-amplitude gastric contractions. In rats with LH lesions and exogenously infused intragastric hydrochloric acid, atropine methyl nitrate inhibited high-amplitude gastric contractions and gastric erosions. These findings indicate that LH lesions stimulate vagally mediated high-amplitude gastric contractions, which, in the presence of hydrochloric acid, cause gastric mucosal erosions. PMID:8338162

  5. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  6. Influence of abuse history on gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, B; Van Oudenhove, L; Fischler, B; Vandenberghe, J; Caenepeel, P; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have elevated rates of sexual or physical abuse, which may be associated with altered rectal sensorimotor function in irritable bowel syndrome. The aim was to study the association between abuse history and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia (FD). We studied gastric sensorimotor function with barostat (sensitivity, compliance and accommodation) and gastric emptying test in 233 consecutive FD patients from a tertiary care centre (162 women, mean age 41.6 +/- 0.9). Patients filled out self-report questionnaires on history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood or adulthood. Eighty-four patients (out of 198, 42.4%) reported an overall history of abuse [sexual and physical in respectively 30.0% (60/200) and 20.3% (42/207)]. FD patients reporting general as well as severe childhood sexual abuse have significantly lower discomfort thresholds during gastric distension [respectively 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg above minimal distending pressure (MDP), P = 0.014 and 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg above MDP, P = 0.007]. The corresponding intra-balloon volume was also significantly lower (respectively 579 +/- 21 vs 422 +/- 59 mL, P = 0.013 and 579 +/- 19 vs 423 +/- 79 mL, P = 0.033). Gastric accommodation was significantly more pronounced in patients reporting rape during adulthood (91 +/- 12 vs 130 +/- 40 mL, P = 0.016). Abuse history was not associated with differences in gastric emptying. A history of abuse is associated with alterations in gastric sensorimotor function in FD. Particularly sexual abuse, rather than physical abuse, may influence gastric sensitivity and motor function. PMID:18694440

  7. Not all gastric masses are gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Michael; Tsai, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer metastasising to the gastrointestinal tract normally does not occur. However, as clinicians, we must be aware that lung adenocarcinoma, as in all cancers, can and will metastasise to any part of the body. We describe a case of a patient with a presumed primary gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with shortness of breath due to pleural effusion. Pathology from the pleural effusion was positive for primary lung adenocarcinoma. Further investigation revealed that the patient's gastric mass was misdiagnosed as gastric adenocarcinoma. We correctly diagnosed the mass as metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This was very significant because the patient was transitioning to palliative care with possible tube feeding. After the correct diagnosis, her management drastically changed and her health improved. Clinical, pathological and medical management of lung cancer metastasis to the stomach are discussed. PMID:26976833

  8. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.; Boward, C.A.; Bogo, V.

    1988-09-01

    Currently available treatments for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting either are ineffective or reduce performance. The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cGy 60Co gamma-radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). We determined (1) gastric emptying rates; (2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and (3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. No vomiting, retching, or decreased performance was observed after either placebo or zacopride in the control state. Following irradiation plus placebo, 70 emeses were observed in 5 of 6 monkeys, and 353 retches were observed in all 6 monkeys. In contrast, only 1 emesis was observed in 1 of 6 monkeys and 173 retches were seen in 4 of 6 monkeys after irradiation plus zacopride (P less than 0.01). Zacopride also significantly inhibited radiation-induced suppression of gastric emptying. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. The present results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys. This observation has important implications in the treatment of radiation sickness.

  9. Adenoviral Delivery of the EMX2 Gene Suppresses Growth in Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Mo, Minli; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Zhe; Sheng, Qing; Mu, Hang; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Li, Hui; He, Biao; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2012-01-01

    Background EMX2 is a human orthologue of the Drosophila empty spiracles homeobox gene that has been implicated in embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest possible involvement of EMX2 in human cancers; however, the role of EMX2 in carcinogenesis needs further exploration. Results In this study, we reported that down-regulation of EMX2 expression was significantly correlated with EMX2 promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer. Restoring EMX2 expression using an adenovirus delivery system in gastric cancer cell lines lacking endogenous EMX2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo. In addition, we observed that animals treated with the adenoviral EMX2 expression vector had significantly better survival than those treated with empty adenoviral vector. Conclusion Our study suggests that EMX2 is a putative tumor suppressor in human gastric cancer. The adenoviral-EMX2 may have potential as a novel gene therapy for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:23029345

  10. Agoraphobia and Melancholia: Thoughts on Milrod's "Emptiness in Agoraphobia Patients".

    PubMed

    Yates, Sheena

    2015-08-01

    Milrod (2007) identifies persistent emptiness in agoraphobic patients whose symptoms of anxiety and avoidance have remitted. To this important identification, a number of critical considerations may be raised regarding the meanings of emptiness in the psychoanalytic clinic. Milrod's admonishment to distinguish between an emptiness that indicates a deficit in the structure and stability of self-representation, and an emptiness that is strictly defensive, is a case in point. While much of the literature supports an interpretation of emptiness as a defense against overwhelming rage, these patients' assertions and experiences of emptiness can be better explained by the presence of traumatic, unmourned losses. Several explanations are offered as to why agoraphobic patients, in particular, defend unconsciously against mourning. PMID:26263925

  11. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  12. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  13. Alterations in vitamin D signaling pathway in gastric cancer progression: a study of vitamin D receptor expression in human normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yanghui; Da, Mingxu; Zhang, Yongbin; Peng, Lingzhi; Yao, Jibin; Duan, Yaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Amount of studies in cells and animal models have proved vitamin D has multifarious antitumor effects. However, epidemiological studies showed inconsistent result on gastric cancer. The antitumor role is mainly mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Our hypothesis is that VDR may be abnormally (poorly) expressed in gastric cancer tissue. Present study is aimed at discovering and analyzing VDR expression in a series of human gastric tissues, including normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissue, and correlated VDR to the clinicopathological parameters of gastric cancer patients. VDR expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. The χ2 test was used to analyze the VDR expression as well as the relationship between VDR and the clinicopathological factors of gastric cancer patients. Compared with normal (82.61%) and premalignant tissues (73.64%), VDR was lower expressed in cancer tissues (57.61%), with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Among cancer tissues, VDR was higher expressed in well and moderate differentiated tissues contrasted with tissues with poor differentiation, and higher expressed in small tumors (< 5 cm) compared with large tumors (≥ 5 cm), with a statistically significant difference respectively (P = 0.016, P = 0.009). A decline linear trend appeared when analyzing the statistical difference of VDR expression among normal, premalignant, and malignant gastric tissues. VDR expression has been on the decline from the premalignant stage, finally low expressed in gastric cancer tissues, especial in poorly differentiated tissues. VDR could be a potential prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26722516

  14. Real-time gastric motility monitoring using transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurements (TIIM).

    PubMed

    Poscente, M D; Wang, G; Filip, D; Ninova, P; Yadid-Pecht, O; Andrews, C N; Mintchev, M P

    2014-02-01

    The stomach plays a critical role in digestion, processing ingested food mechanically and breaking it up into particles, which can be effectively and efficiently processed by the intestines. When the motility of the stomach is compromised, digestion is adversely affected. This can lead to a variety of disorders. Current diagnostic techniques for gastric motility disorders are seriously lacking, and are based more on eliminating other possibilities rather than on specific tests. Presently, gastric motility can be assessed by monitoring gastric emptying, food transit, intragastric pressures, etc. The associated tests are usually stationary and of relatively short duration. The present study proposes a new method of measuring gastric motility, utilizing the attenuation of an oscillator-induced electrical signal across the gastric tissue, which is modulated by gastric contractions. The induced high-frequency oscillator signal is generated within the stomach, and is picked up transluminally by cutaneous electrodes positioned on the abdominal area connected to a custom-designed data acquisition instrument. The proposed method was implemented in two different designs: first a transoral catheter was modified to emit the signal inside the stomach; and second, a gastric retentive pill was designed to emit the signal. Both implementations were applied in vivo on two mongrel dogs (25.50 kg and 25.75 kg). Gastric contractions were registered and quantitatively compared to recordings from force transducers sutured onto the serosa of the stomach. Gastric motility indices were calculated for each minute, with transluminal impedance measurements and the measurements from the force transducers showing statistically significant (p < 0.05) Pearson correlation coefficients (0.65 ± 0.08 for the catheter-based design and 0.77 ± 0.03 for the gastric retentive pill design). These results show that transcutaneous intraluminal impedance measurement has the potential with further research

  15. Occupation and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J F; Podas, T

    2003-05-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations-for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  16. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ... panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update. Obesity . 2009;17:842-62. PMID: 19396063 www.ncbi. ...

  17. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  18. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  19. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the syndrome is recommended. What are the estimated cancer risks associated with HDGC? Not everyone who ... the lifetime risk for diffuse gastric cancer is estimated to be 70% to 80% for men and ...

  20. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  1. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls. PMID:26562229

  2. Measurement of gastric meal and secretion volumes using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoad, C. L.; Parker, H.; Hudders, N.; Costigan, C.; Cox, E. F.; Perkins, A. C.; Blackshaw, P. E.; Marciani, L.; Spiller, R. C.; Fox, M. R.; Gowland, P. A.

    2015-02-01

    MRI can assess multiple gastric functions without ionizing radiation. However, time consuming image acquisition and analysis of gastric volume data, plus confounding of gastric emptying measurements by gastric secretions mixed with the test meal have limited its use to research centres. This study presents an MRI acquisition protocol and analysis algorithm suitable for the clinical measurement of gastric volume and secretion volume. Reproducibility of gastric volume measurements was assessed using data from 10 healthy volunteers following a liquid test meal with rapid MRI acquisition within one breath-hold and semi-automated analysis. Dilution of the ingested meal with gastric secretion was estimated using a respiratory-triggered T1 mapping protocol. Accuracy of the secretion volume measurements was assessed using data from 24 healthy volunteers following a mixed (liquid/solid) test meal with MRI meal volumes compared to data acquired using gamma scintigraphy (GS) on the same subjects studied on a separate study day. The mean ± SD coefficient of variance between 3 observers for both total gastric contents (including meal, secretions and air) and just the gastric contents (meal and secretion only) was 3  ±  2% at large gastric volumes (>200 ml). Mean ± SD secretion volumes post meal ingestion were 64  ±  51 ml and 110  ±  40 ml at 15 and 75 min, respectively. Comparison with GS meal volumes, showed that MRI meal only volume (after correction for secretion volume) were similar to GS, with a linear regression gradient ± std err of 1.06  ±  0.10 and intercept -11  ±  24 ml. In conclusion, (i) rapid volume acquisition and respiratory triggered T1 mapping removed the requirement to image during prolonged breath-holds (ii) semi-automatic analysis greatly reduced the time required to derive measurements and (iii) correction for secretion volumes provided accurate assessment of gastric meal volumes and emptying. Together these features

  3. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel § 223.24 Transportation of empty mail bags. Any...

  4. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  5. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  6. 27 CFR 25.36 - Empty container storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Empty container storage. 25.36 Section 25.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.36 Empty container...

  7. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AlGhamdi, Salem; Al-Kasim, Fawaz; Habib, Zakaria; Ourfali, Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. PMID:24707411

  8. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  9. Effects of osmolality, volume, and nutrient density on gastric emptying (GE) in preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired GE is an important component of feeding intolerance in preterm infants. However, the factors regulating GE are unclear. We sought to clarify the independent as well as the interactive effects of osmolality, volume, and nutrient density on GE. In Study I, 10 infants (birth gestational age: ...

  10. Semi-quantitative Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for volumetric PK imaging of gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Stefan; Driessen, Wouter H.P.; Claussen, Jing; Burton, Neal C.

    2014-01-01

    A common side effect of medication is gastrointestinal intolerance. Symptoms can include reduced appetite, diarrhea, constipation, GI inflammation, nausea and vomiting. Such effects often have a dramatic impact on compliance with a treatment regimen. Therefore, characterization of GI tolerance is an important step when establishing a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is used to monitor gastrointestinal motility by in vivo whole body imaging in mice. MSOT combines high spatial and temporal resolution based on ultrasound detection with strong optical contrast in the near infrared. Animals were given Indocyanine Green (ICG) by oral gavage and imaged by MSOT to observe the fate of ICG in the gastrointestinal tract. Exponential decay of ICG signal was observed in the stomach in good correlation with ex vivo validation. We discuss how kinetic imaging in MSOT allows visualization of parameters unavailable to other imaging methods, both in 2D and 3D. PMID:25431754

  11. Effect of gastric emptying and entero-hepatic circulation on bioequivalence assessment of ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Chrenova, J; Durisova, M; Mircioiu, C; Dedik, L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of study was to compare the bioavailability of ranitidine obtained from either Ranitidine (300 mg tablet; LPH® S.C. LaborMed Pharma S.A. Romania: the test formulation) and Zantac® (300 mg tablet; GlaxoSmithKline, Austria: the reference formulation). Twelve, Romanian, healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. An open-label, two-period, crossover, randomized design was used. Plasma levels of ranitidine were determined using the validated, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The physiologically motivated time-delayed model was used for the data evaluation and a paired Student's t-test and Schuirmann's two one-sided tests were carried out to compare parameters. Nonmodeling parameters (AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max)) were tested by the paired Student's t-test and the 90 confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios were determined by Schuirmann's tests. Paired Student's t-test showed no significant differences between nonmodeling and modeling parameters. The results of the Schuirmann's tests however indicated significant statistical differences with reference to AUC(t), AUC, C(max), T(max) and other modeling parameters, especially MT(c) and τ(c). Schuirmann's tests revealed significant bioequivalence between ranitidine formulations using the modeling parameters MRT and n. The presented model can be useful as an additional tool to assess drug bioequivalence, by screening for disruptive parameters. PMID:20852750

  12. Gastric Mucosal Energy Metabolism and “Stress Ulceration,”

    PubMed Central

    Menguy, Rene; Masters, Y. F.

    1974-01-01

    Acute gastric erosions following hemorrhagic shock (stress ulceration) have been attributed to gastric hyperacidity, altered gastric secretion of mucus and an abnormal permeability of the gastric mucosa to H+. This report aims at presenting evidence supporting an alternate hypothesis: the event linking shock-induced gastric mucosal ischemia to mucosal necrosis is a deficit in gastric mucosal energy metabolism. Our experimental procedure consisted of harvesting the stomachs of rats and rabbits by “stop-freeze” (liquid N2) at different intervals after the induction of hemorrhagic shock. Levels of adenosine-phosphates and of glycolytic intermediates in gastric mucosa were measured. We studied the changes in the levels of these substrates produced by shock as well as by factors capable, when combined with shock, of rendering the gastric mucosa more vulnerable to stress ulceration. The influence of shock and of these modifying factors were evaluated by comparison with data from appropriately designed control experiments. In parallel experiments we examined the frequency of stress ulceration (gross and microscopic) under these same standard conditions. There have emerged from these studies a number of observations all based upon data with the highest statistical significance. The data are consonant with the hypothesis stated above: an energy deficit severe enough to cause cellular necrosis is the event linking shock-induced gastric mucosal ischemia and stress ulceration. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:4278107

  13. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.

    1988-01-01

    The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cG Co-60 gamma radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). The authors determined 1) gastric emptying rates; 2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and 3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. Results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys.

  14. Evaluation of gastric antral motility in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Helmar; Minear, Greg; Kugi, Andrea; Stacher, Georg

    1994-09-01

    Gastric motion after the ingestion of a radioactively labeled standard meal was visualized using a triple headed gamma camera and dynamic SPECT acquisitions consisting of 30 scans of 6 s duration each. After the ingestion of a radiolabeled standard meal tomographic reconstruction produced, after prefiltering with a Metz filter, images of reasonable quality, in spite of the short acquisition time per view. Oblique slices rectangular to the longitudinal axis of the antrum were positioned employing 3D rendering techniques. These slices were extracted from the sequential volumes to produce time activity curves (TACs) of antral contractions. From the TACs the amplitudes and the frequencies of the antral contraction curves obtained from planar acquisitions, were markedly higher for the curves from the tomographic slices. This was due to the removal of oblique components of motion in the oblique slices. The effect of the long sampling interval of 6 seconds was checked on simulations using data from planar acquisitions and found to permit sampling of the antral waves with acceptable accuracy. 3D display of the stomach contributed to the anatomical knowledge since it showed clearly differences to the positions that would have been expected from conventional x-ray views. Antral contraction strength was not necessarily related with the rate of gastric emptying, which emphasizes the role of other factors, mainly the tone of the fundus, for the emptying process.

  15. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Gastric Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  16. Reduced expression of choline acetyltransferase in vagal motoneurons and gastric motor dysfunction in a 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Xiao-feng; Song, Jin; Hong, Feng; Lian, Hui; Wang, Qian; Feng, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2011-10-28

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has been characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra (SN) accompanied by pathology of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). PD patients have often experienced gastrointestinal dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis. However, the mechanism underlying these symptoms in PD patients is not clear. In the present study, we investigated alterations of cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurons in the DMV and gastric motor function in rats microinjected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) bilaterally into the SN (referred to as 6-OHDA rats) and explored possible mechanisms. A strain gauge force transducer was used to record gastric motility in vivo. Expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. Acetylcholine (Ach) content was measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis. After treatment with 6-OHDA for 6weeks, 6-OHDA rats exhibited decreased ChAT and enhanced TH expression in the DMV and decreased Ach content in the gastric muscular layer. Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric motility in vivo were observed in 6-OHDA rats. The results of the present study indicated that decreased ChAT and enhanced TH expression in the DMV may be correlated with the development of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric motility, which may be partly due to the decreased Ach release from the vagus. PMID:21955729

  17. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  18. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  19. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine gastric digesta and diets containing pectin or mango powder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Dhital, Sushil; Williams, Barbara A; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrated polysaccharides and their assemblies are known to modulate gastric emptying rate due to their capacity to change the structural and rheological properties of gastric contents (digesta). In the present study, we investigated the rheological and microstructural properties of gastric digesta from pigs fed with diets incorporating mango powder or pectin, and compared results with those from hydrated diets of the same water content, in order to investigate the origins for rheological changes in the pig stomach. All of the hydrated diets and gastric digesta were particle-dominated suspensions, generally showing weak gel or more solid-like behavior with the storage modulus (G') always greater than loss modulus (G") under small deformation oscillatory measurements, and with small deformation viscosity greater than steady shear viscosity (i.e. non-Cox-Merz superposition). Although significant rheological differences were observed between the hydrated diets, rheological parameters for gastric digesta were similar for all diets, indicative of a rheological homeostasis in the pig stomach. Whilst the addition of gastric mucin (20mg/mL) to control and mango diets altered the rheology to match the gastric digesta rheology, the effect of mucin on the pectin-containing diet was negligible. The viscous effect of pectin also hindered the action of alpha amylase as observed from relatively less damaged starch granules in pectin digesta compared to mango and control digesta. Based on the experimental findings that the rheology of gastric digesta differs from hydrated diets of the same water content, the current study revealed composition-dependent complex behavior of gastric digesta in vivo, suggesting that the rheology of food products or ingredients may not necessarily reflect the rheological effect when ingested. PMID:27185134

  20. A case of gastric hamartomatous inverted polyp resected endoscopically

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Moyu; Gen, Yasuyuki; Yoshioka, Mika

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with a tumor in the greater curvature of the upper gastric body. The tumor was incidentally found on an upper gastrointestinal X-ray series performed during a routine medical examination. Whereas endoscopy revealed a gastric submucosal tumor (SMT), endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a heterogeneous tumor with small, cystic, hypoechoic spots originating from the second layer. The patient was clinically asymptomatic, with no contributory family history or abnormal laboratory data. The results of a physical examination, abdominal computed tomography, and plain chest radiography were all unremarkable. Although the endoscopic tumor type was determined to be SMT, the tumor was successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and subsequently diagnosed as a gastric hamartomatous inverted polyp (GHIP). The findings of the present case highlight the importance of considering GHIP as a diagnosis and indicate the utility of en bloc resection of GHIP with ESD. PMID:27556064

  1. Gallium-67 complexes as radioactive markers to assess gastric and colonic transit

    SciTech Connect

    Bellen, J.C.; Chatterton, B.E.; Penglis, S.; Tsopelas, C.

    1995-03-01

    Constipation and gastroparesis are gastrointestinal tract disorders that can be assessed by using radioactive markers in conjunction with scintigraphic techniques. Indium-111-DTPA is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for treating colonic transit in constipated patients, but it is an expensive product and its availability has been unreliable. Indium-113m-DTPA was the tracer used in our study to determine the liquid gastric emptying rate in dual-isotope solid-liquid emptying studies, however, cessation of the {sup 113}Sn/{sup 113m}In generator production makes it unavailable. Thus, development of alternative tracers to {sup 111}In-DTPA and {sup 113m}In-DTPA was essential. Gallium-67-citrate and {sup 67}Ga-EDTA were compared to {sup 111}In-DTPA to assess their efficacy for exclusive retention in the GI tract. These markers were orally administered into rats and their three-day cumulative fecal excretion, urine excretion and carcass retention were measured. An in vitro gastric emptying model was used to determine liquid phase partitioning of {sup 113m}In-DTPA, {sup 67}Ga-citrate and {sup 67}Ga-EDTA at 37{degrees}. Gallium-67-citrate was predominantly excreted in the feces (97.2% {+-} 0.2%) after three days, with negligible urine excretion (0.1% {+-} 0.0%) and carcass retention (0.6% {+-} 0.2%). These results are analogous to those obtained for {sup 111}In-DTPA for fecal excretion (96.7% {+-} 2.6%), urine excretion (0.6% {+-} 0.0%) and retention in the carcass (0.2% {+-} 0.0%). Gallium-67-EDTA showed similar partitioning in the liquid phase of the gastric emptying model compared with {sup 113m}In-DTPA. Gallium-67-citrate is an economical and readily available alternative to {sup 111}In-DTPA as a colonic transit radiopharmaceutical. Gallium-67-EDTA is also an alternative to {sup 113m}In-DTPA for assessing liquid-phase emptying in a dual-isotope solid/liquid gastric emptying study. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. [The role of the autonomic nervous system on malfunction of gastric motor and myoelectric activity in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Barczyński, M; Thor, P J; Słowiaczek, M; Pitala, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine both the type of gastric mioelectric and emptying disorders in correlation to degree of severity of hyperthyroidism (clinical and thyroid hormones' blood levels) and ANS function estimated in HRV analysis. The study was performed on a group of 50 patients (35 with multinodular toxic goitre and 15 with Graves' disease, 45 females and 5 males, mean age 39.6 years, mean BMI 23.72) with newly diagnosed and so far untreated hyperthyroidism. The control group were 50 healthy volunteers age-, sex-, and BMI-matched to the studied group. Patients were studied twice, within newly diagnosed thyreotoxicosis and after treatment (Metizol) and reaching stable euthyroid state. The study consisted of: a) percutaneous EGG analysis (Synectics): 30 minutes before and after a test meal (ENRICH Liquid 250 ml), b) HRV analysis (ECG POSTER 2002): 10 minutes at rest and during deep breathing test, c) ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying by Bolondi method. Statistical analysis of collected data was performed. In hyperthyroid patients significant both preprandial and postprandial dysrhythmia (33.01% of bradygastria and 16.49% of tachygastria) was found. In some patients decrease of amplitude of EGG signal was marked as a result of antral hypomotility with coexisting significantly prolonged gastric emptying (110 min). Among severe hyperthyroid patients both the antral food distribution (antrum 35% bigger than in a control group) and impaired proximal stomach relaxation were evident. The degree of gastric mioelectric activity and emptying disorders was proportional to the degree of both severity of clinical manifestation of hyperthyroidism in Zgliczynski scale (from I degree to III degrees) and free thyroid hormones' blood levels (positive correlation). In HRV analysis at rest in hyperthyroid patients comparing to a control group the decrease of both the heart rate variability and a total power was found particularly in HF component resulting in

  3. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  4. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kentish, Stephen J.; Frisby, Claudine L.; Kritas, Stamatiki; Li, Hui; Hatzinikolas, George; O’Donnell, Tracey A.; Wittert, Gary A.; Page, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1) are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice. Methods TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined. Results Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet. Conclusion TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26285043

  5. Outer Space is not Empty Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Pratap, P.; Riegel, R.

    2004-12-01

    Outer Space Is Not Empty Space is a learning unit that focuses on increasing comprehension of Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Physical Science, and Earth & Space science. It was designed as a self paced study with some teacher oversight. The unit was a result of an NSF funded Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The educational vehicle used in the unit is the Web Quest which consists of several Power Point presentations within four main topics in Radio Astronomy: Introduction, Light, Matter, and the Atmosphere. These Web Quests are a self paced series of educational materials that encourages the student to learn on his or her own. They consist of informational web sites placed within a Power Point presentation. They are not designed to be teacher classroom presentations since the paths taken by the student in the Power Points are nonlinear. Each Power Point presentations comes with an assessment to evaluate the students' understanding of the material. One of the goals of this learning unit is to encourage teacher and student use of two unique learning opportunities: the Small Radio Telescope (SRT) and remote use of the Haystack 37m Radio Telescope. The SRT was designed by engineers and scientists at M.I.T.s Haystack Observatory specifically for student use at the University or Secondary School level. The 37-m telescope is available via remote operation for educational projects. Descriptions of both instruments can be found at the MIT Haystack Observatory web site:

  6. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  7. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright. PMID:24587645

  8. 8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EMPTY LOCK CHAMBER FROM DOWNSTREAM (WEST) END, WITH VISITORS CENTER (LEFT) AND LOCKMASTER'S HOUSE ON NORTH BANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  9. 61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. View of bellmouth which empties into Printz Basin, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. 28. EXTERIOR CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. EXTERIOR - CAN CONVEYOR Exterior section of empty can conveyor which transported cans from the third floor of the main warehouse (right) to the canning area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  11. Here's How to Prevent Closed Schools from Becoming Empty Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Ways of preventing school buildings from standing empty include finding alternative uses within the school system, leasing the buildings, and selling the buildings. All uses should be measured by their impact on the community around the school. (Author/IRT)

  12. Interior view to the east of an empty computer room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to the east of an empty computer room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  13. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Impaired Bladder Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B

    2004-01-01

    Although much attention is paid to urinary incontinence, the condition of incomplete bladder emptying is becoming more common with the aging of the US population and the widespread use of anticholinergic drugs to treat overactive bladder. This disorder can often be silent until end-stage presentation of overflow incontinence. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic conditions of the bladder and urethra that can cause impaired bladder emptying and discuss how to evaluate and screen the patient with a bladder that does not empty. In addition, we provide an overview of treatment options available for impaired bladder emptying and consider the research that is under way to find the best therapies for the failing bladder. PMID:16985851

  14. Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens)

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetance, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. PMID:24467661

  15. Melanoma with gastric metastases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W; Bhatia, Abhijit S; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  16. Enhanced expression of semaphorin 3E is involved in the gastric cancer development.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Tamai, Keiichi; Shiroki, Takeharu; Yokoyama, Misa; Shibuya, Rie; Nakamura, Mao; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Abue, Makoto; Oikawa, Tomoyuki; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Miura, Koh; Fujiya, Tsuneaki; Sato, Ikuro; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kennichi

    2016-09-01

    Semaphorins and their receptors are abnormally expressed in various cancers, but little is known about the expression and function of semaphorin 3E (SEMA3E) and its receptor, plexin D1 (PLXND1), in gastric cancer development or metastasis. We evaluated SEMA3E and PLXND1 expression by quantitative RT-PCR in gastric tissues from 62 patients who underwent gastrectomy and analyzed the correlation between their expression and clinicopathological variables. To assess the function of SEMA3E, we generated human gastric cancer cell lines with suppressed or increased SEMA3E expression. The expression level of SEMA3E, but not PLXND1, was correlated with lymph node involvement and metastatic progression in gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between a high level of SEMA3E expression and poor differentiation or poor survival in the intestinal type of gastric cancer. SEMA3E knockdown in gastric cancer cells attenuated cell proliferation and metastatic ability in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SEMA3E caused cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in the intestinal type of gastric cancer. These results suggested that SEMA3E is likely to be involved in the development of gastric cancer and might also be a therapeutic target for its treatment. PMID:27572291

  17. Enhanced expression of semaphorin 3E is involved in the gastric cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Tamai, Keiichi; Shiroki, Takeharu; Yokoyama, Misa; Shibuya, Rie; Nakamura, Mao; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Abue, Makoto; Oikawa, Tomoyuki; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Miura, Koh; Fujiya, Tsuneaki; Sato, Ikuro; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kennichi

    2016-01-01

    Semaphorins and their receptors are abnormally expressed in various cancers, but little is known about the expression and function of semaphorin 3E (SEMA3E) and its receptor, plexin D1 (PLXND1), in gastric cancer development or metastasis. We evaluated SEMA3E and PLXND1 expression by quantitative RT-PCR in gastric tissues from 62 patients who underwent gastrectomy and analyzed the correlation between their expression and clinicopathological variables. To assess the function of SEMA3E, we generated human gastric cancer cell lines with suppressed or increased SEMA3E expression. The expression level of SEMA3E, but not PLXND1, was correlated with lymph node involvement and metastatic progression in gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between a high level of SEMA3E expression and poor differentiation or poor survival in the intestinal type of gastric cancer. SEMA3E knockdown in gastric cancer cells attenuated cell proliferation and metastatic ability in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SEMA3E caused cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in the intestinal type of gastric cancer. These results suggested that SEMA3E is likely to be involved in the development of gastric cancer and might also be a therapeutic target for its treatment.

  18. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  1. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  2. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  3. Occult gastric cancer with distant metastasis proven by random gastric biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyuk; Lim, Kyu-Hyoung; Song, Seo-Young; Lee, Hui-Young; Park, Sung Chul; Kang, Chang Don; Lee, Sung Joon; Choi, Dong Wook; Park, Sung Bae; Ryu, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Krukenberg tumor, a rare metastatic ovarian tumor arising from gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma mainly, tends to occur in premenopausal females. Finding the origin of a Krukenberg tumor is crucial for determining prognosis. In Eastern countries, the most common origin of Krukenberg tumor is stomach cancer, which is generally diagnosed via endoscopic biopsy to investigate an abnormal mucosal lesion. Here, we describe a case of huge adnexal mass in a 33-year-old woman who presented with abdominal distension. Two independent endoscopic examinations performed by experts in two tertiary university hospitals revealed no abnormal mucosal lesion. The patient was diagnosed with a Krukenberg tumor according to findings from random endoscopic biopsies taken from normal-looking gastric mucosa in our hospital. It is very rare to be diagnosed via a random biopsy in cases where three well-trained endoscopists had not found any mucosal lesion previously. Thus, in this case, random biopsy was helpful in finding the origin of a Krukenberg tumor. PMID:27122678

  4. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists ... stomach (gastric) cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel ...

  5. Gastric Aspiration Models

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Bruce A.; Alluri, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The procedures described below are for producing gastric aspiration pneumonitis in mice with alterations for rats and rabbits described parenthetically. We use 4 different injury vehicles delivered intratracheally to investigate the inflammatory responses to gastric aspiration: Normal saline (NS) as the injury vehicle controlNS + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid)NS + gastric particles, pH ≈ 5.3 (part.)NS + gastric particles + HCl, pH = 1.25 (acid + part.) The volume, pH, and gastric particle concentration all affect the resulting lung injury. In mice, we generally use an injury volume of 3.6 ml/kg (rat: 1.2 ml/kg, rabbit: 2.4 ml/kg), an injury pH (for the acid-containing vehicles) of 1.25, and a gastric particulate concentration (in the particulate-containing vehicles) of 10 mg/ml (rat: 40 mg/ml). In our hands this results in a maximal, non-lethal lung injury with ≤ 10% mortality for the most injurious vehicle (i.e., acid + part.) The maximum tolerable particulate concentration needs to be determined empirically for any new strains to be used, especially in genetically-altered mice, because an altered inflammatory response may have detrimental affects on mortality. We have extensive experience utilizing these procedures in the outbred strain, CD-1, as well as many genetically-altered inbred stains on the C57BL/6 background. Choice of strain should be carefully considered, especially in terms of strain-specific immune bias, to assure proper data interpretation. The size of the mouse should be ≥ 20 g at the time of injury. Smaller mice can be attempted, if necessary, but the surgical manipulation becomes increasingly more difficult and the surgery survival rate decreases substantially. There are no size or strain constraints for rat and rabbit models, but we generally use Long-Evans rats at 250–300 g and New Zealand White rats at ≈ 2 kg at the time of initial injury.

  6. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  7. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  8. Electroacupuncture at ST25 Inhibits Cisapride-Induced Gastric Motility in an Intensity-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tingting; Lu, Chunxia; Wang, Kaiyue; Liang, Chao; Yu, Zhi; Zhu, Bing; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of frequency-specific EAS. However, evaluation of intensity-response effects is challenging and has yet to be addressed. Aims. Using cisapride to promote gastric emptying, we measured the intensity-response relationship of EA at ST25 on gastric motility. Methods. We determined the effects of EA at ST25 using intensities (0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mA) on gastric motility in rats injected with cisapride (0.2, 0.02, and 0.002 mg/kg). Results. Utilizing three concentrations of cisapride yielded significantly differing levels of gastric motility. Furthermore, log IC50 values for EAS were different within each group. Given the same EA intensity, cisapride antagonism decreased progressively in each group as a function of drug concentration. The relative amount of cisapride antagonized by EAS did not change in a linear fashion. Finally, EAS at different intensities within the three groups induced a similar pattern of cisapride antagonism. Conclusions. The ability of EAS to elicit a decrease in cisapride-induced gastric motility pressure was demonstrated in this study. The study encompasses construct validity to mirror individualized treatment being based on patients' subjective feelings, not on a set fixed EA intensity. Clinically utilizing EAS at the smallest intensity can achieve the desired therapeutic effect. PMID:26997963

  9. Electroacupuncture at ST25 Inhibits Cisapride-Induced Gastric Motility in an Intensity-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tingting; Wang, Kaiyue; Liang, Chao; Yu, Zhi; Zhu, Bing; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of frequency-specific EAS. However, evaluation of intensity-response effects is challenging and has yet to be addressed. Aims. Using cisapride to promote gastric emptying, we measured the intensity-response relationship of EA at ST25 on gastric motility. Methods. We determined the effects of EA at ST25 using intensities (0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mA) on gastric motility in rats injected with cisapride (0.2, 0.02, and 0.002 mg/kg). Results. Utilizing three concentrations of cisapride yielded significantly differing levels of gastric motility. Furthermore, log IC50 values for EAS were different within each group. Given the same EA intensity, cisapride antagonism decreased progressively in each group as a function of drug concentration. The relative amount of cisapride antagonized by EAS did not change in a linear fashion. Finally, EAS at different intensities within the three groups induced a similar pattern of cisapride antagonism. Conclusions. The ability of EAS to elicit a decrease in cisapride-induced gastric motility pressure was demonstrated in this study. The study encompasses construct validity to mirror individualized treatment being based on patients' subjective feelings, not on a set fixed EA intensity. Clinically utilizing EAS at the smallest intensity can achieve the desired therapeutic effect. PMID:26997963

  10. Gastric cancer review

    PubMed Central

    Carcas, Lauren Peirce

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease. PMID:25589897

  11. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  12. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  13. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  14. Why the self is empty. Toward a historically situated psychology.

    PubMed

    Cushman, P

    1990-05-01

    This article presents a contextualized treatment of the current configuration of self, some of the pathologies that plague it, and the technologies that attempt to heal it. Of particular interest is the historical shift from the Victorian, sexually restricted self to the post-World War II empty self. The empty self is soothed and made cohesive by becoming "filled up" with food, consumer products, and celebrities. Its historical antecedents, economic constituents, and political consequences are the focus of this article. The two professions most responsible for healing the empty self, advertising and psychotherapy, find themselves in a bind: They must treat a psychological symptom without being able to address its historical causes. Both circumvent the bind by employing the life-style solution, a strategy that attempts to heal by covertly filling the empty self with the accoutrements, values, and mannerisms of idealized figures. This strategy solves an old problem but creates new ones, including an opportunity for abuse by exploitive therapists, cult leaders, and politicians. Psychology's role in constructing the empty self, and thus reproducing the current hierarchy of power and privilege, is examined. PMID:2190505

  15. Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Joseph W.; Wenzel, Brian J.; Gustafson, Kenneth J.; Grill, Warren M.

    2006-03-01

    Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensory nerve transection to prevent dyssynergic contraction of the external urethral sphincter (EUS). Stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve trunk (PN) activates spinal micturition circuitry, leading to a reflex bladder contraction without a reflex EUS contraction. The present study determined if PN stimulation could produce bladder emptying without nerve transection in cats anesthetized with α-chloralose. With all nerves intact, intermittent PN stimulation emptied the bladder (64 ± 14% of initial volume, n = 37 across six cats) more effectively than either distention-evoked micturition (40 ± 19%, p < 0.001, n = 27 across six cats) or bilateral intermittent SR stimulation (25 ± 23%, p < 0.005, n = 4 across two cats). After bilateral transection of the nerves innervating the urethral sphincter, intermittent SR stimulation voided 79 ± 17% (n = 12 across three cats), comparable to clinical results obtained with SR stimulation. Voiding via intermittent PN stimulation did not increase after neurotomy (p > 0.10), indicating that PN stimulation was not limited by bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Intermittent PN stimulation holds promise for restoring bladder emptying following spinal injury without requiring nerve transection.

  16. Gastric dysmotility following orthopaedic scoliosis surgery in patients with cerebral palsy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Vande Velde, S; Van Biervliet, S; De Bruyne, R; Van Renterghem, K; Plasschaert, F; Van Winckel, M

    2010-08-01

    Scoliosis is a common complication in children with cerebral palsy (CP). In these patients, surgical correction carries a high risk of complications. CP is also associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility such as delayed gastric emptying and gastro-oesophageal reflux. We describe 5 patients with CP in whom symptoms of gastric dysmotility clearly exacerbated after orthopaedic scoliosis surgery. They all showed persisting vomiting, nausea, bloating, weight loss, and anorexia necessitating total parental nutrition and/or jejunal feeding. This intensified nutritional support resulted in weight gain. Symptoms, however, persisted in half of the patients. The aetiology of these gastro-intestinal motility problems following scoliosis surgery remains unclear. Mechanical obstruction needs to be ruled out. Delayed gastric emptying may be due to postprandial antral hypomotility as a consequence of sympathic stimulation. Malnutrition could further aggravate gastrointestinal dysmotility. This complication should be taken into account when surgery for spinal deformities in CP patients is planned, especially in patients with pre-existing gastrointestinal motility problems. PMID:21086223

  17. In vivo gastric mucosal histopathology using endocytoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroki; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Sato, Chiaki; Phlanusittepha, Chainarong; Hayee, Bu’Hussain; Santi, Esperanza Grace R; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi; Kudo, Shin-ei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the ability of endocytoscopy to identify normal gastric mucosa and to exclude Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. METHODS: Endocytoscopic examination of the gastric corpus and antrum was performed in 70 consecutive patients. Target biopsy specimens were also obtained from the assessed region and multiple H. pylori tests were performed. The normal endocytoscopy patterns of the corpus and antrum were divided into the normal pit-dominant type (n-Pit) or the normal papilla-dominant type (n-Pap), respectively characterized as either regular pits with capillary networks or round, smooth papillary structures with spiral capillaries. On the other hand, normal mucosa was defined as mucosa not demonstrating histological abnormalities, including inflammation and atrophy. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of n-Pit for normal mucosa in the gastric corpus were 94.4% and 97.1%, respectively, whereas those of n-Pap for normal mucosa in the antrum were 92.0% and 86.7%, respectively. The positive predictive values of n-Pit and n-Pap for H. pylori-negative tissue were 88.6% and 93.1%, respectively, and their negative predictive values for H. pylori-negative tissues were 42.9% and 41.5%, respectively. The inter-observer agreement for determining n-Pit and n-Pap for normal mucosa were 0.857 and 0.769, respectively, which is considered reliable. CONCLUSION: N-Pit and n-Pap, seen using EC, are considered useful predictors of normal mucosa and the absence of H. pylori infection. PMID:25945015

  18. Pathology and Genetics of Syndromic Gastric Polyps.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Wood, Laura D; Offerhaus, G Johan; Arnold, Christina A; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Gastric polyps are found in 1% to 4% of patients undergoing gastroscopy. The vast majority are sporadic, but some gastric polyps indicate an underlying syndrome. Gastric polyps can manifest in each of the gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, including the recently described gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach syndrome. In addition, gastric polyps occur in Lynch syndrome and in a few rare conditions that are not primarily gastrointestinal. While some of these syndromes are clearly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer, others are not. Interestingly, even in disorders with a well-established risk of gastric cancer, the neoplastic potential and the precursor status of these gastric polyps are not always clear. Although rare, recognition of syndromic gastric polyps is important for individual patient management. These conditions also serve as important models to study gastric homeostasis and gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:26721304

  19. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets. PMID:23907670

  20. Gastric sarcoidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liang, David B; Price, Jennifer Cohen; Ahmed, Haitham; Farmer, Nicole; Montgomery, Elizabeth A; Giday, Samuel A

    2010-04-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare. Clinically recognizable gastrointestinal system involvement occurs in 0.1% to 0.9% of patients with sarcoidosis. We encountered a 22-year-old African American female admitted to Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, Maryland) for a 2-week history of fever, chills, eye pain, and abdominal pain. Her abdominal CT scan showed multiple subcentimeter retroperitoneal lymph nodes. An upper endoscopy was performed and discovered an antral nodule that measured about 7 mm and antral gastritis in which biopsies showed active chronic necrotizing granulomatous gastritis. Biopsies of the antral polyp showed focal intestinal metaplasia and active chronic necrotizing granulomatous pattern. Stains for Helicobacter pylori, acid fast, and fungi were negative. A small-bowel series showed no abnormality. Ophthalmologic evaluation revealed panuveitis with bilateral optic disc edema. The patient was later prescribed 60 mg of prednisone by mouth once a day and subsequently her abdominal pain and fever resolved during follow-up 2 months later. This literature review demonstrates the importance in the diagnosis, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, types of gastric sarcoidosis, major endoscopic findings, and management of gastric sarcoidosis. PMID:20437743

  1. Angiogenesis in gastric mucosa: an important component of gastric erosion and ulcer healing and its impairment in aging.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-12-01

    Angiogenesis (also referred to as neovascularization-formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels) is a fundamental process essential for healing of tissue injury and ulcers because regeneration of blood microvessels is a critical requirement for oxygen and nutrient delivery to the healing site. This review article updates the current views on angiogenesis in gastric mucosa following injury and during ulcer healing, its sequential events, the underlying mechanisms, and the impairment of angiogenesis in aging gastric mucosa. We focus on the time sequence and ultrastructural features of angiogenesis, hypoxia as a trigger, role of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling (VEGF), serum response factor, Cox2 and prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and importin. Recent reports indicate that gastric mucosa of aging humans and experimental animals exhibits increased susceptibility to injury and delayed healing. Gastric mucosa of aging rats has increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of structural and functional abnormalities including: reduced gastric mucosal blood flow, hypoxia, reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and survivin, and increased expression of early growth response protein 1 (egr-1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Until recently, postnatal neovascularization was assumed to occur solely through angiogenesis sprouting of endothelial cells and formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels. New studies in the last decade have challenged this paradigm and indicate that in some tissues, including gastric mucosa, the homing of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells to the site of injury can also contribute to neovascularization by a process termed vasculogenesis. PMID:25521743

  2. [Vascular ectasia of the gastric antrum with "watermelon stomach." Report of an interesting case].

    PubMed

    Young, K

    1997-01-01

    A patient with vascular ectasia of the gastric antrum is presented. This abnormality caused him anemia, treated with packed red cells. He received hormonal treatment during two weeks, but he did not improve. Therefore, an antrectomy with vagectomy, and a gastroduodenal anastomosis Billroth type I were performed. PMID:10997182

  3. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  4. Late-onset hypertrophic pyloric stenosis with gastric outlet obstruction: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Lindsey L; Nijagal, Amar; Flores, Alejandro; Buchmiller, Terry L

    2016-10-01

    We report late-onset hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a 17-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain and an episode of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and subsequently developed gastric outlet obstruction. Work-up revealed circumferential pyloric thickening, delayed gastric emptying, and a stenotic, elongated pyloric channel. Biopsies showed benign gastropathy, negative for Helicobacter pylori, without eosinophilic infiltrates. Botulinum toxin injection provided limited relief. Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the hypertrophic pylorus and we performed laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had complete symptom resolution at 1-year follow-up. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction in adolescents and may be managed successfully with laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. PMID:27506212

  5. Variations of Weight Loss Following Gastric Bypass and Gastric Band

    PubMed Central

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Livingston, Edward H.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Provost, David A.; Rush, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and describe the weight loss outcomes from gastric bypass and gastric band so as to define the variation of excess weight loss (EWL) among individual patients, the time to onset of effect, and the durability of weight loss in severely obese adults. Summary Background Data Gastric bypass and gastric band are the most common operations for obesity performed in the United States, but few reports have compared these 2 procedures. Methods Patients (N = 1733, aged 18–65 years) met National Institutes of Health criteria for obesity surgery and underwent either gastric bypass or gastric band between March 1997 and November 2006. The selection of bypass versus band was based on patient/surgeon discussion. The evaluable sample consisted of 1518 patients. The percentage of EWL was assessed over 2 years. Successful weight loss was defined a priori as ≥40% EWL in each of four 6-month postoperative measurement periods. The analyses included a mixed model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with repeated measures. Odds ratios and descriptive analyses were also provided. Results Gastric bypass was associated with less individual variation in weight loss than gastric band. Both procedures were associated with a significant EWL benefit (Treatment Group effect P < 0.0001), but they differed in terms of time to effect (Treatment Group × Period interaction effect P < 0.0001). The mean EWL for gastric bypass was greater at each measurement period (6, 12, 18, 24 months) compared with gastric band (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, at each of the postoperative measurement periods within each treatment group (bypass and band), the mean EWL was greater for those who had preoperative body mass index (BMI) ≤50 kg/m2 than for those who had preoperative BMI >50 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Gastric bypass was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of at least a 40% EWL in each of the 6-month postoperative measurement periods (GEE, P < 0.0001). The odds ratio

  6. Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule as the first sign of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fill, Sara; Taran, Andrei; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Kahl, Stefan; Kalinski, Thomas; Smith, Bobbie; Costa, Serban-Dan

    2008-01-01

    Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule is an inconspicuous and uncommon clinical sign of advanced malignant disease, especially gastric cancer. Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is an extremely rare condition and can be difficult to diagnose, due to the absence or misinterpretation of symptoms as pregnancy-related. Diagnostic aids, such as a basic chemistry panel and imaging techniques, may not show any abnormalities. We present a case of a 37-year-old pregnant patient whose umbilical nodule was the first presenting physical sign of gastric cancer, which had metastasized throughout the abdominal and pelvic regions. PMID:18240358

  7. Relationship of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Psychosocial Distress to Gastric Retention in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gregory K.; Shulman, Robert J.; Malaty, Hoda M.; Czyzewski, Danita; Seghers, Victor J; Thompson, Deborah; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (abdominal pain, non-pain GI symptoms, nausea) and/or psychosocial distress differ between children with/without gastroparesis, and secondarily whether the severity of GI symptoms and/or psychosocial distress are related to the degree of gastroparesis. Study design Children 7 – 18 yr. of age (n=100; 63 female) undergoing a 4-hour gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) study completed questionnaires evaluating GI symptoms, anxiety, and somatization for this prospective study. Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney, t-test, and chi-square tests were utilized as appropriate for statistical analysis. Results Children with gastroparesis (n=25) were younger than those with normal emptying (12.6 ± 3.5 yr. vs. 14.3 ± 2.6, P=0.01). Because questionnaire responses from 7–10-year-old children were inconsistent, only patient-reported symptoms from 11–18-year-olds were used. Within this older group (n=83), children with gastroparesis (n=17) did not differ from children with normal emptying in severity of GI symptoms or psychosocial distress. In children with gastroparesis, gastric retention at 4 hr was related inversely to vomiting (r=−0.506, P=0.038), nausea (r=−0.536, P=0.019), difficulty finishing a meal (r=−0.582, P=0.014), and CSI-24 score (r=−0.544, P=0.024) and positively correlated with frequency of waking from sleep with symptoms (r=0.551, P=0.022). Conclusions The severity of GI symptoms and psychosocial distress do not differ between children with/without gastroparesis who are undergoing GES. In those with gastroparesis, gastric retention appears to be inversely related to dyspeptic symptoms and somatization, and positively related to waking from sleep with symptoms. PMID:24726541

  8. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  9. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A.; Al Kharusi, Suad S.; Al Bahrani, Bassim J.; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-01-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  12. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  13. Primary empty sella syndrome with panhypopituitarism in a child.

    PubMed

    Dawod, S T; Isseh, N M; Kalantar, S M; Jorulf, H K; Ajlouni, K M

    1984-12-01

    A 10-year-old boy presented with marked growth retardation. He was found to have an empty sella demonstrated by CT and Metrizamide cisternography. Endocrinological investigation confirmed the diagnosis of panhypopituitarism. This is the first case reported in a twin and the fifth pediatric case with marked endocrine dysfunction reported in the literature. PMID:6543857

  14. 5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING EMPTY NAVIGATION LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING EMPTY NAVIGATION LOCK #1 WITH DOWNSTREAM MITER GATES OPEN; PHOTO TAKEN FROM MIDDLE OF SWING BRIDGE DOWNSTREAM FROM LOCK. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. EMPTY SEDIMENTATION TANKS. TOP LAYER OF WATER FLOWS OVER TRIANGULATED CHANNELS AND OUT THE RAISED DUCTS TO FILTRATION PLANT. MOVEABLE BOARDS ON BOTTOM ASSIST IN REMOVING SLUDGE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. FILTER CONTROL BUILDING AT REAR. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  17. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  18. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  19. 14 CFR 223.24 - Transportation of empty mail bags.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation of empty mail bags. 223.24 Section 223.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FREE AND REDUCED-RATE TRANSPORTATION International Travel §...

  20. Non-wandering sets with non-empty interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdenur, Flavio; Bonatti, Christian; Díaz, Lorenzo J.

    2004-01-01

    We study diffeomorphisms of a closed connected manifold whose non-wandering set has a non-empty interior and conjecture that C1-generic diffeomorphisms whose non-wandering set has a non-empty interior are transitive. We prove this conjecture in three cases: hyperbolic diffeomorphisms, partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms with two hyperbolic bundles, and tame diffeomorphisms (in the first case, the conjecture is folklore; in the second one, it follows by adapting the proof in Brin (1975 Topological transitivity of a certain class of dynamical systems, and flows of frames on manifolds of negative curvature Funct. Anal. Appl. 9 9-19)). We study this conjecture without global assumptions and prove that, generically, a homoclinic class with non-empty interior is either the whole manifold or else accumulated by infinitely many different homoclinic classes. Finally, we prove that, generically, homoclinic classes and non-wandering sets with non-empty interiors are weakly hyperbolic (the existence of a dominated or a volume hyperbolic splitting).

  1. Venous emptying mediates a transient vasodilation in the human forearm.

    PubMed

    Tschakovsky, M E; Hughson, R L

    2000-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that venous emptying serves as a stimulus for vasodilation in the human forearm. We compared the forearm blood flow (FBF; pulsed Doppler mean blood velocity and echo Doppler brachial artery diameter) response to temporary elevation of a resting forearm from below to above heart level when venous volume was allowed to drain versus when venous drainage was prevented by inflation of an upper arm cuff to approximately 30 mmHg. Arm elevation resulted in a rapid reduction in venous volume and pressure. Cuff inflation just before elevation effectively prevented these changes. FBF was briefly reduced by approximately 16% following arm elevation. A transient (86%) increase in blood flow began by approximately 5 s of arm elevation and peaked by 8 s, indicating a vasodilation. This response was completely abolished by preventing venous emptying. Arterial inflow below heart level was markedly elevated by 343% following brief (4 s) forearm elevation. This hyperemia was minor when venous emptying during forearm elevation had been prevented. We conclude that venous emptying serves as a stimulus for a transient (within 10 s) vasodilation in vivo. This vasodilation can substantially elevate arterial inflow. PMID:10993762

  2. 26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CAN CONVEYOR DRIVE MECHANISM Empty can conveyor driving mechanism, second floor above canning area. The belt has been removed from the conveyor, but sections of can conveyor tracks are visible on the floor. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. Your Full Future...After the Empty Nest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Cynthia P.

    This book is designed for women who want to react to the empty nest syndrome with a new career. The first chapter contains an introduction and activities to help with self-awareness and career exploration. The second chapter discusses the importance of a positive plan. Strategies for setting long and short term goals, a sense of responsibility for…

  4. The Empty Nest Syndrome: Ways to Enhance Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Dianbing; Yang, Xinxiao; Aagard, Steve Dale

    2012-01-01

    Empty nest syndrome occurs as a result of urbanization and loosened relationships among family members. It may threaten the life quality of older adults and stability of society as a whole. This survey was designed to investigate the situation and factors that influence the life quality of a sample of older adults in a western state. Thirty-five…

  5. Spirit and Its Now-Empty Mother Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overhead polar image was captured after the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took a few baby rolls away from the spacecraft that bore it millions of miles to Mars. The empty lander, now named the Columbia Memorial Station, can be seen to the right of the rover. This image was taken by Spirit's navigation camera.

  6. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  7. [Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hatogai, Ken; Doi, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer has been classified based on the pathological characteristics including microscopic configuration and growth pattern. Although these classifications have been used in studies investigating prognosis and recurrence pattern, they are not considered for decisions regarding the therapeutic strategy. In the ToGA study, trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated clinical efficacy for gastric cancer with HER2 overexpression or HER2 gene amplification. Based on these findings of the ToGA study, the definition of HER2-positive gastric cancer was established. Thereafter, several molecular targeted agents, including agents targeting other receptor tyrosine kinases, have been investigated in gastric cancer. However, to date no biomarker, except HER2, has been established. Based on the recent technological development in the field of gene analysis, a comprehensive molecular evaluation of gastric cancer was performed as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, and a new molecular classification was proposed that divided gastric cancer into the following 4 subtypes: tumors positive for Epstein-Barr virus, microsatellite instability tumors, genomically stable tumors, and tumors with chromosomal instability. Each subtype has specific molecular alterations including gene mutation and amplification, DNA methylation, and protein overexpression. Additionally, some subtypes were suggested to be correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics or as targets of some molecular targeted agents that are currently under development. The new molecular classification is expected to be a roadmap for patient stratification and clinical trials on molecular targeted therapies in gastric cancer. PMID:27067842

  8. Other Helicobacters and gastric microbiota.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Chloë; Schulz, Christian; Smet, Annemieke; Malfertheiner, Peter; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2016-09-01

    This article aimed to review the literature from 2015 dealing with gastric and enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). A summary of the gastric microbiota interactions with H. pylori is also presented. An extensive number of studies were published during the last year and have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of infections with NHPH. These infections are increasingly reported in human patients, including infections with H. cinaedi, mainly characterized by severe bacteremia. Whole-genome sequencing appears to be the most reliable technique for identification of NHPH at species level. Presence of NHPH in laboratory animals may influence the outcome of experiments, making screening and eradication desirable. Vaccination based on UreB proteins or bacterial lysate with CCR4 antagonists as well as oral glutathione supplementation may be promising strategies to dampen the pathogenic effects associated with gastric NHPH infections. Several virulent factors such as outer membrane proteins, phospholipase C-gamma 2, Bak protein, and nickel-binding proteins are associated with colonization of the gastric mucosae and development of gastritis. The development of high-throughput sequencing has led to new insights in the gastric microbiota composition and its interaction with H. pylori. Alterations in the gastric microbiota caused by the pH-increasing effect of a H. pylori infection may increase the risk for gastric cancer. PMID:27531542

  9. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  10. Enterogastric reflux and gastric clearance of refluxate in normal subjects and in patients with and without bile vomiting following peptic ulcer surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, C.; Hulks, G.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-11-01

    A noninvasive scintigraphic technique was used to estimate enterogastric reflux and subsequent gastric evacuation of refluxate in 35 normal, healthy subjects and 55 patients previously treated by vagotomy or partial gastrectomy. Reflux was provoked by a milk drink and quantitated by counting 99Tcm-EHIDA activity within the gastric area during gamma camera imaging. Seven normal subjects (20%) showed reflux of 5-18% of initial activity (mean: 10%), with peak values occurring at 5-30 minutes (mean: 14 minutes) following the milk. Gastric evacuation of activity in these subjects was monoexponential (r = 0.993, T1/2 = 24.1 minutes). Reflux occurred more frequently than normal in patients with truncal vagotomy and drainage (22/28 patients) and partial gastrectomy (20/21 patients). All of 16 patients with Billroth II anastomoses exhibited reflux, which was excessive compared with refluxing normal subjects (mean: 25%; p less than 0.01) and occurred later into the study (mean: 34 minutes; p less than 0.01). Ten of 11 asymptomatic patients showed reflux of similar amounts of activity (mean: 21%) compared with 16 patients who complained of bile vomiting (mean: 22%). However, asymptomatic patients exhibited gastric evacuation of refluxate at a rate similar to that of refluxing normal subjects, while bile vomiters showed significant gastric retention of refluxate at 25-30 minutes following peak gastric activity (p less than 0.05). This result confirms that post-operative bile vomiting is essentially a problem of gastric emptying.

  11. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  13. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer: single institute retrospective analysis of 9 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chin, Hyung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of 9 consecutive patients who suffered with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) originating from gastric cancer. Methods Between January 1995 and December 2010, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 9 patients with gastric LMC who had been treated at St. Vincent's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea. Results With the exception of 1 patient, the primary gastric cancer was Borrmann type III or IV, and 5 cases had poorly differentiated or signet ring cell histology. TNM stage of the primary gastric cancer was III in 6 patients. The median interval from diagnosis of the primary malignancy to the diagnosis of LMC was 9 months. Headache (6 cases), altered mental status (4 cases), and dysarthria (3 cases) were presenting symptoms of LMC. Computed tomography findings were abnormal in 4 of 7 cases, while magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormality in 4 of 5 cases. Radiation therapy was administered to 5 patients and intrathecal chemotherapy was administered to only 1 patient. Median overall survival duration from the diagnosis of LMC was 3 months. Conclusion LMC originating from gastric cancer had a fatal clinical course and treatment strategies remain challenging. PMID:24761402

  14. Updates on gastric electrical stimulation to treat obesity: Systematic review and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ryan; Marescaux, Jacques; Diana, Michele

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current state-of-the-art of gastric electrical stimulation to treat obesity. METHODS: Systematic reviews of all studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of different types of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on obesity. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies consisting of a total of 33 different trials were included in the systematic review for data analysis. Weight loss was achieved in most studies, especially during the first 12 mo, but only very few studies had a follow-up period longer than 1 year. Among those that had a longer follow-up period, many were from the Transcend® (Implantable Gastric Stimulation) device group and maintained significant weight loss. Other significant results included changes in appetite/satiety, gastric emptying rate, blood pressure and neurohormone levels or biochemical markers such as ghrelin or HbA1c respectively. CONCLUSION: GES holds great promises to be an effective obesity treatment. However, stronger evidence is required through more studies with a standardized way of carrying out trials and reporting outcomes, to determine the long-term effect of GES on obesity. PMID:25228944

  15. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  16. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management. PMID:27126070

  17. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  18. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be ... Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  19. Gastric cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hilmar; Marques, Miguel S; Zietlow, Rike; Meyer, Thomas F; Machado, Jose C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) results from a multistep process that is influenced by Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic susceptibility of the host, as well as of other environmental factors. GC results from the accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, leading to dysregulation of multiple signaling pathways, which disrupt the cell cycle and the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. For this special issue, we have selected to review last year's advances related to three main topics: the cell of origin that initiates malignant growth in GC, the mechanisms of direct genotoxicity induced by H. pylori infection, and the role of aberrantly expressed long noncoding RNAs in GC transformation. The understanding of the molecular basis of GC development is of utmost importance for the identification of novel targets for GC prevention and treatment. PMID:27531537

  20. [Gastric duplication of 3 observations].

    PubMed

    Bugallo, M; Carauni, D; Serra, E; De los Reyes, C; Briend, S; Valdovinos, B; Lanari, A

    2000-01-01

    Gástric duplicación si an infrequent congenital malformation present in both, neonatal period and childhood, and exceptionally during adulthood. We present here there cases of gastric duplication from patients of different ages, in which it was not possible to make diagnosis before surgery. In all of them cystic form was the predominating one, without communication with gastric lumen (cavity). Diagnosis was performed after laparotomy and histopathological examination. PMID:11086515

  1. A rare initial presentation of gastric cancer with multiple osteolytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Jehangir, Asad; Aderhold, Kim; Rajagopalan, Priya; Shogbesan, Oluwaseun; Swierczynski, Sharon; Qureshi, Anam; Jehangir, Qasim; Espana Schmidt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 12th leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and commonly metastasizes to the bones. However, the presentation of gastric cancer as bony metastases without preceding gastrointestinal symptoms is rare which has been infrequently reported in the literature. Moreover, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is an unusual complication of gastric cancer accounting for less than 1 percent of these patients. We present a unique case of a middle aged male who presented to the emergency department with worsening backache which started one month priorly. The only abnormal laboratory test was an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 154 IU/L. The imaging of his spine showed osteolytic lesions which on biopsy revealed signet ring cells. A small 2 cm ulcerated mass was found on esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the gastric cardia which on biopsy revealed signet ring gastric carcinoma. The patient received chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin as well as radiation and showed a good response initially. A few months later, he presented with persistent worsening headaches and on brain imaging was found to have leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Ten months after the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma, he passed away. PMID:25984375

  2. Peritoneal metastatic adenocarcinoma possibly due to a gastric duplication cyst: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastric duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities, and malignant transformation of these duplications is also thought to be rare. Case presentation During a routine health checkup, a 28-year-old man underwent abdominal sonography followed by computed tomography (CT) with contrast agent, which revealed a cystic lesion with no enhancement. Laparoscopic surgery showed a 10 × 10 cm cyst adhering to the gastric corpus. However, attempts to remove the lesion en bloc were unsuccessful, and the ruptured cyst had contaminated the peritoneal cavity. Gastric duplication was diagnosed from microscopic examination of the cyst. Seven months later, the patient suffered a progressive increase in ascites, and repeated cytological analysis showed small nests of adenocarcinoma cells, with primary lesion unknown. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed multiple white nodules scattered over the surface of the liver, greater omentum, and peritoneum. Biopsy of the omental nodules confirmed adenocarcinoma, while carcinomatosis was diagnosed in the peritoneum. Conclusions Clinical presentation and chronological developments indicated that the malignancy probably originated from the gastric duplication cyst. This case highlights the importance of accurate preoperative diagnosis and optimal surgical management for gastric duplication as well as considering the potential existence of malignant transformation during surgical evaluation of adult patients with gastric duplication cysts. PMID:24641252

  3. Personalized medicine in gastric cancer: Where are we and where are we going?

    PubMed Central

    Jácome, Alexandre A; Coutinho, Anelisa K; Lima, Enaldo M; Andrade, Aline C; dos Santos, José Sebastião

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in adjuvant therapies for gastric cancer in recent years, the disease is characterized by high recurrence rates and a dismal prognosis. The major improvement in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic gastric cancer in recent years has been the incorporation of trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) heterodimerization, after the demonstrated predictive value of the overexpression and/or amplification of this receptor. Beyond HER2, other genetic abnormalities have been identified, and these mutations may be targetable by tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies. The demonstration of four distinct molecular subtypes of gastric cancer by the Cancer Genome Atlas study highlight the enormous heterogeneity of the disease and its complex interplay between genetic and epigenetic alterations and provide a roadmap to implement genome-guided personalized therapy in gastric cancer. In the present review, we aim to discuss, from a clinical point of view, the genomic landscape of gastric cancer described in recent studies, the therapeutic insights derived from these findings, and the clinical trials that have been conducted and those in progress that take into account tailored therapies for gastric cancer. PMID:26811654

  4. Combined fibrinogen concentration and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic marker of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    ARIGAMI, TAKAAKI; UENOSONO, YOSHIKAZU; MATSUSHITA, DAISUKE; YANAGITA, SHIGEHIRO; UCHIKADO, YASUTO; KITA, YOSHIAKI; MORI, SHINICHIRO; KIJIMA, YUKO; OKUMURA, HIROSHI; MAEMURA, KOSEI; ISHIGAMI, SUMIYA; NATSUGOE, SHOJI

    2016-01-01

    Certain patients with early gastric cancer succumb to recurrent disease and cancer-associated complications. The key cause of recurrence is challenging to determine, since clinical blood markers that are able to predict the tumor properties of gastric cancer are limited. The present study investigated the fibrinogen concentration and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in blood specimens from patients with gastric cancer, and assessed the clinical applicability of combining the fibrinogen concentration with the NLR (CFS-NLR) as a prognostic marker of gastric cancer. The present study consisted of 275 patients with gastric cancer, who were divided into three groups: Those possessing hyperfibrinogenemia (≥305 mg/dl) and a high NLR (≥2.34; CFS-NLR 2 group); those possessing either hyperfibrinogenemia or a high NLR (CFS-NLR 1 group); or those that possessed neither abnormality (CFS-NLR 0 group). The CFS-NLR was significantly associated with the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and tumor stage (P<0.0001). The prognostic differences among the three groups were significant (P=0.0016). Therefore, the CFS-NLR may be a potentially useful blood marker for predicting tumor progression and the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:26893776

  5. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. PMID:23669186

  6. Targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Alexandra; Ristimäki, Ari

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although chemotherapy prolongs survival and improves quality of life, the survival of gastric cancer patients with advanced disease is short. Thanks to recent insights into the molecular pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis, new targeted treatment options have become available for gastric cancer patients. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeted to HER-2, was shown to improve survival of advanced gastric cancer patients harboring HER-2 overexpression due to gene amplification in their tumor cells, and is currently also explored in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Another agent with promising results in clinical trials is ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2. No clear survival benefit, however, were experienced with agents targeting EGFR (cetuximab, panitumumab), VEGF-A (bevacizumab), or mTOR (everolimus). Drugs targeting c-MET/HGF are currently under investigation in biomarker-selected cohorts, with promising results in early clinical trials. This review will summarize the current status of targeted treatment options in gastric cancer. PMID:25706252

  7. Genetics and gastric cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Lu, Fang; Zeng, Sha; Sun, Suqing; Lu, Li; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer has high morbidity and mortality in China. It is ranked first in malignant tumors of the digestive system. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear, but they may be associated with a variety of factors. Genetic susceptibility genes have become a research hotspot in China. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms of gastric cancer can facilitate achieving individualized prevention and developing more effective methods to reduce clinical adverse consequences, which has important clinical significance. Genetic susceptibility results from the influence of genetic factors or specific genetic defects that endow an individual’s offspring with certain physiological and metabolic features that are prone to certain diseases. Currently, studies on the genetic susceptibility genes of gastric cancer have become a hotspot. The purpose is to screen for the etiology of gastric cancer, search for gene therapy methods, and ultimately provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of gastric cancer. This article reviews the current progress of studies on genetic susceptibility genes for gastric cancer. PMID:26309491

  8. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do. PMID:26566288

  9. 44. View looking northeast. The lock was emptied of guests ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. View looking northeast. The lock was emptied of guests periodically during the day so that the timbers could be sprayed down with water. The board walk was laid over the west miter sill (at center) to allow visitors to enter without damaging the sill. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  10. Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Dzoan, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Some simple structural modifications have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing aerodynamic drag on vehicles that have empty open cargo bays. The basic idea is to break up the airflow in a large open cargo bay by inserting panels to divide the bay into a series of smaller bays. In the case of a coal car, this involves inserting a small number (typically between two and four) of vertical full-depth or partial-depth panels.

  11. Interdependent regional lung emptying during forced expiration: a transistor model.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Fredberg, J J; Ingram, R H; Pedersen, O F; Drazen, J M

    1987-05-01

    We recognized similarities between isovolume pressure-flow curves of the lung and emitter-collector voltage-current characteristics of bipolar transistors, and used this analogy to model expiratory flow limitation in a two-generation branching network with parallel nonhomogeneity. In this model, each of two bronchi empty parenchymal compliances through a common trachea, and each branch includes resistances upstream and downstream of a flow-limiting site. Properties of each airway are specified independently, allowing simulation of differences between the tracheal and bronchial generations and between the parallel bronchial paths. Simulations of four types of parallel asymmetry were performed: unilateral peripheral bronchoconstriction; unilateral central bronchoconstriction; asymmetric redistribution of parenchymal compliance; and unilateral alteration of the bronchial area-transmural pressure characteristic. Our results indicate that multiple axial choke points can exist simultaneously in a symmetric lung when large airway opening-pleural pressure gradients exist; despite severe nonhomogeneity of regional lung emptying, flow interdependence among parallel branches tends to maintain a near normal configuration of the overall maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve throughout a large fraction of the vital capacity; and sudden changes of slope of the MEFV curve ("knees" or "bumps") may reflect choking in one branch in a nonuniform lung, but need not be obvious even when severe heterogeneity of lung emptying exists. PMID:3597273

  12. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  13. Visual Deterioration and Herniation of the Anterior Cerebral Artery: Unusual Presentation of an Empty Sella Syndrome Complicating Decompression of a Rathke Cleft Cyst.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Thakar, Sumit; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-06-01

    Clinical manifestations of empty sella syndrome include hypopituitarism cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, headache, and visual abnormalities. A 21-year-old woman reported a 6-month history of worsening vision 3 years after decompression of a sellar-suprasellar Rathke cleft cyst. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined recurrent cyst in the sellar-suprasellar region causing chiasmatic compression. She underwent an endonasal, endoscopic decompression of the cyst, with subsequent improvement in her vision. A postoperative computed tomography confirmed good decompression of the cyst. Ten days after surgery, she reported sudden loss of vision in both eyes. MRI revealed an empty sella with herniation of both anterior cerebral arteries and optic chiasm into the sella. She underwent transnasal packing of the sellar floor with fat graft and bone plaques, and experienced gradual improvement in vision in her right eye. PMID:26828843

  14. The potential influence of gastric acid secretion during fasting on digestion time in leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata).

    PubMed

    Papastamatiou, Yannis P

    2007-05-01

    Vertebrates are known to differ in their response of gastric acid secretion during periods of fasting, yet the reasons for these differences remain unclear. Previously, continuous measurements of gastric pH in leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) had determined that acid secretion in this species is continuous. In order to determine if maintaining an empty acidic stomach may reduce digestion time of a subsequent meal, a simple descriptive model based on acid secretion rates was developed. In vivo gastric acid secretion rates were measured using an auto-titration technique. Acid secretion rates were pH dependent, with rates of 6.1+/-3.0 (+/-1 SD) mmol/h when gastric pH was >2.5, and 1.7+/-0.8 mmol/h when pH was 2.0-2.5. Analysis by Western blots suggests that pepsin secretion occurs within 1 h of feeding, and that there is a de-coupling of acid and pepsin secretion. The model estimates that digestion time can be reduced by 5.7+/-1.3 h and pepsin activity increased by 10-100% during that time if the stomach is acidic before feeding. Gastric acid secretion during fasting is hypothesized to reduce digestion time of a subsequent meal in frequently feeding sharks, which may be advantageous for exploiting resources that are spatially and temporally unpredictable. PMID:17280858

  15. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  16. A case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in which magnified endoscopy with narrow band imaging was useful in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arai, Shin; Nakao, Masamitsu; Shimizu, Michio; Sakurai, Takaki; Nagata, Koji; Nishimura, Makoto; Togawa, Osamu; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Sasaki, Yutaka; Kita, Hiroto

    2012-04-16

    Recently, we reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma presenting with unique vascular features. In the report, we defined the tree-like appearance (TLA) on the images of abnormal blood vessels which resembled branches from the trunk of a tree in the shiny mucosa, in which the glandular structure was lost. The 67-year-old female was diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma. The patient received eradication therapy for H. pylori. Conventional endoscopy revealed multiple ill-delineated brownish depressions in the stomach and cobblestone-like mucosa was observed at the greater curvature to the posterior wall of the upper gastric body 7 mo after successful eradication. Unsuccessful treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma was suspected on conventional endoscopy. Conventional endoscopic observations found focal depressions and cobblestone-like appearance, and these lesions were subsequently observed using magnified endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging to identify abnormal vessels presenting with a TLA within the lesions. Ten biopsies were taken from the area where abnormal vessels were present within these lesions. Ten biopsies were also taken from the lesions without abnormal vessels as a control. A total of 20 biopsy samples were evaluated to determine whether the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma could be obtained histologically from each sample. A positive diagnosis was obtained in 8/10 TLA (+) sites and in 2/10 TLA(-) sites. Target biopsies of the site with abnormal blood vessels can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of gastric MALT lymphoma. PMID:22523617

  17. Osteopontin, E-cadherin, and β-catenin expression as prognostic biomarkers in patients with radically resected gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Pellegrinelli, Alessandro; Martinetti, Antonia; Mariani, Luigi; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Bajetta, Emilio; Pelosi, Giuseppe; de Braud, Filippo; Floriani, Irene; Miceli, Rosalba

    2016-04-01

    A correlation between osteopontin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cyclooxygenase 2 overexpression and poor clinicopathological features and prognosis has been previously suggested in gastric cancer. This translational study was aimed at assessing the correlation of these immunohistochemical biomarkers with outcome in patients with radically resected gastric cancer. We analyzed osteopontin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and cyclooxygenase 2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 346 primary gastric tumor tissue samples from patients enrolled in the ITACA-S trial. This phase III study randomized patients with radically resected gastric cancer to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with either 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin or a sequential regimen of infusional 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin plus irinotecan followed by cisplatin and docetaxel. High expression of osteopontin was correlated with high histological grade, diffuse histotype, and peritoneal relapse, but not with TNM stage. Moreover, osteopontin overexpression was associated with higher risk of tumor recurrence and metastases, and was an independent prognostic factor for both relapse-free and overall survival of gastric cancer patients following adjuvant chemotherapy. Abnormal E-cadherin expression and abnormal β-catenin expression were correlated with more advanced disease stage, and as a consequence, with poor outcome. Our results suggest that osteopontin overexpression is a valuable independent predictor of tumor recurrence and survival in patients with radically resected gastric cancer. PMID:25862567

  18. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959). While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients), vomiting (54.2%), diarrhea (21.9%), and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%). Respiratory (23.0%) and cardiocirculatory (16.7%) symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%), medium chain triglycerides (54.2%) or enhanced caloric density (65.6%) of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%), dehydration (27.5%) and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly demonstrable on repeat

  19. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a ...

  20. Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively compare the general characteristics, lifestyles, serum parameters, ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) parameters, depression, quality of life, and various comorbidities between empty nest and non-empty nest elderly among rural populations in northeast China. This analysis was based on our previous study which was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013, using a multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling scheme. The final analyzed sample consisted of 3208 participants aged no less than 60 years, which was further classified into three groups: non-empty nest group, empty nest group (living as a couple), and empty nest group (living alone). More than half of the participants were empty nest elderly (60.5%). There were no significant statistical differences for serum parameters, UCG parameters, lifestyles, dietary pattern, and scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF) among the three groups. Empty nest elderly showed no more risk for comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and stroke. Our study indicated that empty nest elderly showed no more risk for depression, low quality of life and comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, LAE, and stroke among rural populations in northeast China. PMID:27618905

  1. Subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Roberto; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Santoro, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    Although a steady decline in the incidence and mortality rates of gastric carcinoma has been observed in the last century worldwide, the absolute number of new cases/year is increasing because of the aging of the population. So far, surgical resection with curative intent has been the only treatment providing hope for cure; therefore, gastric cancer surgery has become a specialized field in digestive surgery. Gastrectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for cancer patients remains a challenging procedure which requires skilled, well-trained surgeons who are very familiar with the fast-evolving oncological principles of gastric cancer surgery. As a matter of fact, the extent of gastric resection and LN dissection depends on the size of the disease and gastric cancer surgery has become a patient and “disease-tailored” surgery, ranging from endoscopic resection to laparoscopic assisted gastrectomy and conventional extended multivisceral resections. LN metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients that undergo curative resection. LN dissection remains the most challenging part of the operation due to the location of LN stations around major retroperitoneal vessels and adjacent organs, which are not routinely included in the resected specimen and need to be preserved in order to avoid dangerous intra- and postoperative complications. Hence, the surgeon is the most important non-TMN prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Subtotal gastrectomy is the treatment of choice for middle and distal-third gastric cancer as it provides similar survival rates and better functional outcome compared to total gastrectomy, especially in early-stage disease with favorable prognosis. Nonetheless, the resection range for middle-third gastric cancer cases and the extent of LN dissection at early stages remains controversial. Due to the necessity of a more extended procedure at advanced stages and the trend for more conservative treatments in early gastric cancer, the

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  4. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies. PMID:21401890

  5. [Gastric cancer in Lima].

    PubMed

    Pilco, Paul; Payet, Eduardo; Cáceres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be one of the most common malignant neoplasias in the world. Despite the decreasing incidence of this disease in developed countries, Eastern Europe and Latin America show the highest incidences. It accounted for 8.6% of all new cases of cancer in 2002. In Peru it has increased between 1990 and 1997 amounting to 24.3/100000 in men and 17.6/100000 in women, during the last period studied, thus it is considered a high risk area. Mortality: it is still the leading cause of death for both sexes, in men it is 19.3/100000 and in women 14.2/100000. Incidence is directly proportional to the place of origin in Metropolitan Lima, a city of almost 8 million inhabitants, and the districts with the highest incidences are Puente Piedra and Lince followed by Villa El Salvador, El Augustino, Breña and Rimac among others. These are districts with medium-low socioeconomic levels, whereas the lowest incidences are found in districts with high socioeconomic levels, such as San Isidro and Miraflores, among others. PMID:17211488

  6. Helicobacter pylori Infection Synergistic with IL-1β Gene Polymorphisms Potentially Contributes to the Carcinogenesis of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun-Bo; Zuo, Wei; Wang, An-Jiang; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the etiological agent for most gastric cancer (GC). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine, and its deregulation is closely associated with the tumorigenesis of several cancers. Recent studies have revealed that the IL-1β-31 and -511T alleles are closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis due to their roles in the induction of gastric precancerous lesions and hypochlorhydria. Furthermore, H. pylori infection has a synergistic effect on the development of GC with IL-1β gene polymorphisms, and the highest prevalence of severe gastric abnormalities are found in patients with both host and bacterial high-risk genotypes (cagA(+)/vacAs1(+)/IL-1β-511T). Therefore, these recent advances demonstrate that H. pylori synergistic with IL-1β gene polymorphisms contribute to the gastric carcinogenesis by their involvement in precancerous gastric lesions and low gastric acid secretion. PMID:27076787

  7. Gastric adenocarcinoma in common variable immunodeficiency: features of cancer and associated gastritis may be characteristic of the condition.

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Dhungel, Bal M; Chen, Longwen; Chang, Yu-Hui H

    2014-10-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological features of CVID-associated gastric adenocarcinoma (CAGA) and of the background gastritis. The population of gastric cancer patients with CVID of Mayo Clinic in the period 2000-2010 was studied; 6 cases of CVID (2 males, 4 females, average age 47 years, age range 26-71 years) were found in 5793 patients with gastric cancer in the study period. Each patient underwent gastric resection for which histology slides were reviewed. Chronic gastritis variables, CVID-related findings, and features of the adenocarcinoma were recorded. CAGA was of intestinal type, with high number of intratumoral lymphocytes (ITLs). Cancer was diagnosed in younger patients than in the overall population of gastric cancer. Severe atrophic metaplastic pangastritis with extensive dysplasia was present in the background in 4 cases, with features of lymphocytic gastritis in 2 cases. Features of CVID (plasma cells paucity in 4 of 6 cases, lymphoid nodules prominent in four cases) could be detected. In summary, gastric adenocarcinoma at young age with ITLs, accompanied by atrophic metaplastic pangastritis, should alert the pathologist of the possibility of CAGA. It follows that, in presence of those characteristics, the search of CVID-associated abnormalities should be undertaken in the nonneoplastic tissues. PMID:24788529

  8. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy collection of the gastrointestinal tract in the green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris): application in a case of chronic regurgitation with gastric mucus gland hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara; Roddy, Nicole; Sirpenski, Gayle; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    A green moray eel (Gymnothorax funebris) was evaluated for chronic regurgitation. By using flexible endoscopy, the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated and revealed multifocal proliferative gastric masses and an intestinal ulcer. Biopsy specimens revealed gastric mucus gland hyperplasia, intestinal nematodiasis, and mild enteritis. Esophagoscopy and gastroscopy were performed by using a larger endoscope (length, 200 cm). A smaller endoscope (length, 100 cm) facilitated entering the intestinal tract in normograde or retrograde directions. A control eel was also evaluated, and no gross or histologic abnormalities were detected. The case eel was treated with metoclopramide and fenbendazole, responded well to therapy, and regurgitation decreased. A year later, the animal died of unrelated causes. Necropsy revealed coelomic gastric adhesions. The gastric proliferative lesions were associated with degeneration and necrosis of gastric pit mucosa without significant inflammation; etiology was unknown. Gastrointestinal endoscopy proved a useful diagnostic tool for evaluation and biopsy collection in this eel species. PMID:23082527

  9. Gastric electrical stimulation for treatment of clinically severe gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Naga Venkatesh G.; Dexter, Simon P.L.; Sarela, Abeezar I.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe, drug-resistant gastroparesis is a debilitating condition. Several, but not all, patients can get significant relief from nausea and vomiting by gastric electrical stimulation (GES). A trial of temporary, endoscopically delivered GES may be of predictive value to select patients for laparoscopic-implantation of a permanent GES device. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a clinical audit of consecutive gastroparesis patients, who had been selected for GES, from May 2008 to January 2012. Delayed gastric emptying was diagnosed by scintigraphy of ≥50% global improvement in symptom-severity and well-being was a good response. RESULTS: There were 71 patients (51 women, 72%) with a median age of 42 years (range: 14-69). The aetiology of gastroparesis was idiopathic (43 patients, 61%), diabetes (15, 21%), or post-surgical (anti-reflux surgery, 6 patients; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 3; subtotal gastrectomy, 1; cardiomyotomy, 1; other gastric surgery, 2) (18%). At presentation, oral nutrition was supplemented by naso-jejunal tube feeding in 7 patients, surgical jejunostomy in 8, or parenterally in 1 (total 16 patients; 22%). Previous intervention included endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin (botox) into the pylorus in 16 patients (22%), pyloroplasty in 2, distal gastrectomy in 1, and gastrojejunostomy in 1. It was decided to directly proceed with permanent GES in 4 patients. Of the remaining, 51 patients have currently completed a trial of temporary stimulation and 39 (77%) had a good response and were selected for permanent GES, which has been completed in 35 patients. Outcome data are currently available for 31 patients (idiopathic, 21 patients; diabetes, 3; post-surgical, 7) with a median follow-up period of 10 months (1-28); 22 patients (71%) had a good response to permanent GES, these included 14 (68%) with idiopathic, 5 (71%) with post-surgical, and remaining 3 with diabetic gastroparesis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 71% of well-selected patients with

  10. Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative analysis of empty-nest and non-empty-nest households with seniors in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Li, Cuicui; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Wengui; Sun, Liyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) prevalence and its determinants between empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly households. Setting Shandong province of China. Participants A total of 2761 elderly households are included in the analysis. Results CHE incidence among elderly households was 44.9%. The CHE incidence of empty-nest singles (59.3%, p=0.000, OR=3.19) and empty-nest couples (52.9%, p=0.000, OR=2.45) are both statistically higher than that of non-empty-nest elderly households (31.4%). An inverse association was observed between CHE incidence and income level in all elderly household types. Factors including 1 or more household elderly members with non-communicable chronic diseases in the past 6 months, 1 or more elderly household members being hospitalised in the past year and lower household income, are significant risk factors for CHE in all 3 household types (p<0.05). Health insurance status was found to be a significant determinant of CHE among empty-nest singles and non-empty-nest households (p<0.05). Conclusions CHE incidence among elderly households is high in China. Empty-nest households are at higher risk for CHE than non-empty-nest households. Based on these findings, we suggest that special insurance be developed to broaden the coverage of health services and heighten the reimbursement rate for empty-nest elderly in the existing health insurance schemes. Financial and social protection interventions are also essential for identified at-risk subgroups among different types of elderly households. PMID:27381206

  11. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinomas and gastric stump carcinomas: a late event in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    zur Hausen, A; van Rees, B P; van Beek, J; Craanen, M E; Bloemena, E; Offerhaus, G J A; Meijer, C J L M; van den Brule, A J C

    2004-01-01

    Background: To determine at what stage during gastric carcinogenesis Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters the gastric epithelial cells, the presence of EBV was investigated in two pathogenetically related but distinct forms of adenocarcinoma of the stomach—gastric carcinoma of the intact stomach (GCIS) and gastric stump carcinoma (GSC)—and their presumed precursor lesions. Patients and methods: Eleven patients with EBV positive GCIS and eight patients with EBV positive GSC, demonstrated by the highly sensitive EBV encoded RNA 1/2 (EBER1/2) RNA in situ hybridisation (RISH) technique, were studied. Paraffin wax embedded tissue available from preoperative gastric biopsies and tumour adjacent tissue from the resection specimens containing normal gastric mucosa, inflamed gastric mucosa, and preneoplastic lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) was investigated by EBER1/2 RISH, in addition to EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In both GCIS and GSC and their precursor lesions EBER1/2 transcripts were restricted to the carcinoma cells. In addition, positivity of EBNA-1 IHC was also restricted to the tumour cells. IHC for LMP-1 was negative in all cases tested. Conclusions: The absence of EBER1/2 transcripts in preneoplastic gastric lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) and their presence in two distinct types of gastric carcinoma strongly suggest that EBV can only infect neoplastic gastric cells and thus is a late event in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:15113855

  12. The empty toe phenomenon: a type of closed degloving.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, J D; Evans, D A; Danahy, P R

    1998-07-01

    A 46-year-old man sustained a crush injury, including several phalangeal fractures and vascular disruption, when his left foot was run over by a forklift truck. Although the skin was not broken, the middle and distal phalanges of his second toe were displaced, appearing absent on radiography. This was a closed degloving injury, a rare form of trauma involving tissue separation without skin disruption. Closed degloving injuries, which can occur in conjunction with bone displacement in the toes, can produce a striking radiographic appearance, referred to in this report as the "empty toe." PMID:9678239

  13. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning. PMID:21220570

  14. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  15. Phaseguides: a paradigm shift in microfluidic priming and emptying.

    PubMed

    Vulto, Paul; Podszun, Susann; Meyer, Philipp; Hermann, Carsten; Manz, Andreas; Urban, Gerald A

    2011-05-01

    Phaseguide technology gives complete control over filling and emptying of any type of microfluidic structures, independent of the chamber and channel geometry. The technique is based on a step-wise advancement of the liquid-air interface using the meniscus pinning effect. In this paper, the main effects and parameters underlying the phaseguiding principle are discussed and a demonstration is given of its potential for dead angle filling, spatially controlled phaseguide overflow and sequential phaseguide overflow, all accumulating in a passive valving approach. Phaseguides represent a new direction in microfluidic design thinking that will prove a leap forward towards more simple, flexible and reliable microfluidic systems. PMID:21394334

  16. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion. PMID:19009648

  17. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  18. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  19. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  20. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  1. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  2. Choroidal and cutaneous metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shoichiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Yoshito; Ezaki, Hisao; Yamada, Takuya; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Nakai, Kei; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Watabe, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Nishida, Kohji; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Choroidal or cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer is rare. Gastrointestinal cancer was found in only 4% in patients with uveal metastasis. Choroidal metastasis from gastric cancer was reported in two cases in earlier literature. The frequency of gastric cancer as a primary lesion was 6% in cutaneous metastasis of men, and cutaneous metastasis occurs in 0.8% of all gastric cancers. We report a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in his left eye and skin pain on his head as his initial symptoms. These symptoms were diagnosed to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Two cycles of chemotherapy consisted of oral S-1 and intravenous cisplatin (SPIRITS regimen); this was markedly effective to reduce the primary gastric lesion and almost all the metastatic lesions. PMID:23538460

  3. Surgery of the turbinates and “empty nose” syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, Marc Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Surgical therapy of the inferior and/or middle turbinate is indicated when conservative treatment options have failed. The desired goal is a reduction of the soft tissue volume of the turbinates regarding the individual anatomic findings, whilst simultaneously conserving as much mucosa as possible. As the turbinates serve as a functional entity within the nose, they ensure climatisation, humidification and cleaning of the inhaled air. Thus free nasal breathing means a decent quality of life, as well. Regarding the multitude of different surgical techniques, we confirm that no ideal standard technique for turbinate reduction has been developed so far. Moreover, there is a lack of prospective and comparable long-term studies, which makes it difficult to recommend evidence-based surgical techniques. However, the anterior turbinoplasty seems to fulfil the preconditions of limited tissue reduction and mucosa-preservation, and therefore it is the method of choice today. Radical resection of the turbinates may lead to severe functional disturbances developing a secondary atrophic rhinitis. The “empty nose” syndrome is a specific entity within the secondary atrophic rhinitis where intranasal changes in airflow result in disturbed climatisation and also interfere with pulmonary function. Results deriving from an actual in vivo study of climatisation and airflow in “empty nose” patients are presented. PMID:22073107

  4. Comparison of Gastric Microbiota Between Gastric Juice and Mucosa by Next Generation Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the role of gastric microbiota except for Helicobacter pylori in human health and disease. In this study, we aimed to detect human gastric microbiota in both gastric mucosa and gastric juice by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and to compare the results from mucosa and juice. Methods: Gastric biopsies and stomach juices were collected from 4 subjects who underwent standard endoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota of antral mucosa, corpus mucosa samples, and gastric fluids were analyzed by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis focused on bacteria, such as H. pylori and nitrosating or nitrate-reducing bacteria. Results: Gastric fluid samples showed higher diversity compared to that of gastric mucosa samples. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in gastric fluid than in gastric mucosa. The samples of gastric fluid and gastric mucosa showed different composition of phyla. The composition of H. pylori and Proteobacteria was higher in mucosa samples compared to gastric fluid samples (H. pylori, 66.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.033; Proteobacteria, 75.4% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.041), while Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were proportioned relatively less in mucosa samples than gastric fluid. However there was no significant difference. (Actinobacteria, 3.5% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.312; Bacteroidetes, 6.0% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.329; Firmicutes, 12.8% vs. 33.4%, P = 0.246). Conclusions: Even though these samples were small, gastric mucosa could be more effective than gastric fluid in the detection of meaningful gastric microbiota by pyrosequencing. PMID:27051651

  5. Autopsy findings for a case of acute gastric volvulus in a child.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Shuji; Murakami, Tomonori; Kakizaki, Eiji; Ikemura, Mayumi; Nakagawa, Yasuhisa; Kiyofuji, Yuma; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Nata, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    Acute gastric volvulus resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome was determined to be the cause of death in a 4-year-old girl who presented with abdominal distension. At about 1AM on the day of her death, she was brought to our emergency medical center. Physical examination and plain abdominal X-ray revealed pronounced gastric dilatation. A decompression procedure was performed, followed by observation. She went into cardiopulmonary arrest around 1PM on the same day and died. Postmortem investigation, including an autopsy and computed tomography (CT), was performed to determine the cause of death. The findings included that the stomach was severely distended. Evidence was seen of mucosal hemorrhage in the gastric mucosa on the greater curvature side, which was thinned in places but without perforation. No necrosis of the gastric mucosa was observed; reversible changes were evident on histopathological examination. The postmortem CT images suggested that the pyloric region was positioned cranioventrally to the cardiac region. None of the findings indicated sudden blockage, and the cause of death was determined to be acute gastric volvulus resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome. The abnormal placement of the organs was difficult to determine based on physical examination alone; postmortem CT and careful examination were helpful in conducting the autopsy in this case. PMID:25957510

  6. Gastric B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a clinicopathological study in 56 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, J M; Montalban, C; Obeso, G; Piris, M A; Rivas, M C

    1992-01-01

    Clinico-pathological features of 56 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. All cases were regraded according to a classification of Isaacson et al into high grade and low grade B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A third group of mixed grade was recognised in 11 patients with low grade who also had occasional areas of high grade. Low grade and mixed grade patients had a 100% actuarial survival at 156 months, which was significantly better (p < 0.01) than that of 52% for patients with high grade disease. Different treatment methods--surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both--did not significantly affect survival. Low grade tumours occurred mainly in men with a history of several years, and who presented with non-specific gastric symptoms without remarkable exploratory or laboratory findings: most patients were in stage IE-IIE and achieved remission and cure. High grade can have a shorter history, systemic symptoms, abnormal exploratory and laboratory findings, gastric tumour masses, stage IV disease, and a worse outcome. The only significant prognostic factors for survival were the type of lymphoma and stage IV disease. These findings support the Isaacson classification system which separates two extreme groups of gastric lymphomas with different morphology, behaviour, and outcome. The presence of limited areas of high grade in a specimen showing low grade does not change the outcome but suggests that primary gastric lymphoma forms a continuum between these extreme types. PMID:1446850

  7. miRNA-223 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric carcinoma cells via Sp1.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Shan, Zhiyan; Hu, Kewei; Ren, Fengyun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Meiling; Li, Yuezhen; Feng, Kejian; Lei, Lei; Feng, Yukuan

    2016-07-01

    Sp1 plays critical roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of certain cancer. However, few studies have indicated whether Sp1 is involved in the EMT of gastric cancer, and whether abnormal expression of Sp1 in gastric cancer EMT is regulated in a post-transcriptional manner, and the involvement of miRNAs in this regulation. In this study, we selected 20 cases of gastric cancers, their liver metastases and para-carcinoma tissues to examine the levels of Sp1 protein and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent PCR, which showed that Sp1 was increased in gastric cancers and their metastases compared with adjacent tissues, but there was no difference in Sp1 mRNA between these three groups, suggesting changes in Sp1 may be attributed to inactivation of post-transcriptional regulation. We verified by a luciferase reporter system that miRNA-223 binds to 3'-UTR of Sp1 gene and inhibits its translation, in agreement with negative correlation between miRNA-223 and Sp1 protein levels in gastric cancer cells. By employing TGF-β1 to induce MGC-803, BGC-823 and SGC-7901, we successfully built cellular EMT model. Then, we overexpressed miRNA-223 in the model by using a lentiviral system, which diminished EMT indicators and suppressed proliferation and invasion ability, and induced apoptosis. Finally, we verified the specificity of the regulation pathway miRNA-223/Sp1/EMT. These findings suggest that low expression of miRNA-223 in gastric cancer cells is an important cause for EMT. miRNA-223 specifically regulates the EMT process of gastric cancer cells through its target gene Sp1. Overexpression of miRNA-223 in these cells inhibits EMT via the miRNA-223/Sp1/EMT pathway. PMID:27212195

  8. De Novo Gastric Cancer After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chung-Sik; Yoo, Moon-Won; Kim, Beom-Su; Hwang, Shin; Kim, Ki-Hun; Yook, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Sik; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In South Korea, which has a high incidence of gastric cancer, the most common de novo malignancy associated with liver transplantation is gastric cancer. This study sought to identify clinicopathologic characteristics in gastric cancer patients after liver transplantation, and to help manage these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS We investigated gastric cancer patients after liver transplantation at Asan Medical Center. We analyzed sex, age, cause of liver transplantation, initiating immunosuppressant, pre-transplantation gastric fibroscopy findings, time interval between transplantation and gastric cancer occurrence, follow-up period, existence of gastric cancer screening, Helicobacter pylori infection, family cancer history, gastric cancer treatment, cancer location, size of tumor, macroscopic gross type, WHO histologic type, Lauren's classification, TNM stage, and survival. RESULTS Of 2968 adult liver transplantation patients at our hospital, 19 were diagnosed with gastric cancer. The mean age at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis was 60.2±6.8 (46-71) years and mean time interval between liver transplantation and diagnosis of gastric cancer was 56.0±30.7 (3.20-113) months. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was done for 10 patients, 4 of whom underwent surgical resection. Surgical resection as an initial treatment was done in 8 patients. One patient received chemotherapy first. The standard incidence ratio of gastric cancer in these patients was 1036 per 100 000 persons (95% CI, 623.7-1,619) in men and 318.9 per 100 000 (95% CI, 4.170-1,774) in women. CONCLUSIONS For long-term survival of liver transplant patients, early detection of de novo cancer is necessary. Therefore, annual screening for gastric cancer after liver transplantation is needed, especially in areas where the incidence of gastric cancer is high, such as South Korea. PMID:27334929

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  10. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  11. Overexpression of PI3K p110α contributes to acquired resistance to MET inhibitor, in MET-amplified SNU-5 gastric xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fujian; Liu, Xuanwen; Wu, Yuanyu; Fang, Xuedong; Huang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most virulent malignant diseases and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is constitutively activated in many gastric cancers and its expression is strictly required for survival of some gastric cancer cells. Targeting gastric cancers with amplified or abnormally activated MET may have therapeutic benefit based on nonclinical and emerging clinical findings. However, one of the major problems of therapies targeting tyrosine kinases is that many tumors are not responsive to treatment or eventually develop resistance to the drugs. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of MET resistance in gastric SNU-5 xenografts which developed resistance to PHA665752, a MET inhibitor, through long-period tyrosine kinase inhibitor exposure. In the current study, we found that PI3K p110α is overexpressed in PHA665752-resistant SNU-5 xenografts. These findings showed that high PI3K p110α expression contributes to tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. In addition, we reported the development of a carcinogen-induced gastric cancer model that recapitulates PI3K p110α expression in human disease, which will serve as a useful model to study PI3K p110α’s biology and its effectiveness as a novel biomarker and a molecular target for gastric cancer. Ultimately, PI3K p110α represents a novel target for gastric cancer. PMID:26543351

  12. [Salvage gastrectomy and radiotherapy for R-CHOP-refractory gastric malignant lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shigeru; Akasaka, Harue; Wakiya, Taiichi; Yamanaka, Yuji; Narita, Junichi; Sutou, Takemichi; Iino, Chikara

    2014-11-01

    A man in his seventies presented with a stomach abnormality that was revealed upon physical examination.Following workup, he was diagnosed with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)StageII1 (Lugano staging system for gastrointestinal lymphoma) with low risk as defined by the International Prognostic Index criteria.The entire stomach showed an intense, abnormal FDG uptake by FDG-PET evaluation.He was treated with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP).The patient's body weight decreased by 12 kg during the treatment period.Post -treatment evaluation by gastroscopy and FDG-PET following 5 courses of R-CHOP therapy revealed a residual lesion in the stomach.Total gastrectomy was performed for R-CHOP refractory gastric DLBCL.The pathological diagnosis was DLBCL, and the pathological therapeutic effect was Grade 1a.Lymphoma cells were detected at the duodenal margin of the resected specimen, and an FDG-PET scan showed abnormal FDG uptake in the duodenal stump necessitating salvage chemotherapy (DeVIC therapy)and radiotherapy.The patient's body weight increased by 5 kg after gastrectomy and there were no signs of relapse for 14 months after the operation.Salvage therapy including gastrectomy may be effective for chemotherapy-resistant gastric DLBCL. PMID:25731535

  13. Long-pulse gastric electrical stimulation protects interstitial cells of Cajal in diabetic rats via IGF-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Chen, Yan; Liu, Shi; Hou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of different parameters of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and changes in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signal pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male rats were randomized into control, diabetic (DM), diabetic with sham GES (DM + SGES), diabetic with GES1 (5.5 cpm, 100 ms, 4 mA) (DM + GES1), diabetic with GES2 (5.5 cpm, 300 ms, 4 mA) (DM + GES2) and diabetic with GES3 (5.5 cpm, 550 ms, 2 mA) (DM + GES3) groups. The expression levels of c-kit, M-SCF and IGF-1 receptors were evaluated in the gastric antrum using Western blot analysis. The distribution of ICCs was observed using immunolabeling for c-kit, while smooth muscle cells and IGF-1 receptors were identified using α-SMA and IGF-1R antibodies. Serum level of IGF-1 was tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed in the DM group but improved in all GES groups, especially in the GES2 group. The expression levels of c-kit, M-SCF and IGF-1R were decreased in the DM group but increased in all GES groups. More ICCs (c-kit+) and smooth muscle cells (α-SMA+/IGF-1R+) were observed in all GES groups than in the DM group. The average level of IGF-1 in the DM group was markedly decreased, but it was up-regulated in all GES groups, especially in the GES2 group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that long-pulse GES promotes the regeneration of ICCs. The IGF-1 signaling pathway might be involved in the mechanism underlying this process, which results in improved gastric emptying. PMID:27340351

  14. Advances in gastric cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Antonio; Cito, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial neoplastic pathology numbering among its causes both environmental and genetic predisposing factors. It is mainly diffused in South America and South-East Asia, where it shows the highest morbility percentages and it is relatively scarcely diffused in Western countries and North America. Although molecular mechanisms leading to gastric cancer development are only partially known, three main causes are well characterized: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) mutations. Unhealthy diet and H. pylori infection are able to induce in stomach cancer cells genotypic and phenotypic transformation, but their effects may be crossed by a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits. Various authors have recently focused their attention on the importance of a well balanced diet, suggesting a necessary dietary education starting from childhood. A constant surveillance will be necessary in people carrying E-cadherin mutations, since they are highly prone in developing gastric cancer, also within the inner stomach layers. Above all in the United States, several carriers decided to undergo a gastrectomy, preferring changing their lifestyle than living with the awareness of the development of a possible gastric cancer. This kind of choice is strictly personal, hence a decision cannot be suggested within the clinical management. Here we summarize the key points of gastric cancer prevention analyzing possible strategies referred to the different predisposing factors. We will discuss about the effects of diet, H. pylori infection and E-cadherin mutations and how each of them can be handled. PMID:23061031

  15. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  16. Successful Resolution of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by Pancreatic Pseudocyst or Walled-Off Necrosis After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-Yang; Gao, Shun-Liang; Liang, Zhong-Yan; Yu, Wen-Qiao; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) can be caused by gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction, which may occur when pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) or walled-off necrosis (WON) compresses the stomach. The aim of the study was to explore a proper surgical treatment. Methods From June 2010 to June 2013, 25 of 148 patients with AP suffered DGE. Among them, 12 were caused by gastroparesis, 1 was a result of obstruction from a Candida albicans plug, and 12 were gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) compressed by PP (n = 8) or WON (n = 4), which were treated by percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD). Results All 12 cases of compressing GOO achieved resolution by PCD after 6 [1.86] and 37.25 [12.02] days for PP and WON, respectively. Five cases developed intracystic infection, 3 cases had pancreatic fistulae whereas 2 achieved resolution and 1 underwent a pseudocyst jejunostomy. Conclusions Gastric outlet obstruction caused by a PP or WON is a major cause of DGE in patients with AP. Percutaneous catheter drainage with multiple sites, large-bore tubing, and lavage may be a good therapy due to high safety and minimal invasiveness. PMID:26465954

  17. Electrogastrography in Adults and Children: The Strength, Pitfalls, and Clinical Significance of the Cutaneous Recording of the Gastric Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Indrio, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive technique to record gastric myoelectrical activity from the abdominal surface. Although the recent rapid increase in the development of electrocardiography, EGG still suffers from several limitations. Currently, computer analysis of EGG provides few reliable parameters, such as frequency and the percentage of normal and altered slow wave activity (bradygastria and tachygastria). New EGG hardware and software, along with an appropriate arrangement of abdominal electrodes, could detect the coupling of the gastric slow wave from the EGG. At present, EGG does not diagnose a specific disease, but it puts in evidence stomach motor dysfunctions in different pathological conditions as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Despite the current pitfalls of EGG, a multitasking diagnostic protocol could involve the EGG and the 13C-breath testing for the evaluation of the gastric emptying time—along with validated gastrointestinal questionnaires and biochemical evaluations of the main gastrointestinal peptides—to identify dyspeptic subgroups. The present review tries to report the state of the art about the pathophysiological background of the gastric electrical activity, the recording and processing methodology of the EGG with particular attention to multichannel recording, and the possible clinical application of the EGG in adult and children. PMID:23762836

  18. Molecular classification and prediction in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongzhong; Song, Won-min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a highly heterogeneous disease, is the second leading cause of cancer death and the fourth most common cancer globally, with East Asia accounting for more than half of cases annually. Alongside TNM staging, gastric cancer clinic has two well-recognized classification systems, the Lauren classification that subdivides gastric adenocarcinoma into intestinal and diffuse types and the alternative World Health Organization system that divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid), and poorly cohesive carcinomas. Both classification systems enable a better understanding of the histogenesis and the biology of gastric cancer yet have a limited clinical utility in guiding patient therapy due to the molecular heterogeneity of gastric cancer. Unprecedented whole-genome-scale data have been catalyzing and advancing the molecular subtyping approach. Here we cataloged and compared those published gene expression profiling signatures in gastric cancer. We summarized recent integrated genomic characterization of gastric cancer based on additional data of somatic mutation, chromosomal instability, EBV virus infection, and DNA methylation. We identified the consensus patterns across these signatures and identified the underlying molecular pathways and biological functions. The identification of molecular subtyping of gastric adenocarcinoma and the development of integrated genomics approaches for clinical applications such as prediction of clinical intervening emerge as an essential phase toward personalized medicine in treating gastric cancer. PMID:26380657

  19. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  20. Irinotecan, Cisplatin, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  1. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma in a child presenting with spontaneous gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Emir, Suna; Karakurt, Neslihan; Karakuş, Esra; Şenel, Emrah; Kırsaçlıoğlu, Ceyda; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Orhan, Diclehan

    2014-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a rare entity in the pediatric population. Gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is seen extremely rarely in children. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital with complaint of abdominal pain. X-ray revealed free air density below the diaphragm. Emergent laparotomy showed perforated stomach. Four weeks after the operation, he was readmitted with severe gastrointestinal obstruction symptoms. He underwent an explorative laparotomy, which revealed intestinal edema and diffuse small solid nodules covering the peritoneum. Serum AFP level was mildly elevated. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract was performed, and a gastric mass was detected. All pathological findings were compatible with gastric carcinoma showing hepatoid differentiation. We report an unusual case of AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric perforation. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of AFP- producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with gastric perforation in a child. PMID:24827954

  2. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    SciTech Connect

    Shockley, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  3. Characterization of cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisak, Muhammad Asri Abdul; Daik, Rusli; Ramli, Suria

    2015-09-01

    Recently, cellulose has been studied by many researchers due to its promising properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, hydrophilicity and robustness. Due to that it is applied in many fields such as paper, film, drug delivery, membranes, etc. Cellulose can be extracted from various plants while oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) is the one of its sources. In this study, cellulose was extracted by chemical treatments which involved the use of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove hemicellulose and lignin components. Maximum yield was 43.22%. Based on the FT-IR spectra, the peak of wax (1735 cm-1), hemicellulose (1375 cm-1) and lignin (1248 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1) were not observed in extracted cellulose. TGA analysis showed that the extracted cellulose starts to thermally degrade at 340 °C. The SEM analysis suggested that the cellulose extracted from OPEFB was not much different from commercial cellulose.

  4. Gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy in unresectable distal gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sung Joon; Lee, Ha Gyoon

    2004-04-01

    The main purpose of bypass surgery in patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer is to improve their quality of life (QoL). However, the result of conventional gastroenterostomy is dismal including continuous bleeding due to the contact of food material on the tumor surface and early obstruction of the stoma by tumor growth. Developing more effective surgery is warranted to improve the QoL of these patients. Among the 1158 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery from March 1993 to July 2002 at Hanyang University Medical Center, 54 (4.7%) had unresectable cancers. Various types of gastrojejunostomy (G-Jstomy), including conventional G-Jstomy (CGJ) (n = 18), antral exclusion G-Jstomy (n = 7), and gastric partitioning G-Jstomy (GPGJ) (n = 17), as well as exploratory laparotomy only (n = 12) were performed in these unresectable cases. In this study, survival and postoperative QoL were compared for the CGJ and GPGJ groups. The median survivals were 120 and 209 days for the CGJ and GPGJ groups, respectively (p = 0.046). The rates of postoperative body weight loss compared to the preoperative weight were 9.3% and 3.1% in the CGJ and GPGJ groups, respectively; the difference showed borderline significance (p = 0.067). The volume of blood transfusion was much less during the postoperative period than during the preoperative period in the GPGJ group but not in the CGJ group. The GPGJ procedure minimized food contact on the tumor surface, which was confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal barium meal series. GPGJ can be recommended as the procedure of choice for bypass surgery in patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer considering their improved survival and postoperative QoL compared to those who underwent CGJ. PMID:14994143

  5. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  6. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  7. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  8. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  9. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  10. 40 CFR 261.7 - Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers. 261.7 Section 261.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.7 Residues of hazardous waste in empty containers. (a)(1)...

  11. Differing Interpretations of Empty Categories in English and Japanese VP Ellipsis Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuo, Ayumi

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how English and Japanese children interpret empty categories in Verb Phrase Ellipsis contexts as in (1):(1) The penguin [sat on his chair] and the robot did [delta], too. To obtain an adultlike interpretation of (1), English children have to do two things. First, they need to find a suitable antecedent for the empty verb…

  12. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  13. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  14. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  15. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  16. 14 CFR 25.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 25.29 Section 25.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  17. 14 CFR 27.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. 27.29 Section 27.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must...

  18. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...

  19. 14 CFR 23.29 - Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... gravity. 23.29 Section 23.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Flight General § 23.29 Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity. (a) The empty weight and corresponding center of gravity must be determined by weighing the airplane with— (1) Fixed ballast;...

  20. 14 CFR 135.185 - Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Empty weight and center of gravity... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.185 Empty weight and center of gravity: Currency... gravity are calculated from values established by actual weighing of the aircraft within the preceding...